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Ravinder Mittal

TitleProfessor In Residence
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentMedicine
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0061
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-534-3328
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Delhi UniversityMedical DegreeMaulana Azad Medical College
    Delhi University HospitalInternship
    New York Medical CollegeResidencyLincoln Hospital
    Yale UniversityFellowshipSchool of Medicine

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Novel Electrical Impedance Methodology to Understand Functional Dysphagia
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK109376Sep 15, 2016 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Anal Sphincter Morphology &Function Assessed with Novel MR Imaging Techniques
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK091348Sep 15, 2011 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel Applications of Sarcomere Length to Improve Anal Continence
    VA I01RX000124Jul 1, 2009 - Sep 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanosensory Motor Neurons of Lower Esophageal Sphincter
    VA I01BX000149Apr 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ROLE OF PUBORECTALIS MUSCLE IN FECAL CONTINENCE
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK065846Sep 15, 2004 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Genesis of Esophageal Pain: Longitudinal Muscle Spasm and Wall Ischemia
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK060733Dec 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHARYNGEAL RECEPTORS AND REFLUX DISEASE
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK051604Jun 1, 1997 - Apr 30, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ANTICHOLINERGICS IN THE TREATMENT OF REFLUX DISEASE
    NIH/NIDDK R03DK052094Jan 10, 1997 - Dec 31, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BIENNIAL AMERICAN MOTILITY SYMPOSIUM
    NIH/NIDDK R13DK048248Sep 30, 1994 - Sep 29, 1995
    Role: Principal Investigator
    THE DIAPHRAGM--AN EXTERNAL LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER
    NIH/NIDDK R29DK040027Jan 1, 1989 - Dec 31, 1994
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH M01RR000847Dec 1, 1977 - Feb 28, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Zifan A, Sun C, Gourcerol G, Leroi AM, Mittal RK. Endoflip vs high-definition manometry in the assessment of fecal incontinence: A data-driven unsupervised comparison. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018 Sep 14; e13462. PMID: 30216661.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Tuttle LJ, Zifan A, Sun C, Swartz J, Roalkvam S, Mittal RK. Measuring Length Tension Function of the Anal Sphincters and Puborectalis Muscle using Functional Luminal Imaging Probe. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30160982.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Babaei A, Mittal RK. Cholecystokinin Induces esophageal longitudinal muscle contraction and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Jun 14. PMID: 29902066.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Park S, Zifan A, Kumar D, Mittal RK. Genesis of Esophageal Pressurization and Bolus Flow Patterns in Patients with Achalasia Esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2018 May 04. PMID: 29733830.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Mittal RK. Is the Lower Esophageal Sphincter Tone Related to a Gas? Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Mar; 5(3):239-240. PMID: 29675449.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Zifan A, Kumar D, Cheng LK, Mittal RK. Three-Dimensional Myoarchitecture of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter and Esophageal Hiatus Using Optical Sectioning Microscopy. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 13; 7(1):13188. PMID: 29030643.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Rajasekaran MR, Kanoo S, Fu J, Nguyen ML, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Age-related external anal sphincter muscle dysfunction and fibrosis: possible role of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 Dec 01; 313(6):G581-G588. PMID: 28838987.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Mittal RK, Zifan A, Kumar D, Ledgerwood-Lee M, Ruppert E, Ghahremani G. Functional morphology of the lower esophageal sphincter and crural diaphragm determined by three-dimensional high-resolution esophago-gastric junction pressure profile and CT imaging. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 Sep 01; 313(3):G212-G219. PMID: 28572086.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Rajasekaran MR, Kanoo S, Fu J, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Wnt-ß Catenin Signaling Pathway: A Major Player in the Injury Induced Fibrosis and Dysfunction of the External Anal Sphincter. Sci Rep. 2017 04 19; 7(1):963. PMID: 28424479.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Jiang Y, Dong H, Eckmann L, Hanson EM, Ihn KC, Mittal RK. Visualizing the enteric nervous system using genetically engineered double reporter mice: Comparison with immunofluorescence. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171239. PMID: 28158225.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lee RH, Korsapati H, Bhalla V, Varki N, Mittal RK. Esophageal Submucosal Injection of Capsaicin but Not Acid Induces Symptoms in Normal Subjects. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 Jul 30; 22(3):436-43. PMID: 26932896; PMCID: PMC4930298.
