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Gary Firestein

TitleDistinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentMedicine
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0602
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-822-0591
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    Other Positions
    TitleDean and Associate Vice Chancellor for Clinical and Translational Research

    TitleDirector, Clinical and Translational Reserch Institute (CTRI)


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Johns Hopkins UniversityMDSchool of Medicine
    Harvard CollegeAB
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Arthritis Foundation2016 Lee C. Howley Sr Prize for Arthritis Research
    Johns Hopkins Alumni Association2012Distinguished Alumnus Award
    Arthritis Foundation2010Jane Wyman Humanitarian Award
    American College of Rheumatology2009Distinguished Investigator Award
    Arthritis Foundation2006Lee C. Howley Sr Prize for Arthritis Research
    Wiesbaden, Germany1998Carol-Nachman Prize

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Gary S. Firestein, MD is Director of the Clinical and Translational Research Institute and the Dean and Associate Vice Chancellor of Translational Medicine at UC San Diego. Dr. Firestein joined the faculty at UCSD School of Medicine as Assistant Professor of Medicine in 1988. Four years later, he was recruited by Gensia, Inc. to be Director of Immunology where he supervised drug discovery efforts focusing on the potential role of purines in inflammation. In 1996, he returned to UCSD where he served as chief of the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology from 1998 until 2010.

    Dr. Firestein's research interest focuses on the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. He was among the first to map the cytokine profile of RA and demonstrate the dominance of macrophage and fibroblast products. These studies played a pivotal role in the development of highly effective anti-TNF and other anti-cytokine therapies for RA. In 1998, Dr. Firestein received the Carol-Nachman Prize, which is an international award given for outstanding contributions to rheumatology research. In 2006 and 2009, he received the Arthritis Foundation Lee C. Howley Sr Prize for Arthritis Research and the American College of Rheumatology Distinguished Investigator Award, respectively. Dr. Firestein received the Arthritis Foundation's Jane Wyman Humanitarian Award in 2010 for contributions to rheumatology. He has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians.

    Dr. Firestein has written over 300 articles and chapters and has edited or written several books. He served as the Deputy Editor of Arthritis & Rheumatism and is currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Kelley and Firestein’s Textbook of Rheumatology. He was chairperson of the FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee and has served on the Board of Directors of the ACR Research and Education Foundation, the ACR Committee on Research, the Arthritis Foundation Research Committee, the Board of Directors of the Veteran's Medical Research Foundation and NIAMS Advisory Council. He currently serves on the American College of Rheumatology Board of Directors.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Joint-location specific pathogenic pathways in rheumatoid arthritis
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR071321Jul 1, 2018 - Apr 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Identifying synergistic therapeutic targets in RA using systems biology
    NIH/NIAMS R21AR070310Sep 15, 2016 - Jun 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UC San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
    NIH/NCATS UL1TR001442Aug 13, 2015 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    High resolution DNA methylation signature in rheumatoid arthritis
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR065466Aug 1, 2014 - Jul 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
    NIH/NCATS UL1TR000100Jul 1, 2010 - Sep 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
    NIH/NCRR KL2RR031978Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
    NIH/NCATS KL2TR000099Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
    NIH/NCRR TL1RR031979Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
    NIH/NCATS TL1TR000098Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego Clinical and Translational Research Institute
    NIH/NCRR UL1RR031980Jul 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Innate immunity and the IKKi complex in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) synovium
    NIH/NIAID R01AI067752Feb 1, 2007 - Jan 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of p38 and inflammation by MAPK kinases
    NIH/NIAID R01AI070555May 15, 2006 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IKKi expression and regulation in rheumatoid arthritis
    NIH/NIAID R03AI058954Apr 1, 2004 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase and joint destruction in RA
    NIH/NIAMS R55AR047825Sep 30, 2001 - Jun 14, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RHEUMATIC DISEASES CORE CENTER
    NIH/NIAMS P30AR047360Sep 28, 2001 - Mar 31, 2008
    Role: Co-Investigator
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase and joint destruction in RA
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR047825Jul 1, 2001 - Aug 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Training grant in Rheumatic Diseases
    NIH/NIAMS T32AR007608Apr 1, 2000 - Apr 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    REGULATION OF PERIPHERAL INFLAMMATION BY THE CNS
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR045282Jan 15, 1999 - Nov 30, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MOLECULAR THERAPEUTICS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    NIH/NIAMS P50AR044850Sep 28, 1998 - Aug 31, 2004
    Role: Co-Investigator
    CONFERENCE ON PATHOGENESIS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    NIH/NIAMS R13AR045165Jan 1, 1998 - Dec 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Synovial dysfunction due to p53 abnormalities in RA
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR045347Sep 30, 1997 - Apr 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    APOPTOSIS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR043892Sep 30, 1996 - Sep 29, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MULTIPURPOSE ARTHRITIS &MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE CENTER
    NIH/NIAMS P60AR040770Aug 1, 1991 - Feb 28, 2002
    Role: Co-Investigator
    CYTOKINE INTERACTIONS IN INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR040525Aug 31, 1990 - Jun 30, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    LYMPHOKINES IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    NIH/NIAMS R29AR039576Jul 1, 1988 - Jun 30, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IMMUNOREACTANTS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR014916May 1, 1976 - Dec 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IMMUNOREACTANTS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES
    NIH/NIADDK R01AM014916May 1, 1976 - Dec 31, 1989
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RHEUMATIC DISEASES
    NIH/NIAMS T32AR007062Jul 1, 1975 - Sep 30, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RHEUMATIC DISEASES
    NIH/NIADDK T32AM007062Jul 1, 1975 - Jun 30, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000827Mar 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Chang AY, Tritsch S, Reid SP, Martins K, Encinales L, Pacheco N, Amdur RL, Porras-Ramirez A, Rico-Mendoza A, Li G, Peng J, Firestein GS, Simon GL, Bethony JM. The Cytokine Profile in Acute Chikungunya Infection is Predictive of Chronic Arthritis 20 Months Post Infection. Diseases. 2018 Oct 20; 6(4). PMID: 30347791.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Depp CA, Howland A, Dumbauld J, Fontanesi J, Firestein D, Firestein GS. Development of a game-based learning tool for applied team science communication in a virtual clinical trial. J Clin Transl Sci. 2018 Jun; 2(3):169-172. PMID: 30370069.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Visweswaran S, Becich MJ, D'Itri VS, Sendro ER, MacFadden D, Anderson NR, Allen KA, Ranganathan D, Murphy SN, Morrato EH, Pincus HA, Toto R, Firestein GS, Nadler LM, Reis SE. Accrual to Clinical Trials (ACT): A Clinical and Translational Science Award Consortium Network. JAMIA Open. 2018 Oct; 1(2):147-152. PMID: 30474072.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bustamante MF, Oliveira PG, Garcia-Carbonell R, Croft AP, Smith JM, Serrano RL, Sanchez-Lopez E, Liu X, Kisseleva T, Hay N, Buckley CD, Firestein GS, Murphy AN, Miyamoto S, Guma M. Hexokinase 2 as a novel selective metabolic target for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Jul 30. PMID: 30061164.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Chang AY, Reid P, Encinales L, Bethony JM, Simon GL, Firestein GS. Reply to Comment on "Chikungunya Arthritis Mechanisms in the Americas: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Chikungunya Arthritis Patients Twenty-Two Months After Infection Demonstrating No Detectable Viral Persistence In Synovial Fluid", Autoimmunity and Lesser Virulence of Asian Lineage of Chikungunya Virus? Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Jul 13. PMID: 30003684.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Chang AY, Encinales L, Firestein GS, Simon GL, Bethony JM. Reply to Comments on "The frequency of Chronic Joint Pain Following Chikungunya Virus Infection A Colombian Cohort Study". Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Jul 12. PMID: 30003712.