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Lars Bode

TitleAssociate Professor In Residence
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentPediatrics
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0715
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-246-1874
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)2016President
    International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)2014President-Elect
    International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)2012Ehrlich-Koldovsky Young Investigator Award for Research in Human Milk and Lactation
    American Society for Nutrition (ASN)2013Norman Kretchmer Memorial Award in Nutrition and Development
    American Society for Nutrition (ASN)2014Bio-Serv Award in Experimental Animal Nutrition

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant component of human breast milk. We are just now beginning to understand how these complex sugars benefit the breast-fed infant (Bode 2006, Bode 2009, Bode 2012).

    The goal of our research is to answer two very fundamental questions regarding HMO:

    How are HMO synthesized in the mother's lactating mammary gland?

    How do HMO benefit the breast-fed infant and potentially also the breast-feeding mother?

    Our lab uses a multidisciplinary collaborative approach that combines preclinical studies and human cohort studies with the goal to identify structure-function relationships in a variety of clinical contexts related to maternal and infant health.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Exploring Associations between Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Growth, Body Composition and Obesity Risk in Infancy and Early Childhood
    NIH/NICHD R21HD088953Aug 4, 2017 - Jul 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Exploring The Impact of Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Atherosclerosis
    NIH/NICHD R21HD089067Aug 1, 2017 - Jul 31, 2019
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Disialyl oligosaccharides as Necrotizing Enterocolitis therapeutics
    NIH/NICHD R43HD087077Sep 25, 2015 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Exploring Oligosaccharide Synthesis in Human Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells
    NIH/NICHD R21HD080682Feb 23, 2015 - Jan 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Selective Inhibitors of Plasmodium Falciparum G6PD as Novel Antimalarials
    NIH/NIAID R01AI104916Aug 15, 2014 - Jul 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Fusing Glycobiology and Nutritional Sciences to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    NIH/NIDDK R00DK078668Sep 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Identification of G6PD inhibitors for the development of novel antimalarial drugs
    NIH/NIAID R21AI082434Aug 1, 2009 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Screening for Human Milk Oligosaccharides that Protect Infants from HIV Infection
    NIH/NICHD R03HD059717Aug 7, 2008 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Fusing Glycobiology and Nutritional Sciences to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    NIH/NIDDK K99DK078668Apr 1, 2008 - Mar 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Triantis V, Bode L, van Neerven RJJ. Immunological Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides. Front Pediatr. 2018; 6:190. PMID: 30013961.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Doherty AM, Lodge CJ, Dharmage SC, Dai X, Bode L, Lowe AJ. Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Associations With Immune-Mediated Disease and Infection in Childhood: A Systematic Review. Front Pediatr. 2018; 6:91. PMID: 29732363.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Rhine WD, Bode L. Welcome and Opening Remarks. Breastfeed Med. 2018 Apr; 13(S1):S2. PMID: 29624418.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bode L. Human Milk Oligosaccharides at the Interface of Maternal-Infant Health. Breastfeed Med. 2018 Apr; 13(S1):S7-S8. PMID: 29624421.
      View in: PubMed
    5. El-Hawiet A, Chen Y, Shams-Ud-Doha K, Kitova EN, Kitov PI, Bode L, Hage N, Falcone FH, Klassen JS. Screening natural libraries of human milk oligosaccharides against lectins using CaR-ESI-MS. Analyst. 2018 Jan 15; 143(2):536-548. PMID: 29239412.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Yu H, Yan X, Autran CA, Li Y, Etzold S, Latasiewicz J, Robertson BM, Li J, Bode L, Chen X. Enzymatic and Chemoenzymatic Syntheses of Disialyl Glycans and Their Necrotizing Enterocolitis Preventing Effects. J Org Chem. 2017 Dec 15; 82(24):13152-13160. PMID: 29124935.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Milani C, Duranti S, Bottacini F, Casey E, Turroni F, Mahony J, Belzer C, Delgado Palacio S, Arboleya Montes S, Mancabelli L, Lugli GA, Rodriguez JM, Bode L, de Vos W, Gueimonde M, Margolles A, van Sinderen D, Ventura M. The First Microbial Colonizers of the Human Gut: Composition, Activities, and Health Implications of the Infant Gut Microbiota. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2017 Dec; 81(4). PMID: 29118049.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Bazanella M, Maier TV, Clavel T, Lagkouvardos I, Lucio M, Maldonado-Gòmez MX, Autran C, Walter J, Bode L, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Haller D. Randomized controlled trial on the impact of early-life intervention with bifidobacteria on the healthy infant fecal microbiota and metabolome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Nov; 106(5):1274-1286. PMID: 28877893.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ruiz L, Espinosa-Martos I, García-Carral C, Manzano S, McGuire MK, Meehan CL, McGuire MA, Williams JE, Foster J, Sellen DW, Kamau-Mbuthia EW, Kamundia EW, Mbugua S, Moore SE, Kvist LJ, Otoo GE, Lackey KA, Flores K, Pareja RG, Bode L, Rodríguez JM. What's Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:696. PMID: 28713365.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Williams JE, Price WJ, Shafii B, Yahvah KM, Bode L, McGuire MA, McGuire MK. Relationships Among Microbial Communities, Maternal Cells, Oligosaccharides, and Macronutrients in Human Milk. J Hum Lact. 2017 Aug; 33(3):540-551. PMID: 28609134.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lin AE, Autran CA, Szyszka A, Escajadillo T, Huang M, Godula K, Prudden AR, Boons GJ, Lewis AL, Doran KS, Nizet V, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 2017 07 07; 292(27):11243-11249. PMID: 28416607.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Autran CA, Kellman BP, Kim JH, Asztalos E, Blood AB, Spence EC, Patel AL, Hou J, Lewis NE, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharide composition predicts risk of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. Gut. 2017 Apr 05. PMID: 28381523.
      View in: PubMed
    13. McGuire MK, Meehan CL, McGuire MA, Williams JE, Foster J, Sellen DW, Kamau-Mbuthia EW, Kamundia EW, Mbugua S, Moore SE, Prentice AM, Kvist LJ, Otoo GE, Brooker SL, Price WJ, Shafii B, Placek C, Lackey KA, Robertson B, Manzano S, Ruíz L, Rodríguez JM, Pareja RG, Bode L. What's normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May; 105(5):1086-1100. PMID: 28356278.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Daniels B, Coutsoudis A, Autran C, Amundson Mansen K, Israel-Ballard K, Bode L. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides. Paediatr Int Child Health. 2017 Aug; 37(3):204-209. PMID: 28262036.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Holscher HD, Bode L, Tappenden KA. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Intestinal Epithelial Cell Maturation In Vitro. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Feb; 64(2):296-301. PMID: 28114245.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Moukarzel S, Bode L. Human Milk Oligosaccharides and the Preterm Infant: A Journey in Sickness and in Health. Clin Perinatol. 2017 Mar; 44(1):193-207. PMID: 28159206.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Seppo AE, Autran CA, Bode L, Järvinen KM. Human milk oligosaccharides and development of cow's milk allergy in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Feb; 139(2):708-711.e5. PMID: 27702672.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Bode L, Contractor N, Barile D, Pohl N, Prudden AR, Boons GJ, Jin YS, Jennewein S. Overcoming the limited availability of human milk oligosaccharides: challenges and opportunities for research and application. Nutr Rev. 2016 10; 74(10):635-44. PMID: 27634978.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Bender JM, Li F, Martelly S, Byrt E, Rouzier V, Leo M, Tobin N, Pannaraj PS, Adisetiyo H, Rollie A, Santiskulvong C, Wang S, Autran C, Bode L, Fitzgerald D, Kuhn L, Aldrovandi GM. Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants. Sci Transl Med. 2016 07 27; 8(349):349ra100. PMID: 27464748.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Autran CA, Schoterman MH, Jantscher-Krenn E, Kamerling JP, Bode L. Sialylated galacto-oligosaccharides and 2'-fucosyllactose reduce necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats. Br J Nutr. 2016 07; 116(2):294-9. PMID: 27212112.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Alderete TL, Autran C, Brekke BE, Knight R, Bode L, Goran MI, Fields DA. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec; 102(6):1381-8. PMID: 26511224.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Bode L. The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides. Early Hum Dev. 2015 Nov; 91(11):619-22. PMID: 26375354.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Wahl A, Baker C, Spagnuolo RA, Stamper LW, Fouda GG, Permar SR, Hinde K, Kuhn L, Bode L, Aldrovandi GM, Garcia JV. Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity. J Virol. 2015 Nov; 89(21):10868-78. PMID: 26292320; PMCID: PMC4621099.
