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Allen Ryan

TitleRecall Faculty
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentSurgery
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0666
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-534-4594
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    Collapse Overview 
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    Research Overview

    Biology of the inner and middle ears, including hair cell gene and fate regulation, drug and noise damage to hearing, inner ear neuronal targeting, pathogenesis and recovery mechanisms in otitis media, and drug delivery to the middle and inner ears.

    Research Topics

    • Cell Biology

    • Development

    • Drug Delivery

    • Genomics

    • Immunology

    • Infectious Disease

    • Inflammation

    • Injury

    • Innate Immunity

    • Molecular Biology

    • Neuroscience

    • Regeneration/Stem Cells

    • Structural Biology

    • Translational Research


    Current Project Titles

    • Recovery from blast-induced hearing loss (DoD)

    • A biological interface for the cochlear implant (VA)

    • Middle ear responses in otitis media (NIH)

    • Mechanisms of persistence and recovery in otitis media (NIH)

    • New methods for the treatment of hearing and balance disorders (Pending)



    Profile

    My laboratory studies the basic biology of hearing. A major focus of the group is the sensory hair cells of the cochlea. This includes studies of gene regulation in these cells, as well as fate determination by combinatorial transcription factor coding. We also study cellular mechanisms of hair cell damage and death induced by ototoxic drugs, noise trauma and excitotoxicity. A second area of interest is the two types of afferent neurons in the cochlea. In particular the type II neurons that innervate outer hair cells are poorly understood with respect to their function and the regulation of their complex pathfinding to their target hair cells. We also study pathogenesis and recovery of the middle ear mucosa during otitis media, with a focus on cell phenotype determination and innate immunity. Finally, we are interested in novel methods for drug delivery to the middle and inner ears.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    A Biological Interface for Auditory Rehabilitation with a Cochlear Implant
    VA I01RX000977Oct 1, 2013 - Sep 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Basic Mechanisms in Hearing Loss of Cochlear Origin
    VA I01BX001205Oct 1, 2012 - Sep 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Innovative therapy for diseases of the middle ear
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC012595Jul 1, 2012 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The 8th Conference on the Molecular Biology of Hearing &Deafness
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC012023Jul 4, 2011 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Conference on Molecular Biology of Hearing and Deafness
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC010087Mar 1, 2009 - Feb 28, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Conference on the Molecular Biology of Hearing/Deafness
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC007068Sep 1, 2004 - Aug 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CONFERENCE ON MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF HEARING AND DEAFNESS
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC005016Sep 1, 2001 - Aug 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF HEARING AND DEAFNESS CONFERENCE
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC003804Aug 1, 1998 - Jan 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CONF ON THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF HEARING AND DEAFNESS
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC002735Jul 1, 1995 - Jun 30, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CONF. ON THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY HEARING AND DEAFNESS
    NIH/NIDCD R13DC001516May 1, 1992 - Apr 30, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Otolaryngology Training in Immunology, Virology and Molecular Biology
    NIH/NIDCD T32DC000028Jul 10, 1989 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES UPON AUDITORY DEVELOPMENT
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC000139Jul 1, 1979 - Jan 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES UPON AUDITORY DEVELOPMENT
    NIH/NINDS R01NS014945Jul 1, 1979 - Mar 31, 1989