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Donlin LT, Rao DA, Wei K, Slowikowski K, McGeachy MJ, Turner JD, Meednu N, Mizoguchi F, Gutierrez-Arcelus M, Lieb DJ, Keegan J, Muskat K, Hillman J, Rozo C, Ricker E, Eisenhaure TM, Li S, Browne EP, Chicoine A, Sutherby D, Noma A, Nusbaum C, Kelly S, Pernis AB, Ivashkiv LB, Goodman SM, Robinson WH, Utz PJ, Lederer JA, Gravallese EM, Boyce BF, Hacohen N, Pitzalis C, Gregersen PK, Firestein GS, Raychaudhuri S, Moreland LW, Holers VM, Bykerk VP, Filer A, Boyle DL, Brenner MB, Anolik JH. Methods for high-dimensonal analysis of cells dissociated from cyropreserved synovial tissue. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018 Jul 11; 20(1):139. PMID: 29996944.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ai R, Laragione T, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Wildberg A, Maeshima K, Palescandolo E, Krishna V, Pocalyko D, Whitaker JW, Bai Y, Nagpal S, Bachman KE, Ainsworth RI, Wang M, Ding B, Gulko PS, Wang W, Firestein GS. Comprehensive epigenetic landscape of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Nat Commun. 2018 May 15; 9(1):1921. PMID: 29765031.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Chang AY, Martins KAO, Encinales L, Reid SP, Acuña M, Encinales C, Matranga CB, Pacheco N, Cure C, Shukla B, Ruiz Arteta T, Amdur R, Cazares LH, Gregory M, Ward MD, Porras A, Rico Mendoza A, Dong L, Kenny T, Brueggemann E, Downey LG, Kamalapathy P, Lichtenberger P, Falls O, Simon GL, Bethony JM, Firestein GS. Chikungunya Arthritis Mechanisms in the Americas: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Chikungunya Arthritis Patients Twenty-Two Months After Infection Demonstrating No Detectable Viral Persistence in Synovial Fluid. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Apr; 70(4):585-593. PMID: 29266856.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Chang AY, Encinales L, Porras A, Pacheco N, Reid SP, Martins KAO, Pacheco S, Bravo E, Navarno M, Rico Mendoza A, Amdur R, Kamalapathy P, Firestein GS, Bethony JM, Simon GL. Frequency of Chronic Joint Pain Following Chikungunya Virus Infection: A Colombian Cohort Study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Apr; 70(4):578-584. PMID: 29266783.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hammaker D, Firestein GS. Epigenetics of inflammatory arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2018 Mar; 30(2):188-196. PMID: 29194108.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Smolen JS, Aletaha D, Barton A, Burmester GR, Emery P, Firestein GS, Kavanaugh A, McInnes IB, Solomon DH, Strand V, Yamamoto K. Rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 Feb 08; 4:18001. PMID: 29417936.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Nygaard G, Di Paolo JA, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Budas G, Notte GT, Mikaelian I, Barry V, Firestein GS. Regulation and function of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in rheumatoid arthritis. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 May; 151:282-290. PMID: 29408488.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Firestein GS. PATHOGENESIS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: THE INTERSECTION OF GENETICS AND EPIGENETICS. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2018; 129:171-182. PMID: 30166712.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Matsuda S, Hammaker D, Topolewski K, Briegel KJ, Boyle DL, Dowdy S, Wang W, Firestein GS. Regulation of the Cell Cycle and Inflammatory Arthritis by the Transcription Cofactor LBH Gene. J Immunol. 2017 10 01; 199(7):2316-2322. PMID: 28807995.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Hong SS, Marotte H, Courbon G, Firestein GS, Boulanger P, Miossec P. PUMA gene delivery to synoviocytes reduces inflammation and degeneration of arthritic joints. Nat Commun. 2017 07 27; 8(1):146. PMID: 28747638.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Caligiuri M, Allen K, Buscher N, Denney L, Gates C, Kantelo K, Magit A, Sak R, Firestein GS, Fontanesi J. A multisite study of performance drivers among institutional review boards. J Clin Transl Sci. 2017 Jun; 1(3):192-197. PMID: 29093967.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Kim KW, Kim BM, Lee KA, Lee SH, Firestein GS, Kim HR. Histamine and Histamine H4 Receptor Promotes Osteoclastogenesis in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Sci Rep. 2017 04 26; 7(1):1197. PMID: 28446753.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Tost J, Gay S, Firestein G. Epigenetics of the immune system and alterations in inflammation and autoimmunity. Epigenomics. 2017 Apr; 9(4):371-373. PMID: 28378617.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Viger ML, Collet G, Lux J, Nguyen Huu VA, Guma M, Foucault-Collet A, Olejniczak J, Joshi-Barr S, Firestein GS, Almutairi A. Distinct ON/OFF fluorescence signals from dual-responsive activatable nanoprobes allows detection of inflammation with improved contrast. Biomaterials. 2017 Jul; 133:119-131. PMID: 28433935.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Doody KM, Bottini N, Firestein GS. Epigenetic alterations in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Epigenomics. 2017 Apr; 9(4):479-492. PMID: 28322585.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Rhead B, Holingue C, Cole M, Shao X, Quach HL, Quach D, Shah K, Sinclair E, Graf J, Link T, Harrison R, Rahmani E, Halperin E, Wang W, Firestein GS, Barcellos LF, Criswell LA. Rheumatoid Arthritis Naive T Cells Share Hypermethylation Sites With Synoviocytes. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 03; 69(3):550-559. PMID: 27723282.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Firestein GS, McInnes IB. Immunopathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Immunity. 2017 02 21; 46(2):183-196. PMID: 28228278.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Clark RB, Schmidt TA, Sachse FB, Boyle D, Firestein GS, Giles WR. Cellular electrophysiological principles that modulate secretion from synovial fibroblasts. J Physiol. 2017 Feb 01; 595(3):635-645. PMID: 27079855.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Hammaker D, Whitaker JW, Maeshima K, Boyle DL, Ekwall AH, Wang W, Firestein GS. LBH Gene Transcription Regulation by the Interplay of an Enhancer Risk Allele and DNA Methylation in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 11; 68(11):2637-2645. PMID: 27159840.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Ai R, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Morgan R, Walsh AM, Fan S, Firestein GS, Wang W. Joint-specific DNA methylation and transcriptome signatures in rheumatoid arthritis identify distinct pathogenic processes. Nat Commun. 2016 Jun 10; 7:11849. PMID: 27282753; PMCID: PMC4906396.
    27. Maeshima K, Stanford SM, Hammaker D, Sacchetti C, Zeng LF, Ai R, Zhang V, Boyle DL, Aleman Muench GR, Feng GS, Whitaker JW, Zhang ZY, Wang W, Bottini N, Firestein GS. Abnormal PTPN11 enhancer methylation promotes rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocyte aggressiveness and joint inflammation. JCI Insight. 2016 May 19; 1(7). PMID: 27275015.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Guma M, Tiziani S, Firestein GS. Metabolomics in rheumatic diseases: desperately seeking biomarkers. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016 May; 12(5):269-81. PMID: 26935283; PMCID: PMC4963238.
    29. Fan S, Li C, Ai R, Wang M, Firestein GS, Wang W. Computationally expanding infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data to reveal distinct DNA methylation patterns of rheumatoid arthritis. Bioinformatics. 2016 06 15; 32(12):1773-8. PMID: 26883487; PMCID: PMC4908326 [Available on 06/15/17].
    30. Stanford SM, Svensson MN, Sacchetti C, Pilo CA, Wu DJ, Kiosses WB, Hellvard A, Bergum B, Muench GR, Elly C, Liu YC, den Hertog J, Elson A, Sap J, Mydel P, Boyle DL, Corr M, Firestein GS, Bottini N. Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase a-Mediated Enhancement of Rheumatoid Synovial Fibroblast Signaling and Promotion of Arthritis in Mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Feb; 68(2):359-69. PMID: 26414708; PMCID: PMC4770259 [Available on 02/01/17].
    31. Bottini N, Firestein GS. Decade in review-translational rheumatology: Ten years after: rheumatology research from bench to bedside. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015 Nov; 11(11):623-4. PMID: 26390844.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Whitaker JW, Boyle DL, Bartok B, Ball ST, Gay S, Wang W, Firestein GS. Correction: Integrative Omics Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Identifies Non-Obvious Therapeutic Targets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136334. PMID: 26288175; PMCID: PMC4544850.
    33. Ai R, Whitaker JW, Boyle DL, Tak PP, Gerlag DM, Wang W, Firestein GS. DNA Methylome Signature in Synoviocytes From Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Compared to Synoviocytes From Patients With Longstanding Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Jul; 67(7):1978-80. PMID: 25808728; PMCID: PMC4485541.
    34. Firestein GS, Diamond JS. In appreciation of Joan M. Bathon, MD, Editor, Arthritis & Rheumatology, 2010-2015. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Jun; 67(6):1411. PMID: 26010937.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Doody KM, Stanford SM, Sacchetti C, Svensson MN, Coles CH, Mitakidis N, Kiosses WB, Bartok B, Fos C, Cory E, Sah RL, Liu-Bryan R, Boyle DL, Arnett HA, Mustelin T, Corr M, Esko JD, Tremblay ML, Firestein GS, Aricescu AR, Bottini N. Targeting phosphatase-dependent proteoglycan switch for rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Sci Transl Med. 2015 May 20; 7(288):288ra76. PMID: 25995222.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Firestein GS, Corr M. In memoriam: Nathan J. Zvaifler, MD, 1927-2015. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 May; 67(5):1143. PMID: 25917709.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Ekwall AK, Whitaker JW, Hammaker D, Bugbee WD, Wang W, Firestein GS. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Gene LBH Regulates Growth in Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 May; 67(5):1193-202. PMID: 25707478; PMCID: PMC4490933.