    12. Zifan A, Ledgerwood-Lee M, Mittal RK. A Predictive Model to Identify Patients With Fecal Incontinence Based on High-Definition Anorectal Manometry. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Dec; 14(12):1788-1796.e2. PMID: 27464594.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Mittal RK. Regulation and dysregulation of esophageal peristalsis by the integrated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Sep 01; 311(3):G431-43. PMID: 27445346.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Kim TH, Patel N, Ledgerwood-Lee M, Mittal RK. Esophageal contractions in type 3 achalasia esophagus: simultaneous or peristaltic? Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 May 01; 310(9):G689-95. PMID: 26950858; PMCID: PMC4867325 [Available on 05/01/17].
    15. Jiang Y, Mittal RK. Low esophageal mucosal blood flow in patients with nutcracker esophagus. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Mar 15; 310(6):G410-6. PMID: 26702139; PMCID: PMC4796296 [Available on 03/15/17].
    16. Patel N, Jiang Y, Mittal RK, Kim TH, Ledgerwood M, Bhargava V. Circular and longitudinal muscles shortening indicates sliding patterns during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Sep 01; 309(5):G360-7. PMID: 26045610; PMCID: PMC4556947.
    17. Dong H, Jiang Y, Dong J, Mittal RK. Inhibitory motor neurons of the esophageal myenteric plexus are mechanosensitive. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015 Mar 01; 308(5):C405-13. PMID: 25540174.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Mittal RK, Sheean G, Padda BS, Rajasekaran MR. Length tension function of puborectalis muscle: implications for the treatment of fecal incontinence and pelvic floor disorders. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Oct 30; 20(4):539-46. PMID: 25273124; PMCID: PMC4204420.
    19. Mittal RK. Esophageal function testing: beyond manometry and impedance. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2014 Oct; 24(4):667-85. PMID: 25216911; PMCID: PMC4428911.
    20. Rajasekaran MR, Sinha S, Seo Y, Salehi M, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Myoarchitectural and functional alterations in rabbit external anal sphincter muscle following experimental surgical trauma. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Aug 15; 307(4):G445-51. PMID: 24994856.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Mittal RK, Bhargava V, Sheean G, Ledgerwood M, Sinha S. Purse-string morphology of external anal sphincter revealed by novel imaging techniques. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Mar; 306(6):G505-14. PMID: 24458022; PMCID: PMC3949029.
    22. Kim YS, Weinstein M, Raizada V, Jiang Y, Bhargava V, Rajasekaran MR, Mittal RK. Anatomical disruption and length-tension dysfunction of anal sphincter complex muscles in women with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum. 2013 Nov; 56(11):1282-9. PMID: 24105004; PMCID: PMC3802525.
    23. Powley TL, Mittal RK, Baronowsky EA, Hudson CN, Martin FN, McAdams JL, Mason JK, Phillips RJ. Architecture of vagal motor units controlling striated muscle of esophagus: peripheral elements patterning peristalsis? Auton Neurosci. 2013 Dec; 179(1-2):90-8. PMID: 24044976; PMCID: PMC3844123.
    24. Mittal RK. Esophageal sphincter device/antireflux surgery: who needs it? Gastroenterology. 2013 Sep; 145(3):679-81. PMID: 23891608.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Mittal RK. Longitudinal muscle of the esophagus: its role in esophageal health and disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul; 29(4):421-30. PMID: 23739655.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Dong H, Jiang Y, Srinivasan S, Mittal RK. Morphological, immunocytochemical, and functional characterization of esophageal enteric neurons in primary culture. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013 Jul 15; 305(2):G129-38. PMID: 23660501; PMCID: PMC4520575.
    27. Mittal RK, Hong SJ, Bhargava V. Longitudinal muscle dysfunction in achalasia esophagus and its relevance. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Apr; 19(2):126-36. PMID: 23667744; PMCID: PMC3644649.
    28. Rajasekaran MR, Sohn D, Salehi M, Bhargava V, Fritsch H, Mittal RK. Role of puborectalis muscle in the genesis of urethral pressure. J Urol. 2012 Oct; 188(4):1382-8. PMID: 22906663.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Jiang Y, Bhargava V, Kim YS, Mittal RK. Esophageal wall blood perfusion during contraction and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Sep 01; 303(5):G529-35. PMID: 22790599; PMCID: PMC3468561.
