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Alan Hofmann

Title(s)Emeritus Professor, Medicine
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-822-3811
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    DEFECTIVE BILE ACID SYNTHESIS IN CHILDHOOD CONSTIPATION
    NIH/NIDDK R03DK064891Aug 15, 2004 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MODELING OF THE ENTEROHEPATHIC CIRCULATION OF BILE ACIDS
    NIH/FIC F06TW001036Aug 22, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BILE ACID METABOLISM IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK021506Apr 1, 1978 - Oct 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BILE ACID METABOLISM IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    NIH/NIADDK R01AM021506Apr 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Training Grant in Gastroenterology
    NIH/NIDDK T32DK007202Jul 1, 1976 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Hofmann AF. Causal Role of Bile Acids in Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Constipation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jan; 17(1):213-214. PMID: 30558894.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Caussy C, Hsu C, Singh S, Bassirian S, Kolar J, Faulkner C, Sinha N, Bettencourt R, Gara N, Valasek MA, Schnabl B, Richards L, Brenner DA, Hofmann AF, Loomba R. Serum bile acid patterns are associated with the presence of NAFLD in twins, and dose-dependent changes with increase in fibrosis stage in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Jan; 49(2):183-193. PMID: 30506692.
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    3. Ghallab A, Hofmann U, Sezgin S, Vartak N, Hassan R, Zaza A, Godoy P, Schneider KM, Guenther G, Ahmed YA, Abbas AA, Keitel V, Kuepfer L, Dooley S, Lammert F, Trautwein C, Spiteller M, Drasdo D, Hofmann AF, Jansen PLM, Hengstler JG, Reif R. Bile Microinfarcts in Cholestasis Are Initiated by Rupture of the Apical Hepatocyte Membrane and Cause Shunting of Bile to Sinusoidal Blood. Hepatology. 2019 Feb; 69(2):666-683. PMID: 30102412.
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    4. Hegyi P, Maléth J, Walters JR, Hofmann AF, Keely SJ. Guts and Gall: Bile Acids in Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Function in Health and Disease. Physiol Rev. 2018 10 01; 98(4):1983-2023. PMID: 30067158.
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    5. Dupas JL, Ho NFH, Hofmann AF. Absorption of Unconjugated Bile Acids from the Perfused Jejunum of the Anesthetized Rat: Structure-Activity Relationships and Rate-Limiting Steps. Lipids. 2018 05; 53(5):465-468. PMID: 30071138.
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    6. Hofmann AF, Marschall HU. Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Humans: Suggestions for Presentation in Tabular Form. Hepatology. 2018 08; 68(2):787. PMID: 29604219.
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    7. Hofmann AF, Herdt T, Ames NK, Chen Z, Hagey LR. Bile Acids and the Microbiome in the Cow: Lack of Deoxycholic Acid Hydroxylation. Lipids. 2018 03; 53(3):269-270. PMID: 29668048.
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    8. Namegawa K, Iida K, Omura K, Ogawa S, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical Synthesis of Rare Natural Bile Acids: 11a-Hydroxy Derivatives of Lithocholic and Chenodeoxycholic Acids. Lipids. 2018 04; 53(4):403-411. PMID: 29520792.
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    9. Hofmann AF. Bile Acid Replacement in Bile Acid Synthesis Defects. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 12; 65(6):e134. PMID: 28800025.
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    10. Hofmann AF. Two Inborn Errors of Bile Acid Biosynthesis: The Need for Recognition and Treatment by Primary Bile Acid Replacement. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 06; 64(6):849-850. PMID: 28333767.
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    11. Fordtran JS, Hofmann AF. Seventy Years of Polyethylene Glycols in Gastroenterology: The Journey of PEG 4000 and 3350 From Nonabsorbable Marker to Colonoscopy Preparation to Osmotic Laxative. Gastroenterology. 2017 03; 152(4):675-680. PMID: 28147222.
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    12. Iida T, Namegawa K, Nakane N, Iida K, Hofmann AF, Omura K. Chemical Synthesis of Uncommon Natural Bile Acids: The 9a-Hydroxy Derivatives of Chenodeoxycholic and Lithocholic Acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2016 Sep 01; 64(9):1397-402. PMID: 27319285.
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    13. Hofmann AF. Let the Bile Flow! 1.0. Hepatology. 2016 10; 64(4):1387-8. PMID: 27178666.
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    14. Satoh R, Ogata H, Saito T, Zhou B, Omura K, Kurabuchi S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Two Major Bile Acids in the Hornbills, (24R,25S)-3a,7a,24-Trihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oyl Taurine and Its 12a-Hydroxy Derivative. Lipids. 2016 06; 51(6):757-68. PMID: 27108034.
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    15. Sørensen M, Munk OL, Ørntoft NW, Frisch K, Andersen KJ, Mortensen FV, Alstrup AK, Ott P, Hofmann AF, Keiding S. Hepatobiliary Secretion Kinetics of Conjugated Bile Acids Measured in Pigs by 11C-Cholylsarcosine PET. J Nucl Med. 2016 06; 57(6):961-6. PMID: 26966160.
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    16. Sato née Okihara R, Saito T, Ogata H, Nakane N, Namegawa K, Sekiguchi S, Omura K, Kurabuchi S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Raines J, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Novel, major 2a- and 2ß-hydroxy bile alcohols and bile acids in the bile of Arapaima gigas, a large South American river fish. Steroids. 2016 Mar; 107:112-20. PMID: 26768415.
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    17. Maekawa M, Shimada M, Ohno K, Togawa M, Nittono H, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Goto J, Yamaguchi H, Mano N. Focused metabolomics using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolites from patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Ann Clin Biochem. 2015 Sep; 52(Pt 5):576-87. PMID: 25575700.
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    18. Spriggs M, Thompson KA, Barton D, Talley J, Volle K, Stasiak I, Beyea L, Guthrie A, Roda A, Camborata C, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Gastrolithiasis in prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou prehensilis): nine cases and pathogenesis of stone formation. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec; 45(4):883-91. PMID: 25632677.
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    19. Omura K, Ohsaki A, Zhou B, Kushida M, Mitsuma T, Kobayashi A, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Improved chemical synthesis, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and NMR characterization of (22R)-/(22S)-hydroxy epimers of bile acids. Lipids. 2014 Nov; 49(11):1169-80. PMID: 25319478.
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    20. Iwaisako K, Jiang C, Zhang M, Cong M, Moore-Morris TJ, Park TJ, Liu X, Xu J, Wang P, Paik YH, Meng F, Asagiri M, Murray LA, Hofmann AF, Iida T, Glass CK, Brenner DA, Kisseleva T. Origin of myofibroblasts in the fibrotic liver in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 12; 111(32):E3297-305. PMID: 25074909.
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    21. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades. J Lipid Res. 2014 Aug; 55(8):1553-95. PMID: 24838141.
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    22. Kakiyama G, Muto A, Takei H, Nittono H, Murai T, Kurosawa T, Hofmann AF, Pandak WM, Bajaj JS. A simple and accurate HPLC method for fecal bile acid profile in healthy and cirrhotic subjects: validation by GC-MS and LC-MS. J Lipid Res. 2014 May; 55(5):978-90. PMID: 24627129.
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    23. Wang L, Hartmann P, Haimerl M, Bathena SP, Sjöwall C, Almer S, Alnouti Y, Hofmann AF, Schnabl B. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids. J Hepatol. 2014 Jun; 60(6):1259-67. PMID: 24560660.
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    24. Duboc H, Taché Y, Hofmann AF. The bile acid TGR5 membrane receptor: from basic research to clinical application. Dig Liver Dis. 2014 Apr; 46(4):302-12. PMID: 24411485.
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    25. Satoh Née Okihara R, Saito T, Ogata H, Ohsaki A, Iida T, Asahina K, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. N-Methyltaurine N-acyl amidated bile acids and deoxycholic acid in the bile of angelfish (Pomacanthidae): a novel bile acid profile in Perciform fish. Steroids. 2014 Feb; 80:15-23. PMID: 24291417.
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    26. Wang R, Liu L, Sheps JA, Forrest D, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Ling V. Defective canalicular transport and toxicity of dietary ursodeoxycholic acid in the abcb11-/- mouse: transport and gene expression studies. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013 Aug 15; 305(4):G286-94. PMID: 23764895.
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    27. Maekawa M, Misawa Y, Sotoura A, Yamaguchi H, Togawa M, Ohno K, Nittono H, Kakiyama G, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Goto J, Shimada M, Mano N. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of urinary 3ß-sulfooxy-7ß-N-acetylglucosaminyl-5-cholen-24-oic acid and its amides: new biomarkers for the detection of Niemann-Pick type C disease. Steroids. 2013 Oct; 78(10):967-72. PMID: 23751200.
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    28. Ogawa S, Zhou B, Kimoto Y, Omura K, Kobayashi A, Higashi T, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. An efficient synthesis of 7a,12a-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and its biological precursor 7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one: Key intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis. Steroids. 2013 Sep; 78(9):927-37. PMID: 23707572.
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    29. Kelly OB, Mroz MS, Ward JB, Colliva C, Scharl M, Pellicciari R, Gilmer JF, Fallon PG, Hofmann AF, Roda A, Murray FE, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function. J Physiol. 2013 May 01; 591(9):2307-18. PMID: 23507881.
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    30. Setchell KD, Heubi JE, Shah S, Lavine JE, Suskind D, Al-Edreesi M, Potter C, Russell DW, O'Connell NC, Wolfe B, Jha P, Zhang W, Bove KE, Knisely AS, Hofmann AF, Rosenthal P, Bull LN. Genetic defects in bile acid conjugation cause fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. Gastroenterology. 2013 May; 144(5):945-955.e6; quiz e14-5. PMID: 23415802.
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    31. Hagey LR, Ogawa S, Kato N, Satoh née Okihara R, Une M, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Iida T. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3a,7a,12a,24-tetrahydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster. Steroids. 2012 Nov; 77(13):1510-21. PMID: 22986074.
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    32. Mitamura K, Mabuchi T, Nagae K, Nakajima M, Matsumoto R, Fujioka S, Sato K, Satoh née Okihara R, Iida T, Ogawa S, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of multiply deuterated 3- and 21-monosulfates of allo-tetrahydrocorticosteroids as internal standards for mass spectrometry. Steroids. 2012 Nov; 77(13):1423-37. PMID: 22960650.
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    33. Muto A, Takei H, Unno A, Murai T, Kurosawa T, Ogawa S, Iida T, Ikegawa S, Mori J, Ohtake A, Hoshina T, Mizuochi T, Kimura A, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Nittono H. Detection of ?4-3-oxo-steroid 5ß-reductase deficiency by LC-ESI-MS/MS measurement of urinary bile acids. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012 Jul 01; 900:24-31. PMID: 22695323.
