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    Richard Gallo

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentDermatology
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0869
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-822-4608
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Skin Defense by Dermal Adipocytes
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR069653Apr 1, 2016 - Jan 31, 2021
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Establishing a Skin Microbiome Transplant
      NIH/NIAMS R21AR067547Aug 1, 2015 - May 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Skin barrier function and the microbiome
      NIH/NIAID R01AI116576Jul 1, 2015 - Dec 31, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Overall Atopic Dermatitis Research Network
      NIH U19AI117673Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 31, 2020
      Role: Co-Investigator
      Skin Barrier and the Microbiome
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR064781Sep 18, 2014 - Aug 31, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      UCSD Dermatologist Investigator Training Program
      NIH/NIAMS T32AR062496May 1, 2012 - Apr 30, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Glycan Modulation of Inflammatory Responses
      NIH P01HL107150Jul 1, 2011 - May 31, 2018
      Role: Co-Investigator
      Skin Microbiome in epidermal immune defense
      NIH/NIAID R01AI083358Dec 8, 2009 - Nov 30, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Skin Microbiome in epidermal immune defense
      NIH/NIAID R56AI083358Aug 15, 2009 - Dec 7, 2009
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Skin Defense by Antimicrobial Peptides
      VA I01BX000358Apr 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      2007 Antimicrobial Peptides Gordon Conference
      NIH/NIAID R13AI074086Apr 1, 2007 - Mar 31, 2008
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR052728Jul 1, 2005 - Jan 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Cathelicidin in Skin Immunity
      NIH/NIAID R01AI052453Sep 15, 2002 - Mar 31, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR045676Sep 1, 2001 - May 31, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      CATHELICIDINS--A MOLECULAR BACTERIOLOGIC APPROACH
      NIH/NIAID R21AI048176Sep 1, 2000 - Aug 31, 2002
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Genetic Modulation of Blood and Vascular Glycosylation
      NIH/NHLBI P01HL057345Sep 30, 1997 - Dec 31, 2013
      Role: Co-Investigator
      SYNDECANS AND SYNDUCIN IN HUMAN SKIN
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR044379Sep 30, 1996 - Aug 31, 2001
      Role: Principal Investigator
      SYNDECANS AND SYNDUCIN IN HUMAN SKIN
      NIH/NIAMS R29AR044379Sep 30, 1996 - Aug 31, 2001
      Role: Principal Investigator
      STRUCTURE/FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF SYNDECAN
      NIH/NIAMS K08AR001874Feb 4, 1992 - Jan 31, 1997
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Kulkarni NN, Adase CA, Zhang LJ, Borkowski AW, Li F, Sanford JA, Coleman DJ, Aguilera C, Indra AK, Gallo R. Interleukin-1 receptor knockout mice develop epidermal cysts and show an altered innate immune response following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Jul 25. PMID: 28754339.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Sato E, Zhang LJ, Dorschner RA, Adase CA, Choudhury BP, Gallo R. Activation of Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor Induces Decorin Expression and Promotes Wound Repair. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Aug; 137(8):1774-1783. PMID: 28454729.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Gallo R. Human Skin Is the Largest Epithelial Surface for Interaction with Microbes. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Jun; 137(6):1213-1214. PMID: 28395897.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Nakatsuji T, Chen TH, Narala S, Chun KA, Two AM, Yun T, Shafiq F, Kotol PF, Bouslimani A, Melnik AV, Latif H, Kim JN, Lockhart A, Artis K, David G, Taylor P, Streib J, Dorrestein PC, Grier A, Gill SR, Zengler K, Hata TR, Leung DY, Gallo R. Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 22; 9(378). PMID: 28228596.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Kao MS, Huang S, Chang WL, Hsieh MF, Huang CJ, Gallo R, Huang CM. Microbiome precision editing: Using PEG as a selective fermentation initiator against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biotechnol J. 2017 Apr; 12(4). PMID: 27982519.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Takahashi T, Gallo R. The Critical and Multifunctional Roles of Antimicrobial Peptides in Dermatology. Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jan; 35(1):39-50. PMID: 27890236.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Wang Y, Kao MS, Yu J, Huang S, Marito S, Gallo R, Huang CM. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Nov 09; 17(11). PMID: 27834859.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Sanford JA, Zhang LJ, Williams MR, Gangoiti JA, Huang CM, Gallo R. Inhibition of HDAC8 and HDAC9 by microbial short-chain fatty acids breaks immune tolerance of the epidermis to TLR ligands. Sci Immunol. 2016 Oct 28; 1(4). PMID: 28783689.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Bochner R, Samuelov L, Sarig O, Li Q, Adase CA, Isakov O, Malchin N, Vodo D, Shayevitch R, Peled A, Yu BD, Fainberg G, Warshauer E, Adir N, Erez N, Gat A, Gottlieb Y, Rogers T, Pavlovsky M, Goldberg I, Shomron N, Sandilands A, Campbell LE, MacCallum S, McLean WH, Ast G, Gallo R, Uitto J, Sprecher E. Calpain 12 Function Revealed through the Study of an Atypical Case of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Feb; 137(2):385-393. PMID: 27769845.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Wang Y, Zhang L, Yu J, Huang S, Wang Z, Chun KA, Lee TL, Chen YT, Gallo R, Huang CM. A Co-Drug of Butyric Acid Derived from Fermentation Metabolites of the Human Skin Microbiome Stimulates Adipogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Implications in Tissue Augmentation. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Jan; 137(1):46-56. PMID: 27498050.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Eichenfield DZ, Troutman TD, Link VM, Lam MT, Cho H, Gosselin D, Spann NJ, Lesch HP, Tao J, Muto J, Gallo R, Evans RM, Glass CK. Tissue damage drives co-localization of NF-?B, Smad3, and Nrf2 to direct Rev-erb sensitive wound repair in mouse macrophages. Elife. 2016 Jul 27; 5. PMID: 27462873; PMCID: PMC4963201.
      12. Zhang LJ, Sen GL, Ward NL, Johnston A, Chun K, Chen Y, Adase C, Sanford JA, Gao N, Chensee M, Sato E, Fritz Y, Baliwag J, Williams MR, Hata T, Gallo R. Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 and MAVS Signaling Drive Interferon-ß Production by Epidermal Keratinocytes during Skin Injury. Immunity. 2016 Jul 19; 45(1):119-30. PMID: 27438769; PMCID: PMC4957248 [Available on 07/19/17].
