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    Lars Eckmann

    TitleProfessor In Residence
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0063
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Postdoctoral1996UC San Diego
      MD1989University of Hamburg, Germany

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      High-potency nitro antimicrobials for topical treatment of trichomoniasis
      NIH/NIAID R41AI118089Feb 4, 2016 - Jan 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Nanoparticle decoys for treating infections with enterotoxin-producing pathogens
      NIH/NIAID R33AI121571Dec 1, 2015 - Nov 30, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Nanoparticle decoys for treating infections with enterotoxin-producing pathogens
      NIH/NIAID R21AI121571Dec 1, 2015 - Nov 30, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Next-generation 5-nitro heterocyclic antimicrobials against mucosal protists
      NIH/NIAID R01AI114671Jun 20, 2015 - May 31, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Protective antigens of Giardia lamblia
      NIH/NIAID R21AI112594Jun 15, 2015 - May 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Gold Compounds for the Topical Treatment of Trichomoniasis
      NIH/NIAID R21AI119459Jun 15, 2015 - May 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Click chemistry for novel antimicrobials against periodontal pathogens
      NIH/NIDCR RC1DE020607Sep 17, 2009 - Aug 31, 2011
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Next-generation 5-nitroimidazoles against giardiasis
      NIH/NIAID U01AI075527Aug 15, 2007 - Jul 31, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIDDK R01DK070867Sep 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2011
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NCRR K26RR017030Aug 13, 2004 - Jun 30, 2009
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIAID R01AI056075Sep 30, 2003 - Dec 31, 2008
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH P01DK035108Apr 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 2014
      Role: Co-Investigator

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Kim WJ, Korthals KA, Li S, Le C, Kalisiak J, Sharpless KB, Fokin VV, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L. Click Chemistry-Facilitated Structural Diversification of Nitrothiazoles, Nitrofurans, and Nitropyrroles Enhances Antimicrobial Activity against Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Jun; 61(6). PMID: 28396548.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Brandl K, Kumar V, Eckmann L. Gut-liver axis at the frontier of host-microbial interactions. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 May 01; 312(5):G413-G419. PMID: 28232456.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Jiang Y, Dong H, Eckmann L, Hanson EM, Ihn KC, Mittal RK. Visualizing the enteric nervous system using genetically engineered double reporter mice: Comparison with immunofluorescence. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171239. PMID: 28158225.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Wang Z, Mascarenhas N, Eckmann L, Miyamoto Y, Sun X, Kawakami T, Di Nardo A. Skin microbiome promotes mast cell maturation by triggering stem cell factor (SCF) production in keratinocytes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Oct 13. PMID: 27746235.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Lakhdari O, McAllister CS, Wang M, Minev I, Prince LS, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. TLR3 signaling is downregulated by a MAVS isoform in epithelial cells. Cell Immunol. 2016 Dec; 310:205-210. PMID: 27593154.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Babaei Z, Malihi N, Zia-Ali N, Sharifi I, Mohammadi MA, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L, Singer SM, Solaymani-Mohammadi S. Adaptive immune response in symptomatic and asymptomatic enteric protozoal infection: evidence for a determining role of parasite genetic heterogeneity in host immunity to human giardiasis. Microbes Infect. 2016 Nov; 18(11):687-695. PMID: 27401766.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Chen P, Miyamoto Y, Mazagova M, Lee KC, Eckmann L, Schnabl B. Microbiota and Alcoholic Liver Disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016 Aug; 40(8):1791-2. PMID: 27364225.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Rouch JD, Scott A, Lei NY, Solorzano-Vargas RS, Wang J, Hanson EM, Kobayashi M, Lewis M, Stelzner MG, Dunn JC, Eckmann L, Martín MG. Development of Functional Microfold (M) Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids. PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0148216. PMID: 26820624; PMCID: PMC4731053.
      9. den Hartog G, Chattopadhyay R, Ablack A, Hall EH, Butcher LD, Bhattacharyya A, Eckmann L, Harris PR, Das S, Ernst PB, Crowe SE. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005382. PMID: 26761793; PMCID: PMC4711900.
