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Nissi Varki

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentPathology
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0687
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-534-4933
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Glycan Modulation of Inflammatory Responses
    NIH P01HL107150Jul 1, 2011 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Genetic Modulation of Blood and Vascular Glycosylation
    NIH/NHLBI P01HL057345Sep 30, 1997 - Dec 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MECHANISMS OF METASTASIS OF HUMAN NEOPLASM
    NIH/NCI R01CA043716Jul 1, 1987 - Jun 30, 1991
    Role: Principal Investigator
    METASTASIS OF HUMAN LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA
    NIH/NCI R23CA043009Oct 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 1987
    Role: Principal Investigator
    INTESTINAL IMMUNE SYSTEM IN HOST-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
    NIH P01DK035108Apr 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Co-Investigator
    METASTASIS OF HUMAN LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA
    NIH/NCI R23CA039982Jan 1, 1985 - Sep 30, 1985
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Specialized Cancer Center Support Grant
    NIH/NCI P30CA023100Apr 1, 1978 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Alisson-Silva F, Liu JZ, Diaz SL, Deng L, Gareau MG, Marchelletta R, Chen X, Nizet V, Varki N, Barrett KE, Varki A. Human evolutionary loss of epithelial Neu5Gc expression and species-specific susceptibility to cholera. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Jun 18; 14(6):e1007133. PMID: 29912959.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Lee J, Liao R, Wang G, Yang BH, Luo X, Varki NM, Qiu SJ, Ren B, Fu W, Feng GS. Preventive Inhibition of Liver Tumorigenesis by Systemic Activation of Innate Immune Functions. Cell Rep. 2017 Nov 14; 21(7):1870-1882. PMID: 29141219.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Schwarz F, Landig CS, Siddiqui S, Secundino I, Olson J, Varki N, Nizet V, Varki A. Paired Siglec receptors generate opposite inflammatory responses to a human-specific pathogen. EMBO J. 2017 03 15; 36(6):751-760. PMID: 28100677.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Naito-Matsui Y, Davies LR, Takematsu H, Chou HH, Tangvoranuntakul P, Carlin AF, Verhagen A, Heyser CJ, Yoo SW, Choudhury B, Paton JC, Paton AW, Varki NM, Schnaar RL, Varki A. Physiological Exploration of the Long Term Evolutionary Selection against Expression of N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid in the Brain. J Biol Chem. 2017 02 17; 292(7):2557-2570. PMID: 28049733.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Luo X, Liao R, Hanley KL, Zhu HH, Malo KN, Hernandez C, Wei X, Varki NM, Alderson N, Chu C, Li S, Fan J, Loomba R, Qiu SJ, Feng GS. Dual Shp2 and Pten Deficiencies Promote Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Genesis of Liver Tumor-Initiating Cells. Cell Rep. 2016 12 13; 17(11):2979-2993. PMID: 27974211.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Siddiqui S, Schwarz F, Springer S, Khedri Z, Yu H, Deng L, Verhagen A, Naito-Matsui Y, Jiang W, Kim D, Zhou J, Ding B, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A. Studies on the Detection, Expression, Glycosylation, Dimerization, and Ligand Binding Properties of Mouse Siglec-E. J Biol Chem. 2017 01 20; 292(3):1029-1037. PMID: 27920204.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Miles LA, Baik N, Lighvani S, Khaldoyanidi S, Varki NM, Bai H, Mueller BM, Parmer RJ. Deficiency of plasminogen receptor, Plg-RKT , causes defects in plasminogen binding and inflammatory macrophage recruitment in vivo. J Thromb Haemost. 2017 01; 15(1):155-162. PMID: 27714956.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Lee RH, Korsapati H, Bhalla V, Varki N, Mittal RK. Esophageal Submucosal Injection of Capsaicin but Not Acid Induces Symptoms in Normal Subjects. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 Jul 30; 22(3):436-43. PMID: 26932896; PMCID: PMC4930298.
    9. Springer SA, Schwarz F, Altheide TK, Varki NM, Varki A, Gagneux P. Reply to Liu and Jiang: Maintenance of postreproductive cognitive capacity by inclusive fitness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22; 113(12):E1591-2. PMID: 26933219; PMCID: PMC4812698 [Available on 09/22/16].
    10. Hartmann P, Seebauer CT, Mazagova M, Horvath A, Wang L, Llorente C, Varki NM, Brandl K, Ho SB, Schnabl B. Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 protects mice from diet-induced fatty liver disease and obesity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Mar 01; 310(5):G310-22. PMID: 26702135; PMCID: PMC4773827 [Available on 03/01/17].
    11. Schwarz F, Springer SA, Altheide TK, Varki NM, Gagneux P, Varki A. Human-specific derived alleles of CD33 and other genes protect against postreproductive cognitive decline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jan 05; 113(1):74-9. PMID: 26621708; PMCID: PMC4711857.
    12. Fong JJ, Sreedhara K, Deng L, Varki NM, Angata T, Liu Q, Nizet V, Varki A. Immunomodulatory activity of extracellular Hsp70 mediated via paired receptors Siglec-5 and Siglec-14. EMBO J. 2015 Nov 12; 34(22):2775-88. PMID: 26459514; PMCID: PMC4682649 [Available on 11/12/16].