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    34. Frisch K, Jakobsen S, Sørensen M, Munk OL, Alstrup AK, Ott P, Hofmann AF, Keiding S. [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine, a novel bile acid tracer for PET/CT of hepatic excretory function: radiosynthesis and proof-of-concept studies in pigs. J Nucl Med. 2012 May; 53(5):772-8. PMID: 22454486.
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    35. Mitamura K, Hori N, Mino S, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of the 3-sulfates of S-acyl glutathione conjugated bile acids and their biotransformation by a rat liver cytosolic fraction. Chem Phys Lipids. 2012 Apr; 165(3):261-9. PMID: 22343050.
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    36. Mitamura K, Hori N, Iida T, Suzuki M, Shimizu T, Nittono H, Takaori K, Takikawa H, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Identification of S-acyl glutathione conjugates of bile acids in human bile by means of LC/ESI-MS. Steroids. 2011 Dec 20; 76(14):1609-14. PMID: 22019844.
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    37. Hofmann AF. Herbert Falk: a vital force in the renaissance of bile acid research and bile acid therapy. Dig Dis. 2011; 29(1):23-36. PMID: 21691101.
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    38. Hagey LR, Iida T, Ogawa S, Adachi Y, Une M, Mushiake K, Maekawa M, Shimada M, Mano N, Hofmann AF. Biliary bile acids in birds of the Cotingidae family: taurine-conjugated (24R,25R)-3a,7a,24-trihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid and two epimers (25R and 25S) of 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid. Steroids. 2011 Sep-Oct; 76(10-11):1126-35. PMID: 21600907.
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    39. Ogawa S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Krasowski MD, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical synthesis of the (25R)- and (25S)-epimers of 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5a-cholestan-27-oic acid as well as their corresponding glycine and taurine conjugates. Chem Phys Lipids. 2011 Jul; 164(5):368-77. PMID: 21554864.
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    40. Mitamura K, Aoyama E, Sakai T, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Characterization of non-enzymatic acylation of amino or thiol groups of bionucleophiles by the acyl-adenylate or acyl-CoA thioester of cholic acid. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Jun; 400(7):2253-9. PMID: 21491109.
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    41. Mitamura K, Sakai T, Nakai R, Wakamiya T, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of the 3-sulfates of N-acetylcysteine conjugated bile acids (BA-NACs) and their transient formation from BA-NACs and subsequent hydrolysis by a rat liver cytosolic fraction as shown by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Jun; 400(7):2061-72. PMID: 21455648.
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    42. Hofmann AF. Bile acid sequestrants improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a proposed mechanism implicating glucagon-like peptide 1 release. Hepatology. 2011 May; 53(5):1784. PMID: 21520190.
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    43. Denk GU, Maitz S, Wimmer R, Rust C, Invernizzi P, Ferdinandusse S, Kulik W, Fuchsbichler A, Fickert P, Trauner M, Hofmann AF, Beuers U. Conjugation is essential for the anticholestatic effect of NorUrsodeoxycholic acid in taurolithocholic acid-induced cholestasis in rat liver. Hepatology. 2010 Nov; 52(5):1758-68. PMID: 21038414.
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    44. Hagey LR, Vidal N, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. COMPLEX EVOLUTION OF BILE SALTS IN BIRDS. Auk. 2010 Oct; 127(4):820-831. PMID: 21113274.
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    45. Mitamura K, Hori N, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Identification of bile acid S-acyl glutathione conjugates in rat bile by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Steroids. 2011 Jan; 76(1-2):68-77. PMID: 20837038.
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    46. Megaraj V, Iida T, Jungsuwadee P, Hofmann AF, Vore M. Hepatobiliary disposition of 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-cholanoyl taurine: a substrate for multiple canalicular transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Oct; 38(10):1723-30. PMID: 20643783.
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    47. Hagey LR, Lida T, Tamegai H, Ogawa S, Une M, Asahina K, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Krasowski MD, Hofmann AF. Major biliary bile acids of the medaka (Oryzias latipes): 25R- and 25S-epimers of 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid. Zoolog Sci. 2010 Jul; 27(7):565-73. PMID: 20608845.
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    48. Hagey LR, Vidal N, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites. BMC Evol Biol. 2010 May 06; 10:133. PMID: 20444292.
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    49. Hagey LR, Møller PR, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Diversity of bile salts in fish and amphibians: evolution of a complex biochemical pathway. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2010 Mar-Apr; 83(2):308-21. PMID: 20113173.
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    50. Huertas M, Hagey L, Hofmann AF, Cerdà J, Canário AV, Hubbard PC. Olfactory sensitivity to bile fluid and bile salts in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) suggests a 'broad range' sensitivity not confined to those produced by conspecifics alone. J Exp Biol. 2010 Jan 15; 213(2):308-17. PMID: 20038666.
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    51. Hofmann AF. Chronic diarrhea caused by idiopathic bile acid malabsorption: an explanation at last. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Oct; 3(5):461-4. PMID: 19817666.
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    52. Hofmann AF, Mangelsdorf DJ, Kliewer SA. Chronic diarrhea due to excessive bile acid synthesis and not defective ileal transport: a new syndrome of defective fibroblast growth factor 19 release. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Nov; 7(11):1151-4. PMID: 19665580.
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    53. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Krasowski MD. Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary significance. J Lipid Res. 2010 Feb; 51(2):226-46. PMID: 19638645.
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    54. Keating N, Mroz MS, Scharl MM, Marsh C, Ferguson G, Hofmann AF, Keely SJ. Physiological concentrations of bile acids down-regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2009 Aug; 13(8B):2293-303. PMID: 19583809.
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    55. Halilbasic E, Fiorotto R, Fickert P, Marschall HU, Moustafa T, Spirli C, Fuchsbichler A, Gumhold J, Silbert D, Zatloukal K, Langner C, Maitra U, Denk H, Hofmann AF, Strazzabosco M, Trauner M. Side chain structure determines unique physiologic and therapeutic properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in Mdr2-/- mice. Hepatology. 2009 Jun; 49(6):1972-81. PMID: 19475687.
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    56. Hofmann AF. Bile acids: trying to understand their chemistry and biology with the hope of helping patients. Hepatology. 2009 May; 49(5):1403-18. PMID: 19296471.
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    57. Kakiyama G, Muto A, Shimada M, Mano N, Goto J, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical synthesis of 3beta-sulfooxy-7beta-hydroxy-24-nor-5-cholenoic acid: an internal standard for mass spectrometric analysis of the abnormal delta5-bile acids occurring in Niemann-Pick disease. Steroids. 2009 Sep; 74(9):766-72. PMID: 19394355.
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    58. Ikegawa S, Ito H, Ohshima M, Maeda M, Hofmann AF, Mitamura K. Chemical synthesis of bile acid acyl-adenylates and formation by a rat liver microsomal fraction. Steroids. 2009 Sep; 74(9):751-7. PMID: 19376146.
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    59. Mitamura K, Watanabe S, Sakai T, Okihara R, Sogabe M, Wakamiya T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Chemical synthesis of N-acetylcysteine conjugates of bile acids and in vivo formation in cholestatic rats as shown by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 Sep 01; 877(25):2630-8. PMID: 19346170.
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    60. Money ME, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Walkowiak J, Talley NJ. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea with pancrealipase or colesevelam and association with steatorrhea. Pancreas. 2009 Mar; 38(2):232-3. PMID: 19238028.
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    61. Hofmann AF. In memoriam: Dr. Herbert Falk (1924-2008). Hepatology. 2009 Jan; 49(1):1-3. PMID: 19108004.
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    62. Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in mammals: form and functions. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009 Jan 01; 14:2584-98. PMID: 19273221.
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    63. Hagey LR, Kakiyama G, Muto A, Iida T, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Oliveira CA, Hofmann AF. A new, major C27 biliary bile acid in the red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens):25R-1beta, 3alpha,7alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid. J Lipid Res. 2009 Apr; 50(4):651-7. PMID: 19011113.
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    64. Hofmann AF, Loening-Baucke V, Lavine JE, Hagey LR, Steinbach JH, Packard CA, Griffin TL, Chatfield DA. Altered bile acid metabolism in childhood functional constipation: inactivation of secretory bile acids by sulfation in a subset of patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Nov; 47(5):598-606. PMID: 18955863.
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    65. Ogawa S, Kakiyama G, Muto A, Hosoda A, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Iida T. A facile synthesis of C-24 and C-25 oxysterols by in situ generated ethyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane. Steroids. 2009 Jan; 74(1):81-7. PMID: 18996406.
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    66. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Bile acids: chemistry, pathochemistry, biology, pathobiology, and therapeutics. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Aug; 65(16):2461-83. PMID: 18488143.
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    67. Monte MJ, Rosales R, Macias RI, Iannota V, Martinez-Fernandez A, Romero MR, Hofmann AF, Marin JJ. Cytosol-nucleus traffic and colocalization with FXR of conjugated bile acids in rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Jul; 295(1):G54-G62. PMID: 18467501.
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    68. Reschly EJ, Ai N, Ekins S, Welsh WJ, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates. J Lipid Res. 2008 Jul; 49(7):1577-87. PMID: 18362391.
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    69. Sato H, Macchiarulo A, Thomas C, Gioiello A, Une M, Hofmann AF, Saladin R, Schoonjans K, Pellicciari R, Auwerx J. Novel potent and selective bile acid derivatives as TGR5 agonists: biological screening, structure-activity relationships, and molecular modeling studies. J Med Chem. 2008 Mar 27; 51(6):1831-41. PMID: 18307294.
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    70. Ikegawa S, Yamamoto T, Miyashita T, Okihara R, Ishiwata S, Sakai T, Chong RH, Maeda M, Hofmann AF, Mitamura K. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to capture proteins tagged with lithocholic acid. Anal Sci. 2008; 24(11):1475-80. PMID: 18997378.
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    71. Kakiyama G, Tamegai H, Iida T, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Holz P, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Isolation and chemical synthesis of a major, novel biliary bile acid in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus): 15alpha-hydroxylithocholic acid. J Lipid Res. 2007 Dec; 48(12):2682-92. PMID: 17785716.
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    72. Gass J, Vora H, Hofmann AF, Gray GM, Khosla C. Enhancement of dietary protein digestion by conjugated bile acids. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jul; 133(1):16-23. PMID: 17631126.
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    73. Hamilton JP, Xie G, Raufman JP, Hogan S, Griffin TL, Packard CA, Chatfield DA, Hagey LR, Steinbach JH, Hofmann AF. Human cecal bile acids: concentration and spectrum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jul; 293(1):G256-63. PMID: 17412828.