      10. Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L. Drug Development Against the Major Diarrhea-Causing Parasites of the Small Intestine, Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6:1208. PMID: 26635732; PMCID: PMC4652082.
      11. Chen P, Miyamoto Y, Mazagova M, Lee KC, Eckmann L, Schnabl B. Microbiota Protects Mice Against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015 Dec; 39(12):2313-23. PMID: 26556636; PMCID: PMC4712135 [Available on 12/01/16].
      12. Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Lakhdari O, Minev I, Shenouda S, Frey BF, Billeskov R, Singer SM, Berzofsky JA, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Lack of the programmed death-1 receptor renders host susceptible to enteric microbial infection through impairing the production of the mucosal natural killer cell effector molecules. J Leukoc Biol. 2016 Mar; 99(3):475-82. PMID: 26467188.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Manieri NA, Mack MR, Himmelrich MD, Worthley DL, Hanson EM, Eckmann L, Wang TC, Stappenbeck TS. Mucosally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal healing by promoting angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2015 Sep; 125(9):3606-18. PMID: 26280574; PMCID: PMC4588308.
      14. Dann SM, Manthey CF, Le C, Miyamoto Y, Gima L, Abrahim A, Cao AT, Hanson EM, Kolls JK, Raz E, Cong Y, Eckmann L. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia. Exp Parasitol. 2015 Sep; 156:68-78. PMID: 26071205; PMCID: PMC4547885.
      15. Eckmann L, Stappenbeck TS. IgG "detoxes" the intestinal mucosa. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 May 13; 17(5):538-9. PMID: 25974292.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Das S, Sarkar A, Choudhury SS, Owen KA, Castillo V, Fox S, Eckmann L, Elliott MR, Casanova JE, Ernst PB. ELMO1 has an essential role in the internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium into enteric macrophages that impacts disease outcome. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Apr 01; 1(3):311-324. PMID: 26878033.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Boland BS, Boyle DL, Sandborn WJ, Firestein GS, Levesque BG, Hillman J, Zhang B, Proudfoot J, Eckmann L, Ernst PB, Rivera-Nieves J, Pola S, Copur-Dahi N, Zou G, Chang JT. Validation of gene expression biomarker analysis for biopsy-based clinical trials in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 Feb; 21(2):323-30. PMID: 25545378; PMCID: PMC4404151.
      18. Eckmann L, Barrett KE, Carethers JM. Martin F. Kagnoff, MD, January 19, 1941--November 16, 2014. Gastroenterology. 2015 Mar; 148(3):457-8. PMID: 25620667.
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      19. Mazagova M, Wang L, Anfora AT, Wissmueller M, Lesley SA, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L, Dhungana S, Pathmasiri W, Sumner S, Westwater C, Brenner DA, Schnabl B. Commensal microbiota is hepatoprotective and prevents liver fibrosis in mice. FASEB J. 2015 Mar; 29(3):1043-55. PMID: 25466902; PMCID: PMC4422368.
      20. Manthey CF, Calabio CB, Wosinski A, Hanson EM, Vallance BA, Groisman A, Martín MG, Wang JY, Eckmann L. Indispensable functions of ABL and PDGF receptor kinases in epithelial adherence of attaching/effacing pathogens under physiological conditions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014 Jul 15; 307(2):C180-9. PMID: 24848114; PMCID: PMC4101622.
      21. Debnath A, Shahinas D, Bryant C, Hirata K, Miyamoto Y, Hwang G, Gut J, Renslo AR, Pillai DR, Eckmann L, Reed SL, McKerrow JH. Hsp90 inhibitors as new leads to target parasitic diarrheal diseases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jul; 58(7):4138-44. PMID: 24820073; PMCID: PMC4068574.
      22. Cao SS, Wang M, Harrington JC, Chuang BM, Eckmann L, Kaufman RJ. Phosphorylation of eIF2a is dispensable for differentiation but required at a posttranscriptional level for paneth cell function and intestinal homeostasis in mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014 Apr; 20(4):712-22. PMID: 24577114.
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      23. Dann SM, Le C, Choudhury BK, Liu H, Saldarriaga O, Hanson EM, Cong Y, Eckmann L. Attenuation of intestinal inflammation in interleukin-10-deficient mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium. Infect Immun. 2014 May; 82(5):1949-58. PMID: 24566625; PMCID: PMC3993455.