    38. Whitaker JW, Boyle DL, Bartok B, Ball ST, Gay S, Wang W, Firestein GS. Integrative omics analysis of rheumatoid arthritis identifies non-obvious therapeutic targets. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0124254. PMID: 25901943; PMCID: PMC4406750.
    39. Schepetkin IA, Kirpotina LN, Hammaker D, Kochetkova I, Khlebnikov AI, Lyakhov SA, Firestein GS, Quinn MT. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Joint Protection in Collagen-Induced Arthritis after Treatment with IQ-1S, a Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015 Jun; 353(3):505-16. PMID: 25784649; PMCID: PMC4429673.
    40. Boland BS, Boyle DL, Sandborn WJ, Firestein GS, Levesque BG, Hillman J, Zhang B, Proudfoot J, Eckmann L, Ernst PB, Rivera-Nieves J, Pola S, Copur-Dahi N, Zou G, Chang JT. Validation of gene expression biomarker analysis for biopsy-based clinical trials in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 Feb; 21(2):323-30. PMID: 25545378; PMCID: PMC4404151.
    41. Boyle DL, Soma K, Hodge J, Kavanaugh A, Mandel D, Mease P, Shurmur R, Singhal AK, Wei N, Rosengren S, Kaplan I, Krishnaswami S, Luo Z, Bradley J, Firestein GS. The JAK inhibitor tofacitinib suppresses synovial JAK1-STAT signalling in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Jun; 74(6):1311-6. PMID: 25398374; PMCID: PMC4431345.
    42. Stanford SM, Aleman Muench GR, Bartok B, Sacchetti C, Kiosses WB, Sharma J, Maestre MF, Bottini M, Mustelin T, Boyle DL, Firestein GS, Bottini N. TGFß responsive tyrosine phosphatase promotes rheumatoid synovial fibroblast invasiveness. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jan; 75(1):295-302. PMID: 25378349.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Guma M, Sanchez-Lopez E, Lodi A, Garcia-Carbonell R, Tiziani S, Karin M, Lacal JC, Firestein GS. Choline kinase inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Jul; 74(7):1399-407. PMID: 25274633; PMCID: PMC4382461.
    44. Boland BS, Boyle DL, Sandborn WJ, Firestein GS, Levesque BG, Hillman J, Zhang B, Proudfoot J, Eckmann L, Ernst PB, Rivera-Nieves J, Pola S, Copur-Dahi N, Chang JT. Validated gene expression biomarker analysis for biopsy-based clinical trials in ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Sep; 40(5):477-85. PMID: 25041724; PMCID: PMC4143528.
    45. Gong W, Kolker SJ, Usachev Y, Walder RY, Boyle DL, Firestein GS, Sluka KA. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 decreases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and induces synoviocyte cell death by increasing intracellular calcium. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014 Jun 12; 16(3):R121. PMID: 24923411; PMCID: PMC4095605.
    46. Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Topolewski K, Firestein GS. Differential regulation of anti-inflammatory genes by p38 MAP kinase and MAP kinase kinase 6. J Inflamm (Lond). 2014; 11:14. PMID: 24855454; PMCID: PMC4030013.
    47. Leinders M, Koehrn FJ, Bartok B, Boyle DL, Shubayev V, Kalcheva I, Yu NK, Park J, Kaang BK, Hefferan MP, Firestein GS, Sorkin LS. Differential distribution of PI3K isoforms in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia: potential roles in acute inflammatory pain. Pain. 2014 Jun; 155(6):1150-60. PMID: 24631588; PMCID: PMC4128246.
    48. Bartok B, Hammaker D, Firestein GS. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase d regulates migration and invasion of synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2014 Mar 01; 192(5):2063-70. PMID: 24470496.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Boyle DL, Hammaker D, Edgar M, Zaiss MM, Teufel S, David JP, Schett G, Firestein GS. Differential roles of MAPK kinases MKK3 and MKK6 in osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84818. PMID: 24400116; PMCID: PMC3882259.
    50. Firestein GS. The disease formerly known as rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(3):114. PMID: 25167330; PMCID: PMC4075245.
    51. Boyle DL, Kim HR, Topolewski K, Bartok B, Firestein GS. Novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase d,? inhibitor: potent anti-inflammatory effects and joint protection in models of rheumatoid arthritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Feb; 348(2):271-80. PMID: 24244039.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Bottini N, Firestein GS. Epigenetics in rheumatoid arthritis: a primer for rheumatologists. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2013 Nov; 15(11):372. PMID: 24072602.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Sluka KA, Rasmussen LA, Edgar MM, O'Donnell JM, Walder RY, Kolker SJ, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 deficiency increases inflammation but decreases pain behavior in murine arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 May; 65(5):1194-202. PMID: 23335302; PMCID: PMC3636153.
    54. Stanford SM, Maestre MF, Campbell AM, Bartok B, Kiosses WB, Boyle DL, Arnett HA, Mustelin T, Firestein GS, Bottini N. Protein tyrosine phosphatase expression profile of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes: a novel role of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 as a modulator of invasion and survival. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 May; 65(5):1171-80. PMID: 23335101; PMCID: PMC3636201.
    55. Whitaker JW, Shoemaker R, Boyle DL, Hillman J, Anderson D, Wang W, Firestein GS. An imprinted rheumatoid arthritis methylome signature reflects pathogenic phenotype. Genome Med. 2013; 5(4):40. PMID: 23631487; PMCID: PMC3706831.
    56. Nakano K, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Regulation of DNA methylation in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2013 Feb 01; 190(3):1297-303. PMID: 23277489; PMCID: PMC3552038.
    57. McCarty WJ, Cheng JC, Hansen BC, Yamaguchi T, Firestein GS, Masuda K, Sah RL. The biophysical mechanisms of altered hyaluronan concentration in synovial fluid after anterior cruciate ligament transection. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Dec; 64(12):3993-4003. PMID: 22933328; PMCID: PMC3510334.
    58. Bottini N, Firestein GS. Duality of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in RA: passive responders and imprinted aggressors. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013 Jan; 9(1):24-33. PMID: 23147896; PMCID: PMC3970924.
    59. Yamanishi Y, Ito-Ihara T, Nagao T, Uno K, Kobayashi S, Muso E, Shane PY, Firestein GS, Hashimoto H, Okazaki T, Suzuki K. Clinical features of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies targeting native myeloperoxidase antigen. Mod Rheumatol. 2013 Sep; 23(5):963-71. PMID: 23085883.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Guma M, Firestein GS. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase in Inflammation and Rheumatic Diseases. Open Rheumatol J. 2012; 6:220-31. PMID: 23028407; PMCID: PMC3460413.
    61. Guma M, Hammaker D, Topolewski K, Corr M, Boyle DL, Karin M, Firestein GS. Antiinflammatory functions of p38 in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis: advantages of targeting upstream kinases MKK-3 or MKK-6. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Sep; 64(9):2887-95. PMID: 22488549; PMCID: PMC3397277.
    62. Arend WP, Firestein GS. Pre-rheumatoid arthritis: predisposition and transition to clinical synovitis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012 Oct; 8(10):573-86. PMID: 22907289.
      View in: PubMed
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    66. Preparedness of the CTSA's structural and scientific assets to support the mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS). Clin Transl Sci. 2012 Apr; 5(2):121-9. PMID: 22507116; PMCID: PMC3335735.
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    70. Lee SI, Boyle DL, Berdeja A, Firestein GS. Regulation of inflammatory arthritis by the upstream kinase mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 7 in the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012 Feb 21; 14(1):R38. PMID: 22353730; PMCID: PMC3392838.
    71. Rosengren S, Corr M, Firestein GS, Boyle DL. The JAK inhibitor CP-690,550 (tofacitinib) inhibits TNF-induced chemokine expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes: autocrine role of type I interferon. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Mar; 71(3):440-7. PMID: 22121136.
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    72. Luo Y, Boyle DL, Hammaker D, Edgar M, Franzoso G, Firestein GS. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis in growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45ß-deficient mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Oct; 63(10):2949-55. PMID: 21702006; PMCID: PMC3183142.