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    74. Hofmann AF. Why bile acid glucuronidation is a minor pathway for conjugation of endogenous bile acids in man. Hepatology. 2007 Apr; 45(4):1083-4; author reply 1084-5. PMID: 17393523.
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    75. Iida T, Ogawa S, Hosoi K, Makino M, Fujimoto Y, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Hofmann AF. Regioselective oxyfunctionalization of unactivated carbons in steroids by a model of cytochrome P-450: osmiumporphyrin complex/tert-butyl hydroperoxide system. J Org Chem. 2007 Feb 02; 72(3):823-30. PMID: 17253801.
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    76. Hofmann AF. Biliary secretion and excretion in health and disease: current concepts. Ann Hepatol. 2007 Jan-Mar; 6(1):15-27. PMID: 17297425.
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    77. Keely SJ, Scharl MM, Bertelsen LS, Hagey LR, Barrett KE, Hofmann AF. Bile acid-induced secretion in polarized monolayers of T84 colonic epithelial cells: Structure-activity relationships. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jan; 292(1):G290-7. PMID: 16901996.
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    78. Paulusma CC, Groen A, Kunne C, Ho-Mok KS, Spijkerboer AL, Rudi de Waart D, Hoek FJ, Vreeling H, Hoeben KA, van Marle J, Pawlikowska L, Bull LN, Hofmann AF, Knisely AS, Oude Elferink RP. Atp8b1 deficiency in mice reduces resistance of the canalicular membrane to hydrophobic bile salts and impairs bile salt transport. Hepatology. 2006 Jul; 44(1):195-204. PMID: 16799980.
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    79. Sehayek E, Hagey LR, Fung YY, Duncan EM, Yu HJ, Eggertsen G, Björkhem I, Hofmann AF, Breslow JL. Two loci on chromosome 9 control bile acid composition: evidence that a strong candidate gene, Cyp8b1, is not the culprit. J Lipid Res. 2006 Sep; 47(9):2020-7. PMID: 16763287.
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    80. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Hayashi H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Inhibition of bile acid transport across Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1) and bile salt export pump (ABCB 11)-coexpressing LLC-PK1 cells by cholestasis-inducing drugs. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep; 34(9):1575-81. PMID: 16760228.
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    81. Hofmann AF, Huet PM. Nasobiliary drainage for cholestatic pruritus. Hepatology. 2006 May; 43(5):1170-1. PMID: 16628631.
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    82. Kakiyama G, Iida T, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. J Lipid Res. 2006 Jul; 47(7):1551-8. PMID: 16648547.
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    83. Hofmann AF, Eckmann L. How bile acids confer gut mucosal protection against bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 21; 103(12):4333-4. PMID: 16537368.
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    84. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Hayashi H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Vectorial transport of unconjugated and conjugated bile salts by monolayers of LLC-PK1 cells doubly transfected with human NTCP and BSEP or with rat Ntcp and Bsep. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Mar; 290(3):G550-6. PMID: 16474011.
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    85. Chen X, Chen F, Liu S, Glaeser H, Dawson PA, Hofmann AF, Kim RB, Shneider BL, Pang KS. Transactivation of rat apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter and increased bile acid transport by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 via the vitamin D receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Jun; 69(6):1913-23. PMID: 16481392.
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    86. Fickert P, Wagner M, Marschall HU, Fuchsbichler A, Zollner G, Tsybrovskyy O, Zatloukal K, Liu J, Waalkes MP, Cover C, Denk H, Hofmann AF, Jaeschke H, Trauner M. 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid is superior to ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of sclerosing cholangitis in Mdr2 (Abcb4) knockout mice. Gastroenterology. 2006 Feb; 130(2):465-81. PMID: 16472600.
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    87. Hofmann AF, Zakko SF, Lira M, Clerici C, Hagey LR, Lambert KK, Steinbach JH, Schteingart CD, Olinga P, Groothuis GM. Novel biotransformation and physiological properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in humans. Hepatology. 2005 Dec; 42(6):1391-8. PMID: 16317695.
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    88. Hayashi H, Takada T, Suzuki H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Transport by vesicles of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile salts and taurolithocholate 3-sulfate: a comparison of human BSEP with rat Bsep. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 30; 1738(1-3):54-62. PMID: 16332456.
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    89. Rius M, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Hofmann AF, Keppler D. Substrate specificity of human ABCC4 (MRP4)-mediated cotransport of bile acids and reduced glutathione. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Apr; 290(4):G640-9. PMID: 16282361.
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    90. Combes B, Emerson SS, Flye NL, Munoz SJ, Luketic VA, Mayo MJ, McCashland TM, Zetterman RK, Peters MG, Di Bisceglie AM, Benner KG, Kowdley KV, Carithers RL, Rosoff L, Garcia-Tsao G, Boyer JL, Boyer TD, Martinez EJ, Bass NM, Lake JR, Barnes DS, Bonacini M, Lindsay KL, Mills AS, Markin RS, Rubin R, West AB, Wheeler DE, Contos MJ, Hofmann AF. Methotrexate (MTX) plus ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005 Nov; 42(5):1184-93. PMID: 16250039.
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    91. Iida T, Kakiyama G, Hibiya Y, Miyata S, Inoue T, Ohno K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hofmann AF. Chemical synthesis of the 3-sulfooxy-7-N-acetylglucosaminyl-24-amidated conjugates of 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid, and related compounds: unusual, major metabolites of bile acid in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type C1. Steroids. 2006 Jan; 71(1):18-29. PMID: 16197972.
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    92. Moschetta A, Xu F, Hagey LR, van Berge-Henegouwen GP, van Erpecum KJ, Brouwers JF, Cohen JC, Bierman M, Hobbs HH, Steinbach JH, Hofmann AF. A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates. J Lipid Res. 2005 Oct; 46(10):2221-32. PMID: 16061950.
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    93. Hofmann AF. Increased deoxycholic acid absorption and gall stones in acromegalic patients treated with octreotide: more evidence for a connection between slow transit constipation and gall stones. Gut. 2005 May; 54(5):575-8. PMID: 15831896.
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    94. Hofmann AF. Helicobacter and cholesterol gallstones: do findings in the mouse apply to man? Gastroenterology. 2005 Apr; 128(4):1126-9. PMID: 15825095.
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    95. Hofmann AF. Detoxification of lithocholic acid, a toxic bile acid: relevance to drug hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 Oct; 36(3-4):703-22. PMID: 15554243.
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    96. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Vectorial transport of bile salts across MDCK cells expressing both rat Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and rat bile salt export pump. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Jan; 288(1):G159-67. PMID: 15297262.
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    97. Hofmann AF. Gallstone disease: physicochemical research sheds new light on an old disease and points the way to medical therapy. J Hepatol. 2004 Aug; 41(2):195-200. PMID: 15288466.
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    98. Kapral C, Wewalka F, Praxmarer V, Lenz K, Hofmann AF. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy in short bowel syndrome patients with a residual colon. Z Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul; 42(7):583-9. PMID: 15248106.
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    99. Jover A, Meijide F, Soto VH, Vázquez Tato J, Núñez ER, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. Successful prediction of the hydrogen bond network of the 3-oxo-12alpha-hydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid crystal from resolution of the crystal structure of deoxycholic acid and its three 3,12-dihydroxy epimers. Steroids. 2004 Jun; 69(6):379-88. PMID: 15219787.
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    100. Hofmann AF. Douglas B. McGill, 1929-2004. Gastroenterology. 2004 Jun; 126(7):1890-2. PMID: 15188184.
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    101. Kakiyama G, Iida T, Yoshimoto A, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Chemical synthesis of (22E)-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta-trihydroxy-5 beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its taurine and glycine conjugates: a major bile acid in the rat. J Lipid Res. 2004 Mar; 45(3):567-73. PMID: 14657194.
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    102. Hofmann AF. Inappropriate ileal conservation of bile acids in cholestatic liver disease: homeostasis gone awry. Gut. 2003 Sep; 52(9):1239-41. PMID: 12912852.
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    103. Goto T, Holzinger F, Hagey LR, Cerrè C, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Steinbach JH, Shneider BL, Hofmann AF. Physicochemical and physiological properties of 5alpha-cyprinol sulfate, the toxic bile salt of cyprinid fish. J Lipid Res. 2003 Sep; 44(9):1643-51. PMID: 12810826.
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    104. Porter JL, Fordtran JS, Santa Ana CA, Emmett M, Hagey LR, Macdonald EA, Hofmann AF. Accurate enzymatic measurement of fecal bile acids in patients with malabsorption. J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Jun; 141(6):411-8. PMID: 12819639.
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    105. Lorenzo-Zúñiga V, Bartolí R, Planas R, Hofmann AF, Viñado B, Hagey LR, Hernández JM, Mañé J, Alvarez MA, Ausina V, Gassull MA. Oral bile acids reduce bacterial overgrowth, bacterial translocation, and endotoxemia in cirrhotic rats. Hepatology. 2003 Mar; 37(3):551-7. PMID: 12601352.
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    106. Zeh N, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Steinbach JH, Hagey LR, Oliver D, Stange J, Hassanein T. The effect of extracorporeal albumin dialysis on plasma phospholipid fatty acids in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Int. 2003; 23 Suppl 3:34-8. PMID: 12950959.
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    107. Emmett M, Guirl MJ, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, Neimark S, Hofmann AF, Fordtran JS. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduces urinary oxalate excretion in short bowel syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jan; 41(1):230-7. PMID: 12500242.
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    108. Hofmann AF. Rifampicin and treatment of cholestatic pruritus. Gut. 2002 Nov; 51(5):756-7. PMID: 12377823.
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    109. Iida T, Hikosaka M, Kakiyama G, Shiraishi K, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T. Potential bile acid metabolites. 25. Synthesis and chemical properties of stereoisomeric 3alpha,7alpha,16- and 3alpha,7alpha,15-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Oct; 50(10):1327-34. PMID: 12372858.
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    110. Beigneux A, Hofmann AF, Young SG. Human CYP7A1 deficiency: progress and enigmas. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul; 110(1):29-31. PMID: 12093884.
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    111. Meng LJ, Wang P, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB, Tirona RG, Hofmann AF, Pang KS. Transport of the sulfated, amidated bile acid, sulfolithocholyltaurine, into rat hepatocytes is mediated by Oatp1 and Oatp2. Hepatology. 2002 May; 35(5):1031-40. PMID: 11981753.
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    112. Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. A novel primary bile acid in the Shoebill stork and herons and its phylogenetic significance. J Lipid Res. 2002 May; 43(5):685-90. PMID: 11971938.
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    113. Hofmann AF. Cholestatic liver disease: pathophysiology and therapeutic options. Liver. 2002; 22 Suppl 2:14-9. PMID: 12220297.