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Middle Ear Response in Otitis Media
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC000129Apr 1, 1978 - Jul 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MIDDLE EAR RESPONSE IN SEROUS OTITIS MEDIA
    NIH/NINDS R01NS014389Apr 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Lim HW, Pak K, Ryan A, Kurabi A. Screening Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells to Identify Critical Processes in Aminoglycoside-Mediated Damage. Front Cell Neurosci. 2018; 12:179. PMID: 30013464.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hur DG, Kurabi A, Ryan A. Screening antioxidants for the protection of cochlear sensory cells. Neural Regen Res. 2018 Jan; 13(1):62-64. PMID: 29451206.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Ryals M, Pak K, Jalota R, Kurabi A, Ryan A. A kinase inhibitor library screen identifies novel enzymes involved in ototoxic damage to the murine organ of Corti. PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0186001. PMID: 29049311.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Deniffel D, Nuyen B, Pak K, Suzukawa K, Hung J, Kurabi A, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. Otitis Media and Nasopharyngeal Colonization in ccl3-/- Mice. Infect Immun. 2017 11; 85(11). PMID: 28847849.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Noack V, Pak K, Jalota R, Kurabi A, Ryan A. An Antioxidant Screen Identifies Candidates for Protection of Cochlear Hair Cells from Gentamicin Toxicity. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017; 11:242. PMID: 28867994.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Kurabi A, Schaerer D, Chang L, Pak K, Ryan A. Optimisation of peptides that actively cross the tympanic membrane by random amino acid extension: a phage display study. J Drug Target. 2018 Feb; 26(2):127-134. PMID: 28658990.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Kyd JM, Hotomi M, Kono M, Kurabi A, Pichichero M, Ryan A, Swords WE, Thornton R. Panel 5: Immunology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Apr; 156(4_suppl):S63-S75. PMID: 28372530.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Kurabi A, Beasley KA, Chang L, McCann J, Pak K, Ryan A. Peptides actively transported across the tympanic membrane: Functional and structural properties. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0172158. PMID: 28234923.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Hickox AE, Wong AC, Pak K, Strojny C, Ramirez M, Yates JR, Ryan A, Savas JN. Global Analysis of Protein Expression of Inner Ear Hair Cells. J Neurosci. 2017 Feb 01; 37(5):1320-1339. PMID: 28039372.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Kurabi A, Keithley EM, Housley GD, Ryan A, Wong AC. Cellular mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss. Hear Res. 2017 06; 349:129-137. PMID: 27916698.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Cho CG, Pak K, Webster N, Kurabi A, Ryan A. Both canonical and non-canonical NF-?B activation contribute to the proliferative response of the middle ear mucosa during bacterial infection. Innate Immun. 2016 11; 22(8):626-634. PMID: 27655045.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Masuda M, Li Y, Pak K, Chavez E, Mullen L, Ryan A. The Promoter and Multiple Enhancers of the pou4f3 Gene Regulate Expression in Inner Ear Hair Cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Sep; 54(7):5414-5426. PMID: 27592349.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Ryan A, Kujawa SG, Hammill T, Le Prell C, Kil J. Temporary and Permanent Noise-induced Threshold Shifts: A Review of Basic and Clinical Observations. Otol Neurotol. 2016 09; 37(8):e271-5. PMID: 27518135; PMCID: PMC4988324 [Available on 09/01/17].
    14. Chan P, Ho K, Ryan A. Impulse Noise Injury Model. Mil Med. 2016 05; 181(5 Suppl):59-69. PMID: 27168554.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Kurabi A, Pak KK, Bernhardt M, Baird A, Ryan A. Discovery of a Biological Mechanism of Active Transport through the Tympanic Membrane to the Middle Ear. Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 07; 6:22663. PMID: 26946957; PMCID: PMC4780071.