    73. Hui AY, McCarty WJ, Masuda K, Firestein GS, Sah RL. A systems biology approach to synovial joint lubrication in health, injury, and disease. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2012 Jan-Feb; 4(1):15-37. PMID: 21826801; PMCID: PMC3593048.
    74. Guma M, Ronacher LM, Firestein GS, Karin M, Corr M. JNK-1 deficiency limits macrophage-mediated antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Jun; 63(6):1603-12. PMID: 21305529; PMCID: PMC3106119.
    75. Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: TANK-binding kinase-1 as a potential therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012 Apr; 51(4):610-8. PMID: 21613249; PMCID: PMC3306173.
    76. Genovese MC, Cohen SB, Wofsy D, Weinblatt ME, Firestein GS, Brahn E, Strand V, Baker DG, Tong SE. A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of the efficacy of oral SCIO-469, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2011 May; 38(5):846-54. PMID: 21285160.
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    78. Guma M, Kashiwakura J, Crain B, Kawakami Y, Beutler B, Firestein GS, Kawakami T, Karin M, Corr M. JNK1 controls mast cell degranulation and IL-1{beta} production in inflammatory arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21; 107(51):22122-7. PMID: 21135226; PMCID: PMC3009768.
    79. Toh ML, Gonzales G, Koenders MI, Tournadre A, Boyle D, Lubberts E, Zhou Y, Firestein GS, van den Berg WB, Miossec P. Role of interleukin 17 in arthritis chronicity through survival of synoviocytes via regulation of synoviolin expression. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 15; 5(10):e13416. PMID: 20976214; PMCID: PMC2955522.
    80. Waldburger JM, Firestein GS. Regulation of peripheral inflammation by the central nervous system. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2010 Oct; 12(5):370-8. PMID: 20676807; PMCID: PMC2927688.
    81. Christianson CA, Corr M, Firestein GS, Mobargha A, Yaksh TL, Svensson CI. Characterization of the acute and persistent pain state present in K/BxN serum transfer arthritis. Pain. 2010 Nov; 151(2):394-403. PMID: 20739123; PMCID: PMC2955775.
    82. Gorovoy M, Gaultier A, Campana WM, Firestein GS, Gonias SL. Inflammatory mediators promote production of shed LRP1/CD91, which regulates cell signaling and cytokine expression by macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2010 Oct; 88(4):769-78. PMID: 20610799; PMCID: PMC2974427.
    83. Sweeney SE, Kimbler TB, Firestein GS. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: II. Pivotal role of IFN regulatory factor 3. J Immunol. 2010 Jun 15; 184(12):7162-8. PMID: 20483755; PMCID: PMC2913682.
    84. Blewis ME, Lao BJ, Jadin KD, McCarty WJ, Bugbee WD, Firestein GS, Sah RL. Semi-permeable membrane retention of synovial fluid lubricants hyaluronan and proteoglycan 4 for a biomimetic bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010 May 01; 106(1):149-60. PMID: 20014439; PMCID: PMC2913685.
    85. Blewis ME, Lao BJ, Schumacher BL, Bugbee WD, Sah RL, Firestein GS. Interactive cytokine regulation of synoviocyte lubricant secretion. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Apr; 16(4):1329-37. PMID: 19908966; PMCID: PMC2862605.
    86. Firestein GS. Metabolism: from bench to bedside. Nat Med. 2010 Apr; 16(4):387. PMID: 20376049.
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    87. Schett G, Firestein GS. Mr Outside and Mr Inside: classic and alternative views on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 May; 69(5):787-9. PMID: 20299352.
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    89. Scatizzi JC, Hutcheson J, Pope RM, Firestein GS, Koch AE, Mavers M, Smason A, Agrawal H, Haines GK, Chandel NS, Hotchkiss RS, Perlman H. Bim-Bcl-2 homology 3 mimetic therapy is effective at suppressing inflammatory arthritis through the activation of myeloid cell apoptosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Feb; 62(2):441-51. PMID: 20112357; PMCID: PMC2848986.
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    91. Firestein GS. Somatic mutations and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: comment on the editorial by Levesque et al. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Jan; 62(1):303-4. PMID: 20039399; PMCID: PMC2858003.
    92. Hammaker D, Firestein GS. "Go upstream, young man": lessons learned from the p38 saga. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Jan; 69 Suppl 1:i77-82. PMID: 19995751; PMCID: PMC2911016.
    93. Kolker SJ, Walder RY, Usachev Y, Hillman J, Boyle DL, Firestein GS, Sluka KA. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 expressed in type B synoviocytes and chondrocytes modulates hyaluronan expression and release. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 May; 69(5):903-9. PMID: 19933746; PMCID: PMC3476728.
    94. Svensson CI, Inoue T, Hammaker D, Fukushima A, Papa S, Franzoso G, Schett G, Corr M, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Gadd45beta deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis: enhanced synovitis through JNK signaling. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Nov; 60(11):3229-40. PMID: 19877043; PMCID: PMC2858378.
    95. Yoshizawa T, Hammaker D, Boyle DL, Corr M, Flavell R, Davis R, Schett G, Firestein GS. Role of MAPK kinase 6 in arthritis: distinct mechanism of action in inflammation and cytokine expression. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 15; 183(2):1360-7. PMID: 19561096; PMCID: PMC2744479.
    96. Brydges SD, Mueller JL, McGeough MD, Pena CA, Misaghi A, Gandhi C, Putnam CD, Boyle DL, Firestein GS, Horner AA, Soroosh P, Watford WT, O'Shea JJ, Kastner DL, Hoffman HM. Inflammasome-mediated disease animal models reveal roles for innate but not adaptive immunity. Immunity. 2009 Jun 19; 30(6):875-87. PMID: 19501000; PMCID: PMC2759865.
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    98. Sorkin LS, Boyle DL, Hammaker D, Herman DS, Vail E, Firestein GS. MKK3, an upstream activator of p38, contributes to formalin phase 2 and late allodynia in mice. Neuroscience. 2009 Aug 18; 162(2):462-71. PMID: 19427893; PMCID: PMC2802055.
    99. Khanna D, Clements PJ, Furst DE, Korn JH, Ellman M, Rothfield N, Wigley FM, Moreland LW, Silver R, Kim YH, Steen VD, Firestein GS, Kavanaugh AF, Weisman M, Mayes MD, Collier D, Csuka ME, Simms R, Merkel PA, Medsger TA, Sanders ME, Maranian P, Seibold JR. Recombinant human relaxin in the treatment of systemic sclerosis with diffuse cutaneous involvement: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Apr; 60(4):1102-11. PMID: 19333948; PMCID: PMC3711466.
    100. Offner H, Firestein GS, Boyle DL, Pieters R, Frincke JM, Garsd A, White SK, Reading CL, Auci DL. An orally bioavailable synthetic analog of an active dehydroepiandrosterone metabolite reduces established disease in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Jun; 329(3):1100-9. PMID: 19297421.
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    102. Sun Y, Mauerhan DR, Firestein GS, Loeffler BJ, Hanley EN, Gruber HE. Telomerase transduced osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes display a distinct gene expression profile. J Rheumatol. 2009 Jan; 36(1):141-55. PMID: 19040300; PMCID: PMC2689317.
    103. Firestein GS. Rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse? Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2009 Jan; 5(1):1. PMID: 19098924; PMCID: PMC2754140.
    104. Waldburger JM, Boyle DL, Pavlov VA, Tracey KJ, Firestein GS. Acetylcholine regulation of synoviocyte cytokine expression by the alpha7 nicotinic receptor. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Nov; 58(11):3439-49. PMID: 18975306; PMCID: PMC4476299.
    105. Miyao M, Firestein GS, Keithley EM. Acoustic trauma augments the cochlear immune response to antigen. Laryngoscope. 2008 Oct; 118(10):1801-8. PMID: 18806477; PMCID: PMC2832795.
    106. Buch MH, Boyle DL, Rosengren S, Saleem B, Reece RJ, Rhodes LA, Radjenovic A, English A, Tang H, Vratsanos G, O'Connor P, Firestein GS, Emery P. Mode of action of abatacept in rheumatoid arthritis patients having failed tumour necrosis factor blockade: a histological, gene expression and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Jul; 68(7):1220-7. PMID: 18772191; PMCID: PMC2689522.
    107. Waldburger JM, Boyle DL, Edgar M, Sorkin LS, Levine YA, Pavlov VA, Tracey K, Firestein GS. Spinal p38 MAP kinase regulates peripheral cholinergic outflow. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Sep; 58(9):2919-21. PMID: 18759350; PMCID: PMC4533855.
