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    Gary Firestein

    TitleDistinguished Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0602
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-822-0591
    vCardDownload vCard
      Other Positions
      TitleDean and Associate Vice Chancellor of Translational Medicine
      InstitutionUniversity of California, San Diego

      TitleDirector, Clinical and Translational Reserch Institute (CTRI)
      InstitutionUniversity of California, San Diego


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Johns Hopkins UniversityMDSchool of Medicine
      Harvard CollegeAB
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      Arthritis Foundation2016 Lee C. Howley Sr Prize for Arthritis Research
      Johns Hopkins Alumni Association2012Distinguished Alumnus Award
      Arthritis Foundation2010Jane Wyman Humanitarian Award
      American College of Rheumatology2009Distinguished Investigator Award
      Arthritis Foundation2006Lee C. Howley Sr Prize for Arthritis Research
      Wiesbaden, Germany1998Carol-Nachman Prize

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Gary S. Firestein, MD is Director of the Clinical and Translational Research Institute and the Dean and Associate Vice Chancellor of Translational Medicine at UC San Diego. Dr. Firestein joined the faculty at UCSD School of Medicine as Assistant Professor of Medicine in 1988. Four years later, he was recruited by Gensia, Inc. to be Director of Immunology where he supervised drug discovery efforts focusing on the potential role of purines in inflammation. In 1996, he returned to UCSD where he served as chief of the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology from 1998 until 2010.
      Dr. Firestein's research interest focuses on the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. He was among the first to map the cytokine profile of RA and demonstrate the dominance of macrophage and fibroblast products. These studies played a pivotal role in the development of highly effective anti-TNF and other anti-cytokine therapies for RA. In 1998, Dr. Firestein received the Carol-Nachman Prize, which is an international award given for outstanding contributions to rheumatology research. In 2006 and 2009, he received the Arthritis Foundation Lee C. Howley Sr Prize for Arthritis Research and the American College of Rheumatology Distinguished Investigator Award, respectively. Dr. Firestein received the Arthritis Foundation's Jane Wyman Humanitarian Award in 2010 for contributions to rheumatology. He has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians.
      Dr. Firestein has written over 300 articles and chapters and has edited or written several books. He served as the Deputy Editor of Arthritis & Rheumatism and is currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Kelley Textbook of Rheumatology. He was chairperson of the FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee and has served on the Board of Directors of the ACR Research and Education Foundation, on the ACR Committee on Research, and on the Arthritis Foundation Research Committee. He currently is a member of the Board of Directors of the Veteran's Medical Research Foundation and serves on the NIAMS Advisory Council.


      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Identifying synergistic therapeutic targets in RA using systems biology
      NIH/NIAMS R21AR070310Sep 15, 2016 - Jun 30, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      UC San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
      NIH/NCATS UL1TR001442Aug 13, 2015 - Mar 31, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      High resolution DNA methylation signature in rheumatoid arthritis
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR065466Aug 1, 2014 - Jul 31, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
      NIH/NCATS UL1TR000100Jul 1, 2010 - Sep 30, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
      NIH/NCRR KL2RR031978Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
      NIH/NCATS KL2TR000099Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
      NIH/NCRR TL1RR031979Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
      NIH/NCATS TL1TR000098Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
      NIH/NCRR UL1RR031980Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Innate immunity and the IKKi complex in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) synovium
      NIH/NIAID R01AI067752Feb 1, 2007 - Jan 31, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Regulation of p38 and inflammation by MAPK kinases
      NIH/NIAID R01AI070555May 15, 2006 - Mar 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      IKKi expression and regulation in rheumatoid arthritis
      NIH/NIAID R03AI058954Apr 1, 2004 - Mar 31, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      c-Jun N-terminal kinase and joint destruction in RA
      NIH/NIAMS R55AR047825Sep 30, 2001 - Jun 14, 2002
      Role: Principal Investigator
      RHEUMATIC DISEASES CORE CENTER
      NIH/NIAMS P30AR047360Sep 28, 2001 - Mar 31, 2008
      Role: Co-Investigator
      c-Jun N-terminal kinase and joint destruction in RA
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR047825Jul 1, 2001 - Aug 31, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Training grant in Rheumatic Diseases
      NIH/NIAMS T32AR007608Apr 1, 2000 - Apr 30, 2012
      Role: Principal Investigator
      REGULATION OF PERIPHERAL INFLAMMATION BY THE CNS
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR045282Jan 15, 1999 - Nov 30, 2003
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MOLECULAR THERAPEUTICS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
      NIH/NIAMS P50AR044850Sep 28, 1998 - Aug 31, 2004
      Role: Co-Investigator
      CONFERENCE ON PATHOGENESIS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
      NIH/NIAMS R13AR045165Jan 1, 1998 - Dec 31, 1998