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    114. Teixeira FV, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Pera M, Kelly KA. Bile acid absorption after near-total proctocolectomy in dogs: ileal pouch vs. jejunal pouch-distal rectal anastomosis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2001 Sep-Oct; 5(5):540-5. PMID: 11986006.
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    115. Holzinger F, Krähenbühl L, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. Use of a fluorescent bile acid to enhance visualization of the biliary tract and bile leaks during laparoscopic surgery in rabbits. Surg Endosc. 2001 Feb; 15(2):209-12. PMID: 11285970.
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    116. Cantz T, Nies AT, Brom M, Hofmann AF, Keppler D. MRP2, a human conjugate export pump, is present and transports fluo 3 into apical vacuoles of Hep G2 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Apr; 278(4):G522-31. PMID: 10762605.
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    117. Hofmann AF. The continuing importance of bile acids in liver and intestinal disease. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Dec 13-27; 159(22):2647-58. PMID: 10597755.
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    118. Bolder U, Trang NV, Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Cerrè C, Elferink RP, Hofmann AF. Sulindac is excreted into bile by a canalicular bile salt pump and undergoes a cholehepatic circulation in rats. Gastroenterology. 1999 Oct; 117(4):962-71. PMID: 10500080.
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    119. Combes B, Carithers RL, Maddrey WC, Munoz S, Garcia-Tsao G, Bonner GF, Boyer JL, Luketic VA, Shiffman ML, Peters MG, White H, Zetterman RK, Risser R, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF. Biliary bile acids in primary biliary cirrhosis: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology. 1999 Jun; 29(6):1649-54. PMID: 10347103.
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    120. Hofmann AF. Bile acids, cholesterol, gallstone calcification, and the enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin. Gastroenterology. 1999 May; 116(5):1276-7. PMID: 10220530.
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    121. Hofmann AF. Regulation of ileal bile acid transport: desirability of measuring transport function as well as transporter activity. Hepatology. 1999 Apr; 29(4):1335-7. PMID: 10336336.
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    122. Hofmann AF. Bile Acids: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. News Physiol Sci. 1999 Feb; 14:24-29. PMID: 11390813.
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    123. Gruy-Kapral C, Little KH, Fordtran JS, Meziere TL, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy for short-bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 1999 Jan; 116(1):15-21. PMID: 9869597.
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    124. Hofmann AF. Progress in idiopathic bile acid malabsorption. Gut. 1998 Dec; 43(6):738-9. PMID: 9824594.
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    125. Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Rossi SS, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. An N-acyl glycyltaurine conjugate of deoxycholic acid in the biliary bile acids of the rabbit. J Lipid Res. 1998 Nov; 39(11):2119-24. PMID: 9799797.
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    126. Lindor KD, Lacerda MA, Jorgensen RA, DeSotel CK, Batta AK, Salen G, Dickson ER, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF. Relationship between biliary and serum bile acids and response to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998 Sep; 93(9):1498-504. PMID: 9732932.
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    127. Holzinger F, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Cerrè C, Steinbach JH, Yeh HZ, Hofmann AF. Transport of fluorescent bile acids by the isolated perfused rat liver: kinetics, sequestration, and mobilization. Hepatology. 1998 Aug; 28(2):510-20. PMID: 9696018.
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    128. Ricci P, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Jorgensen RA, Rolland Dickson E, Lindor KD. Adjuvant cholylsarcosine during ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci. 1998 Jun; 43(6):1292-5. PMID: 9635620.
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    129. Venkataramani A, Strong RM, Anderson DS, Gilmore IT, Stokes K, Hofmann AF. Abnormal duodenal bile composition in patients with acalculous chronic cholecystitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998 Mar; 93(3):434-41. PMID: 9517653.
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    130. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B. Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 02; 274(2):G370-5. PMID: 9486191.
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    131. Holzinger F, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Eming SA, Monte MJ, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Fluorescent bile acid derivatives: relationship between chemical structure and hepatic and intestinal transport in the rat. Hepatology. 1997 Nov; 26(5):1263-71. PMID: 9362371.
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    132. Das S, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Reiner DS, Aley SB, Gillin FD. Giardia lamblia: evidence for carrier-mediated uptake and release of conjugated bile acids. Exp Parasitol. 1997 Oct; 87(2):133-41. PMID: 9326888.
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    133. Yeh HZ, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Ton-Nu HT, Bolder U, Gavrilkina MA, Steinbach JH, Hofmann AF. Effect of side chain length on biotransformation, hepatic transport, and choleretic properties of chenodeoxycholyl homologues in the rodent: studies with dinorchenodeoxycholic acid, norchenodeoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology. 1997 Aug; 26(2):374-85. PMID: 9252148.
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    134. Hofmann AF. American Gastroenterological Association. Gallstone disease: physicochemical research joins empirical surgery. Gastroenterology. 1997 Jul; 113(1):341-4. PMID: 9207296.
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    135. Brissot P, Bolder U, Schteingart CD, Arnaud J, Hofmann AF. Intestinal absorption and enterohepatic cycling of biliary iron originating from plasma non-transferrin-bound iron in rats. Hepatology. 1997 Jun; 25(6):1457-61. PMID: 9185768.
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    136. Benedetti A, Di Sario A, Marucci L, Svegliati-Baroni G, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. Carrier-mediated transport of conjugated bile acids across the basolateral membrane of biliary epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jun; 272(6 Pt 1):G1416-24. PMID: 9227477.
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    137. Hofmann AF, Amelsberg A, Esch O, Schteingart CD, Lyche K, Jinich H, Vansonnenberg E, D'Agostino HB. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate. Dig Dis Sci. 1997 Jun; 42(6):1274-82. PMID: 9201095.
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    138. Amelsberg A, Schteingart CD, Stein J, Simmonds WJ, Sawada GA, Ho NF, Hofmann AF. Intestinal absorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the rodent: evidence for paracellular absorption. Am J Physiol. 1997 Mar; 272(3 Pt 1):G498-506. PMID: 9124570.
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    139. Bolder U, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Frick E, Hofmann AF. Hepatocyte transport of bile acids and organic anions in endotoxemic rats: impaired uptake and secretion. Gastroenterology. 1997 Jan; 112(1):214-25. PMID: 8978362.
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    140. Hofmann AF. Biliary secretion: future perspectives. Digestion. 1997; 58 Suppl 1:24-8. PMID: 9225085.
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    141. Fracchia M, Setchell KD, Crosignani A, Podda M, O'Connell N, Ferraris R, Hofmann AF, Galatola G. Bile acid conjugation in early stage cholestatic liver disease before and during treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Clin Chim Acta. 1996 Apr 30; 248(2):175-85. PMID: 8740581.
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    142. Amelsberg A, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. Carrier-mediated jejunal absorption of conjugated bile acids in the guinea pig. Gastroenterology. 1996 Apr; 110(4):1098-106. PMID: 8612999.
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    143. Duane WC, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. Validation of [22,23-3H]cholic acid as a stable tracer through conversion to deoxycholic acid in human subjects. J Lipid Res. 1996 Feb; 37(2):431-6. PMID: 9026540.
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    144. Merrill JR, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Peng Y, Ton-Nu HT, Frick E, Jirsa M, Hofmann AF. Hepatic biotransformation in rodents and physicochemical properties of 23(R)-hydroxychenodeoxycholic acid, a natural alpha-hydroxy bile acid. J Lipid Res. 1996 Jan; 37(1):98-112. PMID: 8820106.
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    145. Del Vecchio S, Ostrow JD, Mukerjee P, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Cerrè C, Roda A. Method for removal of surface-active impurities and calcium from conjugated bile salt preparations: comparison with silicic acid chromatography. J Lipid Res. 1995 Dec; 36(12):2639-50. PMID: 8847490.
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    146. Lindor KD, Dickson ER, Jorgensen RA, Anderson ML, Wiesner RH, Gores GJ, Lange SM, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Baldus WP. The combination of ursodeoxycholic acid and methotrexate for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis: the results of a pilot study. Hepatology. 1995 Oct; 22(4 Pt 1):1158-62. PMID: 7557866.
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    147. Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Wolkoff AW, Meier PJ. Molecular and functional characterization of an organic anion transporting polypeptide cloned from human liver. Gastroenterology. 1995 Oct; 109(4):1274-82. PMID: 7557095.
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    148. Maglova LM, Jackson AM, Meng XJ, Carruth MW, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF, Weinman SA. Transport characteristics of three fluorescent conjugated bile acid analogs in isolated rat hepatocytes and couplets. Hepatology. 1995 Aug; 22(2):637-47. PMID: 7635434.
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    149. Sandborn WJ, Tremaine WJ, Batts KP, Pemberton JH, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Gores GJ, Phillips SF. Fecal bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and bacteria after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis do not differ in patients with pouchitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1995 Jul; 40(7):1474-83. PMID: 7628271.
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    150. Gelbmann CM, Schteingart CD, Thompson SM, Hofmann AF, Barrett KE. Mast cells and histamine contribute to bile acid-stimulated secretion in the mouse colon. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jun; 95(6):2831-9. PMID: 7769123.
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    151. Jorgensen RA, Dickson ER, Hofmann AF, Rossi SS, Lindor KD. Characterisation of patients with a complete biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid. Gut. 1995 Jun; 36(6):935-8. PMID: 7615288.
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    152. Hofmann AF. Defective biliary secretion during total parenteral nutrition: probable mechanisms and possible solutions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995 May; 20(4):376-90. PMID: 7636679.
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    153. Bruno MJ, Hoek FJ, Delzenne B, van Leeuwen DJ, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Tytgat GN. Simultaneous assessments of exocrine pancreatic function by cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and measurement of plasma p-aminobenzoic acid. Clin Chem. 1995 Apr; 41(4):599-604. PMID: 7720253.
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    154. Hofmann AF. Bile acids as drugs: principles, mechanisms of action and formulations. Ital J Gastroenterol. 1995 Mar; 27(2):106-13. PMID: 7579591.
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    155. Hofmann AF. Microtubule-dependent transport of bile salts through hepatocytes: cholic vs. taurocholatic acid. Hepatology. 1994 Nov; 20(5):1375-8. PMID: 7927277.
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    156. Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF. Biliary bile acids of fruit pigeons and doves (Columbiformes): presence of 1-beta-hydroxychenodeoxycholic acid and conjugation with glycine as well as taurine. J Lipid Res. 1994 Nov; 35(11):2041-8. PMID: 7868982.
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    157. McCashland TM, Donovan JP, Amelsberg A, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Shaw BW, Quigley EM. Bile acid metabolism and biliary secretion in patients receiving orthotopic liver transplants: differing effects of cyclosporine and FK 506. Hepatology. 1994 Jun; 19(6):1381-9. PMID: 7514561.