      13. Nakatsuji T, Chen TH, Two AM, Chun KA, Narala S, Geha RS, Hata TR, Gallo R. Staphylococcus aureus Exploits Epidermal Barrier Defects in Atopic Dermatitis to Trigger Cytokine Expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2016 Nov; 136(11):2192-2200. PMID: 27381887.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Two AM, Nakatsuji T, Kotol PF, Arvanitidou E, Du-Thumm L, Hata TR, Gallo R. The Cutaneous Microbiome and Aspects of Skin Antimicrobial Defense System Resist Acute Treatment with Topical Skin Cleansers. J Invest Dermatol. 2016 Oct; 136(10):1950-1954. PMID: 27377698.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Dorrestein PC, Gallo R, Knight R. Microbial Skin Inhabitants: Friends Forever. Cell. 2016 May 05; 165(4):771-2. PMID: 27153488.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Gallo R, Hultsch T, Farnaes L. Recognizing that the microbiome is part of the human immune system will advance treatment of both cancer and infections. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Apr; 74(4):772-4. PMID: 26979362.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Sato E, Muto J, Zhang LJ, Adase CA, Sanford JA, Takahashi T, Nakatsuji T, Usdin TB, Gallo R. The Parathyroid Hormone Second Receptor PTH2R and its Ligand Tuberoinfundibular Peptide of 39 Residues TIP39 Regulate Intracellular Calcium and Influence Keratinocyte Differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2016 Jul; 136(7):1449-1459. PMID: 27000502.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Di Nardo A, Holmes AD, Muto Y, Huang EY, Preston N, Winkelman WJ, Gallo R. Improved clinical outcome and biomarkers in adults with papulopustular rosacea treated with doxycycline modified-release capsules in a randomized trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Jun; 74(6):1086-92. PMID: 26951940.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Zhang LJ, Gallo R. Antimicrobial peptides. Curr Biol. 2016 Jan 11; 26(1):R14-9. PMID: 26766224.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Williams MR, Gallo R. The role of the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015 Nov; 15(11):65. PMID: 26404536.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Bernard Q, Gallo R, Jaulhac B, Nakatsuji T, Luft B, Yang X, Boulanger N. Ixodes tick saliva suppresses the keratinocyte cytokine response to TLR2/TLR3 ligands during early exposure to Lyme borreliosis. Exp Dermatol. 2016 Jan; 25(1):26-31. PMID: 26307945.
        View in: PubMed
      22. LaRock CN, Döhrmann S, Todd J, Corriden R, Olson J, Johannssen T, Lepenies B, Gallo R, Ghosh P, Nizet V. Group A Streptococcal M1 Protein Sequesters Cathelicidin to Evade Innate Immune Killing. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Oct 14; 18(4):471-7. PMID: 26468750; PMCID: PMC4636435 [Available on 10/14/16].
      23. Sanford JA, Gallo R. IL-17A Has Some Nerve! Immunity. 2015 Sep 15; 43(3):414-5. PMID: 26377893.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Pence MA, Haste NM, Meharena HS, Olson J, Gallo R, Nizet V, Kristian SA. Beta-Lactamase Repressor BlaI Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance and Virulence. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136605. PMID: 26305782; PMCID: PMC4549145.
      25. Liu PF, Cheng JS, Sy CL, Huang WC, Yang HC, Gallo R, Huang CM, Shu CW. IsaB Inhibits Autophagic Flux to Promote Host Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Nov; 135(11):2714-2722. PMID: 26134948; PMCID: PMC4641007.
      26. Carvalho F, Atilano ML, Pombinho R, Covas G, Gallo R, Filipe SR, Sousa S, Cabanes D. L-Rhamnosylation of Listeria monocytogenes Wall Teichoic Acids Promotes Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides by Delaying Interaction with the Membrane. PLoS Pathog. 2015 May; 11(5):e1004919. PMID: 26001194; PMCID: PMC4441387.
      27. Two AM, Wu W, Gallo R, Hata TR. Rosacea: part II. Topical and systemic therapies in the treatment of rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015 May; 72(5):761-70; quiz 771-2. PMID: 25890456.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Two AM, Wu W, Gallo R, Hata TR. Rosacea: part I. Introduction, categorization, histology, pathogenesis, and risk factors. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015 May; 72(5):749-58; quiz 759-60. PMID: 25890455.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Ma GS, Aznar N, Kalogriopoulos N, Midde KK, Lopez-Sanchez I, Sato E, Dunkel Y, Gallo R, Ghosh P. Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 19; 112(20):E2602-10. PMID: 25926659; PMCID: PMC4443320.
      30. Bouslimani A, Porto C, Rath CM, Wang M, Guo Y, Gonzalez A, Berg-Lyon D, Ackermann G, Moeller Christensen GJ, Nakatsuji T, Zhang L, Borkowski AW, Meehan MJ, Dorrestein K, Gallo R, Bandeira N, Knight R, Alexandrov T, Dorrestein PC. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 28; 112(17):E2120-9. PMID: 25825778; PMCID: PMC4418856.
      31. Gallo R. S. epidermidis influence on host immunity: more than skin deep. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Feb 11; 17(2):143-4. PMID: 25674978.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Zhang LJ, Guerrero-Juarez CF, Hata T, Bapat SP, Ramos R, Plikus MV, Gallo R. Innate immunity. Dermal adipocytes protect against invasive Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Science. 2015 Jan 02; 347(6217):67-71. PMID: 25554785; PMCID: PMC4318537.
      33. Yoo JH, Ho S, Tran DH, Cheng M, Bakirtzi K, Kukota Y, Ichikawa R, Su B, Tran DH, Hing TC, Chang I, Shih DQ, Issacson RE, Gallo R, Fiocchi C, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. Anti-fibrogenic effects of the anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin in murine colitis-associated fibrosis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan; 1(1):55-74.e1. PMID: 25729764.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Nakagawa Y, Gallo R. Endogenous intracellular cathelicidin enhances TLR9 activation in dendritic cells and macrophages. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 01; 194(3):1274-84. PMID: 25548223; PMCID: PMC4297737.
      35. Borkowski AW, Kuo IH, Bernard JJ, Yoshida T, Williams MR, Hung NJ, Yu BD, Beck LA, Gallo R. Toll-like receptor 3 activation is required for normal skin barrier repair following UV damage. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Feb; 135(2):569-578. PMID: 25118157; PMCID: PMC4289479.
      36. MacLeod DT, Nakatsuji T, Wang Z, di Nardo A, Gallo R. Vaccinia virus binds to the scavenger receptor MARCO on the surface of keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Jan; 135(1):142-150. PMID: 25089661; PMCID: PMC4268046.
      37. Gallo R, Bernard JJ. Innate immune sensors stimulate inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses to UVB radiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Jun; 134(6):1508-1511. PMID: 24825061; PMCID: PMC4271625.
      38. Muto Y, Wang Z, Vanderberghe M, Two A, Gallo R, Di Nardo A. Mast cells are key mediators of cathelicidin-initiated skin inflammation in rosacea. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Nov; 134(11):2728-2736. PMID: 24844861; PMCID: PMC4199909.
      39. Borkowski AW, Gallo R. UVB radiation illuminates the role of TLR3 in the epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Sep; 134(9):2315-2320. PMID: 24786223; PMCID: PMC4133277.