    16. Kurabi A, Pak K, Ryan A, Wasserman SI. Innate Immunity: Orchestrating Inflammation and Resolution of Otitis Media. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Jan; 16(1):6. PMID: 26732809.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Ryan A, Dobie RA, Dubno JR, Lonsbury-Martin BL. Tinnitus: Research supported by the Tinnitus Research Consortium. Hear Res. 2016 04; 334:1. PMID: 26739791.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Harrop-Jones A, Wang X, Fernandez R, Dellamary L, Ryan A, LeBel C, Piu F. The Sustained-Exposure Dexamethasone Formulation OTO-104 Offers Effective Protection against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Audiol Neurootol. 2016; 21(1):12-21. PMID: 26655654.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Morton-Jones RT, Vlajkovic SM, Thorne PR, Cockayne DA, Ryan A, Housley GD. Properties of ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 subunits in mouse cochlear Reissner's membrane epithelial cells. Purinergic Signal. 2015 Dec; 11(4):551-60. PMID: 26424615; PMCID: PMC4648790.
    20. Froud KE, Wong AC, Cederholm JM, Klugmann M, Sandow SL, Julien JP, Ryan A, Housley GD. Type II spiral ganglion afferent neurons drive medial olivocochlear reflex suppression of the cochlear amplifier. Nat Commun. 2015 May 12; 6:7115. PMID: 25965946; PMCID: PMC4432632.
    21. Wong AC, Ryan A. Mechanisms of sensorineural cell damage, death and survival in the cochlea. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015; 7:58. PMID: 25954196; PMCID: PMC4404918.
    22. Hernandez M, Leichtle A, Pak K, Webster NJ, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. The transcriptome of a complete episode of acute otitis media. BMC Genomics. 2015 Apr 03; 16:259. PMID: 25888408; PMCID: PMC4394589.
    23. Leichtle A, Klenke C, Ebmeyer J, Daerr M, Bruchhage KL, Hoffmann AS, Ryan A, Wollenberg B, Sudhoff H. NOD-Like Receptor Signaling in Cholesteatoma. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:408169. PMID: 25922834; PMCID: PMC4398947.
    24. Ikeda R, Pak K, Chavez E, Ryan A. Transcription factors with conserved binding sites near ATOH1 on the POU4F3 gene enhance the induction of cochlear hair cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Apr; 51(2):672-84. PMID: 25015561; PMCID: PMC4291311.
    25. Brand Y, Levano S, Radojevic V, Naldi AM, Setz C, Ryan A, Pak K, Hemmings BA, Bodmer D. All Akt isoforms (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) are involved in normal hearing, but only Akt2 and Akt3 are involved in auditory hair cell survival in the mammalian inner ear. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0121599. PMID: 25811375; PMCID: PMC4374771.
    26. Ryan A, Ikeda R, Masuda M. The regulation of gene expression in hair cells. Hear Res. 2015 Nov; 329:33-40. PMID: 25616095; PMCID: PMC4510037 [Available on 11/01/16].
    27. Brand Y, Sung M, Pak K, Chavez E, Wei E, Radojevic V, Bodmer D, Ryan A. Neural cell adhesion molecule NrCAM is expressed in the mammalian inner ear and modulates spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth in an in vitro alternate choice assay. J Mol Neurosci. 2015 Apr; 55(4):836-44. PMID: 25407819; PMCID: PMC4355056.
    28. Palmisano MG, Bremner SN, Hornberger TA, Meyer GA, Domenighetti AA, Shah SB, Kiss B, Kellermayer M, Ryan A, Lieber RL. Skeletal muscle intermediate filaments form a stress-transmitting and stress-signaling network. J Cell Sci. 2015 Jan 15; 128(2):219-24. PMID: 25413344; PMCID: PMC4294770.
    29. Yao W, Frie M, Pan J, Pak K, Webster N, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) isoforms play differing roles in otitis media. BMC Immunol. 2014 Oct 14; 15:46. PMID: 25311344; PMCID: PMC4200133.
    30. Suzukawa K, Tomlin J, Pak K, Chavez E, Kurabi A, Baird A, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. A mouse model of otitis media identifies HB-EGF as a mediator of inflammation-induced mucosal proliferation. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102739. PMID: 25033458; PMCID: PMC4102546.
    31. Sung M, Wei E, Chavez E, Jain N, Levano S, Binkert L, Ramseier A, Setz C, Bodmer D, Ryan A, Brand Y. Inhibition of MMP-2 but not MMP-9 influences inner ear spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Oct; 34(7):1011-21. PMID: 24935409; PMCID: PMC4386629.
    32. Kurabi A, Lee J, Wong C, Pak K, Hoffman HM, Ryan A, Wasserman SI. The inflammasome adaptor ASC contributes to multiple innate immune processes in the resolution of otitis media. Innate Immun. 2015 Feb; 21(2):203-14. PMID: 24652041; PMCID: PMC4379507.
    33. Brand Y, Sung M, Chavez E, Wei E, Pak KK, Housley GD, Bodmer D, Ryan A. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 modulates type I but not type II inner ear spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth in an in vitro alternate choice assay. J Mol Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 51(3):663-70. PMID: 23760987; PMCID: PMC3825176.
