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Alan Hofmann

TitleEmeritus Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentMedicine
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0063
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-822-3811
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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    DEFECTIVE BILE ACID SYNTHESIS IN CHILDHOOD CONSTIPATION
    NIH/NIDDK R03DK064891Aug 15, 2004 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MODELING OF THE ENTEROHEPATHIC CIRCULATION OF BILE ACIDS
    NIH/FIC F06TW001036Aug 22, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BILE ACID METABOLISM IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK021506Apr 1, 1978 - Oct 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BILE ACID METABOLISM IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    NIH/NIADDK R01AM021506Apr 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator
    GASTROENTEROLOGY TRAINING GRANT
    NIH/NIDDK T32DK007202Jul 1, 1976 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Hegyi P, Maléth J, Walters JR, Hofmann AF, Keely SJ. Guts and Gall: Bile Acids in Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Function in Health and Disease. Physiol Rev. 2018 Oct 01; 98(4):1983-2023. PMID: 30067158.
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    2. Ghallab A, Hofmann U, Sezgin S, Vartak N, Hassan R, Zaza A, Godoy P, Schneider KM, Guenther G, Ahmed YA, Abbas AA, Keitel V, Kuepfer L, Dooley S, Lammert F, Trautwein C, Spiteller M, Drasdo D, Hofmann AF, Jansen PLM, Hengstler JG, Reif R. Bile micro-infarcts in cholestasis are initiated by rupture of the apical hepatocyte membrane and cause shunting of bile to sinusoidal blood. Hepatology. 2018 Aug 13. PMID: 30102412.
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    3. Dupas JL, Ho NFH, Hofmann AF. Absorption of Unconjugated Bile Acids from the Perfused Jejunum of the Anesthetized Rat: Structure-Activity Relationships and Rate-Limiting Steps. Lipids. 2018 Aug 02. PMID: 30071138.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Hofmann AF, Herdt T, Ames NK, Chen Z, Hagey LR. Bile Acids and the Microbiome in the Cow: Lack of Deoxycholic Acid Hydroxylation. Lipids. 2018 Mar; 53(3):269-270. PMID: 29668048.
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    5. Hofmann AF, Marschall HU. Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Humans: Suggestions for Presentation in Tabular Form. Hepatology. 2018 Mar 31. PMID: 29604219.
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    6. Namegawa K, Iida K, Omura K, Ogawa S, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical Synthesis of Rare Natural Bile Acids: 11a-Hydroxy Derivatives of Lithocholic and Chenodeoxycholic Acids. Lipids. 2018 Mar 09. PMID: 29520792.
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    7. Hofmann AF. Bile Acid Replacement in Bile Acid Synthesis Defects. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Dec; 65(6):e134. PMID: 28800025.
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    8. Hofmann AF. Two Inborn Errors of Bile Acid Biosynthesis: The Need for Recognition and Treatment by Primary Bile Acid Replacement. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Jun; 64(6):849-850. PMID: 28333767.
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    9. Fordtran JS, Hofmann AF. Seventy Years of Polyethylene Glycols in Gastroenterology: The Journey of PEG 4000 and 3350 From Nonabsorbable Marker to Colonoscopy Preparation to Osmotic Laxative. Gastroenterology. 2017 03; 152(4):675-680. PMID: 28147222.
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    10. Iida T, Namegawa K, Nakane N, Iida K, Hofmann AF, Omura K. Chemical Synthesis of Uncommon Natural Bile Acids: The 9a-Hydroxy Derivatives of Chenodeoxycholic and Lithocholic Acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2016 Sep 01; 64(9):1397-402. PMID: 27319285.
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    11. Hofmann AF. Let the Bile Flow! 1.0. Hepatology. 2016 10; 64(4):1387-8. PMID: 27178666.
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    12. Satoh R, Ogata H, Saito T, Zhou B, Omura K, Kurabuchi S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Two Major Bile Acids in the Hornbills, (24R,25S)-3a,7a,24-Trihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oyl Taurine and Its 12a-Hydroxy Derivative. Lipids. 2016 06; 51(6):757-68. PMID: 27108034.
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    13. Sørensen M, Munk OL, Ørntoft NW, Frisch K, Andersen KJ, Mortensen FV, Alstrup AK, Ott P, Hofmann AF, Keiding S. Hepatobiliary Secretion Kinetics of Conjugated Bile Acids Measured in Pigs by 11C-Cholylsarcosine PET. J Nucl Med. 2016 06; 57(6):961-6. PMID: 26966160.