      40. Del Rosso JQ, Thiboutot D, Gallo R, Webster G, Tanghetti E, Eichenfield LF, Stein-Gold L, Berson D, Zaenglein A. Consensus recommendations from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on the management of rosacea, part 5: a guide on the management of rosacea. Cutis. 2014 Mar; 93(3):134-8. PMID: 24738094.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Muto J, Morioka Y, Yamasaki K, Kim M, Garcia A, Carlin AF, Varki A, Gallo R. Hyaluronan digestion controls DC migration from the skin. J Clin Invest. 2014 Mar; 124(3):1309-19. PMID: 24487587; PMCID: PMC3934161.
      42. Tanghetti E, Del Rosso JQ, Thiboutot D, Gallo R, Webster G, Eichenfield LF, Stein-Gold L, Berson D, Zaenglein A. Consensus recommendations from the American acne & rosacea society on the management of rosacea, part 4: a status report on physical modalities and devices. Cutis. 2014 Feb; 93(2):71-6. PMID: 24605343.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Del Rosso JQ, Thiboutot D, Gallo R, Webster G, Tanghetti E, Eichenfield LF, Stein-Gold L, Berson D, Zaenglein A. Consensus recommendations from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on the management of rosacea, part 3: a status report on systemic therapies. Cutis. 2014 Jan; 93(1):18-28. PMID: 24505581.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Nakatsuji T, Gallo R. Dermatological therapy by topical application of non-pathogenic bacteria. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Jan; 134(1):11-14. PMID: 24352078.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Del Rosso JQ, Thiboutot D, Gallo R, Webster G, Tanghetti E, Eichenfield L, Stein-Gold L, Berson D, Zaenglein A. Consensus recommendations from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on the management of rosacea, part 2: a status report on topical agents. Cutis. 2013 Dec; 92(6):277-84. PMID: 24416742.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Wang Y, Kuo S, Shu M, Yu J, Huang S, Dai A, Two A, Gallo R, Huang CM. Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Jan; 98(1):411-24. PMID: 24265031; PMCID: PMC3888247.
      47. Sanford JA, Gallo R. Functions of the skin microbiota in health and disease. Semin Immunol. 2013 Nov 30; 25(5):370-7. PMID: 24268438; PMCID: PMC4219649.
      48. Schommer NN, Gallo R. Structure and function of the human skin microbiome. Trends Microbiol. 2013 Dec; 21(12):660-8. PMID: 24238601; PMCID: PMC4744460.
      49. Two AM, Hata TR, Nakatsuji T, Coda AB, Kotol PF, Wu W, Shafiq F, Huang EY, Gallo R. Reduction in serine protease activity correlates with improved rosacea severity in a small, randomized pilot study of a topical serine protease inhibitor. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Apr; 134(4):1143-1145. PMID: 24213369; PMCID: PMC3970953.
      50. Del Rosso JQ, Thiboutot D, Gallo R, Webster G, Tanghetti E, Eichenfield L, Stein-Gold L, Berson D, Zaenglein A. Consensus recommendations from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on the management of rosacea, part 1: a status report on the disease state, general measures, and adjunctive skin care. Cutis. 2013 Nov; 92(5):234-40. PMID: 24343208.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Kim MY, Muto J, Gallo R. Hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides suppress TLR3-dependent cytokine expression in a TLR4-dependent manner. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72421. PMID: 24058413; PMCID: PMC3751928.
      52. Gallo R. The birth of innate immunity. Exp Dermatol. 2013 Aug; 22(8):517. PMID: 23879811.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Coda AB, Hata T, Miller J, Audish D, Kotol P, Two A, Shafiq F, Yamasaki K, Harper JC, Del Rosso JQ, Gallo R. Cathelicidin, kallikrein 5, and serine protease activity is inhibited during treatment of rosacea with azelaic acid 15% gel. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Oct; 69(4):570-7. PMID: 23871720; PMCID: PMC3910251.
      54. Gallo R. In defense of skin: antimicrobial peptides have their day. Interview by Hannah Branch. Future Microbiol. 2013 Jul; 8(7):829-31. PMID: 23841629.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Hata TR, Afshar M, Miller J, Two AM, Kotol P, Jackson M, Alexandrescu DT, Kabigting F, Gerber M, Lai Y, Gallo R. Etanercept decreases the innate immune wounding response in psoriasis. Exp Dermatol. 2013 Sep; 22(9):599-601. PMID: 23802569; PMCID: PMC4195436.
      56. Park K, Elias PM, Hupe M, Borkowski AW, Gallo R, Shin KO, Lee YM, Holleran WM, Uchida Y. Resveratrol stimulates sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling of cathelicidin production. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Aug; 133(8):1942-9. PMID: 23856934; PMCID: PMC3753186.
      57. Del Rosso JQ, Gallo R, Tanghetti E, Webster G, Thiboutot D. An evaluation of potential correlations between pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and management of rosacea. Cutis. 2013 Mar; 91(3 Suppl):1-8. PMID: 23833998.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Borkowski AW, Park K, Uchida Y, Gallo R. Activation of TLR3 in keratinocytes increases expression of genes involved in formation of the epidermis, lipid accumulation, and epidermal organelles. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Aug; 133(8):2031-40. PMID: 23353987; PMCID: PMC3686920.
      59. Shu M, Wang Y, Yu J, Kuo S, Coda A, Jiang Y, Gallo R, Huang CM. Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, as skin probiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55380. PMID: 23405142; PMCID: PMC3566139.
      60. Muehleisen B, Gallo R. Vitamin D in allergic disease: shedding light on a complex problem. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Feb; 131(2):324-9. PMID: 23374263.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Afshar M, Gallo R. Innate immune defense system of the skin. Vet Dermatol. 2013 Feb; 24(1):32-8.e8-9. PMID: 23331677.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Wantha S, Alard JE, Megens RT, van der Does AM, Döring Y, Drechsler M, Pham CT, Wang MW, Wang JM, Gallo R, von Hundelshausen P, Lindbom L, Hackeng T, Weber C, Soehnlein O. Neutrophil-derived cathelicidin promotes adhesion of classical monocytes. Circ Res. 2013 Mar 01; 112(5):792-801. PMID: 23283724; PMCID: PMC3702173.
      63. Nakatsuji T, Chiang HI, Jiang SB, Nagarajan H, Zengler K, Gallo R. The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1431. PMID: 23385576; PMCID: PMC3655727.
      64. MacLeod DT, Nakatsuji T, Yamasaki K, Kobzik L, Gallo R. HSV-1 exploits the innate immune scavenger receptor MARCO to enhance epithelial adsorption and infection. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1963. PMID: 23739639; PMCID: PMC3681428.