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Synovial dysfunction due to p53 abnormalities in RA
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR045347Sep 30, 1997 - Apr 30, 2008
      Role: Principal Investigator
      APOPTOSIS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR043892Sep 30, 1996 - Sep 29, 1998
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MULTIPURPOSE ARTHRITIS &MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE CENTER
      NIH/NIAMS P60AR040770Aug 1, 1991 - Feb 28, 2002
      Role: Co-Investigator
      CYTOKINE INTERACTIONS IN INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR040525Aug 31, 1990 - Jun 30, 1996
      Role: Principal Investigator
      LYMPHOKINES IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
      NIH/NIAMS R29AR039576Jul 1, 1988 - Jun 30, 1993
      Role: Principal Investigator
      IMMUNOREACTANTS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR014916May 1, 1976 - Dec 31, 1990
      Role: Principal Investigator
      IMMUNOREACTANTS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES
      NIH/NIADDK R01AM014916May 1, 1976 - Dec 31, 1989
      Role: Principal Investigator
      RHEUMATIC DISEASES
      NIH/NIAMS T32AR007062Jul 1, 1975 - Sep 30, 1998
      Role: Principal Investigator
      RHEUMATIC DISEASES
      NIH/NIADDK T32AM007062Jul 1, 1975 - Jun 30, 1990
      Role: Principal Investigator
      General Clinical Research Center
      NIH/NCRR M01RR000827Mar 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2010
      Role: Co-Investigator

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Featured Publications
      Collapse Websites
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      Collapse In The News

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Matsuda S, Hammaker D, Topolewski K, Briegel KJ, Boyle DL, Dowdy S, Wang W, Firestein G. Regulation of the Cell Cycle and Inflammatory Arthritis by the Transcription Cofactor LBH Gene. J Immunol. 2017 Aug 14. PMID: 28807995.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Viger ML, Collet G, Lux J, Nguyen Huu VA, Guma M, Foucault-Collet A, Olejniczak J, Joshi-Barr S, Firestein G, Almutairi A. Distinct ON/OFF fluorescence signals from dual-responsive activatable nanoprobes allows detection of inflammation with improved contrast. Biomaterials. 2017 Jul; 133:119-131. PMID: 28433935.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Doody KM, Bottini N, Firestein G. Epigenetic alterations in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Epigenomics. 2017 Apr; 9(4):479-492. PMID: 28322585.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Firestein G, McInnes IB. Immunopathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Immunity. 2017 Feb 21; 46(2):183-196. PMID: 28228278.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Hammaker D, Whitaker JW, Maeshima K, Boyle DL, Ekwall AH, Wang W, Firestein G. LBH Gene Transcription Regulation by the Interplay of an Enhancer Risk Allele and DNA Methylation in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Nov; 68(11):2637-2645. PMID: 27159840.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Rhead B, Holingue C, Cole M, Shao X, Quach HL, Quach D, Shah K, Sinclair E, Graf J, Link T, Harrison R, Rahmani E, Halperin E, Wang W, Firestein G, Barcellos LF, Criswell LA. Rheumatoid arthritis naïve T cells share hypermethylation sites with synoviocytes. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Oct 9. PMID: 27723282.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Ai R, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Morgan R, Walsh AM, Fan S, Firestein G, Wang W. Joint-specific DNA methylation and transcriptome signatures in rheumatoid arthritis identify distinct pathogenic processes. Nat Commun. 2016; 7:11849. PMID: 27282753.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Maeshima K, Stanford SM, Hammaker D, Sacchetti C, Zeng LF, Ai R, Zhang V, Boyle DL, Aleman Muench GR, Feng GS, Whitaker JW, Zhang ZY, Wang W, Bottini N, Firestein G. Abnormal PTPN11 enhancer methylation promotes rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocyte aggressiveness and joint inflammation. JCI Insight. 2016 May 19; 1(7). PMID: 27275015.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Guma M, Tiziani S, Firestein G. Metabolomics in rheumatic diseases: desperately seeking biomarkers. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016 May; 12(5):269-81. PMID: 26935283.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Stanford SM, Svensson MN, Sacchetti C, Pilo CA, Wu DJ, Kiosses WB, Hellvard A, Bergum B, Muench GR, Elly C, Liu YC, den Hertog J, Elson A, Sap J, Mydel P, Boyle DL, Corr M, Firestein G, Bottini N. Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase a-Mediated Enhancement of Rheumatoid Synovial Fibroblast Signaling and Promotion of Arthritis in Mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Feb; 68(2):359-69. PMID: 26414708.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Bottini N, Firestein G. Decade in review-translational rheumatology: Ten years after: rheumatology research from bench to bedside. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015 Nov; 11(11):623-4. PMID: 26390844.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Whitaker JW, Boyle DL, Bartok B, Ball ST, Gay S, Wang W, Firestein G. Correction: Integrative Omics Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Identifies Non-Obvious Therapeutic Targets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136334. PMID: 26288175.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Ai R, Whitaker JW, Boyle DL, Tak PP, Gerlag DM, Wang W, Firestein G. DNA Methylome Signature in Synoviocytes From Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Compared to Synoviocytes From Patients With Longstanding Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Jul; 67(7):1978-80. PMID: 25808728.