    30. Leslie E, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. A novel pattern of longitudinal muscle contraction with subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus: a possible mechanism of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Mar 01; 302(5):G542-7. PMID: 22173917; PMCID: PMC3311436.
    31. Mittal RK, Karstens A, Leslie E, Babaei A, Bhargava V. Ambulatory high-resolution manometry, lower esophageal sphincter lift and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 Jan; 24(1):40-6, e2. PMID: 22074595; PMCID: PMC3746064.
    32. Rajasekaran MR, Jiang Y, Bhargava V, Ramamoorthy S, Lieber RL, Mittal RK. Sustained improvement in the anal sphincter function following surgical plication of rabbit external anal sphincter muscle. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011 Nov; 54(11):1373-80. PMID: 21979181.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Mittal RK, Bhargava V, Lal H, Jiang Y. Effect of esophageal contraction on esophageal wall blood perfusion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Dec; 301(6):G1093-8. PMID: 21903762.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Jiang Y, Bhargava V, Lal HA, Mittal RK. Variability in the muscle composition of rat esophagus and neural pathway of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Dec; 301(6):G1014-9. PMID: 21885684.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Weinstein MM, Pretorius DH, Jung SA, Wan JJ, Nager CW, Mittal RK. Anal sphincter complex muscles defects and dysfunction in asymptomatic parous women. Int Urogynecol J. 2011 Sep; 22(9):1143-50. PMID: 21604060.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Mittal RK, Sheean G, Padda BS, Lieber R, Raj Rajasekaran M. The external anal sphincter operates at short sarcomere length in humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Jul; 23(7):643-e258. PMID: 21418426.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Jiang Y, Sandler B, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Antireflux action of Nissen fundoplication and stretch-sensitive mechanism of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Gastroenterology. 2011 Feb; 140(2):442-9. PMID: 20955702.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Park FD, Bain AJ, Mittal RK. Granulocytic sarcoma of the colon. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Jan; 9(1):A26. PMID: 20692367.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Lee JK, Bhargava V, Mittal RK, Ghosh P. Achalasia, alcohol-stasis, and acute necrotizing esophagitis: connecting the dots. Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Feb; 56(2):612-4. PMID: 20552400; PMCID: PMC3029818.
    40. Raizada V, Bhargava V, Jung SA, Karstens A, Pretorius D, Krysl P, Mittal RK. Dynamic assessment of the vaginal high-pressure zone using high-definition manometery, 3-dimensional ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic floor muscles. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug; 203(2):172.e1-8. PMID: 20462564; PMCID: PMC2910785.
    41. Hong SJ, Bhargava V, Jiang Y, Denboer D, Mittal RK. A unique esophageal motor pattern that involves longitudinal muscles is responsible for emptying in achalasia esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jul; 139(1):102-11. PMID: 20381493; PMCID: PMC2950263.
    42. Sampath NJ, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Genesis of multipeaked waves of the esophagus: repetitive contractions or motion artifact? Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Jun; 298(6):G927-33. PMID: 20360132; PMCID: PMC3774336.
    43. Babaei A, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Upper esophageal sphincter during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation: effects of reflux content and posture. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 May; 298(5):G601-7. PMID: 20167874; PMCID: PMC2867416.
    44. Ramamoorthy SL, Lee JK, Mintz Y, Cullen J, Savu MK, Easter DW, Chock A, Mittal R, Horgan S, Talamini MA. The impact of proton-pump inhibitors on intraperitoneal sepsis: a word of caution for transgastric NOTES procedures. Surg Endosc. 2010 Jan; 24(1):16-20. PMID: 19551440.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Jiang Y, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Mechanism of stretch-activated excitatory and inhibitory responses in the lower esophageal sphincter. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug; 297(2):G397-405. PMID: 19520741; PMCID: PMC2724084.
    46. Raizada V, Mittal RK. Pelvic floor anatomy and applied physiology. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008 Sep; 37(3):493-509, vii. PMID: 18793993; PMCID: PMC2617789.