    13. Varki NM, Varki A. On the apparent rarity of epithelial cancers in captive chimpanzees. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jul 19; 370(1673). PMID: 26056369; PMCID: PMC4581030.
    14. Schwarz F, Pearce OM, Wang X, Samraj AN, Läubli H, Garcia JO, Lin H, Fu X, Garcia-Bingman A, Secrest P, Romanoski CE, Heyser C, Glass CK, Hazen SL, Varki N, Varki A, Gagneux P. Siglec receptors impact mammalian lifespan by modulating oxidative stress. Elife. 2015 Apr 07; 4. PMID: 25846707; PMCID: PMC4384638.
    15. Pearce OM, Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki NM, Varki A. Reply to Mackenzie: A comparison of Neu5Gc and a-gal xenoantigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 24; 112(12):E1405. PMID: 25713131; PMCID: PMC4378408.
    16. Miyazaki M, Miyazaki K, Chen S, Chandra V, Wagatsuma K, Agata Y, Rodewald HR, Saito R, Chang AN, Varki N, Kawamoto H, Murre C. The E-Id protein axis modulates the activities of the PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-Hif1a and c-myc/p19Arf pathways to suppress innate variant TFH cell development, thymocyte expansion, and lymphomagenesis. Genes Dev. 2015 Feb 15; 29(4):409-25. PMID: 25691468; PMCID: PMC4335296.
    17. Kitajima K, Varki N, Sato C. Advanced Technologies in Sialic Acid and Sialoglycoconjugate Analysis. Top Curr Chem. 2015; 367:75-103. PMID: 26017094.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Samraj AN, Pearce OM, Läubli H, Crittenden AN, Bergfeld AK, Banda K, Gregg CJ, Bingman AE, Secrest P, Diaz SL, Varki NM, Varki A. A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13; 112(2):542-7. PMID: 25548184; PMCID: PMC4299224.
    19. Deng L, Song J, Gao X, Wang J, Yu H, Chen X, Varki N, Naito-Matsui Y, Galán JE, Varki A. Host adaptation of a bacterial toxin from the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi. Cell. 2014 Dec 04; 159(6):1290-9. PMID: 25480294; PMCID: PMC4258231.
    20. Läubli H, Alisson-Silva F, Stanczak MA, Siddiqui SS, Deng L, Verhagen A, Varki N, Varki A. Lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) is a tumor-associated immunomodulatory ligand for CD33-related Siglecs. J Biol Chem. 2014 Nov 28; 289(48):33481-91. PMID: 25320078; PMCID: PMC4246102.
    21. Läubli H, Pearce OM, Schwarz F, Siddiqui SS, Deng L, Stanczak MA, Deng L, Verhagen A, Secrest P, Lusk C, Schwartz AG, Varki NM, Bui JD, Varki A. Engagement of myelomonocytic Siglecs by tumor-associated ligands modulates the innate immune response to cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 30; 111(39):14211-6. PMID: 25225409; PMCID: PMC4191788.
    22. Miyazaki M, Miyazaki K, Chen S, Itoi M, Miller M, Lu LF, Varki N, Chang AN, Broide DH, Murre C. Id2 and Id3 maintain the regulatory T cell pool to suppress inflammatory disease. Nat Immunol. 2014 Aug; 15(8):767-76. PMID: 24973820; PMCID: PMC4365819.
    23. Ali SR, Fong JJ, Carlin AF, Busch TD, Linden R, Angata T, Areschoug T, Parast M, Varki N, Murray J, Nizet V, Varki A. Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are polymorphic paired receptors that modulate neutrophil and amnion signaling responses to group B Streptococcus. J Exp Med. 2014 Jun 02; 211(6):1231-42. PMID: 24799499; PMCID: PMC4042635.
    24. Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki N, Varki A. Corrigendum: involvement of a non-human sialic Acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:83. PMID: 24795860; PMCID: PMC4001053.
    25. Emond JA, Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Gapuz LR, Nguyen J, Parker BA, Varki NM, Patterson RE. Risk of breast cancer recurrence associated with carbohydrate intake and tissue expression of IGFI receptor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jul; 23(7):1273-9. PMID: 24755714; PMCID: PMC4082443.
    26. Pearce OM, Läubli H, Verhagen A, Secrest P, Zhang J, Varki NM, Crocker PR, Bui JD, Varki A. Inverse hormesis of cancer growth mediated by narrow ranges of tumor-directed antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22; 111(16):5998-6003. PMID: 24711415; PMCID: PMC4000847.
    27. Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki N, Varki A. Involvement of a non-human sialic Acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:33. PMID: 24600589; PMCID: PMC3928833.
    28. Woo JR, Liss MA, Muldong MT, Palazzi K, Strasner A, Ammirante M, Varki N, Shabaik A, Howell S, Kane CJ, Karin M, Jamieson CA. Tumor infiltrating B-cells are increased in prostate cancer tissue. J Transl Med. 2014 Jan 30; 12:30. PMID: 24475900; PMCID: PMC3914187.
    29. Padler-Karavani V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Chang YC, Sonnenburg JL, Ronaghy A, Yu H, Verhagen A, Nizet V, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A, Angata T. Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates. FASEB J. 2014 Mar; 28(3):1280-93. PMID: 24308974; PMCID: PMC3929681.