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Doody KM, Stanford SM, Sacchetti C, D Svensson MN, Coles CH, Mitakidis N, Kiosses WB, Bartok B, Fos C, Cory E, Sah RL, Liu-Bryan R, Boyle DL, Arnett HA, Mustelin T, Corr M, Esko JD, Tremblay ML, Firestein G, Aricescu AR, Bottini N. Targeting phosphatase-dependent proteoglycan switch for rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Sci Transl Med. 2015 May 20; 7(288):288ra76. PMID: 25995222.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Ekwall AK, Whitaker JW, Hammaker D, Bugbee WD, Wang W, Firestein G. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Gene LBH Regulates Growth in Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 May; 67(5):1193-202. PMID: 25707478.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Firestein G, Corr M. In memoriam: nathan j. Zvaifler, MD, 1927-2015. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 May; 67(5):1143. PMID: 25917709.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Whitaker JW, Boyle DL, Bartok B, Ball ST, Gay S, Wang W, Firestein G. Integrative omics analysis of rheumatoid arthritis identifies non-obvious therapeutic targets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0124254. PMID: 25901943.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Schepetkin IA, Kirpotina LN, Hammaker D, Kochetkova I, Khlebnikov AI, Lyakhov SA, Firestein G, Quinn MT. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Joint Protection in Collagen-Induced Arthritis after Treatment with IQ-1S, a Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015 Jun; 353(3):505-16. PMID: 25784649.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Boland BS, Boyle DL, Sandborn WJ, Firestein G, Levesque BG, Hillman J, Zhang B, Proudfoot J, Eckmann L, Ernst PB, Rivera-Nieves J, Pola S, Copur-Dahi N, Zou G, Chang JT. Validation of Gene Expression Biomarker Analysis for Biopsy-based Clinical Trials in Crohn's Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 Feb; 21(2):323-30. PMID: 25545378.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Stanford SM, Aleman Muench GR, Bartok B, Sacchetti C, Kiosses WB, Sharma J, Maestre MF, Bottini M, Mustelin T, Boyle DL, Firestein G, Bottini N. TGFß responsive tyrosine phosphatase promotes rheumatoid synovial fibroblast invasiveness. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jan; 75(1):295-302. PMID: 25378349.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Gong W, Kolker SJ, Usachev Y, Walder RY, Boyle DL, Firestein G, Sluka KA. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 decreases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and induces synoviocyte cell death by increasing intracellular calcium. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(3):R121. PMID: 24923411.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Topolewski K, Firestein G. Differential regulation of anti-inflammatory genes by p38 MAP kinase and MAP kinase kinase 6. J Inflamm (Lond). 2014; 11:14. PMID: 24855454.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Leinders M, Koehrn FJ, Bartok B, Boyle DL, Shubayev V, Kalcheva I, Yu NK, Park J, Kaang BK, Hefferan MP, Firestein G, Sorkin LS. Differential distribution of PI3K isoforms in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia: Potential roles in acute inflammatory pain. Pain. 2014 Jun; 155(6):1150-60. PMID: 24631588.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Bartok B, Hammaker D, Firestein G. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase d Regulates Migration and Invasion of Synoviocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Immunol. 2014 Mar 1; 192(5):2063-70. PMID: 24470496.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Boyle DL, Hammaker D, Edgar M, Zaiss MM, Teufel S, David JP, Schett G, Firestein G. Differential Roles of MAPK Kinases MKK3 and MKK6 in Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Loss. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84818. PMID: 24400116.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Firestein G. The disease formerly known as rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(3):114. PMID: 25167330.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Boyle DL, Kim HR, Topolewski K, Bartok B, Firestein G. Novel Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase d,? Inhibitor: Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Joint Protection in Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Feb; 348(2):271-80. PMID: 24244039.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Bottini N, Firestein G. Epigenetics in rheumatoid arthritis: a primer for rheumatologists. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2013 Nov; 15(11):372. PMID: 24072602.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Stanford SM, Maestre MF, Campbell AM, Bartok B, Kiosses WB, Boyle DL, Arnett HA, Mustelin T, Firestein G, Bottini N. Protein tyrosine phosphatase expression profile of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes: a novel role of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 as a modulator of invasion and survival. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 May; 65(5):1171-80. PMID: 23335101.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Sluka KA, Rasmussen LA, Edgar MM, O'Donnell JM, Walder RY, Kolker SJ, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 deficiency increases inflammation but decreases pain behavior in murine arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 May; 65(5):1194-202. PMID: 23335302.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Whitaker JW, Shoemaker R, Boyle DL, Hillman J, Anderson D, Wang W, Firestein G. An imprinted rheumatoid arthritis methylome signature reflects pathogenic phenotype. Genome Med. 2013; 5(4):40. PMID: 23631487.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Nakano K, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Regulation of DNA methylation in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2013 Feb 1; 190(3):1297-303. PMID: 23277489.