    47. Weinstein MM, Pretorius DH, Jung SA, Nager CW, Mittal RK. Transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound imaging for detection of anatomic defects in the anal sphincter complex muscles. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Feb; 7(2):205-11. PMID: 18996750; PMCID: PMC2835972.
    48. Rajasekaran MR, Jiang Y, Bhargava V, Littlefield R, Lee A, Lieber RL, Mittal RK. Length-tension relationship of the external anal sphincter muscle: implications for the anal canal function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Aug; 295(2):G367-73. PMID: 18599590; PMCID: PMC2519855.
    49. Korsapati H, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Reversal of asynchrony between circular and longitudinal muscle contraction in nutcracker esophagus by atropine. Gastroenterology. 2008 Sep; 135(3):796-802. PMID: 18675815.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Naranje S, Mittal R, Nag H, Sharma R. Arthroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscus lesions in the chronic anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. Arthroscopy. 2008 Sep; 24(9):1045-51. PMID: 18760213.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Jung SA, Pretorius DH, Weinstein M, Nager CW, Den-Boer D, Mittal RK. Closure mechanism of the anal canal in women: assessed by three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Jun; 51(6):932-9. PMID: 18330648.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Babaei A, Bhargava V, Korsapati H, Zheng WH, Mittal RK. A unique longitudinal muscle contraction pattern associated with transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Gastroenterology. 2008 May; 134(5):1322-31. PMID: 18384786.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Korsapati H, Babaei A, Bhargava V, Mittal RK. Cholinergic stimulation induces asynchrony between the circular and longitudinal muscle contraction during esophageal peristalsis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Mar; 294(3):G694-8. PMID: 18187516.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Weinstein MM, Jung SA, Pretorius DH, Nager CW, den Boer DJ, Mittal RK. The reliability of puborectalis muscle measurements with 3-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul; 197(1):68.e1-6. PMID: 17618762.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Jung SA, Pretorius DH, Padda BS, Weinstein MM, Nager CW, den Boer DJ, Mittal RK. Vaginal high-pressure zone assessed by dynamic 3-dimensional ultrasound images of the pelvic floor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul; 197(1):52.e1-7. PMID: 17618755; PMCID: PMC2680732.
    56. Tipnis NA, Rhee PL, Mittal RK. Distension during gastroesophageal reflux: effects of acid inhibition and correlation with symptoms. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Aug; 293(2):G469-74. PMID: 17556589.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Dogan I, Puckett JL, Padda BS, Mittal RK. Prevalence of increased esophageal muscle thickness in patients with esophageal symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jan; 102(1):137-45. PMID: 17266691.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Dogan I, Bhargava V, Liu J, Mittal RK. Axial stretch: A novel mechanism of the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jan; 292(1):G329-34. PMID: 17023549.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Padda BS, Jung SA, Pretorius D, Nager CW, Den-Boer D, Mittal RK. Effects of pelvic floor muscle contraction on anal canal pressure. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Feb; 292(2):G565-71. PMID: 17023551.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Dogan I, Mittal RK. Esophageal motor disorders: recent advances. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul; 22(4):417-22. PMID: 16760760.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Liu J, Guaderrama N, Nager CW, Pretorius DH, Master S, Mittal RK. Functional correlates of anal canal anatomy: puborectalis muscle and anal canal pressure. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 May; 101(5):1092-7. PMID: 16606349.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Tipnis NA, Liu J, Puckett JL, Mittal RK. Common cavity pressure during gastroesophageal reflux: reassessment using simultaneous pressure, impedance, and ultrasound imaging. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Jun; 290(6):G1149-56. PMID: 16439471.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Mittal RK, Padda B, Bhalla V, Bhargava V, Liu J. Synchrony between circular and longitudinal muscle contractions during peristalsis in normal subjects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Mar; 290(3):G431-8. PMID: 16210472.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Guaderrama NM, Liu J, Nager CW, Pretorius DH, Sheean G, Kassab G, Mittal RK. Evidence for the innervation of pelvic floor muscles by the pudendal nerve. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct; 106(4):774-81. PMID: 16199635.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Jung HY, Puckett JL, Bhalla V, Rojas-Feria M, Bhargava V, Liu J, Mittal RK. Asynchrony between the circular and the longitudinal muscle contraction in patients with nutcracker esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2005 May; 128(5):1179-86. PMID: 15887102.