    30. Grewal PK, Aziz PV, Uchiyama S, Rubio GR, Lardone RD, Le D, Varki NM, Nizet V, Marth JD. Inducing host protection in pneumococcal sepsis by preactivation of the Ashwell-Morell receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 10; 110(50):20218-23. PMID: 24284176; PMCID: PMC3864324.
    31. Cohen M, Zhang XQ, Senaati HP, Chen HW, Varki NM, Schooley RT, Gagneux P. Influenza A penetrates host mucus by cleaving sialic acids with neuraminidase. Virol J. 2013 Nov 22; 10:321. PMID: 24261589; PMCID: PMC3842836.
    32. Sharma S, Morinaga H, Hwang V, Fan W, Fernandez MO, Varki N, Olefsky JM, Webster NJ. Free fatty acids induce Lhb mRNA but suppress Fshb mRNA in pituitary LßT2 gonadotropes and diet-induced obesity reduces FSH levels in male mice and disrupts the proestrous LH/FSH surge in female mice. Endocrinology. 2013 Jun; 154(6):2188-99. PMID: 23525221; PMCID: PMC3740488.
    33. Orr SL, Le D, Long JM, Sobieszczuk P, Ma B, Tian H, Fang X, Paulson JC, Marth JD, Varki N. A phenotype survey of 36 mutant mouse strains with gene-targeted defects in glycosyltransferases or glycan-binding proteins. Glycobiology. 2013 Mar; 23(3):363-80. PMID: 23118208; PMCID: PMC3605971.
    34. Cohen M, Varki NM, Jankowski MD, Gagneux P. Using unfixed, frozen tissues to study natural mucin distribution. J Vis Exp. 2012 Sep 21; (67):e3928. PMID: 23023050; PMCID: PMC3490269.
    35. Ma F, Wu D, Deng L, Secrest P, Zhao J, Varki N, Lindheim S, Gagneux P. Sialidases on mammalian sperm mediate deciduous sialylation during capacitation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 02; 287(45):38073-9. PMID: 22989879; PMCID: PMC3488077.
    36. Banda K, Gregg CJ, Chow R, Varki NM, Varki A. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal incorporation of the non-human sialic acid xeno-autoantigen N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17; 287(34):28852-64. PMID: 22692204; PMCID: PMC3436511.
    37. Wang X, Mitra N, Cruz P, Deng L. Evolution of siglec-11 and siglec-16 genes in hominins. Mol Biol Evol. 2012 Aug; 29(8):2073-86. PMID: 22383531; PMCID: PMC3408085.
    38. Bard-Chapeau EA, Li S, Ding J, Zhang SS, Zhu HH, Princen F, Fang DD, Han T, Bailly-Maitre B, Poli V, Varki NM, Wang H, Feng GS. Ptpn11/Shp2 acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17; 19(5):629-39. PMID: 21575863; PMCID: PMC3098128.
    39. Mitra N, Banda K, Altheide TK, Schaffer L, Johnson-Pais TL, Beuten J, Leach RJ, Angata T, Varki N, Varki A. SIGLEC12, a human-specific segregating (pseudo)gene, encodes a signaling molecule expressed in prostate carcinomas. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 01; 286(26):23003-11. PMID: 21555517; PMCID: PMC3123068.
    40. Wang X, Chow R, Deng L, Anderson D, Weidner N, Godwin AK, Bewtra C, Zlotnik A, Bui J, Varki A, Varki N. Expression of Siglec-11 by human and chimpanzee ovarian stromal cells, with uniquely human ligands: implications for human ovarian physiology and pathology. Glycobiology. 2011 Aug; 21(8):1038-48. PMID: 21467073; PMCID: PMC3130538.
    41. Varki NM, Strobert E, Dick EJ, Benirschke K, Varki A. Biomedical differences between human and nonhuman hominids: potential roles for uniquely human aspects of sialic acid biology. Annu Rev Pathol. 2011; 6:365-93. PMID: 21073341.
      View in: PubMed
    42. González-Navajas JM, Law J, Nguyen KP, Bhargava M, Corr MP, Varki N, Eckmann L, Hoffman HM, Lee J, Raz E. Interleukin 1 receptor signaling regulates DUBA expression and facilitates Toll-like receptor 9-driven antiinflammatory cytokine production. J Exp Med. 2010 Dec 20; 207(13):2799-807. PMID: 21115691; PMCID: PMC3005235.
    43. Emre N, Vidal JG, Elia J, O'Connor ED, Paramban RI, Hefferan MP, Navarro R, Goldberg DS, Varki NM, Marsala M, Carson CT. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 13; 5(8):e12148. PMID: 20730054; PMCID: PMC2921395.
    44. Kim MA, Yang D, Kida K, Molotkova N, Yeo SJ, Varki N, Iwata M, Dalton ND, Peterson KL, Siems WE, Walther T, Cowling RT, Kjekshus J, Greenberg B. Effects of ACE2 inhibition in the post-myocardial infarction heart. J Card Fail. 2010 Sep; 16(9):777-85. PMID: 20797602; PMCID: PMC2929397.
    45. Lee SH, Hu LL, Gonzalez-Navajas J, Seo GS, Shen C, Brick J, Herdman S, Varki N, Corr M, Lee J, Raz E. ERK activation drives intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nat Med. 2010 Jun; 16(6):665-70. PMID: 20473309; PMCID: PMC2882530.