      24. Manthey CF, Autran CA, Eckmann L, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides protect against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli attachment in vitro and EPEC colonization in suckling mice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Feb; 58(2):165-8. PMID: 24048169.
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      25. Miyamoto Y, Kalisiak J, Korthals K, Lauwaet T, Cheung DY, Lozano R, Cobo ER, Upcroft P, Upcroft JA, Berg DE, Gillin FD, Fokin VV, Sharpless KB, Eckmann L. Expanded therapeutic potential in activity space of next-generation 5-nitroimidazole antimicrobials with broad structural diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 22; 110(43):17564-9. PMID: 24101497; PMCID: PMC3808650.
      26. Spehlmann ME, Manthey CF, Dann SM, Hanson E, Sandhu SS, Liu LY, Abdelmalak FK, Diamanti MA, Retzlaff K, Scheller J, Rose-John S, Greten FR, Wang JY, Eckmann L. Trp53 deficiency protects against acute intestinal inflammation. J Immunol. 2013 Jul 15; 191(2):837-47. PMID: 23772033; PMCID: PMC3710108.
      27. Tejman-Yarden N, Miyamoto Y, Leitsch D, Santini J, Debnath A, Gut J, McKerrow JH, Reed SL, Eckmann L. A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 May; 57(5):2029-35. PMID: 23403423; PMCID: PMC3632933.
      28. Han J, Soletti RC, Sadarangani A, Sridevi P, Ramirez ME, Eckmann L, Borges HL, Wang JY. Nuclear expression of ß-catenin promotes RB stability and resistance to TNF-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2013 Mar; 11(3):207-18. PMID: 23339186; PMCID: PMC4191841.
      29. McAllister CS, Lakhdari O, Pineton de Chambrun G, Gareau MG, Broquet A, Lee GH, Shenouda S, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. TLR3, TRIF, and caspase 8 determine double-stranded RNA-induced epithelial cell death and survival in vivo. J Immunol. 2013 Jan 01; 190(1):418-27. PMID: 23209324; PMCID: PMC3551582.
      30. Grivennikov SI, Wang K, Mucida D, Stewart CA, Schnabl B, Jauch D, Taniguchi K, Yu GY, Osterreicher CH, Hung KE, Datz C, Feng Y, Fearon ER, Oukka M, Tessarollo L, Coppola V, Yarovinsky F, Cheroutre H, Eckmann L, Trinchieri G, Karin M. Adenoma-linked barrier defects and microbial products drive IL-23/IL-17-mediated tumour growth. Nature. 2012 Nov 08; 491(7423):254-8. PMID: 23034650; PMCID: PMC3601659.
      31. Ordás I, Eckmann L, Talamini M, Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ. Ulcerative colitis. Lancet. 2012 Nov 03; 380(9853):1606-19. PMID: 22914296.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Li X, Murray F, Koide N, Goldstone J, Dann SM, Chen J, Bertin S, Fu G, Weinstein LS, Chen M, Corr M, Eckmann L, Insel PA, Raz E. Divergent requirement for Gas and cAMP in the differentiation and inflammatory profile of distinct mouse Th subsets. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar; 122(3):963-73. PMID: 22326954; PMCID: PMC3287220.
      33. Cobo ER, He C, Hirata K, Hwang G, Tran U, Eckmann L, Gallo RL, Reed SL. Entamoeba histolytica induces intestinal cathelicidins but is resistant to cathelicidin-mediated killing. Infect Immun. 2012 Jan; 80(1):143-9. PMID: 22083705; PMCID: PMC3255679.
      34. Jenikova G, Hruz P, Andersson MK, Tejman-Yarden N, Ferreira PC, Andersen YS, Davids BJ, Gillin FD, Svärd SG, Curtiss R, Eckmann L. ?1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model. Vaccine. 2011 Nov 28; 29(51):9529-37. PMID: 22001876; PMCID: PMC4045459.