    108. Yoshizawa T, Hammaker D, Sweeney SE, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: I. Differential regulation of interferon responses and the JNK pathway by MAPK kinases. J Immunol. 2008 Sep 01; 181(5):3252-8. PMID: 18713996; PMCID: PMC2725405.
    109. Corr M, Boyle DL, Ronacher L, Flores N, Firestein GS. Synergistic benefit in inflammatory arthritis by targeting I kappaB kinase epsilon and interferon beta. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Feb; 68(2):257-63. PMID: 18653628; PMCID: PMC2713581.
    110. Sweeney SE, Firestein GS. Primer: signal transduction in rheumatic disease--a clinician's guide. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2007 Nov; 3(11):651-60. PMID: 17968336.
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    111. Sun Y, Firestein G, Boyle D, Gruber H, Cheung H. Longterm culture of telomerase-transduced rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes display a distinct gene expression pattern. J Rheumatol. 2007 Oct; 34(10):1959-70. PMID: 17896808.
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    113. Kammouni W, Wong K, Ma G, Firestein GS, Gibson SB, El-Gabalawy HS. Regulation of apoptosis in fibroblast-like synoviocytes by the hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 family member Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kd protein-interacting protein 3. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Sep; 56(9):2854-63. PMID: 17763440.
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    114. Oliver SJ, Firestein GS, Arsenault L, Cruz TF, Cheng TP, Banquerigo ML, Boyle DL, Brahn E. Vanadate, an inhibitor of stromelysin and collagenase expression, suppresses collagen induced arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2007 Sep; 34(9):1802-9. PMID: 17696279.
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    115. Kavanaugh A, Rosengren S, Lee SJ, Hammaker D, Firestein GS, Kalunian K, Wei N, Boyle DL. Assessment of rituximab's immunomodulatory synovial effects (ARISE trial). 1: clinical and synovial biomarker results. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Mar; 67(3):402-8. PMID: 17644541; PMCID: PMC2754142.
    116. Sweeney SE, Mo L, Firestein GS. Antiviral gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis: role of IKKepsilon and interferon regulatory factor 3. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Mar; 56(3):743-52. PMID: 17328045.
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    117. Firestein GS. Biomedicine. Every joint has a silver lining. Science. 2007 Feb 16; 315(5814):952-3. PMID: 17303744.
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    120. Ruiz PJ, Masliah E, Doherty TA, Quach A, Firestein GS. Cardiac death in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease treated with the interleukin 1 receptor inhibitor anakinra. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Mar; 66(3):422-3. PMID: 17179171; PMCID: PMC1856013.
    121. Hoffman HM, Firestein GS. Anakinra for the treatment of neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006 Dec; 2(12):646-7. PMID: 17133246.
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    122. Firestein GS. A biomarker by any other name... Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006 Dec; 2(12):635. PMID: 17133243.
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    125. Gerlag DM, Boyle DL, Rosengren S, Nash T, Tak PP, Firestein GS. Real-time quantitative PCR to detect changes in synovial gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis after corticosteroid treatment. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Apr; 66(4):545-7. PMID: 16984938; PMCID: PMC1856037.
    126. Borazjani BH, Chen AC, Bae WC, Patil S, Sah RL, Firestein GS, Bugbee WD. Effect of impact on chondrocyte viability during insertion of human osteochondral grafts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Sep; 88(9):1934-43. PMID: 16951108.
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    127. Boyle DL, Jones TL, Hammaker D, Svensson CI, Rosengren S, Albani S, Sorkin L, Firestein GS. Regulation of peripheral inflammation by spinal p38 MAP kinase in rats. PLoS Med. 2006 Sep; 3(9):e338. PMID: 16953659; PMCID: PMC1560929.
    128. Tas SW, Adriaansen J, Hajji N, Bakker AC, Firestein GS, Vervoordeldonk MJ, Tak PP. Amelioration of arthritis by intraarticular dominant negative Ikk beta gene therapy using adeno-associated virus type 5. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Aug; 17(8):821-32. PMID: 16942442.
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    132. Cha HS, Boyle DL, Inoue T, Schoot R, Tak PP, Pine P, Firestein GS. A novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor blocks c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated gene expression in synoviocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 May; 317(2):571-8. PMID: 16452391.
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    133. Firestein GS. Inhibiting inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 05; 354(1):80-2. PMID: 16394307.
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    135. You X, Boyle DL, Hammaker D, Firestein GS. PUMA-mediated apoptosis in fibroblast-like synoviocytes does not require p53. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(6):R157. PMID: 17014719; PMCID: PMC1794498.
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    146. Simelyte E, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. DNA mismatch repair enzyme expression in synovial tissue. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Dec; 63(12):1695-9. PMID: 15547100; PMCID: PMC1754862.
    147. Hashimoto S, Billings P, Harris JP, Firestein GS, Keithley EM. Innate immunity contributes to cochlear adaptive immune responses. Audiol Neurootol. 2005 Jan-Feb; 10(1):35-43. PMID: 15567913.
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    148. Hoffman HM, Rosengren S, Boyle DL, Cho JY, Nayar J, Mueller JL, Anderson JP, Wanderer AA, Firestein GS. Prevention of cold-associated acute inflammation in familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13-19; 364(9447):1779-85. PMID: 15541451; PMCID: PMC4321997.
    149. Cheon H, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-3 regulation and microsatellite structure in arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2004 Nov; 31(11):2106-14. PMID: 15517620.
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    150. Sun Y, Firestein GS, Wenger L, Huang CY, Cheung HS. Telomerase-transduced osteoarthritic fibroblast-like synoviocyte cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Oct 29; 323(4):1287-92. PMID: 15451436.
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    156. Sweeney SE, Firestein GS. Rheumatoid arthritis: regulation of synovial inflammation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Mar; 36(3):372-8. PMID: 14687914.
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    159. Bradley K, Scatizzi JC, Fiore S, Shamiyeh E, Koch AE, Firestein GS, Gorges LL, Kuntsman K, Pope RM, Moore TL, Han J, Perlman H. Retinoblastoma suppression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, but not interleukin-6, through a p38-dependent pathway in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jan; 50(1):78-87. PMID: 14730602.
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    160. Seemayer CA, Kuchen S, Neidhart M, Kuenzler P, Rihosková V, Neumann E, Pruschy M, Aicher WK, Müller-Ladner U, Gay RE, Michel BA, Firestein GS, Gay S. p53 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts at sites of invasion. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003 Dec; 62(12):1139-44. PMID: 14644850; PMCID: PMC1754413.
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    163. Sorkin LS, Moore J, Boyle DL, Yang L, Firestein GS. Regulation of peripheral inflammation by spinal adenosine: role of somatic afferent fibers. Exp Neurol. 2003 Nov; 184(1):162-8. PMID: 14637089.
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    165. Sundarrajan M, Boyle DL, Chabaud-Riou M, Hammaker D, Firestein GS. Expression of the MAPK kinases MKK-4 and MKK-7 in rheumatoid arthritis and their role as key regulators of JNK. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Sep; 48(9):2450-60. PMID: 13130464.
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    166. Satoh H, Firestein GS, Billings PB, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Proinflammatory cytokine expression in the endolymphatic sac during inner ear inflammation. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003 Jun; 4(2):139-47. PMID: 12943369; PMCID: PMC3202716.
    167. Firestein GS. Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature. 2003 May 15; 423(6937):356-61. PMID: 12748655.
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    168. Sorkin LS, Maruyama K, Boyle DL, Yang L, Marsala M, Firestein GS. Spinal adenosine agonist reduces c-fos and astrocyte activation in dorsal horn of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Apr 10; 340(2):119-22. PMID: 12668251.
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    169. Cramer T, Yamanishi Y, Clausen BE, Förster I, Pawlinski R, Mackman N, Haase VH, Jaenisch R, Corr M, Nizet V, Firestein GS, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Johnson RS. HIF-1alpha is essential for myeloid cell-mediated inflammation. Cell. 2003 Mar 07; 112(5):645-57. PMID: 12628185; PMCID: PMC4480774.
    170. Lee SH, Chang DK, Goel A, Boland CR, Bugbee W, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Microsatellite instability and suppressed DNA repair enzyme expression in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 15; 170(4):2214-20. PMID: 12574395.
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    171. Perlman H, Bradley K, Liu H, Cole S, Shamiyeh E, Smith RC, Walsh K, Fiore S, Koch AE, Firestein GS, Haines GK, Pope RM. IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 are regulated by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in synovial fibroblasts. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 15; 170(2):838-45. PMID: 12517948.