      65. Park K, Elias PM, Shin KO, Lee YM, Hupe M, Borkowski AW, Gallo R, Saba J, Holleran WM, Uchida Y. A novel role of a lipid species, sphingosine-1-phosphate, in epithelial innate immunity. Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Feb; 33(4):752-62. PMID: 23230267; PMCID: PMC3571353.
      66. Kuo IH, Carpenter-Mendini A, Yoshida T, McGirt LY, Ivanov AI, Barnes KC, Gallo R, Borkowski AW, Yamasaki K, Leung DY, Georas SN, De Benedetto A, Beck LA. Activation of epidermal toll-like receptor 2 enhances tight junction function: implications for atopic dermatitis and skin barrier repair. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Apr; 133(4):988-98. PMID: 23223142; PMCID: PMC3600383.
      67. Wang Y, Zhu W, Shu M, Jiang Y, Gallo R, Liu YT, Huang CM. The response of human skin commensal bacteria as a reflection of UV radiation: UV-B decreases porphyrin production. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47798. PMID: 23133525; PMCID: PMC3485044.
      68. Hollands A, Gonzalez D, Leire E, Donald C, Gallo R, Sanderson-Smith M, Dorrestein PC, Nizet V. A bacterial pathogen co-opts host plasmin to resist killing by cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 30; 287(49):40891-7. PMID: 23038245; PMCID: PMC3510793.
      69. Muehleisen B, Jiang SB, Gladsjo JA, Gerber M, Hata T, Gallo R. Distinct innate immune gene expression profiles in non-melanoma skin cancer of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40754. PMID: 22808251; PMCID: PMC3396607.
      70. Bernard JJ, Cowing-Zitron C, Nakatsuji T, Muehleisen B, Muto J, Borkowski AW, Martinez L, Greidinger EL, Yu BD, Gallo R. Ultraviolet radiation damages self noncoding RNA and is detected by TLR3. Nat Med. 2012 Aug; 18(8):1286-90. PMID: 22772463; PMCID: PMC3812946.
      71. Gallo R, Hooper LV. Epithelial antimicrobial defence of the skin and intestine. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Jun 25; 12(7):503-16. PMID: 22728527; PMCID: PMC3563335.
      72. Lai Y, Li D, Li C, Muehleisen B, Radek KA, Park HJ, Jiang Z, Li Z, Lei H, Quan Y, Zhang T, Wu Y, Kotol P, Morizane S, Hata TR, Iwatsuki K, Tang C, Gallo R. The antimicrobial protein REG3A regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation after skin injury. Immunity. 2012 Jul 27; 37(1):74-84. PMID: 22727489; PMCID: PMC3828049.
      73. Del Rosso JQ, Gallo R, Kircik L, Thiboutot D, Baldwin HE, Cohen D. Why is rosacea considered to be an inflammatory disorder? The primary role, clinical relevance, and therapeutic correlations of abnormal innate immune response in rosacea-prone skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Jun; 11(6):694-700. PMID: 22648215.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Muehleisen B, Bikle DD, Aguilera C, Burton DW, Sen GL, Deftos LJ, Gallo R. PTH/PTHrP and vitamin D control antimicrobial peptide expression and susceptibility to bacterial skin infection. Sci Transl Med. 2012 May 23; 4(135):135ra66. PMID: 22623742; PMCID: PMC3725981.
      75. Morizane S, Yamasaki K, Kajita A, Ikeda K, Zhan M, Aoyama Y, Gallo R, Iwatsuki K. TH2 cytokines increase kallikrein 7 expression and function in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jul; 130(1):259-61.e1. PMID: 22521249; PMCID: PMC3387356.
      76. Kanada KN, Nakatsuji T, Gallo R. Doxycycline indirectly inhibits proteolytic activation of tryptic kallikrein-related peptidases and activation of cathelicidin. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 May; 132(5):1435-42. PMID: 22336948; PMCID: PMC4169281.
      77. Wang G, Elliott M, Cogen AL, Ezell EL, Gallo R, Hancock RE. Structure, dynamics, and antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities of human LL-23 and its single-residue variants mutated on the basis of homologous primate cathelicidins. Biochemistry. 2012 Jan 17; 51(2):653-64. PMID: 22185690; PMCID: PMC3302206.
      78. Nakatsuji T, Gallo R. Antimicrobial peptides: old molecules with new ideas. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Mar; 132(3 Pt 2):887-95. PMID: 22158560; PMCID: PMC3279605.
      79. Yamasaki K, Gallo R. Rosacea as a disease of cathelicidins and skin innate immunity. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2011 Dec; 15(1):12-5. PMID: 22076322.
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      81. Gallo R, Kulesz-Martin M, Bickenbach JR. Montagna Symposium 2010: small molecules: skin as the first line of defense. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Nov; 131(11):2166-8. PMID: 21997415; PMCID: PMC3225225.
      82. Muto J, Naidu NN, Yamasaki K, Pineau N, Breton L, Gallo R. Exogenous addition of a C-xylopyranoside derivative stimulates keratinocyte dermatan sulfate synthesis and promotes migration. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25480. PMID: 21998662; PMCID: PMC3187761.
      83. Kin NW, Chen Y, Stefanov EK, Gallo R, Kearney JF. Cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide differentially regulates T- and B-cell function. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Oct; 41(10):3006-16. PMID: 21773974; PMCID: PMC3234162.
      84. Morizane S, Yamasaki K, Mühleisen B, Kotol PF, Murakami M, Aoyama Y, Iwatsuki K, Hata T, Gallo R. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in psoriasis enables keratinocyte reactivity against TLR9 ligands. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Jan; 132(1):135-43. PMID: 21850017; PMCID: PMC3220926.
      85. Gallo R, Nakatsuji T. Microbial symbiosis with the innate immune defense system of the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Oct; 131(10):1974-80. PMID: 21697881; PMCID: PMC3174284.
      86. Bernard JJ, Gallo R. Protecting the boundary: the sentinel role of host defense peptides in the skin. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011 Jul; 68(13):2189-99. PMID: 21573782; PMCID: PMC3125593.
      87. Kulkarni MM, Barbi J, McMaster WR, Gallo R, Satoskar AR, McGwire BS. Mammalian antimicrobial peptide influences control of cutaneous Leishmania infection. Cell Microbiol. 2011 Jun; 13(6):913-23. PMID: 21501359; PMCID: PMC3121678.
      88. Nakatsuji T, Tang DC, Zhang L, Gallo R, Huang CM. Propionibacterium acnes CAMP factor and host acid sphingomyelinase contribute to bacterial virulence: potential targets for inflammatory acne treatment. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 12; 6(4):e14797. PMID: 21533261; PMCID: PMC3075254.
      89. Chen CH, Wang Y, Nakatsuji T, Liu YT, Zouboulis C, Gallo R, Zhang L, Hsieh MF, Huang CM. An innate bactericidal oleic acid effective against skin infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a therapy concordant with evolutionary medicine. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011 Apr; 21(4):391-9. PMID: 21532323.