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    14. Sato née Okihara R, Saito T, Ogata H, Nakane N, Namegawa K, Sekiguchi S, Omura K, Kurabuchi S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Raines J, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Novel, major 2a- and 2ß-hydroxy bile alcohols and bile acids in the bile of Arapaima gigas, a large South American river fish. Steroids. 2016 Mar; 107:112-20. PMID: 26768415.
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    15. Maekawa M, Shimada M, Ohno K, Togawa M, Nittono H, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Goto J, Yamaguchi H, Mano N. Focused metabolomics using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolites from patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Ann Clin Biochem. 2015 Sep; 52(Pt 5):576-87. PMID: 25575700.
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    16. Spriggs M, Thompson KA, Barton D, Talley J, Volle K, Stasiak I, Beyea L, Guthrie A, Roda A, Camborata C, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Gastrolithiasis in prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou prehensilis): nine cases and pathogenesis of stone formation. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec; 45(4):883-91. PMID: 25632677.
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    17. Omura K, Ohsaki A, Zhou B, Kushida M, Mitsuma T, Kobayashi A, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Improved chemical synthesis, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and NMR characterization of (22R)-/(22S)-hydroxy epimers of bile acids. Lipids. 2014 Nov; 49(11):1169-80. PMID: 25319478.
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    18. Iwaisako K, Jiang C, Zhang M, Cong M, Moore-Morris TJ, Park TJ, Liu X, Xu J, Wang P, Paik YH, Meng F, Asagiri M, Murray LA, Hofmann AF, Iida T, Glass CK, Brenner DA, Kisseleva T. Origin of myofibroblasts in the fibrotic liver in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 12; 111(32):E3297-305. PMID: 25074909; PMCID: PMC4136601.
    19. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades. J Lipid Res. 2014 Aug; 55(8):1553-95. PMID: 24838141; PMCID: PMC4109754.
    20. Kakiyama G, Muto A, Takei H, Nittono H, Murai T, Kurosawa T, Hofmann AF, Pandak WM, Bajaj JS. A simple and accurate HPLC method for fecal bile acid profile in healthy and cirrhotic subjects: validation by GC-MS and LC-MS. J Lipid Res. 2014 May; 55(5):978-90. PMID: 24627129; PMCID: PMC3995475.
    21. Wang L, Hartmann P, Haimerl M, Bathena SP, Sjöwall C, Almer S, Alnouti Y, Hofmann AF, Schnabl B. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids. J Hepatol. 2014 Jun; 60(6):1259-67. PMID: 24560660; PMCID: PMC4028388.
    22. Duboc H, Taché Y, Hofmann AF. The bile acid TGR5 membrane receptor: from basic research to clinical application. Dig Liver Dis. 2014 Apr; 46(4):302-12. PMID: 24411485.
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    23. Satoh Née Okihara R, Saito T, Ogata H, Ohsaki A, Iida T, Asahina K, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. N-Methyltaurine N-acyl amidated bile acids and deoxycholic acid in the bile of angelfish (Pomacanthidae): a novel bile acid profile in Perciform fish. Steroids. 2014 Feb; 80:15-23. PMID: 24291417.
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    24. Wang R, Liu L, Sheps JA, Forrest D, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Ling V. Defective canalicular transport and toxicity of dietary ursodeoxycholic acid in the abcb11-/- mouse: transport and gene expression studies. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013 Aug 15; 305(4):G286-94. PMID: 23764895.
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    25. Maekawa M, Misawa Y, Sotoura A, Yamaguchi H, Togawa M, Ohno K, Nittono H, Kakiyama G, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Goto J, Shimada M, Mano N. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of urinary 3ß-sulfooxy-7ß-N-acetylglucosaminyl-5-cholen-24-oic acid and its amides: new biomarkers for the detection of Niemann-Pick type C disease. Steroids. 2013 Oct; 78(10):967-72. PMID: 23751200.
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    26. Ogawa S, Zhou B, Kimoto Y, Omura K, Kobayashi A, Higashi T, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. An efficient synthesis of 7a,12a-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and its biological precursor 7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one: Key intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis. Steroids. 2013 Sep; 78(9):927-37. PMID: 23707572.