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    172. Boyle DL, Moore J, Yang L, Sorkin LS, Firestein GS. Spinal adenosine receptor activation inhibits inflammation and joint destruction in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov; 46(11):3076-82. PMID: 12428252.
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    173. Satoh H, Firestein GS, Billings PB, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, an initiator, and etanercept, an inhibitor of cochlear inflammation. Laryngoscope. 2002 Sep; 112(9):1627-34. PMID: 12352677.
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    174. Yamanishi Y, Boyle DL, Rosengren S, Green DR, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Regional analysis of p53 mutations in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):10025-30. PMID: 12119414; PMCID: PMC126618.
    175. Corr M, Firestein GS. Innate immunity as a hired gun: but is it rheumatoid arthritis? J Exp Med. 2002 Apr 15; 195(8):F33-5. PMID: 11956300; PMCID: PMC2193686.
    176. Firestein GS, Pisetsky DS. DNA microarrays: boundless technology or bound by technology? Guidelines for studies using microarray technology. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Apr; 46(4):859-61. PMID: 11953960.
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    177. Han Z, Chang L, Yamanishi Y, Karin M, Firestein GS. Joint damage and inflammation in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 knockout mice with passive murine collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Mar; 46(3):818-23. PMID: 11920420.
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    178. Yamanishi Y, Boyle DL, Clark M, Maki RA, Tortorella MD, Arner EC, Firestein GS. Expression and regulation of aggrecanase in arthritis: the role of TGF-beta. J Immunol. 2002 Feb 01; 168(3):1405-12. PMID: 11801682.
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    179. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. How important are T cells in chronic rheumatoid synovitis?: II. T cell-independent mechanisms from beginning to end. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Feb; 46(2):298-308. PMID: 11840432.
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    180. Corr M, Firestein GS. The genetics of the target tissue in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Feb; 28(1):79-94. PMID: 11840699.
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    181. Yamanishi Y, Boyle DL, Pinkoski MJ, Mahboubi A, Lin T, Han Z, Zvaifler NJ, Green DR, Firestein GS. Regulation of joint destruction and inflammation by p53 in collagen-induced arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2002 Jan; 160(1):123-30. PMID: 11786406; PMCID: PMC1867134.
    182. Ronaghy A, Prakken BJ, Takabayashi K, Firestein GS, Boyle D, Zvailfler NJ, Roord ST, Albani S, Carson DA, Raz E. Immunostimulatory DNA sequences influence the course of adjuvant arthritis. J Immunol. 2002 Jan 01; 168(1):51-6. PMID: 11751945.
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    183. Aupperle KR, Yamanishi Y, Bennett BL, Mercurio F, Boyle DL, Firestein GS. Expression and regulation of inducible IkappaB kinase (IKK-i) in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Cell Immunol. 2001 Nov 25; 214(1):54-9. PMID: 11902829.
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    184. Gerlag DM, Borges E, Tak PP, Ellerby HM, Bredesen DE, Pasqualini R, Ruoslahti E, Firestein GS. Suppression of murine collagen-induced arthritis by targeted apoptosis of synovial neovasculature. Arthritis Res. 2001; 3(6):357-61. PMID: 11714389; PMCID: PMC64846.
    185. Tak PP, Gerlag DM, Aupperle KR, van de Geest DA, Overbeek M, Bennett BL, Boyle DL, Manning AM, Firestein GS. Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB kinase beta is a key regulator of synovial inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Aug; 44(8):1897-907. PMID: 11508443.
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    186. Han Z, Boyle DL, Chang L, Bennett B, Karin M, Yang L, Manning AM, Firestein GS. c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for metalloproteinase expression and joint destruction in inflammatory arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2001 Jul; 108(1):73-81. PMID: 11435459; PMCID: PMC209341.
    187. Yamanishi Y, Firestein GS. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: the role of synoviocytes. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2001 May; 27(2):355-71. PMID: 11396097.
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    188. Pap T, Aupperle KR, Gay S, Firestein GS, Gay RE. Invasiveness of synovial fibroblasts is regulated by p53 in the SCID mouse in vivo model of cartilage invasion. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Mar; 44(3):676-81. PMID: 11263783.
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    189. Aupperle K, Bennett B, Han Z, Boyle D, Manning A, Firestein G. NF-kappa B regulation by I kappa B kinase-2 in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2001 Feb 15; 166(4):2705-11. PMID: 11160335.
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    190. Burger JA, Zvaifler NJ, Tsukada N, Firestein GS, Kipps TJ. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes support B-cell pseudoemperipolesis via a stromal cell-derived factor-1- and CD106 (VCAM-1)-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb; 107(3):305-15. PMID: 11160154; PMCID: PMC199194.
    191. Boyle DL, Kowaluk EA, Jarvis MF, Lee CH, Bhagwat SS, Williams M, Firestein GS. Anti-inflammatory effects of ABT-702, a novel non-nucleoside adenosine kinase inhibitor, in rat adjuvant arthritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Feb; 296(2):495-500. PMID: 11160636.
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    192. Siegmund B, Rieder F, Albrich S, Wolf K, Bidlingmaier C, Firestein GS, Boyle D, Lehr HA, Loher F, Hartmann G, Endres S, Eigler A. Adenosine kinase inhibitor GP515 improves experimental colitis in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jan; 296(1):99-105. PMID: 11123368.
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    193. Tak PP, Firestein GS. NF-kappaB: a key role in inflammatory diseases. J Clin Invest. 2001 Jan; 107(1):7-11. PMID: 11134171; PMCID: PMC198552.
    194. Pap T, van der Laan WH, Aupperle KR, Gay RE, Verheijen JH, Firestein GS, Gay S, Neidhart M. Modulation of fibroblast-mediated cartilage degradation by articular chondrocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Nov; 43(11):2531-6. PMID: 11083277.
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    195. Gerlag DM, Ransone L, Tak PP, Han Z, Palanki M, Barbosa MS, Boyle D, Manning AM, Firestein GS. The effect of a T cell-specific NF-kappa B inhibitor on in vitro cytokine production and collagen-induced arthritis. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 01; 165(3):1652-8. PMID: 10903776.
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    196. Eigler A, Matschke V, Hartmann G, Erhardt S, Boyle D, Firestein GS, Endres S. Suppression of TNF-alpha production in human mononuclear cells by an adenosine kinase inhibitor. J Leukoc Biol. 2000 Jul; 68(1):97-103. PMID: 10914495.
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    197. Goater J, Müller R, Kollias G, Firestein GS, Sanz I, O'Keefe RJ, Schwarz EM. Empirical advantages of adeno associated viral vectors in vivo gene therapy for arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2000 Apr; 27(4):983-9. PMID: 10782827.
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    198. Sen M, Lauterbach K, El-Gabalawy H, Firestein GS, Corr M, Carson DA. Expression and function of wingless and frizzled homologs in rheumatoid arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 14; 97(6):2791-6. PMID: 10688908; PMCID: PMC16008.
    199. Tak PP, Klapwijk MS, Broersen SF, van de Geest DA, Overbeek M, Firestein GS. Apoptosis and p53 expression in rat adjuvant arthritis. Arthritis Res. 2000; 2(3):229-35. PMID: 11056668; PMCID: PMC17810.
    200. Boyle DL, Shi Y, Gay S, Firestein GS. Regulation of CS1 fibronectin expression and function by IL-1 in endothelial cells. Cell Immunol. 2000 Feb 25; 200(1):1-7. PMID: 10716877.
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    201. Tak PP, Zvaifler NJ, Green DR, Firestein GS. Rheumatoid arthritis and p53: how oxidative stress might alter the course of inflammatory diseases. Immunol Today. 2000 Feb; 21(2):78-82. PMID: 10652465.
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    202. Burt RK, Brenner M, Burns W, Courier E, Firestein G, Hahn B, Heslop H, Link C, McFarland H, Roland M, Territo M, Tsokos G, Traynor A. Gene-marked autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of autoimmune disease. J Clin Immunol. 2000 Jan; 20(1):1-9. PMID: 10798601.
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    203. Boyle DL, Nguyen KH, Zhuang S, Shi Y, McCormack JE, Chada S, Firestein GS. Intra-articular IL-4 gene therapy in arthritis: anti-inflammatory effect and enhanced th2activity. Gene Ther. 1999 Dec; 6(12):1911-8. PMID: 10637442.
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    204. Han Z, Boyle DL, Aupperle KR, Bennett B, Manning AM, Firestein GS. Jun N-terminal kinase in rheumatoid arthritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct; 291(1):124-30. PMID: 10490895.