    46. Pham T, Gregg CJ, Karp F, Chow R, Padler-Karavani V, Cao H, Chen X, Witztum JL, Varki NM, Varki A. Evidence for a novel human-specific xeno-auto-antibody response against vascular endothelium. Blood. 2009 Dec 10; 114(25):5225-35. PMID: 19828701; PMCID: PMC2792214.
    47. Ye M, Hamzeh R, Geddis A, Varki N, Perryman MB, Grossfeld P. Deletion of JAM-C, a candidate gene for heart defects in Jacobsen syndrome, results in a normal cardiac phenotype in mice. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Jul; 149A(7):1438-43. PMID: 19533782.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Löfling JC, Paton AW, Varki NM, Paton JC, Varki A. A dietary non-human sialic acid may facilitate hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Kidney Int. 2009 Jul; 76(2):140-4. PMID: 19387473; PMCID: PMC2752721.
    49. Varki A, Varki NM, Borsig L. Molecular basis of metastasis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 16; 360(16):1678-9; author reply 1679-80. PMID: 19369678.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Varki N, Anderson D, Herndon JG, Pham T, Gregg CJ, Cheriyan M, Murphy J, Strobert E, Fritz J, Else JG, Varki A. Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes. Evol Appl. 2009 Feb; 2(1):101-12. PMID: 25567850; PMCID: PMC3352420.
    51. Diaz SL, Padler-Karavani V, Ghaderi D, Hurtado-Ziola N, Yu H, Chen X, Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Varki A, Varki NM. Sensitive and specific detection of the non-human sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human tissues and biotherapeutic products. PLoS One. 2009; 4(1):e4241. PMID: 19156207; PMCID: PMC2626223.
    52. Cariappa A, Takematsu H, Liu H, Diaz S, Haider K, Boboila C, Kalloo G, Connole M, Shi HN, Varki N, Varki A, Pillai S. B cell antigen receptor signal strength and peripheral B cell development are regulated by a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid esterase. J Exp Med. 2009 Jan 16; 206(1):125-38. PMID: 19103880; PMCID: PMC2626685.
    53. Hedlund M, Padler-Karavani V, Varki NM, Varki A. Evidence for a human-specific mechanism for diet and antibody-mediated inflammation in carcinoma progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 02; 105(48):18936-41. PMID: 19017806; PMCID: PMC2596253.
    54. Byres E, Paton AW, Paton JC, Löfling JC, Smith DF, Wilce MC, Talbot UM, Chong DC, Yu H, Huang S, Chen X, Varki NM, Varki A, Rossjohn J, Beddoe T. Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin. Nature. 2008 Dec 04; 456(7222):648-52. PMID: 18971931; PMCID: PMC2723748.
    55. Turovskaya O, Foell D, Sinha P, Vogl T, Newlin R, Nayak J, Nguyen M, Olsson A, Nawroth PP, Bierhaus A, Varki N, Kronenberg M, Freeze HH, Srikrishna G. RAGE, carboxylated glycans and S100A8/A9 play essential roles in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2008 Oct; 29(10):2035-43. PMID: 18689872; PMCID: PMC2556970.
    56. Padler-Karavani V, Yu H, Cao H, Chokhawala H, Karp F, Varki N, Chen X, Varki A. Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: potential implications for disease. Glycobiology. 2008 Oct; 18(10):818-30. PMID: 18669916; PMCID: PMC2586336.
    57. Grewal PK, Uchiyama S, Ditto D, Varki N, Le DT, Nizet V, Marth JD. The Ashwell receptor mitigates the lethal coagulopathy of sepsis. Nat Med. 2008 Jun; 14(6):648-55. PMID: 18488037; PMCID: PMC2853759.
    58. Hedlund M, Ng E, Varki A, Varki NM. alpha 2-6-Linked sialic acids on N-glycans modulate carcinoma differentiation in vivo. Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 15; 68(2):388-94. PMID: 18199532.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Varki NM, Varki A. Diversity in cell surface sialic acid presentations: implications for biology and disease. Lab Invest. 2007 Sep; 87(9):851-7. PMID: 17632542.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Hurtado-Ziola N, Hayakawa T, Wiggleton L, Benirschke K, Varki A, Varki N. Human-specific expression of Siglec-6 in the placenta. Glycobiology. 2007 Sep; 17(9):922-31. PMID: 17580316.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Locke JB, Colvin KM, Varki N, Vicknair MR, Nizet V, Buchanan JT. Streptococcus iniae beta-hemolysin streptolysin S is a virulence factor in fish infection. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007 Jun 07; 76(1):17-26. PMID: 17718161.
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    62. Hedlund M, Tangvoranuntakul P, Takematsu H, Long JM, Housley GD, Kozutsumi Y, Suzuki A, Wynshaw-Boris A, Ryan AF, Gallo RL, Varki N, Varki A. N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in mice: implications for human biology and evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; 27(12):4340-6. PMID: 17420276; PMCID: PMC1900035.
    63. Altheide TK, Hayakawa T, Mikkelsen TS, Diaz S, Varki N, Varki A. System-wide genomic and biochemical comparisons of sialic acid biology among primates and rodents: Evidence for two modes of rapid evolution. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 01; 281(35):25689-702. PMID: 16769723.