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Mittal RK, Liu J. Flow across the gastro-esophageal junction: lessons from the sleeve sensor on the nature of anti-reflux barrier. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2005 Apr; 17(2):187-90. PMID: 15787938.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Mittal RK. Motor and sensory function of the esophagus: revelations through ultrasound imaging. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr; 39(4 Suppl 2):S42-8. PMID: 15758658.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Mittal RK, Liu J, Puckett JL, Bhalla V, Bhargava V, Tipnis N, Kassab G. Sensory and motor function of the esophagus: lessons from ultrasound imaging. Gastroenterology. 2005 Feb; 128(2):487-97. PMID: 15685559.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Guaderrama NM, Nager CW, Liu J, Pretorius DH, Mittal RK. The vaginal pressure profile. Neurourol Urodyn. 2005; 24(3):243-7. PMID: 15714439.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Puckett JL, Liu J, Bhalla V, Kravetz D, Krinsky ML, Hassanein T, Mittal RK. Ultrasound system to measure esophageal varix pressure: an in vitro validation study. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 May; 288(5):G914-9. PMID: 15626729.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Liu J, Puckett JL, Takeda T, Jung HY, Mittal RK. Crural diaphragm inhibition during esophageal distension correlates with contraction of the esophageal longitudinal muscle in cats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 May; 288(5):G927-32. PMID: 15626730.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Mittal RK, Bhalla V. Oesophageal motor functions and its disorders. Gut. 2004 Oct; 53(10):1536-42. PMID: 15361508; PMCID: PMC1774230.
    73. Jung B, Steinbach J, Beaumont C, Mittal RK. Lack of association between esophageal acid sensitivity detected by prolonged pH monitoring and Bernstein testing. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar; 99(3):410-5. PMID: 15056077.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Bhalla V, Liu J, Puckett JL, Mittal RK. Symptom hypersensitivity to acid infusion is associated with hypersensitivity of esophageal contractility. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Jul; 287(1):G65-71. PMID: 14977636.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Mittal RK, Kassab GS. Esophagogastric junction opening: does it explain the difference between normal subjects and patients with reflux disease? Gastroenterology. 2003 Oct; 125(4):1258-60. PMID: 14517807.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Mittal RK. Measuring esophageal distention by high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound probe. Am J Med. 2003 Aug 18; 115 Suppl 3A:130S-136S. PMID: 12928089.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Mittal RK, Kassab G, Puckett JL, Liu J. Hypertrophy of the muscularis propria of the lower esophageal sphincter and the body of the esophagus in patients with primary motility disorders of the esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Aug; 98(8):1705-12. PMID: 12907322.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Mittal RK. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux: motility factors. J Gastroenterol. 2003 Mar; 38 Suppl 15:7-12. PMID: 12698864.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Takeda T, Kassab G, Liu J, Nabae T, Mittal RK. Effect of atropine on the biomechanical properties of the oesophageal wall in humans. J Physiol. 2003 Mar 01; 547(Pt 2):621-8. PMID: 12562937; PMCID: PMC2342665.
    80. Steinbach J, Fass R, Mittal RK. Assessment of relationship between acid reflux and heartburn using receiver operating characteristic curves. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2002 Dec; 31(4 Suppl):S45-58. PMID: 12489470.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Rhee PL, Liu J, Puckett JL, Mittal RK. Measuring esophageal distension by high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound probe. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Oct; 283(4):G886-92. PMID: 12223348.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Pehlivanov N, Liu J, Kassab GS, Beaumont C, Mittal RK. Relationship between esophageal muscle thickness and intraluminal pressure in patients with esophageal spasm. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Jun; 282(6):G1016-23. PMID: 12016127.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Takeda T, Kassab G, Liu J, Puckett JL, Mittal RR, Mittal RK. A novel ultrasound technique to study the biomechanics of the human esophagus in vivo. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 May; 282(5):G785-93. PMID: 11960775.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Liu J, Pehlivanov N, Mittal RK. Baclofen blocks LES relaxation and crural diaphragm inhibition by esophageal and gastric distension in cats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Dec; 283(6):G1276-81. PMID: 12388201.
      View in: PubMed
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