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      90. Liu PF, Nakatsuji T, Zhu W, Gallo R, Huang CM. Passive immunoprotection targeting a secreted CAMP factor of Propionibacterium acnes as a novel immunotherapeutic for acne vulgaris. Vaccine. 2011 Apr 12; 29(17):3230-8. PMID: 21354482; PMCID: PMC3388602.
      91. Borkowski AW, Gallo R. The coordinated response of the physical and antimicrobial peptide barriers of the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Feb; 131(2):285-7. PMID: 21228809; PMCID: PMC3121688.
      92. Li C, Lasse S, Lee P, Nakasaki M, Chen SW, Yamasaki K, Gallo R, Jamora C. Development of atopic dermatitis-like skin disease from the chronic loss of epidermal caspase-8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21; 107(51):22249-54. PMID: 21135236; PMCID: PMC3009816.
      93. Gregorio J, Meller S, Conrad C, Di Nardo A, Homey B, Lauerma A, Arai N, Gallo R, Digiovanni J, Gilliet M. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense skin injury and promote wound healing through type I interferons. J Exp Med. 2010 Dec 20; 207(13):2921-30. PMID: 21115688; PMCID: PMC3005239.
      94. Yamasaki K, Kanada K, Macleod DT, Borkowski AW, Morizane S, Nakatsuji T, Cogen AL, Gallo R. TLR2 expression is increased in rosacea and stimulates enhanced serine protease production by keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Mar; 131(3):688-97. PMID: 21107351; PMCID: PMC3085277.
      95. Chow OA, von Köckritz-Blickwede M, Bright AT, Hensler ME, Zinkernagel AS, Cogen AL, Gallo R, Monestier M, Wang Y, Glass CK, Nizet V. Statins enhance formation of phagocyte extracellular traps. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Nov 18; 8(5):445-54. PMID: 21075355; PMCID: PMC3008410.
      96. Lo CW, Lai YK, Liu YT, Gallo R, Huang CM. Staphylococcus aureus hijacks a skin commensal to intensify its virulence: immunization targeting ß-hemolysin and CAMP factor. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Feb; 131(2):401-9. PMID: 21085191; PMCID: PMC3057116.
      97. Bernard JJ, Gallo R. Cyclooxygenase-2 enhances antimicrobial peptide expression and killing of Staphylococcus aureus. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 01; 185(11):6535-44. PMID: 20971925; PMCID: PMC3025174.
      98. Pence MA, Rooijakkers SH, Cogen AL, Cole JN, Hollands A, Gallo R, Nizet V. Streptococcal inhibitor of complement promotes innate immune resistance phenotypes of invasive M1T1 group A Streptococcus. J Innate Immun. 2010; 2(6):587-95. PMID: 20814187; PMCID: PMC3219503.
      99. Cole JN, Pence MA, von Köckritz-Blickwede M, Hollands A, Gallo R, Walker MJ, Nizet V. M protein and hyaluronic acid capsule are essential for in vivo selection of covRS mutations characteristic of invasive serotype M1T1 group A Streptococcus. MBio. 2010 Aug 31; 1(4). PMID: 20827373; PMCID: PMC2934611.
      100. Yu FS, Cornicelli MD, Kovach MA, Newstead MW, Zeng X, Kumar A, Gao N, Yoon SG, Gallo R, Standiford TJ. Flagellin stimulates protective lung mucosal immunity: role of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. J Immunol. 2010 Jul 15; 185(2):1142-9. PMID: 20566829; PMCID: PMC3038689.
      101. Chen CH, Zhang XQ, Lo CW, Liu PF, Liu YT, Gallo R, Hsieh MF, Schooley RT, Huang CM. The essentiality of alpha-2-macroglobulin in human salivary innate immunity against new H1N1 swine origin influenza A virus. Proteomics. 2010 Jun; 10(12):2396-401. PMID: 20391540; PMCID: PMC2890046.
      102. Lai Y, Cogen AL, Radek KA, Park HJ, Macleod DT, Leichtle A, Ryan AF, Di Nardo A, Gallo R. Activation of TLR2 by a small molecule produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis increases antimicrobial defense against bacterial skin infections. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Sep; 130(9):2211-21. PMID: 20463690; PMCID: PMC2922455.
      103. Radek KA, Elias PM, Taupenot L, Mahata SK, O'Connor DT, Gallo R. Neuroendocrine nicotinic receptor activation increases susceptibility to bacterial infections by suppressing antimicrobial peptide production. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Apr 22; 7(4):277-89. PMID: 20413096; PMCID: PMC2916230.
      104. Murakami M, Ohtake T, Horibe Y, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Morhenn VB, Gallo R, Iizuka H. Acrosyringium is the main site of the vesicle/pustule formation in palmoplantar pustulosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Aug; 130(8):2010-6. PMID: 20393482.
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      106. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Ebmeyer J, Yamasaki K, Lai Y, Radek K, Choung YH, Euteneuer S, Pak K, Gallo R, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. CC chemokine ligand 3 overcomes the bacteriocidal and phagocytic defect of macrophages and hastens recovery from experimental otitis media in TNF-/- mice. J Immunol. 2010 Mar 15; 184(6):3087-97. PMID: 20164426; PMCID: PMC2929161.
      107. Morizane S, Yamasaki K, Kabigting FD, Gallo R. Kallikrein expression and cathelicidin processing are independently controlled in keratinocytes by calcium, vitamin D(3), and retinoic acid. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 May; 130(5):1297-306. PMID: 20090765; PMCID: PMC2908513.
      108. Cogen AL, Yamasaki K, Muto J, Sanchez KM, Crotty Alexander L, Tanios J, Lai Y, Kim JE, Nizet V, Gallo R. Staphylococcus epidermidis antimicrobial delta-toxin (phenol-soluble modulin-gamma) cooperates with host antimicrobial peptides to kill group A Streptococcus. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 05; 5(1):e8557. PMID: 20052280; PMCID: PMC2796718.
      109. Miller J, Gallo R. Vitamin D and innate immunity. Dermatol Ther. 2010 Jan-Feb; 23(1):13-22. PMID: 20136905.
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      110. Cogen AL, Yamasaki K, Sanchez KM, Dorschner RA, Lai Y, MacLeod DT, Torpey JW, Otto M, Nizet V, Kim JE, Gallo R. Selective antimicrobial action is provided by phenol-soluble modulins derived from Staphylococcus epidermidis, a normal resident of the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Jan; 130(1):192-200. PMID: 19710683; PMCID: PMC2796468.
      111. Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Zhang L, Zouboulis CC, Gallo R, Huang CM. Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Apr; 130(4):985-94. PMID: 20032992; PMCID: PMC3057125.