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    27. Kelly OB, Mroz MS, Ward JB, Colliva C, Scharl M, Pellicciari R, Gilmer JF, Fallon PG, Hofmann AF, Roda A, Murray FE, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function. J Physiol. 2013 May 01; 591(9):2307-18. PMID: 23507881; PMCID: PMC3650696.
    28. Setchell KD, Heubi JE, Shah S, Lavine JE, Suskind D, Al-Edreesi M, Potter C, Russell DW, O'Connell NC, Wolfe B, Jha P, Zhang W, Bove KE, Knisely AS, Hofmann AF, Rosenthal P, Bull LN. Genetic defects in bile acid conjugation cause fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. Gastroenterology. 2013 May; 144(5):945-955.e6; quiz e14-5. PMID: 23415802.
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    29. Hagey LR, Ogawa S, Kato N, Satoh née Okihara R, Une M, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Iida T. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3a,7a,12a,24-tetrahydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster. Steroids. 2012 Nov; 77(13):1510-21. PMID: 22986074.
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    30. Mitamura K, Mabuchi T, Nagae K, Nakajima M, Matsumoto R, Fujioka S, Sato K, Satoh née Okihara R, Iida T, Ogawa S, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of multiply deuterated 3- and 21-monosulfates of allo-tetrahydrocorticosteroids as internal standards for mass spectrometry. Steroids. 2012 Nov; 77(13):1423-37. PMID: 22960650.
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    31. Muto A, Takei H, Unno A, Murai T, Kurosawa T, Ogawa S, Iida T, Ikegawa S, Mori J, Ohtake A, Hoshina T, Mizuochi T, Kimura A, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Nittono H. Detection of ?4-3-oxo-steroid 5ß-reductase deficiency by LC-ESI-MS/MS measurement of urinary bile acids. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012 Jul 01; 900:24-31. PMID: 22695323.
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    32. Frisch K, Jakobsen S, Sørensen M, Munk OL, Alstrup AK, Ott P, Hofmann AF, Keiding S. [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine, a novel bile acid tracer for PET/CT of hepatic excretory function: radiosynthesis and proof-of-concept studies in pigs. J Nucl Med. 2012 May; 53(5):772-8. PMID: 22454486; PMCID: PMC3390910.
    33. Mitamura K, Hori N, Mino S, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of the 3-sulfates of S-acyl glutathione conjugated bile acids and their biotransformation by a rat liver cytosolic fraction. Chem Phys Lipids. 2012 Apr; 165(3):261-9. PMID: 22343050.
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    34. Mitamura K, Hori N, Iida T, Suzuki M, Shimizu T, Nittono H, Takaori K, Takikawa H, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Identification of S-acyl glutathione conjugates of bile acids in human bile by means of LC/ESI-MS. Steroids. 2011 Dec 20; 76(14):1609-14. PMID: 22019844.
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    35. Hofmann AF. Herbert Falk: a vital force in the renaissance of bile acid research and bile acid therapy. Dig Dis. 2011; 29(1):23-36. PMID: 21691101.
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    36. Hagey LR, Iida T, Ogawa S, Adachi Y, Une M, Mushiake K, Maekawa M, Shimada M, Mano N, Hofmann AF. Biliary bile acids in birds of the Cotingidae family: taurine-conjugated (24R,25R)-3a,7a,24-trihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid and two epimers (25R and 25S) of 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid. Steroids. 2011 Sep-Oct; 76(10-11):1126-35. PMID: 21600907.
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    37. Ogawa S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Krasowski MD, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical synthesis of the (25R)- and (25S)-epimers of 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5a-cholestan-27-oic acid as well as their corresponding glycine and taurine conjugates. Chem Phys Lipids. 2011 Jul; 164(5):368-77. PMID: 21554864.
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    38. Mitamura K, Aoyama E, Sakai T, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Characterization of non-enzymatic acylation of amino or thiol groups of bionucleophiles by the acyl-adenylate or acyl-CoA thioester of cholic acid. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Jun; 400(7):2253-9. PMID: 21491109.
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    39. Mitamura K, Sakai T, Nakai R, Wakamiya T, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of the 3-sulfates of N-acetylcysteine conjugated bile acids (BA-NACs) and their transient formation from BA-NACs and subsequent hydrolysis by a rat liver cytosolic fraction as shown by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Jun; 400(7):2061-72. PMID: 21455648.
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    40. Hofmann AF. Bile acid sequestrants improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a proposed mechanism implicating glucagon-like peptide 1 release. Hepatology. 2011 May; 53(5):1784. PMID: 21520190.