    34. Kurabi A, Pak K, Dang X, Coimbra R, Eliceiri BP, Ryan A, Baird A. Ecrg4 attenuates the inflammatory proliferative response of mucosal epithelial cells to infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61394. PMID: 23626679; PMCID: PMC3634077.
    35. Housley GD, Morton-Jones R, Vlajkovic SM, Telang RS, Paramananthasivam V, Tadros SF, Wong AC, Froud KE, Cederholm JM, Sivakumaran Y, Snguanwongchai P, Khakh BS, Cockayne DA, Thorne PR, Ryan A. ATP-gated ion channels mediate adaptation to elevated sound levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 30; 110(18):7494-9. PMID: 23592720; PMCID: PMC3645545.
    36. Li JD, Hermansson A, Ryan A, Bakaletz LO, Brown SD, Cheeseman MT, Juhn SK, Jung TT, Lim DJ, Lim JH, Lin J, Moon SK, Post JC. Panel 4: Recent advances in otitis media in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal models. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Apr; 148(4 Suppl):E52-63. PMID: 23536532; PMCID: PMC4006668.
    37. Kondo K, Pak K, Chavez E, Mullen L, Euteneuer S, Ryan A. Changes in responsiveness of rat spiral ganglion neurons to neurotrophins across age: differential regulation of survival and neuritogenesis. Int J Neurosci. 2013 Jul; 123(7):465-75. PMID: 23301942; PMCID: PMC3897193.
    38. Yan D, Zhu Y, Walsh T, Xie D, Yuan H, Sirmaci A, Fujikawa T, Wong AC, Loh TL, Du L, Grati M, Vlajkovic SM, Blanton S, Ryan A, Chen ZY, Thorne PR, Kachar B, Tekin M, Zhao HB, Housley GD, King MC, Liu XZ. Mutation of the ATP-gated P2X(2) receptor leads to progressive hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 05; 110(6):2228-33. PMID: 23345450.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Xie J, Pak K, Evans A, Kamgar-Parsi A, Fausti S, Mullen L, Ryan A. Neurotrophins differentially stimulate the growth of cochlear neurites on collagen surfaces and in gels. Neural Regen Res. 2013; 8(17):1541-1550. PMID: 24459465.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Euteneuer S, Yang KH, Chavez E, Leichtle A, Loers G, Olshansky A, Pak K, Schachner M, Ryan A. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) induces neuritogenesis in the cochlear spiral ganglion via neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013 May; 54:30-43. PMID: 23262364; PMCID: PMC3857543.
    41. Jin Y, Kondo K, Ushio M, Kaga K, Ryan A, Yamasoba T. Developmental changes in the responsiveness of rat spiral ganglion neurons to neurotrophic factors in dissociated culture: differential responses for survival, neuritogenesis and neuronal morphology. Cell Tissue Res. 2013 Jan; 351(1):15-27. PMID: 23149719; PMCID: PMC3577061.
    42. Masuda M, Pak K, Chavez E, Ryan A. TFE2 and GATA3 enhance induction of POU4F3 and myosin VIIa positive cells in nonsensory cochlear epithelium by ATOH1. Dev Biol. 2012 Dec 01; 372(1):68-80. PMID: 22985730; PMCID: PMC3483650.
    43. Cederholm JM, Froud KE, Wong AC, Ko M, Ryan A, Housley GD. Differential actions of isoflurane and ketamine-based anaesthetics on cochlear function in the mouse. Hear Res. 2012 Oct; 292(1-2):71-9. PMID: 22960466; PMCID: PMC3582347.
    44. Souter M, Eastwood H, Marovic P, Kel G, Wongprasartsuk S, Ryan A, O'Leary SJ. Systemic immunity influences hearing preservation in cochlear implantation. Otol Neurotol. 2012 Jun; 33(4):532-8. PMID: 22470051; PMCID: PMC3897157.
    45. Husseman J, Palacios SD, Rivkin AZ, Oehl H, Ryan A. The role of vascular endothelial growth factors and fibroblast growth factors in angiogenesis during otitis media. Audiol Neurootol. 2012; 17(3):148-54. PMID: 22104377; PMCID: PMC3238030.
    46. Brand Y, Setz C, Levano S, Listyo A, Chavez E, Pak K, Sung M, Radojevic V, Ryan A, Bodmer D. Simvastatin protects auditory hair cells from gentamicin-induced toxicity and activates Akt signaling in vitro. BMC Neurosci. 2011 Nov 14; 12:114. PMID: 22082490; PMCID: PMC3250952.
    47. Mullen LM, Pak KK, Chavez E, Kondo K, Brand Y, Ryan A. Ras/p38 and PI3K/Akt but not Mek/Erk signaling mediate BDNF-induced neurite formation on neonatal cochlear spiral ganglion explants. Brain Res. 2012 Jan 09; 1430:25-34. PMID: 22119396; PMCID: PMC3242932.
    48. Barclay M, Ryan A, Housley GD. Type I vs type II spiral ganglion neurons exhibit differential survival and neuritogenesis during cochlear development. Neural Dev. 2011 Oct 11; 6:33. PMID: 21989106; PMCID: PMC3207869.