        View in: PubMed
      33. McCarty WJ, Cheng JC, Hansen BC, Yamaguchi T, Firestein G, Masuda K, Sah RL. The biophysical mechanisms of altered hyaluronan concentration in synovial fluid after anterior cruciate ligament transection. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Dec; 64(12):3993-4003. PMID: 22933328.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Bottini N, Firestein G. Duality of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in RA: passive responders and imprinted aggressors. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013 Jan; 9(1):24-33. PMID: 23147896.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Guma M, Firestein G. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase in Inflammation and Rheumatic Diseases. Open Rheumatol J. 2012; 6:220-31. PMID: 23028407.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Guma M, Hammaker D, Topolewski K, Corr M, Boyle DL, Karin M, Firestein G. Antiinflammatory functions of p38 in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis: advantages of targeting upstream kinases MKK-3 or MKK-6. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Sep; 64(9):2887-95. PMID: 22488549.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Guma M, Firestein G. IgG4-related diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2012 Aug; 26(4):425-38. PMID: 23040358.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Nakano K, Whitaker JW, Boyle DL, Wang W, Firestein G. DNA methylome signature in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Jan; 72(1):110-7. PMID: 22736089.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Bartok B, Boyle DL, Liu Y, Ren P, Ball ST, Bugbee WD, Rommel C, Firestein G. PI3 kinase d is a key regulator of synoviocyte function in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2012 May; 180(5):1906-16. PMID: 22433439.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Hammaker D, Topolewski K, Edgar M, Yoshizawa T, Fukushima A, Boyle DL, Burak EC, Sah RL, Firestein G. Decreased collagen-induced arthritis severity and adaptive immunity in MKK-6-deficient mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Mar; 64(3):678-87. PMID: 21953132.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Chan EF, Harjanto R, Asahara H, Inoue N, Masuda K, Bugbee WD, Firestein G, Hosalkar HS, Lotz MK, Sah RL. Structural and functional maturation of distal femoral cartilage and bone during postnatal development and growth in humans and mice. Orthop Clin North Am. 2012 Apr; 43(2):173-85, v. PMID: 22480467.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Lee SI, Boyle DL, Berdeja A, Firestein G. Regulation of inflammatory arthritis by the upstream kinase mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 7 in the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012; 14(1):R38. PMID: 22353730.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Rosengren S, Corr M, Firestein G, Boyle DL. The JAK inhibitor CP-690,550 (tofacitinib) inhibits TNF-induced chemokine expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes: autocrine role of type I interferon. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Mar; 71(3):440-7. PMID: 22121136.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Luo Y, Boyle DL, Hammaker D, Edgar M, Franzoso G, Firestein G. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis in growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45ß-deficient mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Oct; 63(10):2949-55. PMID: 21702006.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Hui AY, McCarty WJ, Masuda K, Firestein G, Sah RL. A systems biology approach to synovial joint lubrication in health, injury, and disease. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2012 Jan-Feb; 4(1):15-37. PMID: 21826801.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Guma M, Ronacher LM, Firestein G, Karin M, Corr M. JNK-1 deficiency limits macrophage-mediated antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Jun; 63(6):1603-12. PMID: 21305529.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: TANK-binding kinase-1 as a potential therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012 Apr; 51(4):610-8. PMID: 21613249.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Genovese MC, Cohen SB, Wofsy D, Weinblatt ME, Firestein G, Brahn E, Strand V, Baker DG, Tong SE. A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of the efficacy of oral SCIO-469, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2011 May; 38(5):846-54. PMID: 21285160.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Corr M, Boyle DL, Ronacher LM, Lew BR, van Baarsen LG, Tak PP, Firestein G. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist mediates the beneficial effects of systemic interferon beta in mice: implications for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 May; 70(5):858-63. PMID: 21216819.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Guma M, Kashiwakura J, Crain B, Kawakami Y, Beutler B, Firestein G, Kawakami T, Karin M, Corr M. JNK1 controls mast cell degranulation and IL-1{beta} production in inflammatory arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21; 107(51):22122-7. PMID: 21135226.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Toh ML, Gonzales G, Koenders MI, Tournadre A, Boyle D, Lubberts E, Zhou Y, Firestein G, van den Berg WB, Miossec P. Role of interleukin 17 in arthritis chronicity through survival of synoviocytes via regulation of synoviolin expression. PLoS One. 2010; 5(10):e13416. PMID: 20976214.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Waldburger JM, Firestein G. Regulation of peripheral inflammation by the central nervous system. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2010 Oct; 12(5):370-8. PMID: 20676807.