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    41. Denk GU, Maitz S, Wimmer R, Rust C, Invernizzi P, Ferdinandusse S, Kulik W, Fuchsbichler A, Fickert P, Trauner M, Hofmann AF, Beuers U. Conjugation is essential for the anticholestatic effect of NorUrsodeoxycholic acid in taurolithocholic acid-induced cholestasis in rat liver. Hepatology. 2010 Nov; 52(5):1758-68. PMID: 21038414.
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    42. Hagey LR, Vidal N, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. COMPLEX EVOLUTION OF BILE SALTS IN BIRDS. Auk. 2010 Oct; 127(4):820-831. PMID: 21113274.
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    43. Mitamura K, Hori N, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Identification of bile acid S-acyl glutathione conjugates in rat bile by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Steroids. 2011 Jan; 76(1-2):68-77. PMID: 20837038.
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    44. Megaraj V, Iida T, Jungsuwadee P, Hofmann AF, Vore M. Hepatobiliary disposition of 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-cholanoyl taurine: a substrate for multiple canalicular transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Oct; 38(10):1723-30. PMID: 20643783; PMCID: PMC2957170.
    45. Hagey LR, Lida T, Tamegai H, Ogawa S, Une M, Asahina K, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Krasowski MD, Hofmann AF. Major biliary bile acids of the medaka (Oryzias latipes): 25R- and 25S-epimers of 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid. Zoolog Sci. 2010 Jul; 27(7):565-73. PMID: 20608845; PMCID: PMC2901895.
    46. Hagey LR, Vidal N, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites. BMC Evol Biol. 2010 May 06; 10:133. PMID: 20444292; PMCID: PMC2886068.
    47. Hagey LR, Møller PR, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Diversity of bile salts in fish and amphibians: evolution of a complex biochemical pathway. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2010 Mar-Apr; 83(2):308-21. PMID: 20113173; PMCID: PMC2845723.
    48. Hofmann AF. Chronic diarrhea caused by idiopathic bile acid malabsorption: an explanation at last. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Oct; 3(5):461-4. PMID: 19817666.
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    49. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Krasowski MD. Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary significance. J Lipid Res. 2010 Feb; 51(2):226-46. PMID: 19638645; PMCID: PMC2803226.
    50. Keating N, Mroz MS, Scharl MM, Marsh C, Ferguson G, Hofmann AF, Keely SJ. Physiological concentrations of bile acids down-regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2009 Aug; 13(8B):2293-303. PMID: 19583809; PMCID: PMC4940785.
    51. Halilbasic E, Fiorotto R, Fickert P, Marschall HU, Moustafa T, Spirli C, Fuchsbichler A, Gumhold J, Silbert D, Zatloukal K, Langner C, Maitra U, Denk H, Hofmann AF, Strazzabosco M, Trauner M. Side chain structure determines unique physiologic and therapeutic properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in Mdr2-/- mice. Hepatology. 2009 Jun; 49(6):1972-81. PMID: 19475687; PMCID: PMC3569724.
    52. Hofmann AF. Bile acids: trying to understand their chemistry and biology with the hope of helping patients. Hepatology. 2009 May; 49(5):1403-18. PMID: 19296471.
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    53. Kakiyama G, Muto A, Shimada M, Mano N, Goto J, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical synthesis of 3beta-sulfooxy-7beta-hydroxy-24-nor-5-cholenoic acid: an internal standard for mass spectrometric analysis of the abnormal delta5-bile acids occurring in Niemann-Pick disease. Steroids. 2009 Sep; 74(9):766-72. PMID: 19394355.
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    54. Ikegawa S, Ito H, Ohshima M, Maeda M, Hofmann AF, Mitamura K. Chemical synthesis of bile acid acyl-adenylates and formation by a rat liver microsomal fraction. Steroids. 2009 Sep; 74(9):751-7. PMID: 19376146.
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    55. Mitamura K, Watanabe S, Sakai T, Okihara R, Sogabe M, Wakamiya T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Chemical synthesis of N-acetylcysteine conjugates of bile acids and in vivo formation in cholestatic rats as shown by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 Sep 01; 877(25):2630-8. PMID: 19346170.
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    56. Money ME, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Walkowiak J, Talley NJ. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea with pancrealipase or colesevelam and association with steatorrhea. Pancreas. 2009 Mar; 38(2):232-3. PMID: 19238028.