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    64. Holzer AK, Varki NM, Le QT, Gibson MA, Naredi P, Howell SB. Expression of the human copper influx transporter 1 in normal and malignant human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006 Sep; 54(9):1041-9. PMID: 16709730.
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    65. Brown JR, Fuster MM, Li R, Varki N, Glass CA, Esko JD. A disaccharide-based inhibitor of glycosylation attenuates metastatic tumor cell dissemination. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 May 01; 12(9):2894-901. PMID: 16675586.
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    66. Läubli H, Stevenson JL, Varki A, Varki NM, Borsig L. L-selectin facilitation of metastasis involves temporal induction of Fut7-dependent ligands at sites of tumor cell arrest. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 01; 66(3):1536-42. PMID: 16452210.
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    67. Borges HL, Bird J, Wasson K, Cardiff RD, Varki N, Eckmann L, Wang JY. Tumor promotion by caspase-resistant retinoblastoma protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 25; 102(43):15587-92. PMID: 16227443; PMCID: PMC1255734.
    68. Hayakawa T, Angata T, Lewis AL, Mikkelsen TS, Varki NM, Varki A. A human-specific gene in microglia. Science. 2005 Sep 09; 309(5741):1693. PMID: 16151003.
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    69. McCole DF, Rogler G, Varki N, Barrett KE. Epidermal growth factor partially restores colonic ion transport responses in mouse models of chronic colitis. Gastroenterology. 2005 Aug; 129(2):591-608. PMID: 16083715.
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    70. Datta V, Myskowski SM, Kwinn LA, Chiem DN, Varki N, Kansal RG, Kotb M, Nizet V. Mutational analysis of the group A streptococcal operon encoding streptolysin S and its virulence role in invasive infection. Mol Microbiol. 2005 May; 56(3):681-95. PMID: 15819624.
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    71. Lewis AL, Altheide TK, Varki A, Arden K, Varki NM. Combining parenting and a science career. Science. 2005 Mar 18; 307(5716):1720-1. PMID: 15779114.
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    72. Djerassi C, Lewis AL, Altheide TK, Varki A, Arden K, Varki NM, Peekna A. Combining Parenting and a Science Career. Science. 2005 Mar 18; 307(5716):1720b-1721b. PMID: 15778202.
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    73. Gurantz D, Cowling RT, Varki N, Frikovsky E, Moore CD, Greenberg BH. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha upregulate angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors on cardiac fibroblasts and are associated with increased AT1 density in the post-MI heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005 Mar; 38(3):505-15. PMID: 15733910.
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    74. Maaser C, Housley MP, Iimura M, Smith JR, Vallance BA, Finlay BB, Schreiber JR, Varki NM, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L. Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium requires B cells but not secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM antibodies. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3315-24. PMID: 15155635; PMCID: PMC415672.
    75. Hosaka T, Biggs WH, Tieu D, Boyer AD, Varki NM, Cavenee WK, Arden KC. Disruption of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family members in mice reveals their functional diversification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 02; 101(9):2975-80. PMID: 14978268; PMCID: PMC365730.
    76. Henriksson KC, Almgren MA, Thurlow R, Varki NM, Chang CL. A fluorescent orthotopic mouse model for reliable measurement and genetic modulation of human neuroblastoma metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004; 21(6):563-70. PMID: 15679054.
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    77. Samimi G, Varki NM, Wilczynski S, Safaei R, Alberts DS, Howell SB. Increase in expression of the copper transporter ATP7A during platinum drug-based treatment is associated with poor survival in ovarian cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Dec 01; 9(16 Pt 1):5853-9. PMID: 14676106.
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    78. Tangvoranuntakul P, Gagneux P, Diaz S, Bardor M, Varki N, Varki A, Muchmore E. Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 14; 100(21):12045-50. PMID: 14523234; PMCID: PMC218710.
    79. Gagneux P, Cheriyan M, Hurtado-Ziola N, van der Linden EC, Anderson D, McClure H, Varki A, Varki NM. Human-specific regulation of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acids. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48):48245-50. PMID: 14500706.
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    80. Wahrenbrock M, Borsig L, Le D, Varki N, Varki A. Selectin-mucin interactions as a probable molecular explanation for the association of Trousseau syndrome with mucinous adenocarcinomas. J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep; 112(6):853-62. PMID: 12975470; PMCID: PMC193671.
    81. Onami TM, Lin MY, Page DM, Reynolds SA, Katayama CD, Marth JD, Irimura T, Varki A, Varki N, Hedrick SM. Generation of mice deficient for macrophage galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin: limited role in lymphoid and erythroid homeostasis and evidence for multiple lectins. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jul; 22(14):5173-81. PMID: 12077344; PMCID: PMC139776.
    82. Martin LT, Marth JD, Varki A, Varki NM. Genetically altered mice with different sialyltransferase deficiencies show tissue-specific alterations in sialylation and sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 06; 277(36):32930-8. PMID: 12068010.
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    83. Angata T, Kerr SC, Greaves DR, Varki NM, Crocker PR, Varki A. Cloning and characterization of human Siglec-11. A recently evolved signaling molecule that can interact with SHP-1 and SHP-2 and is expressed by tissue macrophages, including brain microglia. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 05; 277(27):24466-74. PMID: 11986327.