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    205. Kullmann F, Judex M, Neudecker I, Lechner S, Jüsten HP, Green DR, Wessinghage D, Firestein GS, Gay S, Schölmerich J, Müller-Ladner U. Analysis of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Aug; 42(8):1594-600. PMID: 10446856.
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    206. Aupperle KR, Bennett BL, Boyle DL, Tak PP, Manning AM, Firestein GS. NF-kappa B regulation by I kappa B kinase in primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol. 1999 Jul 01; 163(1):427-33. PMID: 10384145.
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    207. Han Z, Boyle DL, Shi Y, Green DR, Firestein GS. Dominant-negative p53 mutations in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Jun; 42(6):1088-92. PMID: 10366100.
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    208. Tak PP, Smeets TJ, Boyle DL, Kraan MC, Shi Y, Zhuang S, Zvaifler NJ, Breedveld FC, Firestein GS. p53 overexpression in synovial tissue from patients with early and longstanding rheumatoid arthritis compared with patients with reactive arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 May; 42(5):948-53. PMID: 10323450.
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    209. Firestein GS, Manning AM. Signal transduction and transcription factors in rheumatic disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Apr; 42(4):609-21. PMID: 10211874.
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    210. Firestein GS. Starving the synovium: angiogenesis and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest. 1999 Jan; 103(1):3-4. PMID: 9884327; PMCID: PMC407872.
    211. Brahn E, Banquerigo ML, Firestein GS, Boyle DL, Salzman AL, Szabó C. Collagen induced arthritis: reversal by mercaptoethylguanidine, a novel antiinflammatory agent with a combined mechanism of action. J Rheumatol. 1998 Sep; 25(9):1785-93. PMID: 9733461.
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    212. Nguyen KH, Boyle DL, McCormack JE, Chada S, Jolly DJ, Firestein GS. Direct synovial gene transfer with retroviral vectors in rat adjuvant arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1998 Jun; 25(6):1118-25. PMID: 9632074.
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    213. Firestein GS. Novel therapeutic strategies involving animals, arthritis, and apoptosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1998 May; 10(3):236-41. PMID: 9608326.
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    214. Aupperle KR, Boyle DL, Hendrix M, Seftor EA, Zvaifler NJ, Barbosa M, Firestein GS. Regulation of synoviocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion by the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Am J Pathol. 1998 Apr; 152(4):1091-8. PMID: 9546370; PMCID: PMC1858248.
    215. Han Z, Boyle DL, Manning AM, Firestein GS. AP-1 and NF-kappaB regulation in rheumatoid arthritis and murine collagen-induced arthritis. Autoimmunity. 1998; 28(4):197-208. PMID: 9892501.
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    216. Müller-Ladner U, Elices MJ, Kriegsmann JB, Strahl D, Gay RE, Firestein GS, Gay S. Alternatively spliced CS-1 fibronectin isoform and its receptor VLA-4 in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. J Rheumatol. 1997 Oct; 24(10):1873-80. PMID: 9330926.
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    217. Boyle DL, Han Z, Rutter JL, Brinckerhoff CE, Firestein GS. Posttranscriptional regulation of collagenase-1 gene expression in synoviocytes by adenosine receptor stimulation. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Oct; 40(10):1772-9. PMID: 9336410.
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    218. Firestein GS, Echeverri F, Yeo M, Zvaifler NJ, Green DR. Somatic mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 30; 94(20):10895-900. PMID: 9380731; PMCID: PMC23522.
    219. Littman BH, Schumacher HR, Boyle DL, Weisman MH, Firestein GS. Effect of tenidap on metalloproteinase gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis: a synovial biopsy study. J Clin Rheumatol. 1997 Aug; 3(4):194-202. PMID: 19078187.
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    220. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. Anticytokine therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 17; 337(3):195-7. PMID: 9219708.
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    221. Zvaifler NJ, Tsai V, Alsalameh S, von Kempis J, Firestein GS, Lotz M. Pannocytes: distinctive cells found in rheumatoid arthritis articular cartilage erosions. Am J Pathol. 1997 Mar; 150(3):1125-38. PMID: 9060847; PMCID: PMC1857892.
    222. Wang J, Drake L, Sajjadi F, Firestein GS, Mullane KM, Bullough DA. Dual activation of adenosine A1 and A3 receptors mediates preconditioning of isolated cardiac myocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Feb 12; 320(2-3):241-8. PMID: 9059860.
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    223. Bong GW, Rosengren S, Firestein GS. Spinal cord adenosine receptor stimulation in rats inhibits peripheral neutrophil accumulation. The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2779-85. PMID: 8981924; PMCID: PMC507743.
    224. Firestein GS, Nguyen K, Aupperle KR, Yeo M, Boyle DL, Zvaifler NJ. Apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis: p53 overexpression in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Am J Pathol. 1996 Dec; 149(6):2143-51. PMID: 8952546; PMCID: PMC1865342.
    225. Firestein GS. Invasive fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Passive responders or transformed aggressors? Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Nov; 39(11):1781-90. PMID: 8912499.
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    226. Bullough DA, Magill MJ, Mullane KM, Firestein GS. Carbohydrate- and CD18-dependent neutrophil adhesion to cardiac myocytes: effects of adenosine. Cardiovasc Res. 1996 Aug; 32(2):328-34. PMID: 8796120.
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    227. Lindsey JD, Kashiwagi K, Boyle D, Kashiwagi F, Firestein GS, Weinreb RN. Prostaglandins increase proMMP-1 and proMMP-3 secretion by human ciliary smooth muscle cells. Curr Eye Res. 1996 Aug; 15(8):869-75. PMID: 8921230.
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    228. Boyle DL, Sajjadi FG, Firestein GS. Inhibition of synoviocyte collagenase gene expression by adenosine receptor stimulation. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Jun; 39(6):923-30. PMID: 8651985.
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    229. Sajjadi FG, Takabayashi K, Foster AC, Domingo RC, Firestein GS. Inhibition of TNF-alpha expression by adenosine: role of A3 adenosine receptors. J Immunol. 1996 May 01; 156(9):3435-42. PMID: 8617970.
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    230. Sajjadi FG, Boyle DL, Domingo RC, Firestein GS. cDNA cloning and characterization of A3i, an alternatively spliced rat A3 adenosine receptor variant. FEBS Lett. 1996 Mar 11; 382(1-2):125-9. PMID: 8612733.
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    231. Bujía J, Kim C, Boyle D, Hammer C, Firestein G, Kastenbauer E. Quantitative analysis of interleukin-1-alpha gene expression in middle ear cholesteatoma. Laryngoscope. 1996 Feb; 106(2 Pt 1):217-20. PMID: 8583857.
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    232. Firestein GS, Yeo M, Zvaifler NJ. Apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. J Clin Invest. 1995 Sep; 96(3):1631-8. PMID: 7657832; PMCID: PMC185789.
    233. Bullough DA, Magill MJ, Firestein GS, Mullane KM. Adenosine activates A2 receptors to inhibit neutrophil adhesion and injury to isolated cardiac myocytes. J Immunol. 1995 Sep 01; 155(5):2579-86. PMID: 7650388.
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    234. Cronstein BN, Naime D, Firestein G. The antiinflammatory effects of an adenosine kinase inhibitor are mediated by adenosine. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Aug; 38(8):1040-5. PMID: 7662029.
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    235. Rosengren S, Bong GW, Firestein GS. Anti-inflammatory effects of an adenosine kinase inhibitor. Decreased neutrophil accumulation and vascular leakage. J Immunol. 1995 May 15; 154(10):5444-51. PMID: 7730646.
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    236. Firestein GS. Cytokine networks in rheumatoid arthritis: implications for therapy. Agents Actions Suppl. 1995; 47:37-51. PMID: 7785502.
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    237. Firestein GS, Bullough DA, Erion MD, Jimenez R, Ramirez-Weinhouse M, Barankiewicz J, Smith CW, Gruber HE, Mullane KM. Inhibition of neutrophil adhesion by adenosine and an adenosine kinase inhibitor. The role of selectins. J Immunol. 1995 Jan 01; 154(1):326-34. PMID: 7527814.
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    238. Firestein GS, Boyle D, Bullough DA, Gruber HE, Sajjadi FG, Montag A, Sambol B, Mullane KM. Protective effect of an adenosine kinase inhibitor in septic shock. J Immunol. 1994 Jun 15; 152(12):5853-9. PMID: 8207212.