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    158. Ko J, Hamilton JA, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Small DM. Effects of side chain length on ionization behavior and transbilayer transport of unconjugated dihydroxy bile acids: a comparison of nor-chenodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. J Lipid Res. 1994 May; 35(5):883-92. PMID: 8071610.
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    159. Boyer JL, Ng OC, Ananthanarayanan M, Hofmann AF, Schteingart CD, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Meier PJ. Expression and characterization of a functional rat liver Na+ bile acid cotransport system in COS-7 cells. Am J Physiol. 1994 Mar; 266(3 Pt 1):G382-7. PMID: 8166278.
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    160. Hofmann AF. Pharmacology of ursodeoxycholic acid, an enterohepatic drug. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1994; 204:1-15. PMID: 7824870.
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    161. Hofmann AF. Maximal bile acid biosynthesis in humans. Gastroenterology. 1994 Jan; 106(1):273-4. PMID: 8276197.
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    162. Hagey LR, Crombie DL, Espinosa E, Carey MC, Igimi H, Hofmann AF. Ursodeoxycholic acid in the Ursidae: biliary bile acids of bears, pandas, and related carnivores. J Lipid Res. 1993 Nov; 34(11):1911-7. PMID: 8263415.
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    163. Esch O, Schteingart CD, Pappert D, Kirby D, Streich R, Hofmann AF. Increased blood levels of methyl tert-butyl ether but not of ethyl propionate during instillation with contact gallstone dissolution agents in the pig. Hepatology. 1993 Aug; 18(2):373-9. PMID: 8340066.
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    164. Stravitz RT, Hylemon PB, Heuman DM, Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF, Vlahcevic ZR. Transcriptional regulation of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA by conjugated bile acids in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 05; 268(19):13987-93. PMID: 8314765.
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    165. Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Setchell KD, Hofmann AF. 5 beta-hydroxylation by the liver. Identification of 3,5,7-trihydroxy nor-bile acids as new major biotransformation products of 3,7-dihydroxy nor-bile acids in rodents. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25; 268(15):11239-46. PMID: 8496179.
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    166. Schmassmann A, Fehr HF, Locher J, Lillienau J, Schteingart CD, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF. Cholylsarcosine, a new bile acid analogue: metabolism and effect on biliary secretion in humans. Gastroenterology. 1993 Apr; 104(4):1171-81. PMID: 7681796.
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    167. Hofmann AF. Primary and secondary prevention of gallstone disease: implications for patient management and research priorities. Am J Surg. 1993 Apr; 165(4):541-8. PMID: 8386910.
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    168. Lillienau J, Crombie DL, Munoz J, Longmire-Cook SJ, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Negative feedback regulation of the ileal bile acid transport system in rodents. Gastroenterology. 1993 Jan; 104(1):38-46. PMID: 8419260.
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    169. Heuman DM, Vlahcevic ZR, Pandak WM, Hylemon PB, Kim YS, Lillienau J, Hofmann AF. Effect of cholylsarcosine on hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and bile secretion in rats. Gastroenterology. 1992 Nov; 103(5):1641-8. PMID: 1385253.
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    170. Esch O, Spinosa JC, Hamilton RL, Crombie DL, Schteingart CD, Rondinone JF, D'Agostino HB, Lillienau J, Hofmann AF. Acute effects of topical methyl tert-butyl ether or ethyl propionate on gallbladder histology in animals: a comparison of two solvents for contact dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Hepatology. 1992 Oct; 16(4):984-91. PMID: 1398506.
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    171. Sorscher S, Lillienau J, Meinkoth JL, Steinbach JH, Schteingart CD, Feramisco J, Hofmann AF. Conjugated bile acid uptake by Xenopus laevis oocytes induced by microinjection with ileal Poly A+ mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Aug 14; 186(3):1455-62. PMID: 1354958.
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    172. Longmire-Cook SJ, Lillienau J, Kim YS, Schteingart CD, Danzinger RG, Esch O, Hofmann AF. Effect of replacement therapy with cholylsarcosine on fat malabsorption associated with severe bile acid malabsorption. Studies in dogs with ileal resection. Dig Dis Sci. 1992 Aug; 37(8):1217-27. PMID: 1379904.
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    173. Hofmann AF, Mysels KJ. Bile acid solubility and precipitation in vitro and in vivo: the role of conjugation, pH, and Ca2+ ions. J Lipid Res. 1992 May; 33(5):617-26. PMID: 1619357.
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    174. Gu JJ, Hofmann AF, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Mysels KJ. Solubility of calcium salts of unconjugated and conjugated natural bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1992 May; 33(5):635-46. PMID: 1619359.
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    175. Hofmann AF, Sjövall J, Kurz G, Radominska A, Schteingart CD, Tint GS, Vlahcevic ZR, Setchell KD. A proposed nomenclature for bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1992 Apr; 33(4):599-604. PMID: 1527482.
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    176. Lira M, Schteingart CD, Steinbach JH, Lambert K, McRoberts JA, Hofmann AF. Sugar absorption by the biliary ductular epithelium of the rat: evidence for two transport systems. Gastroenterology. 1992 Feb; 102(2):563-71. PMID: 1732126.
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    177. Lillienau J, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF. Physicochemical and physiological properties of cholylsarcosine. A potential replacement detergent for bile acid deficiency states in the small intestine. J Clin Invest. 1992 Feb; 89(2):420-31. PMID: 1371123.
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    178. Yoshii M, Mosbach EH, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Cohen BI, McSherry CK. Chemical synthesis and hepatic biotransformation of 3 alpha,7 alpha-dihydroxy-7 beta-methyl-24-nor-5 beta-cholan-23-oic acid, a 7-methyl derivative of norchenodeoxycholic acid: studies in the hamster. J Lipid Res. 1991 Nov; 32(11):1729-40. PMID: 1770293.
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    179. Fisher RL, Hofmann AF, Converse JL, Rossi SS, Lan SP. The lack of relationship between hepatotoxicity and lithocholic-acid sulfation in biliary bile acids during chenodiol therapy in the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. Hepatology. 1991 Sep; 14(3):454-63. PMID: 1874490.
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    180. Quist RG, Ton-Nu HT, Lillienau J, Hofmann AF, Barrett KE. Activation of mast cells by bile acids. Gastroenterology. 1991 Aug; 101(2):446-56. PMID: 1712330.
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    181. D'Agostino HB, vanSonnenberg E, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Casola G, Mathieson JR. Thin-layer chromatography to monitor cholesterol gallstone dissolution by methyl tert-butyl ether. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991 Jul; 157(1):33-6. PMID: 2048533.
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    182. Cohen BI, Ayyad N, Mosbach EH, McSherry CK, Matoba N, Hofmann AF, Ton-Nu HT, Peng Y, Schteingart CD, Stenger RJ. Replacement of cholesterol gallstones by murideoxycholyl taurine gallstones in prairie dogs fed murideoxycholic acid. Hepatology. 1991 Jul; 14(1):158-68. PMID: 2066064.
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    183. Sturman JA, Messing JM, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Neuringer M. Tissue taurine content, activity of taurine synthesis enzymes and conjugated bile acid composition of taurine-deprived and taurine-supplemented rhesus monkey infants at 6 and 12 mo of age. J Nutr. 1991 Jun; 121(6):854-62. PMID: 2033470.
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    184. vanSonnenberg E, Zakko S, Hofmann AF, D'Agostino HB, Jinich H, Hoyt DB, Miyai K, Ramsby G, Moossa AR. Human gallbladder morphology after gallstone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether. Gastroenterology. 1991 Jun; 100(6):1718-23. PMID: 2019376.
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    185. Hofmann AF, Schteingart CD, Lillienau J. Biological and medical aspects of active ileal transport of bile acids. Ann Med. 1991 Apr; 23(2):169-75. PMID: 2069793.
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    186. Gurantz D, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Steinbach JH, Grotmol T, Hofmann AF. Hypercholeresis induced by unconjugated bile acid infusion correlates with recovery in bile of unconjugated bile acids. Hepatology. 1991 Mar; 13(3):540-50. PMID: 1999323.
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    187. Hofmann AF, Schteingart CD, vanSonnenberg E, Esch O, Zakko SF. Contact dissolution of cholesterol gallstones with organic solvents. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1991 Mar; 20(1):183-99. PMID: 2022421.
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    188. Oude Elferink RP, Ottenhoff R, Radominska A, Hofmann AF, Kuipers F, Jansen PL. Inhibition of glutathione-conjugate secretion from isolated hepatocytes by dipolar bile acids and other organic anions. Biochem J. 1991 Feb 15; 274 ( Pt 1):281-6. PMID: 2001244.
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    189. Marcus SN, Schteingart CD, Marquez ML, Hofmann AF, Xia Y, Steinbach JH, Ton-Nu HT, Lillienau J, Angellotti MA, Schmassmann A. Active absorption of conjugated bile acids in vivo. Kinetic parameters and molecular specificity of the ileal transport system in the rat. Gastroenterology. 1991 Jan; 100(1):212-21. PMID: 1983823.
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    190. Zakko SF, Hofmann AF. Microprocessor-assisted solvent-transfer system for gallstone dissolution. In vitro and in vivo validation. Gastroenterology. 1990 Dec; 99(6):1807-13. PMID: 2227295.
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    191. Fleishaker JC, Rossi SS, Smith RB, Welshman IR, Daei F, Angellotti MA, Hofmann AF. The effect of colestipol dose on postprandial serum bile acid concentration: assessment by an enzymic bioluminescence procedure. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1990 Dec; 4(6):623-33. PMID: 2129649.
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    192. Schmassmann A, Angellotti MA, Clerici C, Hofmann AF, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Marcus SN, Hagey LR, Rossi SS, Aigner A. Transport, metabolism, and effect of chronic feeding of lagodeoxycholic acid. A new, natural bile acid. Gastroenterology. 1990 Oct; 99(4):1092-104. PMID: 2394330.
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    193. Hofmann AF. Bile acid secretion, bile flow and biliary lipid secretion in humans. Hepatology. 1990 Sep; 12(3 Pt 2):17S-22S; discussion 22S-25S. PMID: 2210645.
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    194. Xia Y, Lambert KJ, Schteingart CD, GU JJ, Hofmann AF. Concentrative biliary secretion of ceftriaxone. Inhibition of lipid secretion and precipitation of calcium ceftriaxone in bile. Gastroenterology. 1990 Aug; 99(2):454-65. PMID: 2365194.
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    195. Schmassmann A, Hofmann AF, Angellotti MA, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Clerici C, Rossi SS, Rothschild MA, Cohen BI, Stenger RJ. Prevention of ursodeoxycholate hepatotoxicity in the rabbit by conjugation with N-methyl amino acids. Hepatology. 1990 Jun; 11(6):989-96. PMID: 2365296.