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Christianson CA, Corr M, Firestein G, Mobargha A, Yaksh TL, Svensson CI. Characterization of the acute and persistent pain state present in K/BxN serum transfer arthritis. Pain. 2010 Nov; 151(2):394-403. PMID: 20739123.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Gorovoy M, Gaultier A, Campana WM, Firestein G, Gonias SL. Inflammatory mediators promote production of shed LRP1/CD91, which regulates cell signaling and cytokine expression by macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2010 Oct; 88(4):769-78. PMID: 20610799.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Sweeney SE, Kimbler TB, Firestein G. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: II. Pivotal role of IFN regulatory factor 3. J Immunol. 2010 Jun 15; 184(12):7162-8. PMID: 20483755.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Blewis ME, Lao BJ, Jadin KD, McCarty WJ, Bugbee WD, Firestein G, Sah RL. Semi-permeable membrane retention of synovial fluid lubricants hyaluronan and proteoglycan 4 for a biomimetic bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010 May 1; 106(1):149-60. PMID: 20014439.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Blewis ME, Lao BJ, Schumacher BL, Bugbee WD, Sah RL, Firestein G. Interactive cytokine regulation of synoviocyte lubricant secretion. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Apr; 16(4):1329-37. PMID: 19908966.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Schett G, Firestein G. Mr Outside and Mr Inside: classic and alternative views on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 May; 69(5):787-9. PMID: 20299352.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Firestein G. 'Rac'-ing upstream to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010; 12(1):109. PMID: 20236447.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Scatizzi JC, Hutcheson J, Pope RM, Firestein G, Koch AE, Mavers M, Smason A, Agrawal H, Haines GK, Chandel NS, Hotchkiss RS, Perlman H. Bim-Bcl-2 homology 3 mimetic therapy is effective at suppressing inflammatory arthritis through the activation of myeloid cell apoptosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Feb; 62(2):441-51. PMID: 20112357.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Bartok B, Firestein G. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes: key effector cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Immunol Rev. 2010 Jan; 233(1):233-55. PMID: 20193003.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Firestein G. Somatic mutations and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: comment on the editorial by Levesque et al. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Jan; 62(1):303-4. PMID: 20039399.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Svensson CI, Inoue T, Hammaker D, Fukushima A, Papa S, Franzoso G, Schett G, Corr M, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Gadd45beta deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis: enhanced synovitis through JNK signaling. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Nov; 60(11):3229-40. PMID: 19877043.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Yoshizawa T, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Corr M, Flavell R, Davis R, Schett G, Firestein G. Role of MAPK kinase 6 in arthritis: distinct mechanism of action in inflammation and cytokine expression. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 15; 183(2):1360-7. PMID: 19561096.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Brydges SD, Mueller JL, McGeough MD, Pena CA, Misaghi A, Gandhi C, Putnam CD, Boyle DL, Firestein G, Horner AA, Soroosh P, Watford WT, O'Shea JJ, Kastner DL, Hoffman HM. Inflammasome-mediated disease animal models reveal roles for innate but not adaptive immunity. Immunity. 2009 Jun 19; 30(6):875-87. PMID: 19501000.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Fukushima A, Boyle DL, Corr M, Firestein G. Kinetic analysis of synovial signalling and gene expression in animal models of arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 May; 69(5):918-23. PMID: 19473996.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Khanna D, Clements PJ, Furst DE, Korn JH, Ellman M, Rothfield N, Wigley FM, Moreland LW, Silver R, Kim YH, Steen VD, Firestein G, Kavanaugh AF, Weisman M, Mayes MD, Collier D, Csuka ME, Simms R, Merkel PA, Medsger TA, Sanders ME, Maranian P, Seibold JR. Recombinant human relaxin in the treatment of systemic sclerosis with diffuse cutaneous involvement: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Apr; 60(4):1102-11. PMID: 19333948.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Offner H, Firestein G, Boyle DL, Pieters R, Frincke JM, Garsd A, White SK, Reading CL, Auci DL. An orally bioavailable synthetic analog of an active dehydroepiandrosterone metabolite reduces established disease in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Jun; 329(3):1100-9. PMID: 19297421.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Waldburger JM, Firestein G. Garden of therapeutic delights: new targets in rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11(1):206. PMID: 19232066.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Sun Y, Mauerhan DR, Firestein G, Loeffler BJ, Hanley EN, Gruber HE. Telomerase transduced osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes display a distinct gene expression profile. J Rheumatol. 2009 Jan; 36(1):141-55. PMID: 19040300.
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      71. Waldburger JM, Boyle DL, Pavlov VA, Tracey KJ, Firestein G. Acetylcholine regulation of synoviocyte cytokine expression by the alpha7 nicotinic receptor. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Nov; 58(11):3439-49. PMID: 18975306.
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      72. Miyao M, Firestein G, Keithley EM. Acoustic trauma augments the cochlear immune response to antigen. Laryngoscope. 2008 Oct; 118(10):1801-8. PMID: 18806477.