    24. Gonia S, Tuepker M, Heisel T, Autran C, Bode L, Gale CA. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Candida albicans Invasion of Human Premature Intestinal Epithelial Cells. J Nutr. 2015 Sep; 145(9):1992-8. PMID: 26180242.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Kuhn L, Kim HY, Hsiao L, Nissan C, Kankasa C, Mwiya M, Thea DM, Aldrovandi GM, Bode L. Oligosaccharide composition of breast milk influences survival of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in Lusaka, Zambia. J Nutr. 2015 Jan; 145(1):66-72. PMID: 25527660; PMCID: PMC4264023.
    26. Bode L, McGuire M, Rodriguez JM, Geddes DT, Hassiotou F, Hartmann PE, McGuire MK. It’s alive: microbes and cells in human milk and their potential benefits to mother and infant. Adv Nutr. 2014 Sep; 5(5):571-3. PMID: 25469400; PMCID: PMC4188237.
    27. Etzold S, Bode L. Glycan-dependent viral infection in infants and the role of human milk oligosaccharides. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Aug; 7:101-7. PMID: 25047751.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Van Niekerk E, Autran CA, Nel DG, Kirsten GF, Blaauw R, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides differ between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and are related to necrotizing enterocolitis incidence in their preterm very-low-birth-weight infants. J Nutr. 2014 Aug; 144(8):1227-33. PMID: 24919691.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Yu H, Lau K, Thon V, Autran CA, Jantscher-Krenn E, Xue M, Li Y, Sugiarto G, Qu J, Mu S, Ding L, Bode L, Chen X. Synthetic disialyl hexasaccharides protect neonatal rats from necrotizing enterocolitis. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Jun 23; 53(26):6687-91. PMID: 24848971; PMCID: PMC4147952.
    30. Manthey CF, Autran CA, Eckmann L, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides protect against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli attachment in vitro and EPEC colonization in suckling mice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Feb; 58(2):165-8. PMID: 24048169.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Chan CS, Kim HY, Autran C, Kim JH, Sinkala M, Kankasa C, Mwiya M, Thea DM, Aldrovandi GM, Kuhn L, Bode L. Human milk galectin-3 binding protein and breast-feeding-associated HIV transmission. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Dec; 32(12):e473-5. PMID: 23899964; PMCID: PMC3907473.
    32. Marx C, Bridge R, Wolf AK, Rich W, Kim JH, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharide composition differs between donor milk and mother's own milk in the NICU. J Hum Lact. 2014 Feb; 30(1):54-61. PMID: 24282194.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Meier PP, Bode L. Health, nutrition, and cost outcomes of human milk feedings for very low birthweight infants. Adv Nutr. 2013 Nov; 4(6):670-1. PMID: 24228197; PMCID: PMC3823514.
    34. Lin AE, Autran CA, Espanola SD, Bode L, Nizet V. Human milk oligosaccharides protect bladder epithelial cells against uropathogenic Escherichia coli invasion and cytotoxicity. J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 01; 209(3):389-98. PMID: 23990566; PMCID: PMC3883170.
    35. Jantscher-Krenn E, Marx C, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides are differentially metabolised in neonatal rats. Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug; 110(4):640-50. PMID: 23312292.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Preuss J, Richardson AD, Pinkerton A, Hedrick M, Sergienko E, Rahlfs S, Becker K, Bode L. Identification and characterization of novel human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2013 Mar; 18(3):286-97. PMID: 23023104.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Bode L, Kuhn L, Kim HY, Hsiao L, Nissan C, Sinkala M, Kankasa C, Mwiya M, Thea DM, Aldrovandi GM. Human milk oligosaccharide concentration and risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct; 96(4):831-9. PMID: 22894939; PMCID: PMC3441110.
    38. Preuss J, Maloney P, Peddibhotla S, Hedrick MP, Hershberger P, Gosalia P, Milewski M, Li YL, Sugarman E, Hood B, Suyama E, Nguyen K, Vasile S, Sergienko E, Mangravita-Novo A, Vicchiarelli M, McAnally D, Smith LH, Roth GP, Diwan J, Chung TD, Jortzik E, Rahlfs S, Becker K, Pinkerton AB, Bode L. Discovery of a Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase inhibitor (R,Z)-N-((1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl)methyl)-2-(2-fluorobenzylidene)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (ML276) that reduces parasite growth in vitro. J Med Chem. 2012 Aug 23; 55(16):7262-72. PMID: 22813531; PMCID: PMC3530835.