      35. Tejman-Yarden N, Eckmann L. New approaches to the treatment of giardiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011 Oct; 24(5):451-6. PMID: 21857510.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Cobo ER, Eckmann L, Corbeil LB. Murine models of vaginal trichomonad infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Oct; 85(4):667-73. PMID: 21976570; PMCID: PMC3183775.
      37. Guma M, Stepniak D, Shaked H, Spehlmann ME, Shenouda S, Cheroutre H, Vicente-Suarez I, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. Constitutive intestinal NF-?B does not trigger destructive inflammation unless accompanied by MAPK activation. J Exp Med. 2011 Aug 29; 208(9):1889-900. PMID: 21825016; PMCID: PMC3171091.
      38. Tejman-Yarden N, Millman M, Lauwaet T, Davids BJ, Gillin FD, Dunn L, Upcroft JA, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L. Impaired parasite attachment as fitness cost of metronidazole resistance in Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Oct; 55(10):4643-51. PMID: 21825286; PMCID: PMC3186953.
      39. Ali SR, Timmer AM, Bilgrami S, Park EJ, Eckmann L, Nizet V, Karin M. Anthrax toxin induces macrophage death by p38 MAPK inhibition but leads to inflammasome activation via ATP leakage. Immunity. 2011 Jul 22; 35(1):34-44. PMID: 21683629; PMCID: PMC3889666.
      40. Leitsch D, Burgess AG, Dunn LA, Krauer KG, Tan K, Duchêne M, Upcroft P, Eckmann L, Upcroft JA. Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and thioredoxin reductase are involved in 5-nitroimidazole activation while flavin metabolism is linked to 5-nitroimidazole resistance in Giardia lamblia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Aug; 66(8):1756-65. PMID: 21602576; PMCID: PMC3133484.
      41. Eckmann L, Neish AS. NF-?B and mucosal homeostasis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2011; 349:145-58. PMID: 20838961.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Hruz P, Eckmann L. Innate immune defence: NOD2 and autophagy in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010 Dec 27; 140:w13135. PMID: 21213148.
        View in: PubMed
      43. González-Navajas JM, Law J, Nguyen KP, Bhargava M, Corr MP, Varki N, Eckmann L, Hoffman HM, Lee J, Raz E. Interleukin 1 receptor signaling regulates DUBA expression and facilitates Toll-like receptor 9-driven antiinflammatory cytokine production. J Exp Med. 2010 Dec 20; 207(13):2799-807. PMID: 21115691; PMCID: PMC3005235.
      44. Dunn LA, Burgess AG, Krauer KG, Eckmann L, Vanelle P, Crozet MD, Gillin FD, Upcroft P, Upcroft JA. A new-generation 5-nitroimidazole can induce highly metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia in vitro. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010 Jul; 36(1):37-42. PMID: 20456926; PMCID: PMC3103471.
      45. He C, Nora GP, Schneider EL, Kerr ID, Hansell E, Hirata K, Gonzalez D, Sajid M, Boyd SE, Hruz P, Cobo ER, Le C, Liu WT, Eckmann L, Dorrestein PC, Houpt ER, Brinen LS, Craik CS, Roush WR, McKerrow J, Reed SL. A novel Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase, EhCP4, is key for invasive amebiasis and a therapeutic target. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 11; 285(24):18516-27. PMID: 20378535; PMCID: PMC2881777.
      46. Hruz P, Dann SM, Eckmann L. STAT3 and its activators in intestinal defense and mucosal homeostasis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2010 Mar; 26(2):109-15. PMID: 20040863.
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      47. Hirata Y, Egea L, Dann SM, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. GM-CSF-facilitated dendritic cell recruitment and survival govern the intestinal mucosal response to a mouse enteric bacterial pathogen. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Feb 18; 7(2):151-63. PMID: 20159620; PMCID: PMC2919780.
      48. Choi LJ, Jenikova G, Hanson E, Spehlmann ME, Boehling NS, Kirstein SL, Bundey RA, Smith JR, Insel PA, Eckmann L. Coordinate down-regulation of adenylyl cyclase isoforms and the stimulatory G protein (G(s)) in intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 23; 285(17):12504-11. PMID: 20157112; PMCID: PMC2857080.