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    57. Hofmann AF. In memoriam: Dr. Herbert Falk (1924-2008). Hepatology. 2009 Jan; 49(1):1-3. PMID: 19108004.
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    58. Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in mammals: form and functions. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009 Jan 01; 14:2584-98. PMID: 19273221.
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    59. Hagey LR, Kakiyama G, Muto A, Iida T, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Oliveira CA, Hofmann AF. A new, major C27 biliary bile acid in the red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens):25R-1beta, 3alpha,7alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid. J Lipid Res. 2009 Apr; 50(4):651-7. PMID: 19011113; PMCID: PMC2656658.
    60. Hofmann AF, Loening-Baucke V, Lavine JE, Hagey LR, Steinbach JH, Packard CA, Griffin TL, Chatfield DA. Altered bile acid metabolism in childhood functional constipation: inactivation of secretory bile acids by sulfation in a subset of patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Nov; 47(5):598-606. PMID: 18955863.
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    61. Ogawa S, Kakiyama G, Muto A, Hosoda A, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Iida T. A facile synthesis of C-24 and C-25 oxysterols by in situ generated ethyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane. Steroids. 2009 Jan; 74(1):81-7. PMID: 18996406.
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    62. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Bile acids: chemistry, pathochemistry, biology, pathobiology, and therapeutics. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Aug; 65(16):2461-83. PMID: 18488143.
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    63. Monte MJ, Rosales R, Macias RI, Iannota V, Martinez-Fernandez A, Romero MR, Hofmann AF, Marin JJ. Cytosol-nucleus traffic and colocalization with FXR of conjugated bile acids in rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Jul; 295(1):G54-G62. PMID: 18467501.
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    64. Reschly EJ, Ai N, Ekins S, Welsh WJ, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates. J Lipid Res. 2008 Jul; 49(7):1577-87. PMID: 18362391; PMCID: PMC2431107.
    65. Sato H, Macchiarulo A, Thomas C, Gioiello A, Une M, Hofmann AF, Saladin R, Schoonjans K, Pellicciari R, Auwerx J. Novel potent and selective bile acid derivatives as TGR5 agonists: biological screening, structure-activity relationships, and molecular modeling studies. J Med Chem. 2008 Mar 27; 51(6):1831-41. PMID: 18307294.
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    66. Ikegawa S, Yamamoto T, Miyashita T, Okihara R, Ishiwata S, Sakai T, Chong RH, Maeda M, Hofmann AF, Mitamura K. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to capture proteins tagged with lithocholic acid. Anal Sci. 2008; 24(11):1475-80. PMID: 18997378.
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    67. Kakiyama G, Tamegai H, Iida T, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Holz P, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Isolation and chemical synthesis of a major, novel biliary bile acid in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus): 15alpha-hydroxylithocholic acid. J Lipid Res. 2007 Dec; 48(12):2682-92. PMID: 17785716.
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    68. Gass J, Vora H, Hofmann AF, Gray GM, Khosla C. Enhancement of dietary protein digestion by conjugated bile acids. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jul; 133(1):16-23. PMID: 17631126.
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    69. Hamilton JP, Xie G, Raufman JP, Hogan S, Griffin TL, Packard CA, Chatfield DA, Hagey LR, Steinbach JH, Hofmann AF. Human cecal bile acids: concentration and spectrum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jul; 293(1):G256-63. PMID: 17412828.
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    70. Hofmann AF. Why bile acid glucuronidation is a minor pathway for conjugation of endogenous bile acids in man. Hepatology. 2007 Apr; 45(4):1083-4; author reply 1084-5. PMID: 17393523.
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    71. Iida T, Ogawa S, Hosoi K, Makino M, Fujimoto Y, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Hofmann AF. Regioselective oxyfunctionalization of unactivated carbons in steroids by a model of cytochrome P-450: osmiumporphyrin complex/tert-butyl hydroperoxide system. J Org Chem. 2007 Feb 02; 72(3):823-30. PMID: 17253801.
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    72. Hofmann AF. Biliary secretion and excretion in health and disease: current concepts. Ann Hepatol. 2007 Jan-Mar; 6(1):15-27. PMID: 17297425.
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    73. Keely SJ, Scharl MM, Bertelsen LS, Hagey LR, Barrett KE, Hofmann AF. Bile acid-induced secretion in polarized monolayers of T84 colonic epithelial cells: Structure-activity relationships. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jan; 292(1):G290-7. PMID: 16901996.