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    196. Zakko SF, Hofmann AF. Microprocessor-assisted solvent transfer system for effective contact dissolution of gallbladder stones. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1990 Apr; 37(4):410-6. PMID: 2338354.
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    197. Schmassmann A, Angellotti MA, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Marcus SN, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF. Transport, metabolism, and effect of chronic feeding of cholylsarcosine, a conjugated bile acid resistant to deconjugation and dehydroxylation. Gastroenterology. 1990 Jan; 98(1):163-74. PMID: 1688373.
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    198. Hofmann AF. Nonsurgical treatment of gallstone disease. Annu Rev Med. 1990; 41:401-15. PMID: 2184740.
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    199. Stremmel W, Hofmann AF. Intestinal absorption of unconjugated dihydroxy bile acids: non-mediation by the carrier system involved in long chain fatty acid absorption. Lipids. 1990 Jan; 25(1):11-6. PMID: 2325504.
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    200. Hofmann AF. Current concepts of biliary secretion. Dig Dis Sci. 1989 Dec; 34(12 Suppl):16S-20S. PMID: 2689114.
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    201. Hofmann AF. Medical dissolution of gallstones by oral bile acid therapy. Am J Surg. 1989 Sep; 158(3):198-204. PMID: 2672842.
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    202. Oude Elferink RP, de Haan J, Lambert KJ, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Jansen PL. Selective hepatobiliary transport of nordeoxycholate side chain conjugates in mutant rats with a canalicular transport defect. Hepatology. 1989 Jun; 9(6):861-5. PMID: 2714736.
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    203. Clayton LM, Gurantz D, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Schteingart CD. Role of bile acid conjugation in hepatic transport of dihydroxy bile acids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Mar; 248(3):1130-7. PMID: 2703966.
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    204. Rossi SS, Wayne ML, Smith RB, Wright CE, Andreadis NA, Hofmann AF. Effect of the bile-acid sequestrant colestipol on postprandial serum bile-acid concentration: evaluation by bioluminescent enzymic analysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1989 Feb; 3(1):41-6. PMID: 2491457.
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    205. vanSonnenberg E, Casola G, Varney RR, Zakko S, Wittich GR, Cox J, Hofmann AF. Interventional radiology in the gallbladder. Radiographics. 1989 Jan; 9(1):39-49. PMID: 2643821.
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    206. vanSonnenberg E, Casola G, Zakko SF, Varney RR, Cox J, Wittich GR, Hofmann AF. Gallbladder and bile duct stones: percutaneous therapy with primary MTBE dissolution and mechanical methods. Radiology. 1988 Nov; 169(2):505-9. PMID: 3174999.
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    207. Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF. Synthesis of 24-nor-5 beta-cholan-23-oic acid derivatives: a convenient and efficient one-carbon degradation of the side chain of natural bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1988 Oct; 29(10):1387-95. PMID: 3235921.
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    208. Hofmann AF, Strandvik B. Defective bile acid amidation: predicted features of a new inborn error of metabolism. Lancet. 1988 Aug 06; 2(8606):311-3. PMID: 2899723.
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    209. Lake JR, Renner EL, Scharschmidt BF, Cragoe EJ, Hagey LR, Lambert KJ, Gurantz D, Hofmann AF. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange in the rat is associated with decreased ursodeoxycholate hypercholeresis, decreased secretion of unconjugated urodeoxycholate, and increased ursodeoxycholate glucuronidation. Gastroenterology. 1988 Aug; 95(2):454-63. PMID: 2455672.
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    210. Hofmann AF. Walter B. Cannon lecture. Bile, bile acids, and gallstones: will new knowledge bring new power? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988 Jul; 151(1):5-12. PMID: 3259821.
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    211. Cravetto C, Molino G, Hofmann AF, Belforte G, Bona B. Computer simulation of portal venous shunting and other isolated hepatobiliary defects of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids using a physiological pharmacokinetic model. Hepatology. 1988 Jul-Aug; 8(4):866-78. PMID: 3391514.
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    212. Kuroki S, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Cohen BI, Mosbach EH, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Matoba N, Une M, Hoshita T. Bile salts of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: novel bile alcohol sulfates and absence of bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1988 Apr; 29(4):509-22. PMID: 3392467.
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    213. Sturman JA, Messing JM, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Neuringer MD. Tissue taurine content and conjugated bile acid composition of rhesus monkey infants fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation for 3 months. Neurochem Res. 1988 Apr; 13(4):311-6. PMID: 3393260.
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    214. Kirkpatrick RB, Green MD, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Tephly TR. Effect of side chain length on bile acid conjugation: glucuronidation, sulfation and coenzyme A formation of nor-bile acids and their natural C24 homologs by human and rat liver fractions. Hepatology. 1988 Mar-Apr; 8(2):353-7. PMID: 3356416.
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    215. Hofmann AF. Pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1988; 10 Suppl 2:S1-11. PMID: 3062078.
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    216. Cole SG, Rossi S, Stern A, Hofmann AF. Cholesteryl octanoate breath test. Preliminary studies on a new noninvasive test of human pancreatic exocrine function. Gastroenterology. 1987 Dec; 93(6):1372-80. PMID: 3678753.
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    217. Hofmann AF, Cravetto C, Molino G, Belforte G, Bona B. Simulation of the metabolism and enterohepatic circulation of endogenous deoxycholic acid in humans using a physiologic pharmacokinetic model for bile acid metabolism. Gastroenterology. 1987 Oct; 93(4):693-709. PMID: 3623017.
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    218. Mundlos S, Rhodes JB, Hofmann AF. The cholesteryl octanoate breath test: a new procedure for detection of pancreatic insufficiency in the rat. Pediatr Res. 1987 Sep; 22(3):257-61. PMID: 3116494.
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    219. Pressman JH, Hofmann AF, Witztum KF, Gertler SL, Steinbach JH, Stokes K, Kelts DG, Stone DM, Jones BR, Dharmsathaphorn K. Limitations of indirect methods of estimating small bowel transit in man. Dig Dis Sci. 1987 Jul; 32(7):689-99. PMID: 3109861.
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    220. Rossi SS, Converse JL, Hofmann AF. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of conjugated bile acids in human bile: simultaneous resolution of sulfated and unsulfated lithocholyl amidates and the common conjugated bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1987 May; 28(5):589-95. PMID: 3598401.
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    221. Palmer KR, Gurantz D, Hofmann AF, Clayton LM, Hagey LR, Cecchetti S. Hypercholeresis induced by norchenodeoxycholate in biliary fistula rodent. Am J Physiol. 1987 Feb; 252(2 Pt 1):G219-28. PMID: 3826349.
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    222. Molino G, Hofmann AF, Cravetto C, Belforte G, Bona B. Simulation of the metabolism and enterohepatic circulation of endogenous chenodeoxycholic acid in man using a physiological pharmacokinetic model. Eur J Clin Invest. 1986 Oct; 16(5):397-414. PMID: 3100308.
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    223. Cohen BI, Hofmann AF, Mosbach EH, Stenger RJ, Rothschild MA, Hagey LR, Yoon YB. Differing effects of nor-ursodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid on hepatic histology and bile acid metabolism in the rabbit. Gastroenterology. 1986 Jul; 91(1):189-97. PMID: 3710068.
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    224. Huijghebaert SM, Hofmann AF. Influence of the amino acid moiety on deconjugation of bile acid amidates by cholylglycine hydrolase or human fecal cultures. J Lipid Res. 1986 Jul; 27(7):742-52. PMID: 2876046.
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    225. O'Máille ER, Hofmann AF. Relatively high biliary secretory maximum for non-micelle-forming bile acid: possible significance for mechanism of secretion. Q J Exp Physiol. 1986 Jul; 71(3):475-82. PMID: 3763809.
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    226. Yoon YB, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Gurantz D, Michelotti EL, Steinbach JH. Effect of side-chain shortening on the physiologic properties of bile acids: hepatic transport and effect on biliary secretion of 23-nor-ursodeoxycholate in rodents. Gastroenterology. 1986 Apr; 90(4):837-52. PMID: 3949115.
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    227. Huijghebaert SM, Hofmann AF. Pancreatic carboxypeptidase hydrolysis of bile acid-amino conjugates: selective resistance of glycine and taurine amidates. Gastroenterology. 1986 Feb; 90(2):306-15. PMID: 2867000.
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    228. Anwer MS, O'Maille ER, Hofmann AF, DiPietro RA, Michelotti E. Influence of side-chain charge on hepatic transport of bile acids and bile acid analogues. Am J Physiol. 1985 Oct; 249(4 Pt 1):G479-88. PMID: 4050998.
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    229. Stellaard F, Klein PD, Hofmann AF, Lachin JM. Mass spectrometry identification of biliary bile acids in bile from patients with gallstones before and during treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid. An ancillary study of the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. J Lab Clin Med. 1985 Apr; 105(4):504-13. PMID: 3981060.
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    230. Hofmann AF, Roda A. Physicochemical properties of bile acids and their relationship to biological properties: an overview of the problem. J Lipid Res. 1984 Dec 15; 25(13):1477-89. PMID: 6397555.
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    231. Gurantz D, Hofmann AF. Influence of bile acid structure on bile flow and biliary lipid secretion in the hamster. Am J Physiol. 1984 Dec; 247(6 Pt 1):G736-48. PMID: 6507626.
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    232. Hofmann AF. Medical treatment of cholesterol gallstones by bile desaturating agents. Hepatology. 1984 Sep-Oct; 4(5 Suppl):199S-208S. PMID: 6384003.
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    233. Nakagaki M, Danzinger RG, Hofmann AF, DiPietro RA. Biliary secretion and hepatic metabolism of taurine-conjugated 7 alpha-hydroxy and 7 beta-hydroxy bile acids in the dog. Defective hepatic transport and bile hyposecretion. Gastroenterology. 1984 Sep; 87(3):647-59. PMID: 6745618.
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    234. Hofmann AF. Animal models of calcium cholelithiasis. Hepatology. 1984 Sep-Oct; 4(5 Suppl):209S-211S. PMID: 6479879.
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    235. Hofmann AF. Chemistry and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Hepatology. 1984 Sep-Oct; 4(5 Suppl):4S-14S. PMID: 6384004.
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    236. Su CC, Higuchi WI, Gilmore IT, Danzinger RG, Hofmann AF. Mesophase formation during cholesterol gallstone dissolution in human bile: effect of bile acid composition. J Pharm Sci. 1984 Aug; 73(8):1160-1. PMID: 6491925.
