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Nissi Varki

Title(s)Professor, Pathology
SchoolHealth Sciences
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0687
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-534-4933
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    Christian Medical College Vellore, Tamilnadu IndiaM.B.B.S. (MD equivalent)1973Medicine
    Creighton University, Omaha, NebraskaAmerican Board of Pathology 1981Anatomic and Clinical Pathology

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    Nissi Varki is Professor of Pathology at UC San Diego. She obtained her primary medical degree at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, one of the foremost medical institutions in South-East Asia, and became US Board Certified in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, following pathology residencies at Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, and St. Louis, Missouri. She went on to acquire postdoctoral training in tumor immunology, first at Washington University in St. Louis, and then at the Research Institute of Scripps Clinic in San Diego. She was Assistant Professor in Residence at the Department of Pathology at UCLA, and then moved to UC San Diego in 1985. While working on NIH-funded basic research analyzing the mechanisms of cancer metastasis, she started four histopathology core laboratories at UCSD, helping investigators analyze normal and diseased tissues, particularly those from genetically altered mice. Dr. Varki serves on the School of Medicine Recruitment and Admissions Executive Committee and teaches Histology labs for medical students. She helps students attain histotechnology certification and teaches a Spring elective course for graduate and medical students entitled "Practical Histopathology in Mouse Models of Human Disease." In recent years, she has focused her expertise in immunohistology and pathology towards comparisons of humans and great apes, our closest evolutionary cousins, discovering several differences that of are of known or potential biomedical importance.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Evaluation of IL-17D in Host Immunity to Group A Streptococcus Infection. J Immunol. 2020 Oct 19. Washington A, Varki N, Valderrama JA, Nizet V, Bui JD. PMID: 33077643.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. DDX5 promotes oncogene C3 and FABP1 expressions and drives intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis. Life Sci Alliance. 2020 Oct; 3(10). Abbasi N, Long T, Li Y, Yee BA, Cho BS, Hernandez JE, Ma E, Patel PR, Sahoo D, Sayed IM, Varki N, Das S, Ghosh P, Yeo GW, Huang WJM. PMID: 32817263.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Multiple Genomic Events Altering Hominin SIGLEC Biology and Innate Immunity Predated the Common Ancestor of Humans and Archaic Hominins. Genome Biol Evol. 2020 Jul 01; 12(7):1040-1050. Khan N, de Manuel M, Peyregne S, Do R, Prufer K, Marques-Bonet T, Varki N, Gagneux P, Varki A. PMID: 32556248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Inhibition of Nuclear PTEN Tyrosine Phosphorylation Enhances Glioma Radiation Sensitivity through Attenuated DNA Repair. Cancer Cell. 2019 Dec 09; 36(6):690-691. Ma J, Benitez JA, Li J, Miki S, Ponte de Albuquerque C, Galatro T, Orellana L, Zanca C, Reed R, Boyer A, Koga T, Varki NM, Fenton TR, Nagahashi Marie SK, Lindahl E, Gahman TC, Shiau AK, Zhou H, DeGroot J, Sulman EP, Cavenee WK, Kolodner RD, Chen CC, Furnari FB. PMID: 31821785.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    5. Proteomic atlas of organ vasculopathies triggered by Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. Nat Commun. 2019 10 11; 10(1):4656. Toledo AG, Golden G, Campos AR, Cuello H, Sorrentino J, Lewis N, Varki N, Nizet V, Smith JW, Esko JD. PMID: 31604940.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    6. Human species-specific loss of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase enhances atherosclerosis via intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 08 06; 116(32):16036-16045. Kawanishi K, Dhar C, Do R, Varki N, Gordts PLSM, Varki A. PMID: 31332008.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Inhibition of Nuclear PTEN Tyrosine Phosphorylation Enhances Glioma Radiation Sensitivity through Attenuated DNA Repair. Cancer Cell. 2019 May 13; 35(5):816. Ma J, Benitez JA, Li J, Miki S, Ponte de Albuquerque C, Galatro T, Orellana L, Zanca C, Reed R, Boyer A, Koga T, Varki NM, Fenton TR, Nagahashi Marie SK, Lindahl E, Gahman TC, Shiau AK, Zhou H, DeGroot J, Sulman EP, Cavenee WK, Kolodner RD, Chen CC, Furnari FB. PMID: 31085179.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    