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      73. Yoshizawa T, Hammaker D, Sweeney SE, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: I. Differential regulation of interferon responses and the JNK pathway by MAPK kinases. J Immunol. 2008 Sep 1; 181(5):3252-8. PMID: 18713996.
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      74. Waldburger JM, Boyle DL, Edgar M, Sorkin LS, Levine YA, Pavlov VA, Tracey K, Firestein G. Spinal p38 MAP kinase regulates peripheral cholinergic outflow. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Sep; 58(9):2919-21. PMID: 18759350.
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      75. Sweeney SE, Firestein G. Primer: signal transduction in rheumatic disease--a clinician's guide. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2007 Nov; 3(11):651-60. PMID: 17968336.
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      76. Sun Y, Firestein G, Boyle D, Gruber H, Cheung H. Longterm culture of telomerase-transduced rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes display a distinct gene expression pattern. J Rheumatol. 2007 Oct; 34(10):1959-70. PMID: 17896808.
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      77. Kammouni W, Wong K, Ma G, Firestein G, Gibson SB, El-Gabalawy HS. Regulation of apoptosis in fibroblast-like synoviocytes by the hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 family member Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kd protein-interacting protein 3. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Sep; 56(9):2854-63. PMID: 17763440.
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      78. Oliver SJ, Firestein G, Arsenault L, Cruz TF, Cheng TP, Banquerigo ML, Boyle DL, Brahn E. Vanadate, an inhibitor of stromelysin and collagenase expression, suppresses collagen induced arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2007 Sep; 34(9):1802-9. PMID: 17696279.
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      79. Sweeney SE, Mo L, Firestein G. Antiviral gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis: role of IKKepsilon and interferon regulatory factor 3. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Mar; 56(3):743-52. PMID: 17328045.
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      80. Firestein G. Biomedicine. Every joint has a silver lining. Science. 2007 Feb 16; 315(5814):952-3. PMID: 17303744.
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      81. Hammaker DR, Boyle DL, Inoue T, Firestein G. Regulation of the JNK pathway by TGF-beta activated kinase 1 in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007; 9(3):R57. PMID: 17559674.
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      82. Rosengren S, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Acquisition, culture, and phenotyping of synovial fibroblasts. Methods Mol Med. 2007; 135:365-75. PMID: 17951672.
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      83. Ruiz PJ, Masliah E, Doherty TA, Quach A, Firestein G. Cardiac death in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease treated with the interleukin 1 receptor inhibitor anakinra. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Mar; 66(3):422-3. PMID: 17179171.
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      84. Hoffman HM, Firestein G. Anakinra for the treatment of neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006 Dec; 2(12):646-7. PMID: 17133246.
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      85. Tas SW, Hajji N, Stenvers DJ, Firestein G, Vervoordeldonk MJ, Tak PP. Reduction of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the synovium by targeting IKKbeta in vivo in a rat model. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Nov; 54(11):3716-8. PMID: 17075886.
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      86. Gerlag DM, Boyle DL, Rosengren S, Nash T, Tak PP, Firestein G. Real-time quantitative PCR to detect changes in synovial gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis after corticosteroid treatment. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Apr; 66(4):545-7. PMID: 16984938.
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      87. Borazjani BH, Chen AC, Bae WC, Patil S, Sah RL, Firestein G, Bugbee WD. Effect of impact on chondrocyte viability during insertion of human osteochondral grafts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Sep; 88(9):1934-43. PMID: 16951108.
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      88. Boyle DL, Jones TL, Hammaker D, Svensson CI, Rosengren S, Albani S, Sorkin L, Firestein G. Regulation of peripheral inflammation by spinal p38 MAP kinase in rats. PLoS Med. 2006 Sep; 3(9):e338. PMID: 16953659.
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      89. Tas SW, Adriaansen J, Hajji N, Bakker AC, Firestein G, Vervoordeldonk MJ, Tak PP. Amelioration of arthritis by intraarticular dominant negative Ikk beta gene therapy using adeno-associated virus type 5. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Aug; 17(8):821-32. PMID: 16942442.
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      90. Inoue T, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Regulation of JNK by MKK-7 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Jul; 54(7):2127-35. PMID: 16802349.
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      91. Inoue T, Boyle DL, Corr M, Hammaker D, Davis RJ, Flavell RA, Firestein G. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 is a pivotal pathway regulating p38 activation in inflammatory arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 4; 103(14):5484-9. PMID: 16567640.
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      92. Cha HS, Rosengren S, Boyle DL, Firestein G. PUMA regulation and proapoptotic effects in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Feb; 54(2):587-92. PMID: 16447235.
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      93. Cha HS, Boyle DL, Inoue T, Schoot R, Tak PP, Pine P, Firestein G. A novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor blocks c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated gene expression in synoviocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 May; 317(2):571-8. PMID: 16452391.
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      94. Firestein G. Inhibiting inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 5; 354(1):80-2. PMID: 16394307.