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    84. Borsig L, Wong R, Hynes RO, Varki NM, Varki A. Synergistic effects of L- and P-selectin in facilitating tumor metastasis can involve non-mucin ligands and implicate leukocytes as enhancers of metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19; 99(4):2193-8. PMID: 11854515; PMCID: PMC122341.
    85. Varki NM, Varki A. Heparin inhibition of selectin-mediated interactions during the hematogenous phase of carcinoma metastasis: rationale for clinical studies in humans. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2002 Feb; 28(1):53-66. PMID: 11885026.
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    86. Hase K, Eckmann L, Leopard JD, Varki N, Kagnoff MF. Cell differentiation is a key determinant of cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 expression by human colon epithelium. Infect Immun. 2002 Feb; 70(2):953-63. PMID: 11796631; PMCID: PMC127717.
    87. Ozerdem U, Mach-Hofacre B, Varki N, Folberg R, Mueller AJ, Ochabski R, Pham T, Appelt K, Freeman WR. The effect of prinomastat (AG3340), a synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, on uveal melanoma rabbit model. Curr Eye Res. 2002 Feb; 24(2):86-91. PMID: 12187478.
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    88. Wang Y, Tan J, Sutton-Smith M, Ditto D, Panico M, Campbell RM, Varki NM, Long JM, Jaeken J, Levinson SR, Wynshaw-Boris A, Morris HR, Le D, Dell A, Schachter H, Marth JD. Modeling human congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIa in the mouse: conservation of asparagine-linked glycan-dependent functions in mammalian physiology and insights into disease pathogenesis. Glycobiology. 2001 Dec; 11(12):1051-70. PMID: 11805078.
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    89. Angata T, Hingorani R, Varki NM, Varki A. Cloning and characterization of a novel mouse Siglec, mSiglec-F: differential evolution of the mouse and human (CD33) Siglec-3-related gene clusters. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 30; 276(48):45128-36. PMID: 11579105.
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    90. Angata T, Varki NM, Varki A. A second uniquely human mutation affecting sialic acid biology. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26; 276(43):40282-7. PMID: 11546777.
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    91. Borsig L, Wong R, Feramisco J, Nadeau DR, Varki NM, Varki A. Pictures in molecular medicine: three-dimensional visualization of intravascular tumor cells in mice. Trends Mol Med. 2001 Aug; 7(8):377. PMID: 11517000.
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    92. Pertl U, Luster AD, Varki NM, Homann D, Gaedicke G, Reisfeld RA, Lode HN. IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 is essential for the generation of a protective tumor-specific CD8 T cell response induced by single-chain IL-12 gene therapy. J Immunol. 2001 Jun 01; 166(11):6944-51. PMID: 11359856.
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    93. Varki A, Varki NM. P-selectin, carcinoma metastasis and heparin: novel mechanistic connections with therapeutic implications. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001 Jun; 34(6):711-7. PMID: 11378658.
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    94. Izadpanah A, Dwinell MB, Eckmann L, Varki NM, Kagnoff MF. Regulated MIP-3alpha/CCL20 production by human intestinal epithelium: mechanism for modulating mucosal immunity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Apr; 280(4):G710-9. PMID: 11254498.
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    95. Borsig L, Wong R, Feramisco J, Nadeau DR, Varki NM, Varki A. Heparin and cancer revisited: mechanistic connections involving platelets, P-selectin, carcinoma mucins, and tumor metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Mar 13; 98(6):3352-7. PMID: 11248082; PMCID: PMC30657.
    96. Srikrishna G, Toomre DK, Manzi A, Panneerselvam K, Freeze HH, Varki A, Varki NM. A novel anionic modification of N-glycans on mammalian endothelial cells is recognized by activated neutrophils and modulates acute inflammatory responses. J Immunol. 2001 Jan 01; 166(1):624-32. PMID: 11123346.
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    97. Bissonnette M, Khare S, von Lintig FC, Wali RK, Nguyen L, Zhang Y, Hart J, Skarosi S, Varki N, Boss GR, Brasitus TA. Mutational and nonmutational activation of p21ras in rat colonic azoxymethane-induced tumors: effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase, cyclooxygenase-2, and cyclin D1. Cancer Res. 2000 Aug 15; 60(16):4602-9. PMID: 10969813.
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    98. von Lintig FC, Dreilinger AD, Varki NM, Wallace AM, Casteel DE, Boss GR. Ras activation in human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2000 Jul; 62(1):51-62. PMID: 10989985.
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    99. Samimi G, Fink D, Varki NM, Husain A, Hoskins WJ, Alberts DS, Howell SB. Analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 expression in ovarian cancer before and after platinum drug-based chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Apr; 6(4):1415-21. PMID: 10778972.
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    100. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Sjoberg ER, Juneja LR, Crocker PR, Varki N, Varki A. Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human evolution. Implications for sialic acid recognition by siglecs. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 24; 275(12):8633-40. PMID: 10722703.
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    101. Priatel JJ, Chui D, Hiraoka N, Simmons CJ, Richardson KB, Page DM, Fukuda M, Varki NM, Marth JD. The ST3Gal-I sialyltransferase controls CD8+ T lymphocyte homeostasis by modulating O-glycan biosynthesis. Immunity. 2000 Mar; 12(3):273-83. PMID: 10755614.