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    74. Paulusma CC, Groen A, Kunne C, Ho-Mok KS, Spijkerboer AL, Rudi de Waart D, Hoek FJ, Vreeling H, Hoeben KA, van Marle J, Pawlikowska L, Bull LN, Hofmann AF, Knisely AS, Oude Elferink RP. Atp8b1 deficiency in mice reduces resistance of the canalicular membrane to hydrophobic bile salts and impairs bile salt transport. Hepatology. 2006 Jul; 44(1):195-204. PMID: 16799980.
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    75. Sehayek E, Hagey LR, Fung YY, Duncan EM, Yu HJ, Eggertsen G, Björkhem I, Hofmann AF, Breslow JL. Two loci on chromosome 9 control bile acid composition: evidence that a strong candidate gene, Cyp8b1, is not the culprit. J Lipid Res. 2006 Sep; 47(9):2020-7. PMID: 16763287.
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    76. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Hayashi H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Inhibition of bile acid transport across Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1) and bile salt export pump (ABCB 11)-coexpressing LLC-PK1 cells by cholestasis-inducing drugs. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep; 34(9):1575-81. PMID: 16760228.
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    77. Hofmann AF, Huet PM. Nasobiliary drainage for cholestatic pruritus. Hepatology. 2006 May; 43(5):1170-1. PMID: 16628631.
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    78. Kakiyama G, Iida T, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. J Lipid Res. 2006 Jul; 47(7):1551-8. PMID: 16648547.
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    79. Hofmann AF, Eckmann L. How bile acids confer gut mucosal protection against bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 21; 103(12):4333-4. PMID: 16537368; PMCID: PMC1450168.
    80. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Hayashi H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Vectorial transport of unconjugated and conjugated bile salts by monolayers of LLC-PK1 cells doubly transfected with human NTCP and BSEP or with rat Ntcp and Bsep. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Mar; 290(3):G550-6. PMID: 16474011.
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    81. Fickert P, Wagner M, Marschall HU, Fuchsbichler A, Zollner G, Tsybrovskyy O, Zatloukal K, Liu J, Waalkes MP, Cover C, Denk H, Hofmann AF, Jaeschke H, Trauner M. 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid is superior to ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of sclerosing cholangitis in Mdr2 (Abcb4) knockout mice. Gastroenterology. 2006 Feb; 130(2):465-81. PMID: 16472600.
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    82. Hofmann AF, Zakko SF, Lira M, Clerici C, Hagey LR, Lambert KK, Steinbach JH, Schteingart CD, Olinga P, Groothuis GM. Novel biotransformation and physiological properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in humans. Hepatology. 2005 Dec; 42(6):1391-8. PMID: 16317695.
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    83. Hayashi H, Takada T, Suzuki H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Transport by vesicles of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile salts and taurolithocholate 3-sulfate: a comparison of human BSEP with rat Bsep. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 30; 1738(1-3):54-62. PMID: 16332456.
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    84. Rius M, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Hofmann AF, Keppler D. Substrate specificity of human ABCC4 (MRP4)-mediated cotransport of bile acids and reduced glutathione. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Apr; 290(4):G640-9. PMID: 16282361.
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    85. Combes B, Emerson SS, Flye NL, Munoz SJ, Luketic VA, Mayo MJ, McCashland TM, Zetterman RK, Peters MG, Di Bisceglie AM, Benner KG, Kowdley KV, Carithers RL, Rosoff L, Garcia-Tsao G, Boyer JL, Boyer TD, Martinez EJ, Bass NM, Lake JR, Barnes DS, Bonacini M, Lindsay KL, Mills AS, Markin RS, Rubin R, West AB, Wheeler DE, Contos MJ, Hofmann AF. Methotrexate (MTX) plus ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005 Nov; 42(5):1184-93. PMID: 16250039.
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    86. Iida T, Kakiyama G, Hibiya Y, Miyata S, Inoue T, Ohno K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hofmann AF. Chemical synthesis of the 3-sulfooxy-7-N-acetylglucosaminyl-24-amidated conjugates of 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid, and related compounds: unusual, major metabolites of bile acid in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type C1. Steroids. 2006 Jan; 71(1):18-29. PMID: 16197972.