    39. Bode L, Jantscher-Krenn E. Structure-function relationships of human milk oligosaccharides. Adv Nutr. 2012 May 01; 3(3):383S-91S. PMID: 22585916; PMCID: PMC3649474.
    40. Bode L. [Researchers discover a unique human milk oligosaccharide]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2012 May; 31(5):214. PMID: 22685944.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: every baby needs a sugar mama. Glycobiology. 2012 Sep; 22(9):1147-62. PMID: 22513036; PMCID: PMC3406618.
    42. Preuss J, Hedrick M, Sergienko E, Pinkerton A, Mangravita-Novo A, Smith L, Marx C, Fischer E, Jortzik E, Rahlfs S, Becker K, Bode L. High-throughput screening for small-molecule inhibitors of plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase. J Biomol Screen. 2012 Jul; 17(6):738-51. PMID: 22496096.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Jantscher-Krenn E, Lauwaet T, Bliss LA, Reed SL, Gillin FD, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce Entamoeba histolytica attachment and cytotoxicity in vitro. Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 28; 108(10):1839-46. PMID: 22264879.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Jantscher-Krenn E, Zherebtsov M, Nissan C, Goth K, Guner YS, Naidu N, Choudhury B, Grishin AV, Ford HR, Bode L. The human milk oligosaccharide disialyllacto-N-tetraose prevents necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats. Gut. 2012 Oct; 61(10):1417-25. PMID: 22138535; PMCID: PMC3909680.
    45. Jortzik E, Mailu BM, Preuss J, Fischer M, Bode L, Rahlfs S, Becker K. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-6-phosphogluconolactonase: a unique bifunctional enzyme from Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem J. 2011 Jun 15; 436(3):641-50. PMID: 21443518.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: prebiotics and beyond. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov; 67 Suppl 2:S183-91. PMID: 19906222.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Hong P, Ninonuevo MR, Lee B, Lebrilla C, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce HIV-1-gp120 binding to dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb; 101(4):482-6. PMID: 19230080.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Ninonuevo MR, Bode L. Infant formula oligosaccharides opening the gates (for speculation): commentary on the article by Barrat et al. on page 34. Pediatr Res. 2008 Jul; 64(1):8-10. PMID: 18574406.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Bode L, Salvestrini C, Park PW, Li JP, Esko JD, Yamaguchi Y, Murch S, Freeze HH. Heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 are essential in maintaining murine and human intestinal epithelial barrier function. J Clin Invest. 2008 Jan; 118(1):229-38. PMID: 18064305; PMCID: PMC2117765.
    50. Bode L. Recent advances on structure, metabolism, and function of human milk oligosaccharides. J Nutr. 2006 Aug; 136(8):2127-30. PMID: 16857829.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Bode L, Murch S, Freeze HH. Heparan sulfate plays a central role in a dynamic in vitro model of protein-losing enteropathy. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 24; 281(12):7809-15. PMID: 16434407.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Bode L, Freeze HH. Applied glycoproteomics--approaches to study genetic-environmental collisions causing protein-losing enteropathy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Apr; 1760(4):547-59. PMID: 16380211.
      View in: PubMed
    53. DeRossi C, Bode L, Eklund EA, Zhang F, Davis JA, Westphal V, Wang L, Borowsky AD, Freeze HH. Ablation of mouse phosphomannose isomerase (Mpi) causes mannose 6-phosphate accumulation, toxicity, and embryonic lethality. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 03; 281(9):5916-27. PMID: 16339137.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Bode L, Eklund EA, Murch S, Freeze HH. Heparan sulfate depletion amplifies TNF-alpha-induced protein leakage in an in vitro model of protein-losing enteropathy. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 May; 288(5):G1015-23. PMID: 15604198.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Bode L, Kunz C, Muhly-Reinholz M, Mayer K, Seeger W, Rudloff S. Inhibition of monocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells by human milk oligosaccharides. Thromb Haemost. 2004 Dec; 92(6):1402-10. PMID: 15583750.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Bode L, Beermann C, Mank M, Kohn G, Boehm G. human and bovine milk gangliosides differ in their fatty acid composition. J Nutr. 2004 Nov; 134(11):3016-20. PMID: 15514268.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Bode L, Rudloff S, Kunz C, Strobel S, Klein N. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce platelet-neutrophil complex formation leading to a decrease in neutrophil beta 2 integrin expression. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Oct; 76(4):820-6. PMID: 15240751.
      View in: PubMed