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    102. Merendino N, Dwinell MB, Varki N, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Human intestinal epithelial cells express receptors for platelet-activating factor. Am J Physiol. 1999 Oct; 277(4 Pt 1):G810-8. PMID: 10516147.
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    103. Dwinell MB, Eckmann L, Leopard JD, Varki NM, Kagnoff MF. Chemokine receptor expression by human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 1999 Aug; 117(2):359-67. PMID: 10419917.
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    104. Kim YJ, Borsig L, Han HL, Varki NM, Varki A. Distinct selectin ligands on colon carcinoma mucins can mediate pathological interactions among platelets, leukocytes, and endothelium. Am J Pathol. 1999 Aug; 155(2):461-72. PMID: 10433939; PMCID: PMC1866847.
    105. Shalinsky DR, Brekken J, Zou H, Bloom LA, McDermott CD, Zook S, Varki NM, Appelt K. Marked antiangiogenic and antitumor efficacy of AG3340 in chemoresistant human non-small cell lung cancer tumors: single agent and combination chemotherapy studies. Clin Cancer Res. 1999 Jul; 5(7):1905-17. PMID: 10430098.
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    106. Shalinsky DR, Brekken J, Zou H, McDermott CD, Forsyth P, Edwards D, Margosiak S, Bender S, Truitt G, Wood A, Varki NM, Appelt K. Broad antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of AG3340, a potent and selective MMP inhibitor undergoing advanced oncology clinical trials. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 Jun 30; 878:236-70. PMID: 10415735.
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    107. Chammas R, Sonnenburg JL, Watson NE, Tai T, Farquhar MG, Varki NM, Varki A. De-N-acetyl-gangliosides in humans: unusual subcellular distribution of a novel tumor antigen. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 15; 59(6):1337-46. PMID: 10096568.
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    108. Kurdi-Haidar B, Heath D, Naredi P, Varki N, Howell SB. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of the human ATPase (hASNA-I) in normal tissues and its overexpression in breast adenomas and carcinomas. J Histochem Cytochem. 1998 Nov; 46(11):1243-8. PMID: 9774623.
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    109. Kim YJ, Borsig L, Varki NM, Varki A. P-selectin deficiency attenuates tumor growth and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Aug 04; 95(16):9325-30. PMID: 9689079; PMCID: PMC21337.
    110. Lode HN, Dreier T, Xiang R, Varki NM, Kang AS, Reisfeld RA. Gene therapy with a single chain interleukin 12 fusion protein induces T cell-dependent protective immunity in a syngeneic model of murine neuroblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Mar 03; 95(5):2475-80. PMID: 9482910; PMCID: PMC19380.
    111. Lode HN, Xiang R, Dreier T, Varki NM, Gillies SD, Reisfeld RA. Natural killer cell-mediated eradication of neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow by targeted interleukin-2 therapy. Blood. 1998 Mar 01; 91(5):1706-15. PMID: 9473237.
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    112. Lode HN, Xiang R, Varki NM, Dolman CS, Gillies SD, Reisfeld RA. Targeted interleukin-2 therapy for spontaneous neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Nov 05; 89(21):1586-94. PMID: 9362156.
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    113. Xiang R, Lode HN, Dolman CS, Dreier T, Varki NM, Qian X, Lo KM, Lan Y, Super M, Gillies SD, Reisfeld RA. Elimination of established murine colon carcinoma metastases by antibody-interleukin 2 fusion protein therapy. Cancer Res. 1997 Nov 01; 57(21):4948-55. PMID: 9354462.
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    114. Srikrishna G, Varki NM, Newell PC, Varki A, Freeze HH. An IgG monoclonal antibody against Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins specifically recognizes Fucalpha1,6GlcNAcbeta in the core of N-linked glycans. Localized expression of core-fucosylated glycoconjugates in human tissues. J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 10; 272(41):25743-52. PMID: 9325301.
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    115. Hicke BJ, Watson SR, Koenig A, Lynott CK, Bargatze RF, Chang YF, Ringquist S, Moon-McDermott L, Jennings S, Fitzwater T, Han HL, Varki N, Albinana I, Willis MC, Varki A, Parma D. DNA aptamers block L-selectin function in vivo. Inhibition of human lymphocyte trafficking in SCID mice. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2688-92. PMID: 8981912; PMCID: PMC507731.
    116. Becker JC, Varki N, Gillies SD, Furukawa K, Reisfeld RA. Long-lived and transferable tumor immunity in mice after targeted interleukin-2 therapy. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2801-4. PMID: 8981927; PMCID: PMC507746.
    117. Shi WX, Chammas R, Varki NM, Powell L, Varki A. Sialic acid 9-O-acetylation on murine erythroleukemia cells affects complement activation, binding to I-type lectins, and tissue homing. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 06; 271(49):31526-32. PMID: 8940168.
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    118. Becker JC, Varki N, Bröcker EB, Reisfeld RA. Lymphocyte-mediated alopecia in C57BL/6 mice following successful immunotherapy for melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Oct; 107(4):627-32. PMID: 8823372.
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    119. Becker JC, Varki N, Gillies SD, Furukawa K, Reisfeld RA. An antibody-interleukin 2 fusion protein overcomes tumor heterogeneity by induction of a cellular immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jul 23; 93(15):7826-31. PMID: 8755561; PMCID: PMC38833.