    8. MST1R kinase accelerates pancreatic cancer progression via effects on both epithelial cells and macrophages. Oncogene. 2019 07; 38(28):5599-5611. Babicky ML, Harper MM, Chakedis J, Cazes A, Mose ES, Jaquish DV, French RP, Childers B, Alakus H, Schmid MC, Foubert P, Miyamoto J, Holman PJ, Walterscheid ZJ, Tang CM, Varki N, Sicklick JK, Messer K, Varner JA, Waltz SE, Lowy AM. PMID: 30967626.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Inhibition of Nuclear PTEN Tyrosine Phosphorylation Enhances Glioma Radiation Sensitivity through Attenuated DNA Repair. Cancer Cell. 2019 03 18; 35(3):504-518.e7. Ma J, Benitez JA, Li J, Miki S, Ponte de Albuquerque C, Galatro T, Orellana L, Zanca C, Reed R, Boyer A, Koga T, Varki NM, Fenton TR, Nagahashi Marie SK, Lindahl E, Gahman TC, Shiau AK, Zhou H, DeGroot J, Sulman EP, Cavenee WK, Kolodner RD, Chen CC, Furnari FB. PMID: 30827889.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    10. Evolution of the exclusively human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Human-specific engagement of immunoregulatory Siglecs. Evol Appl. 2019 Feb; 12(2):337-349. Landig CS, Hazel A, Kellman BP, Fong JJ, Schwarz F, Agarwal S, Varki N, Massari P, Lewis NE, Ram S, Varki A. PMID: 30697344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    11. Human evolutionary loss of epithelial Neu5Gc expression and species-specific susceptibility to cholera. PLoS Pathog. 2018 06; 14(6):e1007133. Alisson-Silva F, Liu JZ, Diaz SL, Deng L, Gareau MG, Marchelletta R, Chen X, Nizet V, Varki N, Barrett KE, Varki A. PMID: 29912959.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. Preventive Inhibition of Liver Tumorigenesis by Systemic Activation of Innate Immune Functions. Cell Rep. 2017 Nov 14; 21(7):1870-1882. Lee J, Liao R, Wang G, Yang BH, Luo X, Varki NM, Qiu SJ, Ren B, Fu W, Feng GS. PMID: 29141219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Paired Siglec receptors generate opposite inflammatory responses to a human-specific pathogen. EMBO J. 2017 03 15; 36(6):751-760. Schwarz F, Landig CS, Siddiqui S, Secundino I, Olson J, Varki N, Nizet V, Varki A. PMID: 28100677.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Physiological Exploration of the Long Term Evolutionary Selection against Expression of N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid in the Brain. J Biol Chem. 2017 02 17; 292(7):2557-2570. Naito-Matsui Y, Davies LR, Takematsu H, Chou HH, Tangvoranuntakul P, Carlin AF, Verhagen A, Heyser CJ, Yoo SW, Choudhury B, Paton JC, Paton AW, Varki NM, Schnaar RL, Varki A. PMID: 28049733.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    15. Dual Shp2 and Pten Deficiencies Promote Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Genesis of Liver Tumor-Initiating Cells. Cell Rep. 2016 12 13; 17(11):2979-2993. Luo X, Liao R, Hanley KL, Zhu HH, Malo KN, Hernandez C, Wei X, Varki NM, Alderson N, Chu C, Li S, Fan J, Loomba R, Qiu SJ, Feng GS. PMID: 27974211.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Studies on the Detection, Expression, Glycosylation, Dimerization, and Ligand Binding Properties of Mouse Siglec-E. J Biol Chem. 2017 01 20; 292(3):1029-1037. Siddiqui S, Schwarz F, Springer S, Khedri Z, Yu H, Deng L, Verhagen A, Naito-Matsui Y, Jiang W, Kim D, Zhou J, Ding B, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 27920204.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Esophageal Submucosal Injection of Capsaicin but Not Acid Induces Symptoms in Normal Subjects. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 Jul 30; 22(3):436-43. Lee RH, Korsapati H, Bhalla V, Varki N, Mittal RK. PMID: 26932896.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    18. Reply to Liu and Jiang: Maintenance of postreproductive cognitive capacity by inclusive fitness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22; 113(12):E1591-2. Springer SA, Schwarz F, Altheide TK, Varki NM, Varki A, Gagneux P. PMID: 26933219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    19. Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 protects mice from diet-induced fatty liver disease and obesity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Mar 01; 310(5):G310-22. Hartmann P, Seebauer CT, Mazagova M, Horvath A, Wang L, Llorente C, Varki NM, Brandl K, Ho SB, Schnabl B. PMID: 26702135.