      49. Lauwaet T, Andersen Y, Van de Ven L, Eckmann L, Gillin FD. Rapid detachment of Giardia lamblia trophozoites as a mechanism of antimicrobial action of the isoflavone formononetin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Mar; 65(3):531-4. PMID: 20067984; PMCID: PMC2818108.
      50. Barreau F, Madre C, Meinzer U, Berrebi D, Dussaillant M, Merlin F, Eckmann L, Karin M, Sterkers G, Bonacorsi S, Lesuffleur T, Hugot JP. Nod2 regulates the host response towards microflora by modulating T cell function and epithelial permeability in mouse Peyer's patches. Gut. 2010 Feb; 59(2):207-17. PMID: 19837677.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Spehlmann ME, Dann SM, Hruz P, Hanson E, McCole DF, Eckmann L. CXCR2-dependent mucosal neutrophil influx protects against colitis-associated diarrhea caused by an attaching/effacing lesion-forming bacterial pathogen. J Immunol. 2009 Sep 01; 183(5):3332-43. PMID: 19675161; PMCID: PMC3419829.
      52. Valdez CA, Tripp JC, Miyamoto Y, Kalisiak J, Hruz P, Andersen YS, Brown SE, Kangas K, Arzu LV, Davids BJ, Gillin FD, Upcroft JA, Upcroft P, Fokin VV, Smith DK, Sharpless KB, Eckmann L. Synthesis and electrochemistry of 2-ethenyl and 2-ethanyl derivatives of 5-nitroimidazole and antimicrobial activity against Giardia lamblia. J Med Chem. 2009 Jul 09; 52(13):4038-53. PMID: 19480409; PMCID: PMC2766634.
      53. Hruz P, Zinkernagel AS, Jenikova G, Botwin GJ, Hugot JP, Karin M, Nizet V, Eckmann L. NOD2 contributes to cutaneous defense against Staphylococcus aureus through alpha-toxin-dependent innate immune activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 04; 106(31):12873-8. PMID: 19541630; PMCID: PMC2722361.
      54. Spehlmann ME, Eckmann L. Nuclear factor-kappa B in intestinal protection and destruction. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar; 25(2):92-9. PMID: 19528876.
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      55. Grivennikov S, Karin E, Terzic J, Mucida D, Yu GY, Vallabhapurapu S, Scheller J, Rose-John S, Cheroutre H, Eckmann L, Karin M. IL-6 and Stat3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis-associated cancer. Cancer Cell. 2009 Feb 03; 15(2):103-13. PMID: 19185845; PMCID: PMC2667107.
      56. Eckmann L, Nebelsiek T, Fingerle AA, Dann SM, Mages J, Lang R, Robine S, Kagnoff MF, Schmid RM, Karin M, Arkan MC, Greten FR. Opposing functions of IKKbeta during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 30; 105(39):15058-63. PMID: 18815378; PMCID: PMC2567492.
      57. Meinzer U, Esmiol-Welterlin S, Barreau F, Berrebi D, Dussaillant M, Bonacorsi S, Chareyre F, Niwa-Kawakita M, Alberti C, Sterkers G, Villard C, Lesuffleur T, Peuchmaur M, Karin M, Eckmann L, Giovannini M, Ollendorff V, Wolf-Watz H, Hugot JP. Nod2 mediates susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice. PLoS One. 2008 Jul 23; 3(7):e2769. PMID: 18648508; PMCID: PMC2447872.
      58. Hsu LC, Ali SR, McGillivray S, Tseng PH, Mariathasan S, Humke EW, Eckmann L, Powell JJ, Nizet V, Dixit VM, Karin M. A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 03; 105(22):7803-8. PMID: 18511561; PMCID: PMC2409384.
      59. Dann SM, Spehlmann ME, Hammond DC, Iimura M, Hase K, Choi LJ, Hanson E, Eckmann L. IL-6-dependent mucosal protection prevents establishment of a microbial niche for attaching/effacing lesion-forming enteric bacterial pathogens. J Immunol. 2008 May 15; 180(10):6816-26. PMID: 18453602; PMCID: PMC2696063.