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    87. Moschetta A, Xu F, Hagey LR, van Berge-Henegouwen GP, van Erpecum KJ, Brouwers JF, Cohen JC, Bierman M, Hobbs HH, Steinbach JH, Hofmann AF. A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates. J Lipid Res. 2005 Oct; 46(10):2221-32. PMID: 16061950.
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    88. Hofmann AF. Increased deoxycholic acid absorption and gall stones in acromegalic patients treated with octreotide: more evidence for a connection between slow transit constipation and gall stones. Gut. 2005 May; 54(5):575-8. PMID: 15831896; PMCID: PMC1774479.
    89. Hofmann AF. Helicobacter and cholesterol gallstones: do findings in the mouse apply to man? Gastroenterology. 2005 Apr; 128(4):1126-9. PMID: 15825095.
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    90. Hofmann AF. Detoxification of lithocholic acid, a toxic bile acid: relevance to drug hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 Oct; 36(3-4):703-22. PMID: 15554243.
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    91. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Vectorial transport of bile salts across MDCK cells expressing both rat Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and rat bile salt export pump. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Jan; 288(1):G159-67. PMID: 15297262.
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    92. Hofmann AF. Gallstone disease: physicochemical research sheds new light on an old disease and points the way to medical therapy. J Hepatol. 2004 Aug; 41(2):195-200. PMID: 15288466.
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    93. Hofmann AF. Douglas B. McGill, 1929-2004. Gastroenterology. 2004 Jun; 126(7):1890-2. PMID: 15188184.
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    94. Kakiyama G, Iida T, Yoshimoto A, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Chemical synthesis of (22E)-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta-trihydroxy-5 beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its taurine and glycine conjugates: a major bile acid in the rat. J Lipid Res. 2004 Mar; 45(3):567-73. PMID: 14657194.
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    95. Hofmann AF. Inappropriate ileal conservation of bile acids in cholestatic liver disease: homeostasis gone awry. Gut. 2003 Sep; 52(9):1239-41. PMID: 12912852; PMCID: PMC1773777.
    96. Porter JL, Fordtran JS, Santa Ana CA, Emmett M, Hagey LR, Macdonald EA, Hofmann AF. Accurate enzymatic measurement of fecal bile acids in patients with malabsorption. J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Jun; 141(6):411-8. PMID: 12819639.
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    97. Lorenzo-Zúñiga V, Bartolí R, Planas R, Hofmann AF, Viñado B, Hagey LR, Hernández JM, Mañé J, Alvarez MA, Ausina V, Gassull MA. Oral bile acids reduce bacterial overgrowth, bacterial translocation, and endotoxemia in cirrhotic rats. Hepatology. 2003 Mar; 37(3):551-7. PMID: 12601352.
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    98. Zeh N, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Steinbach JH, Hagey LR, Oliver D, Stange J, Hassanein T. The effect of extracorporeal albumin dialysis on plasma phospholipid fatty acids in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Int. 2003; 23 Suppl 3:34-8. PMID: 12950959.
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    99. Emmett M, Guirl MJ, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, Neimark S, Hofmann AF, Fordtran JS. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduces urinary oxalate excretion in short bowel syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jan; 41(1):230-7. PMID: 12500242.
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    100. Iida T, Hikosaka M, Kakiyama G, Shiraishi K, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T. Potential bile acid metabolites. 25. Synthesis and chemical properties of stereoisomeric 3alpha,7alpha,16- and 3alpha,7alpha,15-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Oct; 50(10):1327-34. PMID: 12372858.
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    101. Beigneux A, Hofmann AF, Young SG. Human CYP7A1 deficiency: progress and enigmas. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul; 110(1):29-31. PMID: 12093884; PMCID: PMC151039.
    102. Meng LJ, Wang P, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB, Tirona RG, Hofmann AF, Pang KS. Transport of the sulfated, amidated bile acid, sulfolithocholyltaurine, into rat hepatocytes is mediated by Oatp1 and Oatp2. Hepatology. 2002 May; 35(5):1031-40. PMID: 11981753.
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    103. Hofmann AF. Cholestatic liver disease: pathophysiology and therapeutic options. Liver. 2002; 22 Suppl 2:14-9. PMID: 12220297.
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    104. Hofmann AF. The continuing importance of bile acids in liver and intestinal disease. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Dec 13-27; 159(22):2647-58. PMID: 10597755.
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    105. Hofmann AF. Bile Acids: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. News Physiol Sci. 1999 Feb; 14:24-29. PMID: 11390813.
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