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Human-specific derived alleles of CD33 and other genes protect against postreproductive cognitive decline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jan 05; 113(1):74-9. Schwarz F, Springer SA, Altheide TK, Varki NM, Gagneux P, Varki A. PMID: 26621708.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Immunomodulatory activity of extracellular Hsp70 mediated via paired receptors Siglec-5 and Siglec-14. EMBO J. 2015 Nov 12; 34(22):2775-88. Fong JJ, Sreedhara K, Deng L, Varki NM, Angata T, Liu Q, Nizet V, Varki A. PMID: 26459514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. On the apparent rarity of epithelial cancers in captive chimpanzees. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jul 19; 370(1673). Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 26056369.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    23. Siglec receptors impact mammalian lifespan by modulating oxidative stress. Elife. 2015 Apr 07; 4. Schwarz F, Pearce OM, Wang X, Samraj AN, Läubli H, Garcia JO, Lin H, Fu X, Garcia-Bingman A, Secrest P, Romanoski CE, Heyser C, Glass CK, Hazen SL, Varki N, Varki A, Gagneux P. PMID: 25846707.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    24. Reply to Mackenzie: A comparison of Neu5Gc and a-gal xenoantigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 24; 112(12):E1405. Pearce OM, Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 25713131.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    25. The E-Id protein axis modulates the activities of the PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-Hif1a and c-myc/p19Arf pathways to suppress innate variant TFH cell development, thymocyte expansion, and lymphomagenesis. Genes Dev. 2015 Feb 15; 29(4):409-25. Miyazaki M, Miyazaki K, Chen S, Chandra V, Wagatsuma K, Agata Y, Rodewald HR, Saito R, Chang AN, Varki N, Kawamoto H, Murre C. PMID: 25691468.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Advanced Technologies in Sialic Acid and Sialoglycoconjugate Analysis. Top Curr Chem. 2015; 367:75-103. Kitajima K, Varki N, Sato C. PMID: 26017094.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13; 112(2):542-7. Samraj AN, Pearce OM, Läubli H, Crittenden AN, Bergfeld AK, Banda K, Gregg CJ, Bingman AE, Secrest P, Diaz SL, Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 25548184.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 74     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    28. Host adaptation of a bacterial toxin from the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi. Cell. 2014 Dec 04; 159(6):1290-9. Deng L, Song J, Gao X, Wang J, Yu H, Chen X, Varki N, Naito-Matsui Y, Galán JE, Varki A. PMID: 25480294.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) is a tumor-associated immunomodulatory ligand for CD33-related Siglecs. J Biol Chem. 2014 Nov 28; 289(48):33481-91. Läubli H, Alisson-Silva F, Stanczak MA, Siddiqui SS, Deng L, Verhagen A, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 25320078.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. Engagement of myelomonocytic Siglecs by tumor-associated ligands modulates the innate immune response to cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 30; 111(39):14211-6. Läubli H, Pearce OM, Schwarz F, Siddiqui SS, Deng L, Stanczak MA, Deng L, Verhagen A, Secrest P, Lusk C, Schwartz AG, Varki NM, Bui JD, Varki A. PMID: 25225409.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Id2 and Id3 maintain the regulatory T cell pool to suppress inflammatory disease. Nat Immunol. 2014 Aug; 15(8):767-76. Miyazaki M, Miyazaki K, Chen S, Itoi M, Miller M, Lu LF, Varki N, Chang AN, Broide DH, Murre C. PMID: 24973820.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are polymorphic paired receptors that modulate neutrophil and amnion signaling responses to group B Streptococcus. J Exp Med. 2014 Jun 02; 211(6):1231-42. Ali SR, Fong JJ, Carlin AF, Busch TD, Linden R, Angata T, Areschoug T, Parast M, Varki N, Murray J, Nizet V, Varki A. PMID: 24799499.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Corrigendum: involvement of a non-human sialic Acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:83. Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 24795860.