      60. Hruz P, Eckmann L. Caspase recruitment domain-containing sensors and adaptors in intestinal innate immunity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 Mar; 24(2):108-14. PMID: 18301258; PMCID: PMC3658451.
      61. Ringqvist E, Palm JE, Skarin H, Hehl AB, Weiland M, Davids BJ, Reiner DS, Griffiths WJ, Eckmann L, Gillin FD, Svärd SG. Release of metabolic enzymes by Giardia in response to interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008 Jun; 159(2):85-91. PMID: 18359106; PMCID: PMC3658456.
      62. Abe K, Nguyen KP, Fine SD, Mo JH, Shen C, Shenouda S, Corr M, Jung S, Lee J, Eckmann L, Raz E. Conventional dendritic cells regulate the outcome of colonic inflammation independently of T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 23; 104(43):17022-7. PMID: 17942668; PMCID: PMC2040469.
      63. Greten FR, Arkan MC, Bollrath J, Hsu LC, Goode J, Miething C, Göktuna SI, Neuenhahn M, Fierer J, Paxian S, Van Rooijen N, Xu Y, O'Cain T, Jaffee BB, Busch DH, Duyster J, Schmid RM, Eckmann L, Karin M. NF-kappaB is a negative regulator of IL-1beta secretion as revealed by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IKKbeta. Cell. 2007 Sep 07; 130(5):918-31. PMID: 17803913; PMCID: PMC2134986.
      64. Meléndez-López SG, Herdman S, Hirata K, Choi MH, Choe Y, Craik C, Caffrey CR, Hansell E, Chávez-Munguía B, Chen YT, Roush WR, McKerrow J, Eckmann L, Guo J, Stanley SL, Reed SL. Use of recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 1 to identify a potent inhibitor of amebic invasion in a human colonic model. Eukaryot Cell. 2007 Jul; 6(7):1130-6. PMID: 17513563; PMCID: PMC1951106.
      65. Dann SM, Eckmann L. Innate immune defenses in the intestinal tract. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007 Mar; 23(2):115-20. PMID: 17268238.
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      66. Zaph C, Troy AE, Taylor BC, Berman-Booty LD, Guild KJ, Du Y, Yost EA, Gruber AD, May MJ, Greten FR, Eckmann L, Karin M, Artis D. Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-beta expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis. Nature. 2007 Mar 29; 446(7135):552-6. PMID: 17322906.
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      67. Lee J, Mo JH, Katakura K, Alkalay I, Rucker AN, Liu YT, Lee HK, Shen C, Cojocaru G, Shenouda S, Kagnoff M, Eckmann L, Ben-Neriah Y, Raz E. Maintenance of colonic homeostasis by distinctive apical TLR9 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Dec; 8(12):1327-36. PMID: 17128265.
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      68. Davids BJ, Palm JE, Housley MP, Smith JR, Andersen YS, Martin MG, Hendrickson BA, Johansen FE, Svärd SG, Gillin FD, Eckmann L. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 01; 177(9):6281-90. PMID: 17056558.
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      69. Eckmann L. Animal models of inflammatory bowel disease: lessons from enteric infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Aug; 1072:28-38. PMID: 17057188.
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      70. Chae S, Eckmann L, Miyamoto Y, Pothoulakis C, Karin M, Kagnoff MF. Epithelial cell I kappa B-kinase beta has an important protective role in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced mucosal injury. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 15; 177(2):1214-20. PMID: 16818780.
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      71. Andersen YS, Gillin FD, Eckmann L. Adaptive immunity-dependent intestinal hypermotility contributes to host defense against Giardia spp. Infect Immun. 2006 Apr; 74(4):2473-6. PMID: 16552082; PMCID: PMC1418922.
      72. Hofmann AF, Eckmann L. How bile acids confer gut mucosal protection against bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 21; 103(12):4333-4. PMID: 16537368; PMCID: PMC1450168.
      73. Eckmann L. Sensor molecules in intestinal innate immunity against bacterial infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006 Mar; 22(2):95-101. PMID: 16462163; PMCID: PMC2695762.
      74. Borges HL, Bird J, Wasson K, Cardiff RD, Varki N, Eckmann L, Wang JY. Tumor promotion by caspase-resistant retinoblastoma protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 25; 102(43):15587-92. PMID: 16227443; PMCID: PMC1255734.