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    237. Danzinger RG, Nakagaki M, Hofmann AF, Ljungwe EB. Differing effects of hydroxy-7-oxotaurine-conjugated bile acids on bile flow and biliary lipid secretion in dogs. Am J Physiol. 1984 Feb; 246(2 Pt 1):G166-72. PMID: 6546473.
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    238. van Berge-Henegouwen GP, Hofmann AF. Systemic spill-over of bile acids. Eur J Clin Invest. 1983 Dec; 13(6):433-7. PMID: 6416859.
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    239. Nakagaki M, Danzinger RG, Hofmann AF, Roda A. Hepatic biotransformation of two hydroxy-7-oxotaurine-conjugated bile acids in the dog. Am J Physiol. 1983 Sep; 245(3):G411-7. PMID: 6614185.
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    240. Hofmann AF, Molino G, Milanese M, Belforte G. Description and simulation of a physiological pharmacokinetic model for the metabolism and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man. Cholic acid in healthy man. J Clin Invest. 1983 Apr; 71(4):1003-22. PMID: 6682120.
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    241. Hofmann AF, Laker MF, Dharmsathaphorn K, Sherr HP, Lorenzo D. Complex pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria after jejunoileal bypass surgery. Oxalogenic substances in diet contribute to urinary oxalate. Gastroenterology. 1983 Feb; 84(2):293-300. PMID: 6848409.
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    242. René E, Danzinger RG, Hofmann AF, Nakagaki M. Pharmacologic effect of somatostatin on bile formation in the dog. Enhanced ductular reabsorption as the major mechanism of anticholeresis. Gastroenterology. 1983 Jan; 84(1):120-9. PMID: 6128285.
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    243. Hofmann AF, Grundy SM, Lachin JM, Lan SP, Baum RA, Hanson RF, Hersh T, Hightower NC, Marks JW, Mekhjian H, Shaefer RA, Soloway RD, Thistle JL, Thomas FB, Tyor MP. Pretreatment biliary lipid composition in white patients with radiolucent gallstones in the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. Gastroenterology. 1982 Oct; 83(4):738-52. PMID: 7106505.
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    244. Bachrach WH, Hofmann AF. Ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of cholesterol cholelithiasis. part I. Dig Dis Sci. 1982 Aug; 27(8):737-61. PMID: 7094795.
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    245. Hofmann AF. The aminopyrine demethylation breath test and the serum bile acid level: nominated but not yet elected to join the common liver tests. Hepatology. 1982 Jul-Aug; 2(4):512-17. PMID: 6807796.
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    246. Vierling JM, Berk PD, Hofmann AF, Martin JF, Wolkoff AW, Scharschmidt BF. Normal fasting-state levels of serum cholyl-conjugated bile acids in Gilbert's syndrome: an aid to the diagnosis. Hepatology. 1982 May-Jun; 2(3):340-3. PMID: 7076117.
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    247. Thistle JL, Larusso NF, Hofmann AF, Turcotte J, Carlson GL, Ott BJ. Differing effects of ursodeoxycholic or chenodeoxycholic acid on biliary cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism in man. A dose-response study. Dig Dis Sci. 1982 Feb; 27(2):161-8. PMID: 7075411.
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    248. Gilmore IT, Barnhart JL, Hofmann AF, Erlinger S. Effects of individual taurine-conjugated bile acids on biliary lipid secretion and sucrose clearance in the unanesthetized dog. Am J Physiol. 1982 Jan; 242(1):G40-6. PMID: 7058897.
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    249. Raedsch R, Lauterburg BH, Hofmann AF. Altered bile acid metabolism in primary biliary cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci. 1981 May; 26(5):394-401. PMID: 7249880.
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    250. Gurantz D, Laker MF, Hofmann AF. Enzymatic measurement of choline-containing phospholipids in bile. J Lipid Res. 1981 Feb; 22(2):373-6. PMID: 7017049.
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    251. Hofmann AF. The medical treatment of gallstones: a clinical application of the new biology of bile acids. Harvey Lect. 1980; 74:23-48. PMID: 7002865.
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    252. Gilmore IT, Hofmann AF. Altered drug metabolism and elevated serum bile acids in liver disease: a unified pharmacokinetic explanation. Gastroenterology. 1980 Jan; 78(1):177-9. PMID: 7350025.
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    253. Hofmann AF. Presentation of the Beaumont Prize to Alan Hofmann. Acceptance speech. Gastroenterology. 1979 Nov; 77(5):955-66. PMID: 385419.
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    254. Hofmann AF. Presentation of the Julius M. Friedenwald Medal of the American Gastroenterological Association to Dr. Hugh Roland Butt: A laudation. Gastroenterology. 1979 Nov; 77(5):967-70. PMID: 385420.
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    255. Chadwick VS, Gaginella TS, Carlson GL, Debongnie JC, Phillips SF, Hofmann AF. Effect of molecular structure on bile acid-induced alterations in absorptive function, permeability, and morphology in the perfused rabbit colon. J Lab Clin Med. 1979 Nov; 94(5):661-74. PMID: 501195.
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    256. Mekhjian HS, Phillips SF, Hofmann AF. Colonic absorption of unconjugated bile acids: perfusion studies in man. Dig Dis Sci. 1979 Jul; 24(7):545-50. PMID: 456241.
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    257. Tangedahl TN, Thistle JL, Hofmann AF, Matseshe JW. Effect of beta-sitosterol alone or in combination with chenic acid on cholesterol saturation of bile and cholesterol absorption in gallstone patients. Gastroenterology. 1979 Jun; 76(6):1341-6. PMID: 437431.
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    258. Tangedahl TN, Hofmann AF, Kottke BA. Biliary lipid secretion in hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res. 1979 Jan; 20(1):125-33. PMID: 438650.
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    259. Kwan KH, Higuchi WI, Hofmann AF. Dissolution kinetics of cholesterol in simulated bile II: influence of simulated bile composition. J Pharm Sci. 1978 Dec; 67(12):1711-4. PMID: 722485.
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    260. Schalm SW, LaRusso NF, Hofmann AF, Hoffman NE, van Berge-Henegouwen GP, Korman MG. Diurnal serum levels of primary conjugated bile acids. Assessment by specific radioimmunoassays for conjugates of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid. Gut. 1978 Nov; 19(11):1006-14. PMID: 569619.
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    261. van Berge Henegouwen GP, Hofmann AF. Nocturnal gallbladder storage and emptying in gallstone patients and healthy subjects. Gastroenterology. 1978 Nov; 75(5):879-85. PMID: 700331.
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    262. LaRusso NF, Hoffman NE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Cowen AE. Determinants of fasting and postprandial serum bile acid levels in healthy man. Am J Dig Dis. 1978 May; 23(5):385-91. PMID: 677089.
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    263. Schwenk M, Hofmann AF, Carlson GL, Carter JA, Coulston F, Greim H. Bile acid conjugation in the chimpanzee: effective sulfation of lithocholic acid. Arch Toxicol. 1978 Apr 27; 40(2):109-18. PMID: 580732.
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    264. Hofmann AF, Thistle JL, Klein PD, Szczepanik PA, Yu PY. Chenotherapy for gallstone dissolution. II. Induced changes in bile composition and gallstone response. JAMA. 1978 Mar 20; 239(12):1138-44. PMID: 628065.
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    265. van Berge Henegouwen GP, Hofmann AF. Clinical aspects of disturbances in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man: the cholanopathies. Neth J Med. 1978; 21(6):257-69. PMID: 366443.
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    266. Carlson GL, Belobaba DT, Hofmann AF, Wedmid Y. 24-Nor-5beta-chol-22-enes derived from the major bile acids by oxidative decarboxylation. Steroids. 1977 Dec; 30(6):787-93. PMID: 611641.
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    267. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Turcotte J, Carter JA. Radioimmunoassay of unsulfated lithocholates. J Lipid Res. 1977 Nov; 18(6):692-7. PMID: 925514.
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    268. Ng PY, Allan RN, Hofmann AF. Suitability of [11, 12-3H2]chenodeoxycholic acid and [11, 12-3H2]lithocholic acid for isotope dilution studies of bile acid metabolism in man. J Lipid Res. 1977 Nov; 18(6):753-8. PMID: 925519.
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    269. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Turcotte J, Carter JA. Radioimmunoassay of sulfated lithocholates. J Lipid Res. 1977 Nov; 18(6):698-703. PMID: 925515.
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    270. Hofmann AF. [Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and biliary lipid secretion]. Minerva Med. 1977 Sep 19; 68(43):3011-7. PMID: 409965.
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    271. Clain JE, Malagelada JR, Chadwick VS, Hofmann AF. Binding properties in vitro of antacids for conjugated bile acids. Gastroenterology. 1977 Sep; 73(3):556-9. PMID: 19335.
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    272. Schalm SW, van Berge-Henegouwen GP, Hofmann AF, Cowen AE, Turcotte J. Radioimmunoassay of bile acids: development, validation, and preliminary application of an assay for conjugates of chenodeoxycholic acid. Gastroenterology. 1977 Aug; 73(2):285-90. PMID: 873130.
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    273. van Berge Henegouwen GP, Tangedahl TN, Hofmann AF, Northfield TC, LaRusso NF, McCall JT. Biliary secretion of copper in healthy man. Quantitation by an intestinal perfusion technique. Gastroenterology. 1977 Jun; 72(6):1228-31. PMID: 870371.
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    274. Hofmann AF. Desaturation of bile and cholesterol gallstone dissolution with chenodeoxycholic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977 Jun; 30(6):993-1000. PMID: 326024.
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    275. Thistle JL, Hofmann AF, Yu PY, Ott B. Effect of varying doses of chenodeoxycholic acid on bile lipid and biliary bile acid composition in gallstone patients: a dose-response study. Am J Dig Dis. 1977 Jan; 22(1):1-6. PMID: 835542.
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    276. Hoffman NE, Donald DE, Hofmann AF. Increased bile acid synthesis after interruption of the enterohepatic circulation: evidence against hormonal medication. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1977 Jan; 154(1):49-52. PMID: 840846.
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    277. Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man. Clin Gastroenterol. 1977 Jan; 6(1):3-24. PMID: 330051.
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    278. LaRusso NF, Szczepanik PA, Hofmann AF. Effect of deoxycholic acid ingestion on bile acid metabolism and biliary lipid secretion in normal subjects. Gastroenterology. 1977 Jan; 72(1):132-40. PMID: 318580.
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    279. Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of conjugated bile acids in healthy man: quantitative description and functions. Expos Annu Biochim Med. 1977; 33:69-86. PMID: 330215.
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    280. Hoffman NE, Hofmann AF. Metabolism of steroid and amino acid moieties of conjugated bile acids in man. V. Equations for the perturbed enterohepatic circulation and their application. Gastroenterology. 1977 Jan; 72(1):141-8. PMID: 830227.