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    34. Risk of breast cancer recurrence associated with carbohydrate intake and tissue expression of IGFI receptor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jul; 23(7):1273-9. Emond JA, Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Gapuz LR, Nguyen J, Parker BA, Varki NM, Patterson RE. PMID: 24755714.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Inverse hormesis of cancer growth mediated by narrow ranges of tumor-directed antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22; 111(16):5998-6003. Pearce OM, Läubli H, Verhagen A, Secrest P, Zhang J, Varki NM, Crocker PR, Bui JD, Varki A. PMID: 24711415.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Involvement of a non-human sialic Acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:33. Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 24600589.
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    37. Tumor infiltrating B-cells are increased in prostate cancer tissue. J Transl Med. 2014 Jan 30; 12:30. Woo JR, Liss MA, Muldong MT, Palazzi K, Strasner A, Ammirante M, Varki N, Shabaik A, Howell S, Kane CJ, Karin M, Jamieson CA. PMID: 24475900.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates. FASEB J. 2014 Mar; 28(3):1280-93. Padler-Karavani V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Chang YC, Sonnenburg JL, Ronaghy A, Yu H, Verhagen A, Nizet V, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A, Angata T. PMID: 24308974.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Inducing host protection in pneumococcal sepsis by preactivation of the Ashwell-Morell receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 10; 110(50):20218-23. Grewal PK, Aziz PV, Uchiyama S, Rubio GR, Lardone RD, Le D, Varki NM, Nizet V, Marth JD. PMID: 24284176.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Influenza A penetrates host mucus by cleaving sialic acids with neuraminidase. Virol J. 2013 Nov 22; 10:321. Cohen M, Zhang XQ, Senaati HP, Chen HW, Varki NM, Schooley RT, Gagneux P. PMID: 24261589.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 74     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    41. Free fatty acids induce Lhb mRNA but suppress Fshb mRNA in pituitary LßT2 gonadotropes and diet-induced obesity reduces FSH levels in male mice and disrupts the proestrous LH/FSH surge in female mice. Endocrinology. 2013 Jun; 154(6):2188-99. Sharma S, Morinaga H, Hwang V, Fan W, Fernandez MO, Varki N, Olefsky JM, Webster NJ. PMID: 23525221.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. A phenotype survey of 36 mutant mouse strains with gene-targeted defects in glycosyltransferases or glycan-binding proteins. Glycobiology. 2013 Mar; 23(3):363-80. Orr SL, Le D, Long JM, Sobieszczuk P, Ma B, Tian H, Fang X, Paulson JC, Marth JD, Varki N. PMID: 23118208.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Using unfixed, frozen tissues to study natural mucin distribution. J Vis Exp. 2012 Sep 21; (67):e3928. Cohen M, Varki NM, Jankowski MD, Gagneux P. PMID: 23023050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Sialidases on mammalian sperm mediate deciduous sialylation during capacitation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 02; 287(45):38073-9. Ma F, Wu D, Deng L, Secrest P, Zhao J, Varki N, Lindheim S, Gagneux P. PMID: 22989879.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal incorporation of the non-human sialic acid xeno-autoantigen N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17; 287(34):28852-64. Banda K, Gregg CJ, Chow R, Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 22692204.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    46. Evolution of siglec-11 and siglec-16 genes in hominins. Mol Biol Evol. 2012 Aug; 29(8):2073-86. Wang X, Mitra N, Cruz P, Deng L, Varki N, Angata T, Green ED, Mullikin J, Hayakawa T, Varki A. PMID: 22383531.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Ptpn11/Shp2 acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17; 19(5):629-39. Bard-Chapeau EA, Li S, Ding J, Zhang SS, Zhu HH, Princen F, Fang DD, Han T, Bailly-Maitre B, Poli V, Varki NM, Wang H, Feng GS. PMID: 21575863.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 112     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. SIGLEC12, a human-specific segregating (pseudo)gene, encodes a signaling molecule expressed in prostate carcinomas. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 01; 286(26):23003-11. Mitra N, Banda K, Altheide TK, Schaffer L, Johnson-Pais TL, Beuten J, Leach RJ, Angata T, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 21555517.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Expression of Siglec-11 by human and chimpanzee ovarian stromal cells, with uniquely human ligands: implications for human ovarian physiology and pathology. Glycobiology. 2011 Aug; 21(8):1038-48. Wang X, Chow R, Deng L, Anderson D, Weidner N, Godwin AK, Bewtra C, Zlotnik A, Bui J, Varki A, Varki N. PMID: 21467073.