    120. O'Connell D, Koenig A, Jennings S, Hicke B, Han HL, Fitzwater T, Chang YF, Varki N, Parma D, Varki A. Calcium-dependent oligonucleotide antagonists specific for L-selectin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 11; 93(12):5883-7. PMID: 8650187; PMCID: PMC39156.
    121. Reisfeld RA, Gillies SD, Mendelsohn J, Varki NM, Becker JC. Involvement of B lymphocytes in the growth inhibition of human pulmonary melanoma metastases in athymic nu/nu mice by an antibody-lymphotoxin fusion protein. Cancer Res. 1996 Apr 15; 56(8):1707-12. PMID: 8620479.
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    122. Almus-Jacobs F, Varki N, Sawdey MS, Loskutoff DJ. Endotoxin stimulates expression of the murine urokinase receptor gene in vivo. Am J Pathol. 1995 Sep; 147(3):688-98. PMID: 7677180; PMCID: PMC1870967.
    123. Klein A, Krishna M, Varki NM, Varki A. 9-O-acetylated sialic acids have widespread but selective expression: analysis using a chimeric dual-function probe derived from influenza C hemagglutinin-esterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Aug 02; 91(16):7782-6. PMID: 8052660; PMCID: PMC44486.
    124. Norgard-Sumnicht KE, Varki NM, Varki A. Calcium-dependent heparin-like ligands for L-selectin in nonlymphoid endothelial cells. Science. 1993 Jul 23; 261(5120):480-3. PMID: 7687382.
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    125. Norgard KE, Han H, Powell L, Kriegler M, Varki A, Varki NM. Enhanced interaction of L-selectin with the high endothelial venule ligand via selectively oxidized sialic acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 01; 90(3):1068-72. PMID: 7679216; PMCID: PMC45812.
    126. Gill BM, Barbosa JA, Hogue-Angeletti R, Varki N, O'Connor DT. Chromogranin A epitopes: clues from synthetic peptides and peptide mapping. Neuropeptides. 1992 Feb; 21(2):105-18. PMID: 1372966.
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    127. Omary MB, de Grandpre L, Varki NM, Kagnoff MF. A tyrosine sulfated human glycoprotein with an unusual cell distribution. Mol Immunol. 1992 Jan; 29(1):9-19. PMID: 1731194.
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    128. Varki NM, Han H, Hamsayeh J, Vu TP. Clones of a spontaneously metastatic human lung carcinoma cell line differ in their in vitro and in vivo phenotypic characteristics. Tumour Biol. 1992; 13(4):237-47. PMID: 1411141.
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    129. Varki A, Hooshmand F, Diaz S, Varki NM, Hedrick SM. Developmental abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing a sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterase. Cell. 1991 Apr 05; 65(1):65-74. PMID: 1826463.
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    130. Robbins KT, Rosenberg W, Weiss B, Varki NM. Growth characteristics of human laryngeal carcinoma in athymic mice. J Otolaryngol. 1991 Apr; 20(2):117-22. PMID: 2041060.
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    131. Robbins KT, Varki NM, Storniolo AM, Hoffman H, Hoffman RM. Drug response of head and neck tumors in native-state histoculture. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991 Jan; 117(1):83-6. PMID: 1986767.
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    132. McKenzie BA, Barrieux A, Varki NM. A novel detection system for submicroscopic human metastases in athymic mice. Cancer Commun. 1991 Jan; 3(1):15-9. PMID: 1989644.
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    133. Fleck RA, Rao LV, Rapaport SI, Varki N. Localization of human tissue factor antigen by immunostaining with monospecific, polyclonal anti-human tissue factor antibody. Thromb Res. 1990 Jul 15; 59(2):421-37. PMID: 2237820.
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    134. Varki NM, Viswanathan B, Vu T. Endothelial cells enhance spontaneous metastasis of human lung carcinoma cells in athymic mice. Cancer Lett. 1990 Jun 15; 51(3):251-7. PMID: 2350764.
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    135. Varki NM, Tseng A, Vu TP, Estes LA. Cloned low metastatic variants from human lung carcinoma metastases. Anticancer Res. 1990 May-Jun; 10(3):637-43. PMID: 2369080.
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    136. Andrews PA, Jones JA, Varki NM, Howell SB. Rapid emergence of acquired cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) resistance in an in vivo model of human ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Commun. 1990; 2(2):93-100. PMID: 2372473.
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    137. Varki NM, Estes LA, Tseng A, Vu TP. Spontaneously metastasizing variants of a human lung carcinoma cell line: monoclonal antibody characterization. Tumour Biol. 1990; 11(6):327-38. PMID: 2244163.
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    138. Barsky SH, Layfield L, Varki N, Bhuta S. Two human tumors with high basement-membrane-producing potential. Cancer. 1988 May 01; 61(9):1798-806. PMID: 2833339.
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    139. Muchmore EA, Varki NM, Fukuda M, Varki A. Developmental regulation of sialic acid modifications in rat and human colon. FASEB J. 1987 Sep; 1(3):229-35. PMID: 3623000.
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    140. Cheresh DA, Varki AP, Varki NM, Stallcup WB, Levine J, Reisfeld RA. A monoclonal antibody recognizes an O-acylated sialic acid in a human melanoma-associated ganglioside. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jun 25; 259(12):7453-9. PMID: 6203895.
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