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      95. Satoh H, Billings P, Firestein G, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Transforming growth factor beta expression during an inner ear immune response. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006 Jan; 115(1):81-8. PMID: 16466104.
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      96. You X, Boyle DL, Hammaker D, Firestein G. PUMA-mediated apoptosis in fibroblast-like synoviocytes does not require p53. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(6):R157. PMID: 17014719.
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      97. Bresnihan B, Baeten D, Firestein G, Fitzgerald OM, Gerlag DM, Haringman JJ, McInnes IB, Reece RJ, Smith MD, Ulfgren AK, Veale DJ, Tak PP. Synovial tissue analysis in clinical trials. J Rheumatol. 2005 Dec; 32(12):2481-4. PMID: 16331792.
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      98. Firestein G. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: how early is early? Arthritis Res Ther. 2005; 7(4):157-9. PMID: 15987499.
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      99. Firestein G. Immunologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2005 Jun; 11(3 Suppl):S39-44. PMID: 16357749.
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      100. Simelyte E, Rosengren S, Boyle DL, Corr M, Green DR, Firestein G. Regulation of arthritis by p53: critical role of adaptive immunity. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jun; 52(6):1876-84. PMID: 15934085.
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      101. Sweeney SE, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Regulation of c-Jun phosphorylation by the I kappa B kinase-epsilon complex in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2005 May 15; 174(10):6424-30. PMID: 15879144.
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      102. Liu-Bryan R, Pritzker K, Firestein G, Terkeltaub R. TLR2 signaling in chondrocytes drives calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and monosodium urate crystal-induced nitric oxide generation. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 15; 174(8):5016-23. PMID: 15814732.
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      103. Inoue T, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Regulation of p38 MAPK by MAPK kinases 3 and 6 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 1; 174(7):4301-6. PMID: 15778394.
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      104. Kasperkovitz PV, Timmer TC, Smeets TJ, Verbeet NL, Tak PP, van Baarsen LG, Baltus B, Huizinga TW, Pieterman E, Fero M, Firestein G, van der Pouw Kraan TC, Verweij CL. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis show the imprint of synovial tissue heterogeneity: evidence of a link between an increased myofibroblast-like phenotype and high-inflammation synovitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Feb; 52(2):430-41. PMID: 15692990.
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      105. Firestein G, Corr M. Common mechanisms in immune-mediated inflammatory disease. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2005 Feb; 73:8-13; discussion 29-30. PMID: 15693110.
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      106. Hashimoto S, Billings P, Harris JP, Firestein G, Keithley EM. Innate immunity contributes to cochlear adaptive immune responses. Audiol Neurootol. 2005 Jan-Feb; 10(1):35-43. PMID: 15567913.
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      107. Cheon H, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-3 regulation and microsatellite structure in arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2004 Nov; 31(11):2106-14. PMID: 15517620.
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      108. Hoffman HM, Rosengren S, Boyle DL, Cho JY, Nayar J, Mueller JL, Anderson JP, Wanderer AA, Firestein G. Prevention of cold-associated acute inflammation in familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13-19; 364(9447):1779-85. PMID: 15541451.
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      109. Yamanishi Y, Boyle DL, Green DR, Keystone EC, Connor A, Zollman S, Firestein G. p53 tumor suppressor gene mutations in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from erosion synovium and non-erosion synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005; 7(1):R12-8. PMID: 15642132.
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      110. Sun Y, Firestein G, Wenger L, Huang CY, Cheung HS. Telomerase-transduced osteoarthritic fibroblast-like synoviocyte cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Oct 29; 323(4):1287-92. PMID: 15451436.
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      111. Firestein G. The T cell cometh: interplay between adaptive immunity and cytokine networks in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2004 Aug; 114(4):471-4. PMID: 15314683.
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      112. Firestein G. NF-kappaB: Holy Grail for rheumatoid arthritis? Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Aug; 50(8):2381-6. PMID: 15334448.
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      113. Sweeney SE, Firestein G. Signal transduction in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004 May; 16(3):231-7. PMID: 15103250.
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      114. Sweeney SE, Firestein G. Rheumatoid arthritis: regulation of synovial inflammation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Mar; 36(3):372-8. PMID: 14687914.
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      115. Hammaker DR, Boyle DL, Chabaud-Riou M, Firestein G. Regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase by MEKK-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 1; 172(3):1612-8. PMID: 14734742.
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      116. Chabaud-Riou M, Firestein G. Expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases-3 and -6 in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2004 Jan; 164(1):177-84. PMID: 14695331.
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      117. Bradley K, Scatizzi JC, Fiore S, Shamiyeh E, Koch AE, Firestein G, Gorges LL, Kuntsman K, Pope RM, Moore TL, Han J, Perlman H. Retinoblastoma suppression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, but not interleukin-6, through a p38-dependent pathway in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jan; 50(1):78-87. PMID: 14730602.