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    50. Biomedical differences between human and nonhuman hominids: potential roles for uniquely human aspects of sialic acid biology. Annu Rev Pathol. 2011; 6:365-93. Varki NM, Strobert E, Dick EJ, Benirschke K, Varki A. PMID: 21073341.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    51. Interleukin 1 receptor signaling regulates DUBA expression and facilitates Toll-like receptor 9-driven antiinflammatory cytokine production. J Exp Med. 2010 Dec 20; 207(13):2799-807. González-Navajas JM, Law J, Nguyen KP, Bhargava M, Corr MP, Varki N, Eckmann L, Hoffman HM, Lee J, Raz E. PMID: 21115691.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 13; 5(8):e12148. Emre N, Vidal JG, Elia J, O'Connor ED, Paramban RI, Hefferan MP, Navarro R, Goldberg DS, Varki NM, Marsala M, Carson CT. PMID: 20730054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    53. Effects of ACE2 inhibition in the post-myocardial infarction heart. J Card Fail. 2010 Sep; 16(9):777-85. Kim MA, Yang D, Kida K, Molotkova N, Yeo SJ, Varki N, Iwata M, Dalton ND, Peterson KL, Siems WE, Walther T, Cowling RT, Kjekshus J, Greenberg B. PMID: 20797602.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. ERK activation drives intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nat Med. 2010 Jun; 16(6):665-70. Lee SH, Hu LL, Gonzalez-Navajas J, Seo GS, Shen C, Brick J, Herdman S, Varki N, Corr M, Lee J, Raz E. PMID: 20473309.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 89     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Evidence for a novel human-specific xeno-auto-antibody response against vascular endothelium. Blood. 2009 Dec 10; 114(25):5225-35. Pham T, Gregg CJ, Karp F, Chow R, Padler-Karavani V, Cao H, Chen X, Witztum JL, Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 19828701.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Deletion of JAM-C, a candidate gene for heart defects in Jacobsen syndrome, results in a normal cardiac phenotype in mice. . 2009 Jul; 149A(7):1438-43. Ye M, Hamzeh R, Geddis A, Varki N, Perryman MB, Grossfeld P. PMID: 19533782.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    57. A dietary non-human sialic acid may facilitate hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Kidney Int. 2009 Jul; 76(2):140-4. Löfling JC, Paton AW, Varki NM, Paton JC, Varki A. PMID: 19387473.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    58. Molecular basis of metastasis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 16; 360(16):1678-9; author reply 1679-80. Varki A, Varki NM, Borsig L. PMID: 19369678.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    59. Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes. Evol Appl. 2009 Feb; 2(1):101-12. Varki N, Anderson D, Herndon JG, Pham T, Gregg CJ, Cheriyan M, Murphy J, Strobert E, Fritz J, Else JG, Varki A. PMID: 25567850.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    60. Sensitive and specific detection of the non-human sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human tissues and biotherapeutic products. PLoS One. 2009; 4(1):e4241. Diaz SL, Padler-Karavani V, Ghaderi D, Hurtado-Ziola N, Yu H, Chen X, Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Varki A, Varki NM. PMID: 19156207.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    61. B cell antigen receptor signal strength and peripheral B cell development are regulated by a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid esterase. J Exp Med. 2009 Jan 16; 206(1):125-38. Cariappa A, Takematsu H, Liu H, Diaz S, Haider K, Boboila C, Kalloo G, Connole M, Shi HN, Varki N, Varki A, Pillai S. PMID: 19103880.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Evidence for a human-specific mechanism for diet and antibody-mediated inflammation in carcinoma progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 02; 105(48):18936-41. Hedlund M, Padler-Karavani V, Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 19017806.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 66     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    63. Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin. Nature. 2008 Dec 04; 456(7222):648-52. Byres E, Paton AW, Paton JC, Löfling JC, Smith DF, Wilce MC, Talbot UM, Chong DC, Yu H, Huang S, Chen X, Varki NM, Varki A, Rossjohn J, Beddoe T. PMID: 18971931.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 85     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    64. RAGE, carboxylated glycans and S100A8/A9 play essential roles in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2008 Oct; 29(10):2035-43. Turovskaya O, Foell D, Sinha P, Vogl T, Newlin R, Nayak J, Nguyen M, Olsson A, Nawroth PP, Bierhaus A, Varki N, Kronenberg M, Freeze HH, Srikrishna G. PMID: 18689872.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 112     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    65. Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: potential implications for disease. Glycobiology. 