      75. Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Intestinal mucosal responses to microbial infection. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2005 Sep; 27(2):181-96. PMID: 15928914.
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      76. Eckmann L, Karin M. NOD2 and Crohn's disease: loss or gain of function? Immunity. 2005 Jun; 22(6):661-7. PMID: 15963781.
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      77. Iimura M, Gallo RL, Hase K, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Cathelicidin mediates innate intestinal defense against colonization with epithelial adherent bacterial pathogens. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 15; 174(8):4901-7. PMID: 15814717.
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      78. Eckmann L. Defence molecules in intestinal innate immunity against bacterial infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Mar; 21(2):147-51. PMID: 15711205.
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      79. Katakura K, Lee J, Rachmilewitz D, Li G, Eckmann L, Raz E. Toll-like receptor 9-induced type I IFN protects mice from experimental colitis. J Clin Invest. 2005 Mar; 115(3):695-702. PMID: 15765149; PMCID: PMC1051992.
      80. Maeda S, Hsu LC, Liu H, Bankston LA, Iimura M, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L, Karin M. Nod2 mutation in Crohn's disease potentiates NF-kappaB activity and IL-1beta processing. Science. 2005 Feb 04; 307(5710):734-8. PMID: 15692052.
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      81. Spahn TW, Maaser C, Eckmann L, Heidemann J, Lügering A, Newberry R, Domschke W, Herbst H, Kucharzik T. The lymphotoxin-beta receptor is critical for control of murine Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov; 127(5):1463-73. PMID: 15521015.
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      82. Yang CC, Ogawa H, Dwinell MB, McCole DF, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Chemokine receptor CCR6 transduces signals that activate p130Cas and alter cAMP-stimulated ion transport in human intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Feb; 288(2):C321-8. PMID: 15483227.
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      83. Sun K, Johansen FE, Eckmann L, Metzger DW. An important role for polymeric Ig receptor-mediated transport of IgA in protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 01; 173(7):4576-81. PMID: 15383591.
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      84. Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, Park JM, Li ZW, Egan LJ, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell. 2004 Aug 06; 118(3):285-96. PMID: 15294155.
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      85. Ogawa H, Iimura M, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Regulated production of the chemokine CCL28 in human colon epithelium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Nov; 287(5):G1062-9. PMID: 15246961.
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      86. Maaser C, Egan LJ, Birkenbach MP, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 and other interleukin-12-related molecules by human intestinal epithelium. Immunology. 2004 Jul; 112(3):437-45. PMID: 15196212; PMCID: PMC1782502.
      87. Bertelsen LS, Paesold G, Marcus SL, Finlay BB, Eckmann L, Barrett KE. Modulation of chloride secretory responses and barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells by the Salmonella effector protein SigD. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Oct; 287(4):C939-48. PMID: 15175224.
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      88. Maaser C, Housley MP, Iimura M, Smith JR, Vallance BA, Finlay BB, Schreiber JR, Varki NM, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L. Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium requires B cells but not secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM antibodies. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3315-24. PMID: 15155635; PMCID: PMC415672.
      89. Nishihara H, Hwang M, Kizaka-Kondoh S, Eckmann L, Insel PA. Cyclic AMP promotes cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-dependent induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 and suppresses apoptosis of colon cancer cells through ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18; 279(25):26176-83. PMID: 15078890.
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      90. Hsu LC, Park JM, Zhang K, Luo JL, Maeda S, Kaufman RJ, Eckmann L, Guiney DG, Karin M. The protein kinase PKR is required for macrophage apoptosis after activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature. 2004 Mar 18; 428(6980):341-5. PMID: 15029200.
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      91. Eckmann L. Innate immunity and mucosal bacterial interactions in the intestine. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar; 20(2):82-8. PMID: 15703626.
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      92. Egan LJ, Eckmann L, Greten FR, Chae S, Li ZW, Myhre GM, Robine S, Karin M, Kagnoff MF. IkappaB-kinasebeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation provides radioprotection to the intestinal epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 24; 101(8):2452-7. PMID: 14983030; PMCID: PMC356971.