    49. Ahmad ZK, Brown CM, Cueva RA, Ryan A, Doherty JK. ErbB expression, activation, and inhibition with lapatinib and tyrphostin (AG825) in human vestibular schwannomas. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Jul; 32(5):841-7. PMID: 21659924; PMCID: PMC3584631.
    50. Leichtle A, Lai Y, Wollenberg B, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. Innate signaling in otitis media: pathogenesis and recovery. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2011 Feb; 11(1):78-84. PMID: 21049294; PMCID: PMC3020300.
    51. Ebmeyer J, Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Ebmeyer U, Husseman J, Pak K, Sudhoff H, Broide D, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. TNFA deletion alters apoptosis as well as caspase 3 and 4 expression during otitis media. BMC Immunol. 2011 Jan 26; 12:12. PMID: 21269505; PMCID: PMC3040143.
    52. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Lee J, Pak K, Webster NJ, Wollenberg B, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. The role of DNA sensing and innate immune receptor TLR9 in otitis media. Innate Immun. 2012 Feb; 18(1):3-13. PMID: 21239460; PMCID: PMC4041324.
    53. Brown CM, Ahmad ZK, Ryan A, Doherty JK. Estrogen receptor expression in sporadic vestibular schwannomas. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Jan; 32(1):158-62. PMID: 21099731; PMCID: PMC3073320.
    54. Lai Y, Cogen AL, Radek KA, Park HJ, Macleod DT, Leichtle A, Ryan A, Di Nardo A, Gallo RL. Activation of TLR2 by a small molecule produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis increases antimicrobial defense against bacterial skin infections. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Sep; 130(9):2211-21. PMID: 20463690; PMCID: PMC2922455.
    55. Ahmad Z, Brown CM, Patel AK, Ryan A, Ongkeko R, Doherty JK. Merlin knockdown in human Schwann cells: clues to vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Apr; 31(3):460-6. PMID: 20195187; PMCID: PMC2873969.
    56. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Ebmeyer J, Yamasaki K, Lai Y, Radek K, Choung YH, Euteneuer S, Pak K, Gallo R, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. CC chemokine ligand 3 overcomes the bacteriocidal and phagocytic defect of macrophages and hastens recovery from experimental otitis media in TNF-/- mice. J Immunol. 2010 Mar 15; 184(6):3087-97. PMID: 20164426; PMCID: PMC2929161.
    57. Barclay M, Julien JP, Ryan A, Housley GD. Type III intermediate filament peripherin inhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jul 05; 478(2):51-5. PMID: 20132868; PMCID: PMC2902986.
    58. Ebmeyer J, Ebmeyer U, Pak K, Sudhoff H, Broide D, Ryan A, Wasserman S. Reconstitution of the mast cell population in W/Wv mice. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Jan; 31(1):42-7. PMID: 19752767; PMCID: PMC2796298.
    59. Lai Y, Di Nardo A, Nakatsuji T, Leichtle A, Yang Y, Cogen AL, Wu ZR, Hooper LV, Schmidt RR, von Aulock S, Radek KA, Huang CM, Ryan A, Gallo RL. Commensal bacteria regulate Toll-like receptor 3-dependent inflammation after skin injury. Nat Med. 2009 Dec; 15(12):1377-82. PMID: 19966777; PMCID: PMC2880863.
    60. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Pak K, Webster NJ, Wasserman SI, Ryan A. The toll-Like receptor adaptor TRIF contributes to otitis media pathogenesis and recovery. BMC Immunol. 2009 Aug 05; 10:45. PMID: 19656404; PMCID: PMC2736931.
    61. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Pak K, Yamasaki K, Cheng CF, Webster NJ, Ryan A, Wasserman SI. TLR4-mediated induction of TLR2 signaling is critical in the pathogenesis and resolution of otitis media. Innate Immun. 2009 Aug; 15(4):205-15. PMID: 19586996; PMCID: PMC3565845.
    62. Ryan A, Mullen LM, Doherty JK. Cellular targeting for cochlear gene therapy. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2009; 66:99-115. PMID: 19494575; PMCID: PMC4379510.
    63. Ryan A, Dazert S. Gene therapy for the inner ear: challenges and promises. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2009; 66:1-12. PMID: 19494569; PMCID: PMC4332585.
    64. Hernandez M, Leichtle A, Pak K, Ebmeyer J, Euteneuer S, Obonyo M, Guiney DG, Webster NJ, Broide DH, Ryan A, Wasserman SI. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 is required for the resolution of otitis media. J Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 15; 198(12):1862-9. PMID: 18986247; PMCID: PMC3584630.
    65. Du X, Schwander M, Moresco EM, Viviani P, Haller C, Hildebrand MS, Pak K, Tarantino L, Roberts A, Richardson H, Koob G, Najmabadi H, Ryan A, Smith RJ, Müller U, Beutler B. A catechol-O-methyltransferase that is essential for auditory function in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23; 105(38):14609-14. PMID: 18794526; PMCID: PMC2567147.