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    239. Alsalameh S, Firestein GS, Oez S, Kurrle R, Kalden JR, Burmester GR. Regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor production by human articular chondrocytes. Induction by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1, downregulation by transforming growth factor beta and upregulation by fibroblast growth factor. J Rheumatol. 1994 Jun; 21(6):993-1002. PMID: 7932447.
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    240. Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Pannus and pannocytes. Alternative models of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Jun; 37(6):783-9. PMID: 8003048.
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    241. Zvaifler NJ, Boyle D, Firestein GS. Early synovitis--synoviocytes and mononuclear cells. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Jun; 23(6 Suppl 2):11-6. PMID: 7939726.
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    242. Firestein GS, Boyle DL, Yu C, Paine MM, Whisenand TD, Zvaifler NJ, Arend WP. Synovial interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1 balance in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1994 May; 37(5):644-52. PMID: 8185691.
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    243. Firestein GS, Paine MM, Boyle DL. Mechanisms of methotrexate action in rheumatoid arthritis. Selective decrease in synovial collagenase gene expression. Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Feb; 37(2):193-200. PMID: 8129774.
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    244. Elices MJ, Tsai V, Strahl D, Goel AS, Tollefson V, Arrhenius T, Wayner EA, Gaeta FC, Fikes JD, Firestein GS. Expression and functional significance of alternatively spliced CS1 fibronectin in rheumatoid arthritis microvasculature. J Clin Invest. 1994 Jan; 93(1):405-16. PMID: 8282813; PMCID: PMC293796.
    245. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. The role of T cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1993 Oct; 52(10):765. PMID: 8257214; PMCID: PMC1005176.
    246. Alvaro-Gracia JM, Yu C, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Mutual antagonism between interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on fibroblast-like synoviocytes: paradoxical induction of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha receptor expression. J Clin Immunol. 1993 May; 13(3):212-8. PMID: 8391545.
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    247. Broide DH, Paine MM, Firestein GS. Eosinophils express interleukin 5 and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor mRNA at sites of allergic inflammation in asthmatics. J Clin Invest. 1992 Oct; 90(4):1414-24. PMID: 1401075; PMCID: PMC443187.
    248. Tsai V, Firestein GS, Arend W, Zvaifler NJ. Cytokine-induced differentiation of cultured nonadherent macrophages. Cell Immunol. 1992 Oct 01; 144(1):203-16. PMID: 1382865.
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    249. Morales-Ducret J, Wayner E, Elices MJ, Alvaro-Gracia JM, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Alpha 4/beta 1 integrin (VLA-4) ligands in arthritis. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in synovium and on fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol. 1992 Aug 15; 149(4):1424-31. PMID: 1380043.
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    250. Firestein GS, Berger AE, Tracey DE, Chosay JG, Chapman DL, Paine MM, Yu C, Zvaifler NJ. IL-1 receptor antagonist protein production and gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synovium. J Immunol. 1992 Aug 01; 149(3):1054-62. PMID: 1386092.
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    251. Firestein GS, Paine MM. Stromelysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Am J Pathol. 1992 Jun; 140(6):1309-14. PMID: 1605305; PMCID: PMC1886556.
    252. Firestein GS. Mechanisms of tissue destruction and cellular activation in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1992 Jun; 4(3):348-54. PMID: 1599815.
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    253. Broide DH, Firestein GS. Endobronchial allergen challenge in asthma. Demonstration of cellular source of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor by in situ hybridization. J Clin Invest. 1991 Sep; 88(3):1048-53. PMID: 1885766; PMCID: PMC295519.
    254. Firestein GS, Paine MM, Littman BH. Gene expression (collagenase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, complement, and HLA-DR) in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synovium. Quantitative analysis and effect of intraarticular corticosteroids. Arthritis Rheum. 1991 Sep; 34(9):1094-105. PMID: 1657009.
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    255. Firestein GS. The immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1991 Jun; 3(3):398-406. PMID: 1883694.
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    256. Alvaro-Gracia JM, Zvaifler NJ, Brown CB, Kaushansky K, Firestein GS. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. VI. Analysis of the synovial cells involved in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production and gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis and its regulation by IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol. 1991 May 15; 146(10):3365-71. PMID: 2026869.
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    257. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. Immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunol Ser. 1991; 54:141-61. PMID: 1954274.
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    258. Alvaro-Gracia JM, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. V. Mutual antagonism between interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on HLA-DR expression, proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. J Clin Invest. 1990 Dec; 86(6):1790-8. PMID: 2174906; PMCID: PMC329810.
    259. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. How important are T cells in chronic rheumatoid synovitis? Arthritis Rheum. 1990 Jun; 33(6):768-73. PMID: 2194461.
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    260. Firestein GS, Alvaro-Gracia JM, Maki R, Alvaro-Garcia JM. Quantitative analysis of cytokine gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 1990 May 01; 144(9):3347-53. PMID: 2109776.
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    261. Terkeltaub R, Firestein GS, Kornbluth RS, Martin J, Curran D, Manolagas S. The effects of gamma-interferon on human peripheral blood monocyte/macrophage-mediated bone particle degradation. Bone Miner. 1990 Feb; 8(2):131-43. PMID: 2106359.
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    262. Bergroth V, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. III. Rheumatoid arthritis monocytes are not unusually sensitive to gamma-interferon, but have defective gamma-interferon-mediated HLA-DQ and HLA-DR induction. Arthritis Rheum. 1989 Sep; 32(9):1074-9. PMID: 2505778.
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    263. Broide DH, Wasserman SI, Alvaro-Gracia J, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 selectively inhibits IL-3-dependent mast cell proliferation without affecting mast cell function or differentiation. J Immunol. 1989 Sep 01; 143(5):1591-7. PMID: 2527268.
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    264. Alvaro-Gracia JM, Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. IV. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated induction of class II MHC antigen on human monocytes: a possible role in rheumatoid arthritis. J Exp Med. 1989 Sep 01; 170(3):865-75. PMID: 2504878; PMCID: PMC2189430.
    265. Firestein GS, Roeder WD, Laxer JA, Townsend KS, Weaver CT, Hom JT, Linton J, Torbett BE, Glasebrook AL. A new murine CD4+ T cell subset with an unrestricted cytokine profile. J Immunol. 1989 Jul 15; 143(2):518-25. PMID: 2472442.
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    266. Xu WD, Firestein GS, Taetle R, Kaushansky K, Zvaifler NJ. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. II. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in rheumatoid synovial effusions. J Clin Invest. 1989 Mar; 83(3):876-82. PMID: 2646320; PMCID: PMC303761.
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    268. Firestein GS, Reifler D, Richman D, Gruber HE. Rapid and reversible modulation of T4 (CD4) on monocytoid cells by phorbol myristate acetate: effect on HIV susceptibility. Cell Immunol. 1988 Apr 15; 113(1):63-9. PMID: 3365771.
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    269. Zvaifler NJ, Firestein GS. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory synovitis. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1988; 76:203-10. PMID: 3150793.
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    270. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. A critical assessment of the role of autologous stimulation in the perpetuation of rheumatoid synovitis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1987 Dec; 13(3):447-61. PMID: 3324200.
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    271. Firestein GS, Tsai V, Zvaifler NJ. Cellular immunity in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of chronic synovitis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1987 Aug; 13(2):191-213. PMID: 3321208.
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    272. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. Peripheral blood and synovial fluid monocyte activation in inflammatory arthritis. II. Low levels of synovial fluid and synovial tissue interferon suggest that gamma-interferon is not the primary macrophage activating factor. Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Aug; 30(8):864-71. PMID: 3115274.
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    273. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. Peripheral blood and synovial fluid monocyte activation in inflammatory arthritis. I. A cytofluorographic study of monocyte differentiation antigens and class II antigens and their regulation by gamma-interferon. Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Aug; 30(8):857-63. PMID: 3115273.
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    274. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. Down regulation of human monocyte differentiation antigens by interferon gamma. Cell Immunol. 1987 Feb; 104(2):343-54. PMID: 3102077.
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    275. Firestein GS, Zvaifler NJ. Reactive arthritis. Annu Rev Med. 1987; 38:351-60. PMID: 3555301.
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    276. Gruber HE, Cohen AH, Firestein GS, Redelman D, Bluestein HG. Deoxy-ATP accumulation in adenosine deaminase-inhibited human B and T lymphocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1986; 195 Pt A:503-7. PMID: 3487921.
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    277. Firestein GS, Gruber HE, Weisman MH, Zvaifler NJ, Barber J, O'Duffy JD. Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage: MAGIC syndrome. Five patients with features of relapsing polychondritis and Behçet's disease. Am J Med. 1985 Jul; 79(1):65-72. PMID: 4014306.
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