2008 Oct; 18(10):818-30. Padler-Karavani V, Yu H, Cao H, Chokhawala H, Karp F, Varki N, Chen X, Varki A. PMID: 18669916.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 87     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    66. The Ashwell receptor mitigates the lethal coagulopathy of sepsis. Nat Med. 2008 Jun; 14(6):648-55. Grewal PK, Uchiyama S, Ditto D, Varki N, Le DT, Nizet V, Marth JD. PMID: 18488037.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 99     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    67. alpha 2-6-Linked sialic acids on N-glycans modulate carcinoma differentiation in vivo. Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 15; 68(2):388-94. Hedlund M, Ng E, Varki A, Varki NM. PMID: 18199532.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Diversity in cell surface sialic acid presentations: implications for biology and disease. Lab Invest. 2007 Sep; 87(9):851-7. Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 17632542.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 150     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    69. Human-specific expression of Siglec-6 in the placenta. Glycobiology. 2007 Sep; 17(9):922-31. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Hurtado-Ziola N, Hayakawa T, Wiggleton L, Benirschke K, Varki A, Varki N. PMID: 17580316.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    70. Streptococcus iniae beta-hemolysin streptolysin S is a virulence factor in fish infection. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007 Jun 07; 76(1):17-26. Locke JB, Colvin KM, Varki N, Vicknair MR, Nizet V, Buchanan JT. PMID: 17718161.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    71. N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in mice: implications for human biology and evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; 27(12):4340-6. Hedlund M, Tangvoranuntakul P, Takematsu H, Long JM, Housley GD, Kozutsumi Y, Suzuki A, Wynshaw-Boris A, Ryan AF, Gallo RL, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 17420276.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 90     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    72. System-wide genomic and biochemical comparisons of sialic acid biology among primates and rodents: Evidence for two modes of rapid evolution. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 01; 281(35):25689-702. Altheide TK, Hayakawa T, Mikkelsen TS, Diaz S, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 16769723.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    73. Expression of the human copper influx transporter 1 in normal and malignant human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006 Sep; 54(9):1041-9. Holzer AK, Varki NM, Le QT, Gibson MA, Naredi P, Howell SB. PMID: 16709730.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    74. A disaccharide-based inhibitor of glycosylation attenuates metastatic tumor cell dissemination. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 May 01; 12(9):2894-901. Brown JR, Fuster MM, Li R, Varki N, Glass CA, Esko JD. PMID: 16675586.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    75. L-selectin facilitation of metastasis involves temporal induction of Fut7-dependent ligands at sites of tumor cell arrest. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 01; 66(3):1536-42. Läubli H, Stevenson JL, Varki A, Varki NM, Borsig L. PMID: 16452210.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    76. Tumor promotion by caspase-resistant retinoblastoma protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 25; 102(43):15587-92. Borges HL, Bird J, Wasson K, Cardiff RD, Varki N, Eckmann L, Wang JY. PMID: 16227443.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    77. A human-specific gene in microglia. Science. 2005 Sep 09; 309(5741):1693. Hayakawa T, Angata T, Lewis AL, Mikkelsen TS, Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 16151003.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    78. Epidermal growth factor partially restores colonic ion transport responses in mouse models of chronic colitis. Gastroenterology. 2005 Aug; 129(2):591-608. McCole DF, Rogler G, Varki N, Barrett KE. PMID: 16083715.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    79. Mutational analysis of the group A streptococcal operon encoding streptolysin S and its virulence role in invasive infection. Mol Microbiol. 2005 May; 56(3):681-95. Datta V, Myskowski SM, Kwinn LA, Chiem DN, Varki N, Kansal RG, Kotb M, Nizet V. PMID: 15819624.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    80. Combining parenting and a science career. Science. 2005 Mar 18; 307(5716):1720-1. Lewis AL, Altheide TK, Varki A, Arden K, Varki NM. PMID: 15779114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    81. Combining Parenting and a Science Career. Science. 2005 Mar 18; 307(5716):1720b-1721b. Djerassi C, Lewis AL, Altheide TK, Varki A, Arden K, Varki NM, Peekna A. PMID: 15778202.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    82. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha upregulate angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors on cardiac fibroblasts and are associated with increased AT1 density in the post-MI heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005 Mar; 38(3):505-15. Gurantz D, Cowling RT, Varki N, Frikovsky E, Moore CD, Greenberg BH. PMID: 15733910.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    83. Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium requires B cells but not secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM antibodies. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3315-24. Maaser C, Housley MP, Iimura M, Smith JR, Vallance BA, Finlay BB, Schreiber JR, Varki NM, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L. PMID: 15155635.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 86     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    84. Disruption of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family members in mice reveals their functional diversification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 02; 101(9):2975-80. Hosaka T, Biggs WH, Tieu D, Boyer AD, Varki NM, Cavenee WK, Arden KC. PMID: 14978268.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 231     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    85. A fluorescent orthotopic mouse model for reliable measurement and genetic modulation of human neuroblastoma metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004; 21(6):563-70. Henriksson KC, Almgren MA, Thurlow R, Varki NM, Chang CL. PMID: 15679054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    86. Increase in expression of the copper transporter ATP7A during platinum drug-based treatment is associated with poor survival in ovarian cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Dec 01; 9(16 Pt 1):5853-9. Samimi G, Varki NM, Wilczynski S, Safaei R, Alberts DS, Howell SB. PMID: 14676106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    87. Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 14; 100(21):12045-50. Tangvoranuntakul P, Gagneux P, Diaz S, Bardor M, Varki N, Varki A, Muchmore E. PMID: 14523234.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 172     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    88. Human-specific regulation of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acids. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48):48245-50. Gagneux P, Cheriyan M, Hurtado-Ziola N, van der Linden EC, Anderson D, McClure H, Varki A, Varki NM. PMID: 14500706.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 64     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    89. Selectin-mucin interactions as a probable molecular explanation for the association of Trousseau syndrome with mucinous adenocarcinomas. J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep; 112(6):853-62. Wahrenbrock M, Borsig L, Le D, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 12975470.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    90. Generation of mice deficient for macrophage galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin: limited role in lymphoid and erythroid homeostasis and evidence for multiple lectins. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jul; 22(14):5173-81. Onami TM, Lin MY, Page DM, Reynolds SA, Katayama CD, Marth JD, Irimura T, Varki A, Varki N, Hedrick SM. PMID: 12077344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    91. Genetically altered mice with different sialyltransferase deficiencies show tissue-specific alterations in sialylation and sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 06; 277(36):32930-8. Martin LT, Marth JD, Varki A, Varki NM. PMID: 12068010.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    92. Cloning and characterization of human Siglec-11. A recently evolved signaling molecule that can interact with SHP-1 and SHP-2 and is expressed by tissue macrophages, including brain microglia. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 05; 277(27):24466-74. Angata T, Kerr SC, Greaves DR, Varki NM, Crocker PR, Varki A. PMID: 11986327.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    93. Synergistic effects of L- and P-selectin in facilitating tumor metastasis can involve non-mucin ligands and implicate leukocytes as enhancers of metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19; 99(4):2193-8. Borsig L, Wong R, Hynes RO, Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 11854515.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 128     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    94. Heparin inhibition of selectin-mediated interactions during the hematogenous phase of carcinoma metastasis: rationale for clinical studies in humans. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2002 Feb; 28(1):53-66. Varki NM, Varki A. PMID: 11885026.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    95. Cell differentiation is a key determinant of cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 expression by human colon epithelium. Infect Immun. 