      112. Crotty Alexander LE, Maisey HC, Timmer AM, Rooijakkers SH, Gallo R, von Köckritz-Blickwede M, Nizet V. M1T1 group A streptococcal pili promote epithelial colonization but diminish systemic virulence through neutrophil extracellular entrapment. J Mol Med (Berl). 2010 Apr; 88(4):371-81. PMID: 19960175; PMCID: PMC2843839.
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      114. Büchau AS, Morizane S, Trowbridge J, Schauber J, Kotol P, Bui JD, Gallo R. The host defense peptide cathelicidin is required for NK cell-mediated suppression of tumor growth. J Immunol. 2010 Jan 01; 184(1):369-78. PMID: 19949065; PMCID: PMC2908520.
      115. Lai Y, Di Nardo A, Nakatsuji T, Leichtle A, Yang Y, Cogen AL, Wu ZR, Hooper LV, Schmidt RR, von Aulock S, Radek KA, Huang CM, Ryan AF, Gallo R. Commensal bacteria regulate Toll-like receptor 3-dependent inflammation after skin injury. Nat Med. 2009 Dec; 15(12):1377-82. PMID: 19966777; PMCID: PMC2880863.
      116. Muto J, Yamasaki K, Taylor KR, Gallo R. Engagement of CD44 by hyaluronan suppresses TLR4 signaling and the septic response to LPS. Mol Immunol. 2009 Dec; 47(2-3):449-56. PMID: 19781786; PMCID: PMC2787860.
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      119. McGillivray SM, Ebrahimi CM, Fisher N, Sabet M, Zhang DX, Chen Y, Haste NM, Aroian RV, Gallo R, Guiney DG, Friedlander AM, Koehler TM, Nizet V. ClpX contributes to innate defense peptide resistance and virulence phenotypes of Bacillus anthracis. J Innate Immun. 2009; 1(5):494-506. PMID: 20375606; PMCID: PMC2920483.
      120. Yamasaki K, Gallo R. The molecular pathology of rosacea. J Dermatol Sci. 2009 Aug; 55(2):77-81. PMID: 19481425; PMCID: PMC2745268.
      121. Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Fang JY, Zouboulis CC, Zhang L, Gallo R, Huang CM. Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Oct; 129(10):2480-8. PMID: 19387482; PMCID: PMC2772209.
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      123. Büchau AS, MacLeod DT, Morizane S, Kotol PF, Hata T, Gallo R. Bcl-3 acts as an innate immune modulator by controlling antimicrobial responses in keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Sep; 129(9):2148-55. PMID: 19282837; PMCID: PMC2758924.
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      128. Radek KA, Taylor KR, Gallo R. FGF-10 and specific structural elements of dermatan sulfate size and sulfation promote maximal keratinocyte migration and cellular proliferation. Wound Repair Regen. 2009 Jan-Feb; 17(1):118-26. PMID: 19152659; PMCID: PMC2721336.
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      139. Nakatsuji T, Liu YT, Huang CP, Zoubouis CC, Gallo R, Huang CM. Antibodies elicited by inactivated propionibacterium acnes-based vaccines exert protective immunity and attenuate the IL-8 production in human sebocytes: relevance to therapy for acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 Oct; 128(10):2451-7. PMID: 18463682; PMCID: PMC3070419.
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      141. Zhu S, Wei L, Yamasaki K, Gallo R. Activation of cathepsin L by the cathelin-like domain of protegrin-3. Mol Immunol. 2008 May; 45(9):2531-6. PMID: 18289683; PMCID: PMC2683626.
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      145. Maisey HC, Quach D, Hensler ME, Liu GY, Gallo R, Nizet V, Doran KS. A group B streptococcal pilus protein promotes phagocyte resistance and systemic virulence. FASEB J. 2008 Jun; 22(6):1715-24. PMID: 18198218; PMCID: PMC2721339.
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      147. Ménard S, Förster V, Lotz M, Gütle D, Duerr CU, Gallo R, Henriques-Normark B, Pütsep K, Andersson M, Glocker EO, Hornef MW. Developmental switch of intestinal antimicrobial peptide expression. J Exp Med. 2008 Jan 21; 205(1):183-93. PMID: 18180308; PMCID: PMC2234368.
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      151. Aberg KM, Radek KA, Choi EH, Kim DK, Demerjian M, Hupe M, Kerbleski J, Gallo R, Ganz T, Mauro T, Feingold KR, Elias PM. Psychological stress downregulates epidermal antimicrobial peptide expression and increases severity of cutaneous infections in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007 Nov; 117(11):3339-49. PMID: 17975669; PMCID: PMC2045593.
      152. Schauber J, Oda Y, Büchau AS, Yun QC, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Bikle DD, Gallo R. Histone acetylation in keratinocytes enables control of the expression of cathelicidin and CD14 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 Apr; 128(4):816-24. PMID: 17943182.
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      154. Goodarzi H, Trowbridge J, Gallo R. Innate immunity: a cutaneous perspective. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2007 Oct; 33(1-2):15-26. PMID: 17992585.
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      155. Huang LC, Reins RY, Gallo R, McDermott AM. Cathelicidin-deficient (Cnlp -/- ) mice show increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Oct; 48(10):4498-508. PMID: 17898271; PMCID: PMC4234056.
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      157. Yamasaki K, Di Nardo A, Bardan A, Murakami M, Ohtake T, Coda A, Dorschner RA, Bonnart C, Descargues P, Hovnanian A, Morhenn VB, Gallo R. Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea. Nat Med. 2007 Aug; 13(8):975-80. PMID: 17676051.
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      158. Büchau AS, Hassan M, Kukova G, Lewerenz V, Kellermann S, Würthner JU, Wolf R, Walz M, Gallo R, Ruzicka T. S100A15, an antimicrobial protein of the skin: regulation by E. coli through Toll-like receptor 4. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Nov; 127(11):2596-604. PMID: 17625598.
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      159. Fuster MM, Wang L, Castagnola J, Sikora L, Reddi K, Lee PH, Radek KA, Schuksz M, Bishop JR, Gallo R, Sriramarao P, Esko JD. Genetic alteration of endothelial heparan sulfate selectively inhibits tumor angiogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2007 May 07; 177(3):539-49. PMID: 17470635; PMCID: PMC2064806.
      160. Hedlund M, Tangvoranuntakul P, Takematsu H, Long JM, Housley GD, Kozutsumi Y, Suzuki A, Wynshaw-Boris A, Ryan AF, Gallo R, Varki N, Varki A. N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in mice: implications for human biology and evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; 27(12):4340-6. PMID: 17420276; PMCID: PMC1900035.
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      162. Radek K, Gallo R. Antimicrobial peptides: natural effectors of the innate immune system. Semin Immunopathol. 2007 Apr; 29(1):27-43. PMID: 17621952.