      93. Hase K, Murakami M, Iimura M, Cole SP, Horibe Y, Ohtake T, Obonyo M, Gallo RL, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Expression of LL-37 by human gastric epithelial cells as a potential host defense mechanism against Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec; 125(6):1613-25. PMID: 14724813.
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      94. Bertelsen LS, Eckmann L, Barrett KE. Prolonged interferon-gamma exposure decreases ion transport, NKCC1, and Na+-K+-ATPase expression in human intestinal xenografts in vivo. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Jan; 286(1):G157-65. PMID: 12958023.
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      95. Nishihara H, Kizaka-Kondoh S, Insel PA, Eckmann L. Inhibition of apoptosis in normal and transformed intestinal epithelial cells by cAMP through induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 22; 100(15):8921-6. PMID: 12837940; PMCID: PMC166414.
      96. Egan LJ, de Lecea A, Lehrman ED, Myhre GM, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Nuclear factor-kappa B activation promotes restitution of wounded intestinal epithelial monolayers. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Nov; 285(5):C1028-35. PMID: 12826601.
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      97. Eckmann L. Mucosal defences against Giardia. Parasite Immunol. 2003 May; 25(5):259-70. PMID: 12969444.
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      98. Bertelsen LS, Paesold G, Eckmann L, Barrett KE. Salmonella infection induces a hypersecretory phenotype in human intestinal xenografts by inducing cyclooxygenase 2. Infect Immun. 2003 Apr; 71(4):2102-9. PMID: 12654832; PMCID: PMC152023.
      99. Que X, Kim SH, Sajid M, Eckmann L, Dinarello CA, McKerrow JH, Reed SL. A surface amebic cysteine proteinase inactivates interleukin-18. Infect Immun. 2003 Mar; 71(3):1274-80. PMID: 12595442; PMCID: PMC148873.
      100. Paesold G, Guiney DG, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and the Salmonella virulence plasmid are essential for Salmonella-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol. 2002 Nov; 4(11):771-81. PMID: 12427099.
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      101. Maaser C, Eckmann L, Paesold G, Kim HS, Kagnoff MF. Ubiquitous production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor by human gastric and intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2002 Mar; 122(3):667-80. PMID: 11875000.
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      102. Eckmann L. Small bowel infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2002 Mar; 18(2):197-202. PMID: 17033287.
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      103. Hase K, Eckmann L, Leopard JD, Varki N, Kagnoff MF. Cell differentiation is a key determinant of cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 expression by human colon epithelium. Infect Immun. 2002 Feb; 70(2):953-63. PMID: 11796631; PMCID: PMC127717.
      104. Doran KS, Chang JC, Benoit VM, Eckmann L, Nizet V. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin promotes invasion of human lung epithelial cells and the release of interleukin-8. J Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 15; 185(2):196-203. PMID: 11807693.
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      105. Langford TD, Housley MP, Boes M, Chen J, Kagnoff MF, Gillin FD, Eckmann L. Central importance of immunoglobulin A in host defense against Giardia spp. Infect Immun. 2002 Jan; 70(1):11-8. PMID: 11748158; PMCID: PMC127595.
      106. Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Cytokines in host defense against Salmonella. Microbes Infect. 2001 Nov-Dec; 3(14-15):1191-200. PMID: 11755407.
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      107. Eckmann L, Gillin FD. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions I. Pathophysiological aspects of enteric infections with the lumen-dwelling protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Jan; 280(1):G1-6. PMID: 11123191.
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      108. Eckmann L, Smith JR, Housley MP, Dwinell MB, Kagnoff MF. Analysis by high density cDNA arrays of altered gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells in response to infection with the invasive enteric bacteria Salmonella. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 12; 275(19):14084-94. PMID: 10799483.
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      109. Eckmann L, Laurent F, Langford TD, Hetsko ML, Smith JR, Kagnoff MF, Gillin FD. Nitric oxide production by human intestinal epithelial cells and competition for arginine as potential determinants of host defense against the lumen-dwelling pathogen Giardia lamblia. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 01; 164(3):1478-87. PMID: 10640765.
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