2002 Feb; 70(2):953-63. Hase K, Eckmann L, Leopard JD, Varki N, Kagnoff MF. PMID: 11796631.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 84     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    96. The effect of prinomastat (AG3340), a synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, on uveal melanoma rabbit model. Curr Eye Res. 2002 Feb; 24(2):86-91. Ozerdem U, Mach-Hofacre B, Varki N, Folberg R, Mueller AJ, Ochabski R, Pham T, Appelt K, Freeman WR. PMID: 12187478.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    97. Mutational and nonmutational activation of p21ras in rat colonic azoxymethane-induced tumors: effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase, cyclooxygenase-2, and cyclin D1. Cancer Res. 2000 Aug 15; 60(16):4602-9. Bissonnette M, Khare S, von Lintig FC, Wali RK, Nguyen L, Zhang Y, Hart J, Skarosi S, Varki N, Boss GR, Brasitus TA. PMID: 10969813.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human evolution. Implications for sialic acid recognition by siglecs. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 24; 275(12):8633-40. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Sjoberg ER, Juneja LR, Crocker PR, Varki N, Varki A. PMID: 10722703.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    99. Human intestinal epithelial cells express receptors for platelet-activating factor. Am J Physiol. 1999 10; 277(4):G810-8. Merendino N, Dwinell MB, Varki N, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. PMID: 10516147.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    100. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of the human ATPase (hASNA-I) in normal tissues and its overexpression in breast adenomas and carcinomas. J Histochem Cytochem. 1998 Nov; 46(11):1243-8. Kurdi-Haidar B, Heath D, Naredi P, Varki N, Howell SB. PMID: 9774623.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    101. Expression and regulation of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 on human cells of myelomonocytic and lymphoid origin. J Immunol. 1997 May 01; 158(9):4413-21. Pancook JD, Reisfeld RA, Varki N, Vitiello A, Fox RI, Montgomery AM. PMID: 9127006.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    102. DNA aptamers block L-selectin function in vivo. Inhibition of human lymphocyte trafficking in SCID mice. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2688-92. Hicke BJ, Watson SR, Koenig A, Lynott CK, Bargatze RF, Chang YF, Ringquist S, Moon-McDermott L, Jennings S, Fitzwater T, Han HL, Varki N, Albinana I, Willis MC, Varki A, Parma D. PMID: 8981912.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    103. Long-lived and transferable tumor immunity in mice after targeted interleukin-2 therapy. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2801-4. Becker JC, Varki N, Gillies SD, Furukawa K, Reisfeld RA. PMID: 8981927.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    104. Lymphocyte-mediated alopecia in C57BL/6 mice following successful immunotherapy for melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Oct; 107(4):627-32. Becker JC, Varki N, Bröcker EB, Reisfeld RA. PMID: 8823372.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    105. An antibody-interleukin 2 fusion protein overcomes tumor heterogeneity by induction of a cellular immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jul 23; 93(15):7826-31. Becker JC, Varki N, Gillies SD, Furukawa K, Reisfeld RA. PMID: 8755561.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    106. Calcium-dependent oligonucleotide antagonists specific for L-selectin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 11; 93(12):5883-7. O'Connell D, Koenig A, Jennings S, Hicke B, Han HL, Fitzwater T, Chang YF, Varki N, Parma D, Varki A. PMID: 8650187.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    107. Endotoxin stimulates expression of the murine urokinase receptor gene in vivo. Am J Pathol. 1995 Sep; 147(3):688-98. Almus-Jacobs F, Varki N, Sawdey MS, Loskutoff DJ. PMID: 7677180.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. Chromogranin A epitopes: clues from synthetic peptides and peptide mapping. Neuropeptides. 1992 Feb; 21(2):105-18. Gill BM, Barbosa JA, Hogue-Angeletti R, Varki N, O'Connor DT. PMID: 1372966.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    109. Localization of human tissue factor antigen by immunostaining with monospecific, polyclonal anti-human tissue factor antibody. Thromb Res. 1990 Jul 15; 59(2):421-37. Fleck RA, Rao LV, Rapaport SI, Varki N. PMID: 2237820.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 97     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    110. Two human tumors with high basement-membrane-producing potential. Cancer. 1988 May 01; 61(9):1798-806. Barsky SH, Layfield L, Varki N, Bhuta S. PMID: 2833339.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
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