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    281. van Berge-Henegouwen GP, Allan RN, Hofmann AF, Yu PY. A facile hydrolysis-solvolysis procedure for conjugated bile acid sulfates. J Lipid Res. 1977 Jan; 18(1):118-22. PMID: 833503.
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    282. Hofmann AF. [Enterohepatic metabolism of bile acids]. Med Chir Dig. 1977; 6(1):1-5. PMID: 865156.
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    283. Poley JR, Hofmann AF. Role of fat maldigestion in pathogenesis of steatorrhea in ileal resection. Fat digestion after two sequential test meals with and without cholestyramine. Gastroenterology. 1976 Jul; 71(1):38-44. PMID: 6360.
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    284. Allan RN, Thistle JL, Hofmann AF. Lithocholate metabolism during chemotherapy for gallstone dissolution. 2. Absorption and sulphation. Gut. 1976 Jun; 17(6):413-9. PMID: 955496.
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    285. Allan RN, Thistle JL, Hofmann AF, Carter JA, Yu PY. Lithocholate metabolism during chenotherapy for gallstone dissolution. 1. Serum levels of sulphated and unsulphated lithocholates. Gut. 1976 Jun; 17(6):405-12. PMID: 955495.
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    286. Cowen AE, Hofmann AF, Hachey DL, Thomas PJ, Belobaba DT, Klein PD, Tökes L. Synthesis of 11, 12-2H2- and 11, 12-3H2-labeled chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids. J Lipid Res. 1976 May; 17(3):231-8. PMID: 932557.
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    287. Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man. Wis Med J. 1976 May; 75(5):35-40. PMID: 936637.
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    288. Allan R, Hofmann AF. Proceedings: Lithocholate kinetics in patients ingesting chenodeoxycholic (chenic) acid for gall stone dissolution. Gut. 1976 May; 17(5):394. PMID: 1278751.
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    289. Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man. Adv Intern Med. 1976; 21:501-34. PMID: 766594.
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    290. LaRusso NF, Hoffman NE, Hofmann AF, Northfield TC, Thistle JL. Effect of primary bile acid ingestion on bile acid metabolism and biliary lipid secretion in gallstone patients. Gastroenterology. 1975 Dec; 69(6):1301-14. PMID: 1193329.
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    291. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Cass OW, Coffin SB. Metabolism of lithocholate in healthy man. II. Enterohepatic circulation. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jul; 69(1):67-76. PMID: 1097294.
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    292. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Thomas PJ. Metabolism of lithocholate in healthy man. III. Plasma disappearance of radioactivity after intravenous injection of labeled lithocholate and its derivatives. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jul; 69(1):77-82. PMID: 1150037.
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    293. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Cass OW. Metabolism of lethocholate in healthy man. I. Biotransformation and biliary excretion of intravenously administered lithocholate, lithocholylglycine, and their sulfates. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jul; 69(1):59-66. PMID: 1150035.
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    294. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Thomas PJ. Plasma disappearance of radioactivity after intravenous injection of labeled bile acids in man. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jun; 68(6):1567-73. PMID: 1132636.
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    295. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Goldstein NP. Biliary bile acid composition in Wilson's disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 1975 May; 50(5):229-33. PMID: 1127989.
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    296. Webster KH, Lancaster MC, Hofmann AF, Wease DF, Baggenstoss AH. Influence of primary bile acid feeding on cholesterol metabolism and hepatic function in the rhesus monkey. Mayo Clin Proc. 1975 Mar; 50(3):134-8. PMID: 1117759.
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    297. Cass OW, Cowen AE, Hofmann AF, Coffin SB. Thin-layer chromatographic separation of sulfated and nonsulfated lithocholic acids and their glycine and taurine conjugates. J Lipid Res. 1975 Mar; 16(2):159-60. PMID: 1127355.
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    298. Northfield TC, LaRusso NF, Hofmann AF, Thistle JL. Biliary lipid output during three meals and an overnight fast. II. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid treatment in gallstone subjects. Gut. 1975 Jan; 16(1):12-7. PMID: 1140620.
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    299. Fromm H, Hofmann AF. The importance of bile acids in human diseases. Ergeb Inn Med Kinderheilkd. 1975; 37:143-92. PMID: 1098911.
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    300. Northfield TC, Hofmann AF. Biliary lipid output during three meals and an overnight fast. I. Relationship to bile acid pool size and cholesterol saturation of bile in gallstone and control subjects. Gut. 1975 Jan; 16(1):1-11. PMID: 806491.
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    301. LaRusso NF, Korman MG, Hoffman NE, Hofmann AF. Dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Postprandial serum concentrations of conjugates of cholic acid in health, cholecystectomized patients, and patients with bile acid malabsorption. N Engl J Med. 1974 Oct 03; 291(14):689-92. PMID: 4851463.
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    302. Hofmann AF, Hoffman N. Measurement of bile and acid kinetics by isotope dilution in man. Gastroenterology. 1974 Aug; 67(2):314-23. PMID: 4603252.
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    303. Smith LH, Hofmann AF. Acquired hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and intestinal disease: a new digestive disorder? Gastroenterology. 1974 Jun; 66(6):1257-61. PMID: 4829127.
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    304. Hepner GW, Hofmann AF, Malagelada JR, Szczepanik PA, Klein PD. Increased bacterial degradation of bile acids in cholecystectomized patients. Gastroenterology. 1974 Apr; 66(4):556-64. PMID: 4821078.
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    305. Willson RA, Hofmann AF, Kuster GG. Toward an artificial liver. II. Removal of cholephilic anions from dogs with biliary obstruction, by hemoperfusion through charged and uncharged resins. Gastroenterology. 1974 Jan; 66(1):95-107. PMID: 4809506.
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    306. Danzinger RC, Hofmann AF, Thistle JL, Schoenfield LJ. Effect of oral chenodeoxycholic acid on bile acid kinetics and biliary lipid composition in women with cholelithiasis. J Clin Invest. 1973 Nov; 52(11):2809-21. PMID: 4583981.
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    307. Simmonds WJ, Korman MG, Go VL, Hofmann AF. Radioimmunoassay of conjugated cholyl bile acids in serum. Gastroenterology. 1973 Nov; 65(5):705-11. PMID: 4796644.
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    308. Thomas PJ, Hofmann AF. Letter: A simple calculation of the lithogenic index of bile: expressing biliary lipid composition on rectangular coordinates. Gastroenterology. 1973 Oct; 65(4):698-700. PMID: 4746773.
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    309. Northfield TC, Larusso NF, Thistle JL, Hofmann AF. Proceedings: Mechanism of action of chenodeoxycholic acid in gallstone dissolution. Gut. 1973 Oct; 14(10):826-7. PMID: 4758693.
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    310. Fromm H, Thomas PJ, Hofmann AF. Sensitivity and specificity in tests of distal ileal function: prospective comparison of bile acid and vitamin B 12 absorption in ileal resection patients. Gastroenterology. 1973 Jun; 64(6):1077-90. PMID: 4706126.
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    311. Northfield TC, Hofmann AF. Biliary lipid secretion in health and in cholelithiasis. Gut. 1973 May; 14(5):418-9. PMID: 4716512.
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    312. Wingate DL, Phillips SF, Hofmann AF. Effect of glycine-conjugated bile acids with and without lecithin on water and glucose absorption in perfused human jejunum. J Clin Invest. 1973 May; 52(5):1230-6. PMID: 4700493.
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    313. Hepner GW, Sturman JA, Hofmann AF, Thomas PJ. Metabolism of steroid and amino acid moieties of conjugated bile acids in man. 3. Cholyltaurine (taurocholic acid). J Clin Invest. 1973 Feb; 52(2):433-40. PMID: 4683882.
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    314. Hepner GW, Hofmann AF. Different effects of free and conjugated bile acids and their keto derivatives on (Na + ,K + )-stimulated and Mg 2 +ATPase of rat intestinal mucosa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Jan 02; 291(1):237-45. PMID: 4265271.
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    315. Hofmann AF. Bile acid malabsorption caused by ileal resection. Arch Intern Med. 1972 Oct; 130(4):597-605. PMID: 4564853.
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    316. Hepner GW, Hofmann AF, Thomas PJ. Metabolism of steroid and amino acid moieties of conjugated bile acids in man. II. Glycine-conjugated dihydroxy bile acids. J Clin Invest. 1972 Jul; 51(7):1898-905. PMID: 5032530.
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    317. Hepner GW, Hofmann AF, Thomas PJ. Metabolism of steroid and amino acid moieties of conjugated bile acids in man. I. Cholylglycine. J Clin Invest. 1972 Jul; 51(7):1889-97. PMID: 5032529.
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    318. Hofmann AF, Poley JR. Role of bile acid malabsorption in pathogenesis of diarrhea and steatorrhea in patients with ileal resection. I. Response to cholestyramine or replacement of dietary long chain triglyceride by medium chain triglyceride. Gastroenterology. 1972 May; 62(5):918-34. PMID: 5029077.
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    319. Hofmann AF, Kern F. The significance of bile acids in gastrointestinal and hepatic disease. Dis Mon. 1971 Nov; 3-38. PMID: 4942747.
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    320. Fromm H, Hofmann AF. Breath test for altered bile-acid metabolism. Lancet. 1971 Sep 18; 2(7725):621-5. PMID: 4105944.
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    321. Mekjian HS, Phillips SF, Hofmann AF. Colonic secretion of water and electrolytes induced by bile acids: perfusion studies in man. J Clin Invest. 1971 Aug; 50(8):1569-77. PMID: 4938344.
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    322. Rhodes J, Barnardo DE, Phillips SF, Rovelstad RA, Hofmann AF. Increased reflux of bile into the stomach in patients with gastric ulcer. Gastroenterology. 1969 Sep; 57(3):241-52. PMID: 5808483.
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    323. Hofmann AF, Bokkenheuser V, Hirsch RL, Mosbach EH. Experimental cholelithiasis in the rabbit induced by cholestanol feeding: effect of neomycin treatment on bile composition and gallstone formation. J Lipid Res. 1968 Mar; 9(2):244-53. PMID: 5640504.
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    324. Hofmann AF. The syndrome of ileal disease and the broken enterohepatic circulation: cholerheic enteropathy. Gastroenterology. 1967 Apr; 52(4):752-7. PMID: 5337211.
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    325. HOFMANN AF, MOSBACH EH. IDENTIFICATION OF ALLODEOXYCHOLIC ACID AS THE MAJOR COMPONENT OF GALLSTONES INDUCED IN THE RABBIT BY 5-ALPHA-CHOLESTAN-3-BETA-OL. J Biol Chem. 1964 Sep; 239:2813-21. PMID: 14216431.
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