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      118. Rosengren S, Firestein G, Boyle DL. Measurement of inflammatory biomarkers in synovial tissue extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003 Nov; 10(6):1002-10. PMID: 14607859.
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      119. Sorkin LS, Moore J, Boyle DL, Yang L, Firestein G. Regulation of peripheral inflammation by spinal adenosine: role of somatic afferent fibers. Exp Neurol. 2003 Nov; 184(1):162-8. PMID: 14637089.
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      120. Boyle DL, Rosengren S, Bugbee W, Kavanaugh A, Firestein G. Quantitative biomarker analysis of synovial gene expression by real-time PCR. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003; 5(6):R352-60. PMID: 14680510.
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      121. Sundarrajan M, Boyle DL, Chabaud-Riou M, Hammaker D, Firestein G. Expression of the MAPK kinases MKK-4 and MKK-7 in rheumatoid arthritis and their role as key regulators of JNK. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Sep; 48(9):2450-60. PMID: 13130464.
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      122. Satoh H, Firestein G, Billings PB, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Proinflammatory cytokine expression in the endolymphatic sac during inner ear inflammation. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003 Jun; 4(2):139-47. PMID: 12943369.
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      123. Firestein G. Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature. 2003 May 15; 423(6937):356-61. PMID: 12748655.
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      124. Sorkin LS, Maruyama K, Boyle DL, Yang L, Marsala M, Firestein G. Spinal adenosine agonist reduces c-fos and astrocyte activation in dorsal horn of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Apr 10; 340(2):119-22. PMID: 12668251.
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      125. Cramer T, Yamanishi Y, Clausen BE, Förster I, Pawlinski R, Mackman N, Haase VH, Jaenisch R, Corr M, Nizet V, Firestein G, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Johnson RS. HIF-1alpha is essential for myeloid cell-mediated inflammation. Cell. 2003 Mar 7; 112(5):645-57. PMID: 12628185.
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      126. Lee SH, Chang DK, Goel A, Boland CR, Bugbee W, Boyle DL, Firestein G. Microsatellite instability and suppressed DNA repair enzyme expression in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 15; 170(4):2214-20. PMID: 12574395.
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      127. Perlman H, Bradley K, Liu H, Cole S, Shamiyeh E, Smith RC, Walsh K, Fiore S, Koch AE, Firestein G, Haines GK, Pope RM. IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 are regulated by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in synovial fibroblasts. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 15; 170(2):838-45. PMID: 12517948.
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      128. Boyle DL, Moore J, Yang L, Sorkin LS, Firestein G. Spinal adenosine receptor activation inhibits inflammation and joint destruction in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov; 46(11):3076-82. PMID: 12428252.
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      129. Satoh H, Firestein G, Billings PB, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, an initiator, and etanercept, an inhibitor of cochlear inflammation. Laryngoscope. 2002 Sep; 112(9):1627-34. PMID: 12352677.
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      130. Yamanishi Y, Boyle DL, Rosengren S, Green DR, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein G. Regional analysis of p53 mutations in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):10025-30. PMID: 12119414.
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      131. Corr M, Firestein G. Innate immunity as a hired gun: but is it rheumatoid arthritis? J Exp Med. 2002 Apr 15; 195(8):F33-5. PMID: 11956300.
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      132. Firestein G, Pisetsky DS. DNA microarrays: boundless technology or bound by technology? Guidelines for studies using microarray technology. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Apr; 46(4):859-61. PMID: 11953960.
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      133. Han Z, Chang L, Yamanishi Y, Karin M, Firestein G. Joint damage and inflammation in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 knockout mice with passive murine collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Mar; 46(3):818-23. PMID: 11920420.
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      134. Yamanishi Y, Boyle DL, Clark M, Maki RA, Tortorella MD, Arner EC, Firestein G. Expression and regulation of aggrecanase in arthritis: the role of TGF-beta. J Immunol. 2002 Feb 1; 168(3):1405-12. PMID: 11801682.
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      135. Firestein G, Zvaifler NJ. How important are T cells in chronic rheumatoid synovitis?: II. T cell-independent mechanisms from beginning to end. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Feb; 46(2):298-308. PMID: 11840432.
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      136. Corr M, Firestein G. The genetics of the target tissue in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Feb; 28(1):79-94. PMID: 11840699.
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      137. Yamanishi Y, Boyle DL, Pinkoski MJ, Mahboubi A, Lin T, Han Z, Zvaifler NJ, Green DR, Firestein G. Regulation of joint destruction and inflammation by p53 in collagen-induced arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2002 Jan; 160(1):123-30. PMID: 11786406.
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      138. Ronaghy A, Prakken BJ, Takabayashi K, Firestein G, Boyle D, Zvailfler NJ, Roord ST, Albani S, Carson DA, Raz E. Immunostimulatory DNA sequences influence the course of adjuvant arthritis. J Immunol. 2002 Jan 1; 168(1):51-6. PMID: 11751945.
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