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      163. Taylor KR, Yamasaki K, Radek KA, Di Nardo A, Goodarzi H, Golenbock D, Beutler B, Gallo R. Recognition of hyaluronan released in sterile injury involves a unique receptor complex dependent on Toll-like receptor 4, CD44, and MD-2. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 22; 282(25):18265-75. PMID: 17400552.
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      164. Schauber J, Gallo R. Expanding the roles of antimicrobial peptides in skin: alarming and arming keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Mar; 127(3):510-2. PMID: 17299432.
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      165. López-García B, Ubhayasekera W, Gallo R, Marcos JF. Parallel evaluation of antimicrobial peptides derived from the synthetic PAF26 and the human LL37. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 27; 356(1):107-13. PMID: 17336936.
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      166. Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Coda AB, Büchau AS, Liu PT, Kiken D, Helfrich YR, Kang S, Elalieh HZ, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Bikle DD, Modlin RL, Gallo R. Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest. 2007 Mar; 117(3):803-11. PMID: 17290304; PMCID: PMC1784003.
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      168. Park HJ, Kim HJ, Lee JY, Cho BK, Gallo R, Cho DH. Adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulates interleukin-18 expression in human HaCaT keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 May; 127(5):1210-6. PMID: 17235324.
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      169. Kristian SA, Timmer AM, Liu GY, Lauth X, Sal-Man N, Rosenfeld Y, Shai Y, Gallo R, Nizet V. Impairment of innate immune killing mechanisms by bacteriostatic antibiotics. FASEB J. 2007 Apr; 21(4):1107-16. PMID: 17215486.
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      170. Bergman P, Johansson L, Wan H, Jones A, Gallo R, Gudmundsson GH, Hökfelt T, Jonsson AB, Agerberth B. Induction of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP in the blood-brain barrier and meninges after meningococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2006 Dec; 74(12):6982-91. PMID: 17030578; PMCID: PMC1698100.
      171. Yamasaki K, Schauber J, Coda A, Lin H, Dorschner RA, Schechter NM, Bonnart C, Descargues P, Hovnanian A, Gallo R. Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin. FASEB J. 2006 Oct; 20(12):2068-80. PMID: 17012259.
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      172. Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Yamasaki K, Brouha B, Gallo R. Control of the innate epithelial antimicrobial response is cell-type specific and dependent on relevant microenvironmental stimuli. Immunology. 2006 Aug; 118(4):509-19. PMID: 16895558; PMCID: PMC1782325.
      173. Chromek M, Slamová Z, Bergman P, Kovács L, Podracká L, Ehrén I, Hökfelt T, Gudmundsson GH, Gallo R, Agerberth B, Brauner A. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection. Nat Med. 2006 Jun; 12(6):636-41. PMID: 16751768.
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      174. López-García B, Lee PH, Gallo R. Expression and potential function of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 May; 57(5):877-82. PMID: 16556635.
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      175. Howell MD, Gallo R, Boguniewicz M, Jones JF, Wong C, Streib JE, Leung DY. Cytokine milieu of atopic dermatitis skin subverts the innate immune response to vaccinia virus. Immunity. 2006 Mar; 24(3):341-8. PMID: 16546102.
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      176. Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Gallo R, Eisenberg D, Hewison M, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006 Mar 24; 311(5768):1770-3. PMID: 16497887.
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      177. Howell MD, Wollenberg A, Gallo R, Flaig M, Streib JE, Wong C, Pavicic T, Boguniewicz M, Leung DY. Cathelicidin deficiency predisposes to eczema herpeticum. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Apr; 117(4):836-41. PMID: 16630942; PMCID: PMC2727734.
      178. Taylor KR, Gallo R. Glycosaminoglycans and their proteoglycans: host-associated molecular patterns for initiation and modulation of inflammation. FASEB J. 2006 Jan; 20(1):9-22. PMID: 16394262.
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      179. Dorschner RA, Lopez-Garcia B, Peschel A, Kraus D, Morikawa K, Nizet V, Gallo R. The mammalian ionic environment dictates microbial susceptibility to antimicrobial defense peptides. FASEB J. 2006 Jan; 20(1):35-42. PMID: 16394265.
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      180. Kristian SA, Datta V, Weidenmaier C, Kansal R, Fedtke I, Peschel A, Gallo R, Nizet V. D-alanylation of teichoic acids promotes group a streptococcus antimicrobial peptide resistance, neutrophil survival, and epithelial cell invasion. J Bacteriol. 2005 Oct; 187(19):6719-25. PMID: 16166534; PMCID: PMC1251589.
      181. Braff MH, Zaiou M, Fierer J, Nizet V, Gallo R. Keratinocyte production of cathelicidin provides direct activity against bacterial skin pathogens. Infect Immun. 2005 Oct; 73(10):6771-81. PMID: 16177355; PMCID: PMC1230954.
      182. Howell MD, Novak N, Bieber T, Pastore S, Girolomoni G, Boguniewicz M, Streib J, Wong C, Gallo R, Leung DY. Interleukin-10 downregulates anti-microbial peptide expression in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Oct; 125(4):738-45. PMID: 16185274.
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      183. McInturff JE, Wang SJ, Machleidt T, Lin TR, Oren A, Hertz CJ, Krutzik SR, Hart S, Zeh K, Anderson DH, Gallo R, Modlin RL, Kim J. Granulysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against Propionibacterium acnes. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Aug; 125(2):256-63. PMID: 16098035; PMCID: PMC4407689.
      184. Braff MH, Bardan A, Nizet V, Gallo R. Cutaneous defense mechanisms by antimicrobial peptides. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jul; 125(1):9-13. PMID: 15982297.
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      185. López-García B, Lee PH, Yamasaki K, Gallo R. Anti-fungal activity of cathelicidins and their potential role in Candida albicans skin infection. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jul; 125(1):108-15. PMID: 15982310.
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      186. Peyssonnaux C, Datta V, Cramer T, Doedens A, Theodorakis EA, Gallo R, Hurtado-Ziola N, Nizet V, Johnson RS. HIF-1alpha expression regulates the bactericidal capacity of phagocytes. J Clin Invest. 2005 Jul; 115(7):1806-15. PMID: 16007254; PMCID: PMC1159132.
      187. Granstein RD, Ding W, Huang J, Holzer A, Gallo R, Di Nardo A, Wagner JA. Augmentation of cutaneous immune responses by ATP gamma S: purinergic agonists define a novel class of immunologic adjuvants. J Immunol. 2005 Jun 15; 174(12):7725-31. PMID: 15944274.
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      188. Iimura M, Gallo R, Hase K, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Cathelicidin mediates innate intestinal defense against colonization with epithelial adherent bacterial pathogens. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 15; 174(8):4901-7. PMID: 15814717.
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      189. Braff MH, Hawkins MA, Di Nardo A, Lopez-Garcia B, Howell MD, Wong C, Lin K, Streib JE, Dorschner R, Leung DY, Gallo R. Structure-function relationships among human cathelicidin peptides: dissociation of antimicrobial properties from host immunostimulatory activities. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 01; 174(7):4271-8. PMID: 15778390.
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      190. Izadpanah A, Gallo R. Antimicrobial peptides. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Mar; 52(3 Pt 1):381-90; quiz 391-2. PMID: 15761415.
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      191. Lee PH, Ohtake T, Zaiou M, Murakami M, Rudisill JA, Lin KH, Gallo R. Expression of an additional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide protects against bacterial skin infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 08; 102(10):3750-5. PMID: 15728389; PMCID: PMC549293.
      192. Braff MH, Di Nardo A, Gallo R. Keratinocytes store the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in lamellar bodies. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Feb; 124(2):394-400. PMID: 15675959.
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      193. Taylor KR, Rudisill JA, Gallo R. Structural and sequence motifs in dermatan sulfate for promoting fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and FGF-7 activity. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 18; 280(7):5300-6. PMID: 15563459.
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      194. Murakami M, Dorschner RA, Stern LJ, Lin KH, Gallo R. Expression and secretion of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in murine mammary glands and human milk. Pediatr Res. 2005 Jan; 57(1):10-5. PMID: 15531744.
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      195. Lee PH, Trowbridge JM, Taylor KR, Morhenn VB, Gallo R. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis is induced in fibroblasts by transfer to a three-dimensional extracellular environment. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 19; 279(47):48640-6. PMID: 15347686.
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      196. Lee PH, Rudisill JA, Lin KH, Zhang L, Harris SM, Falla TJ, Gallo R. HB-107, a nonbacteriostatic fragment of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin B, accelerates murine wound repair. Wound Repair Regen. 2004 May-Jun; 12(3):351-8. PMID: 15225214.
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      197. Lemperle G, Morhenn VB, Pestonjamasp V, Gallo R. Migration studies and histology of injectable microspheres of different sizes in mice. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Apr 15; 113(5):1380-90. PMID: 15060350.
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      198. Bardan A, Nizet V, Gallo R. Antimicrobial peptides and the skin. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004 Apr; 4(4):543-9. PMID: 15102603.
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      199. Murakami M, Lopez-Garcia B, Braff M, Dorschner RA, Gallo R. Postsecretory processing generates multiple cathelicidins for enhanced topical antimicrobial defense. J Immunol. 2004 Mar 01; 172(5):3070-7. PMID: 14978112.
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      200. Dorschner RA, Lopez-Garcia B, Massie J, Kim C, Gallo R. Innate immune defense of the nail unit by antimicrobial peptides. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Mar; 50(3):343-8. PMID: 14988673.
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      201. Rosenberger CM, Gallo R, Finlay BB. Interplay between antibacterial effectors: a macrophage antimicrobial peptide impairs intracellular Salmonella replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 24; 101(8):2422-7. PMID: 14983025; PMCID: PMC356966.
      202. Taylor KR, Trowbridge JM, Rudisill JA, Termeer CC, Simon JC, Gallo R. Hyaluronan fragments stimulate endothelial recognition of injury through TLR4. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23; 279(17):17079-84. PMID: 14764599.
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      203. Howell MD, Jones JF, Kisich KO, Streib JE, Gallo R, Leung DY. Selective killing of vaccinia virus by LL-37: implications for eczema vaccinatum. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 01; 172(3):1763-7. PMID: 14734759.
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      204. Hase K, Murakami M, Iimura M, Cole SP, Horibe Y, Ohtake T, Obonyo M, Gallo R, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Expression of LL-37 by human gastric epithelial cells as a potential host defense mechanism against Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec; 125(6):1613-25. PMID: 14724813.
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      205. Gallo R, Nizet V. Endogenous production of antimicrobial peptides in innate immunity and human disease. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2003 Sep; 3(5):402-9. PMID: 12906776.
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      206. Koczulla R, von Degenfeld G, Kupatt C, Krötz F, Zahler S, Gloe T, Issbrücker K, Unterberger P, Zaiou M, Lebherz C, Karl A, Raake P, Pfosser A, Boekstegers P, Welsch U, Hiemstra PS, Vogelmeier C, Gallo R, Clauss M, Bals R. An angiogenic role for the human peptide antibiotic LL-37/hCAP-18. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jun; 111(11):1665-72. PMID: 12782669; PMCID: PMC156109.
      207. Zaiou M, Nizet V, Gallo R. Antimicrobial and protease inhibitory functions of the human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) prosequence. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 May; 120(5):810-6. PMID: 12713586.
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      208. Di Nardo A, Vitiello A, Gallo R. Cutting edge: mast cell antimicrobial activity is mediated by expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. J Immunol. 2003 Mar 01; 170(5):2274-8. PMID: 12594247.
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      209. Dorschner RA, Lin KH, Murakami M, Gallo R. Neonatal skin in mice and humans expresses increased levels of antimicrobial peptides: innate immunity during development of the adaptive response. Pediatr Res. 2003 Apr; 53(4):566-72. PMID: 12612195.
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      210. Nizet V, Gallo R. Cathelicidins and innate defense against invasive bacterial infection. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003; 35(9):670-6. PMID: 14620153.
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      211. Gallo R, Murakami M, Ohtake T, Zaiou M. Biology and clinical relevance of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Dec; 110(6):823-31. PMID: 12464945.
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      212. Murakami M, Ohtake T, Dorschner RA, Schittek B, Garbe C, Gallo R. Cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide expression in sweat, an innate defense system for the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Nov; 119(5):1090-5. PMID: 12445197.
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      213. Ong PY, Ohtake T, Brandt C, Strickland I, Boguniewicz M, Ganz T, Gallo R, Leung DY. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis. N Engl J Med. 2002 Oct 10; 347(15):1151-60. PMID: 12374875.
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      214. Trowbridge JM, Rudisill JA, Ron D, Gallo R. Dermatan sulfate binds and potentiates activity of keratinocyte growth factor (FGF-7). J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 08; 277(45):42815-20. PMID: 12215437.
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      215. Conner K, Nern K, Rudisill J, O'Grady T, Gallo R. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is expressed by keratinocytes in condyloma acuminatum and verruca vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Sep; 47(3):347-50. PMID: 12196742.
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      216. Trowbridge JM, Gallo R. Dermatan sulfate: new functions from an old glycosaminoglycan. Glycobiology. 2002 Sep; 12(9):117R-25R. PMID: 12213784.
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      217. Zaiou M, Gallo R. Cathelicidins, essential gene-encoded mammalian antibiotics. J Mol Med (Berl). 2002 Sep; 80(9):549-61. PMID: 12226737.
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      218. Morhenn VB, Lemperle G, Gallo R. Phagocytosis of different particulate dermal filler substances by human macrophages and skin cells. Dermatol Surg. 2002 Jun; 28(6):484-90. PMID: 12081676.
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