    66. Patel AK, Alexander TH, Andalibi A, Ryan A, Doherty JK. Vestibular schwannoma quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Laryngoscope. 2008 Aug; 118(8):1458-63. PMID: 18670322; PMCID: PMC3570025.
    67. Brors D, Hansen S, Mlynski R, Volkenstein S, Aletsee C, Sendtner M, Ryan A, Dazert S. Spiral ganglion outgrowth and hearing development in p75-deficient mice. Audiol Neurootol. 2008; 13(6):388-95. PMID: 18663291.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Doherty JK, Ongkeko W, Crawley B, Andalibi A, Ryan A. ErbB and Nrg: potential molecular targets for vestibular schwannoma pharmacotherapy. Otol Neurotol. 2008 Jan; 29(1):50-7. PMID: 18199957.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Evans AR, Euteneuer S, Chavez E, Mullen LM, Hui EE, Bhatia SN, Ryan A. Laminin and fibronectin modulate inner ear spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth in an in vitro alternate choice assay. Dev Neurobiol. 2007 Nov; 67(13):1721-30. PMID: 17600813.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Barclay M, Noakes PG, Ryan A, Julien JP, Housley GD. Neuronal expression of peripherin, a type III intermediate filament protein, in the mouse hindbrain. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007 Dec; 128(6):541-50. PMID: 17899157.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Dazert S, Schick B, Hartensuer R, Volkenstein S, Aletsee C, Hansen S, Shehata-Dieler WE, Eigenthaler M, Walter U, Ryan A, Brors D. Hearing development and spiral ganglion neurite growth in VASP deficient mice. Brain Res. 2007 Oct 31; 1178:73-82. PMID: 17920567.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Hedlund M, Tangvoranuntakul P, Takematsu H, Long JM, Housley GD, Kozutsumi Y, Suzuki A, Wynshaw-Boris A, Ryan A, Gallo RL, Varki N, Varki A. N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in mice: implications for human biology and evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; 27(12):4340-6. PMID: 17420276; PMCID: PMC1900035.
    73. Greenwood D, Jagger DJ, Huang LC, Hoya N, Thorne PR, Wildman SS, King BF, Pak K, Ryan A, Housley GD. P2X receptor signaling inhibits BDNF-mediated spiral ganglion neuron development in the neonatal rat cochlea. Development. 2007 Apr; 134(7):1407-17. PMID: 17329369.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Schwander M, Sczaniecka A, Grillet N, Bailey JS, Avenarius M, Najmabadi H, Steffy BM, Federe GC, Lagler EA, Banan R, Hice R, Grabowski-Boase L, Keithley EM, Ryan A, Housley GD, Wiltshire T, Smith RJ, Tarantino LM, Müller U. A forward genetics screen in mice identifies recessive deafness traits and reveals that pejvakin is essential for outer hair cell function. J Neurosci. 2007 Feb 28; 27(9):2163-75. PMID: 17329413.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Furukawa M, Ebmeyer J, Pak K, Austin DA, Melhus A, Webster NJ, Ryan A. Jun N-terminal protein kinase enhances middle ear mucosal proliferation during bacterial otitis media. Infect Immun. 2007 May; 75(5):2562-71. PMID: 17325051; PMCID: PMC1865762.
    76. Chung WH, Pak K, Lin B, Webster N, Ryan A. A PI3K pathway mediates hair cell survival and opposes gentamicin toxicity in neonatal rat organ of Corti. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2006 Dec; 7(4):373-82. PMID: 17053865; PMCID: PMC2504631.
    77. Ryan A, Ebmeyer J, Furukawa M, Pak K, Melhus A, Wasserman SI, Chung WH. Mouse models of induced otitis media. Brain Res. 2006 May 26; 1091(1):3-8. PMID: 16764829.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Ryan A, Wittig J, Evans A, Dazert S, Mullen L. Environmental micro-patterning for the study of spiral ganglion neurite guidance. Audiol Neurootol. 2006; 11(2):134-43. PMID: 16439836.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Huang LC, Ryan A, Cockayne DA, Housley GD. Developmentally regulated expression of the P2X3 receptor in the mouse cochlea. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006 Jun; 125(6):681-92. PMID: 16341871.
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    80. Ebmeyer J, Furukawa M, Pak K, Ebmeyer U, Sudhoff H, Broide D, Ryan A, Wasserman S. Role of mast cells in otitis media. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Nov; 116(5):1129-35. PMID: 16275387.
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    81. Rivkin AZ, Palacios SD, Pak K, Bennett T, Ryan A. The role of Fas-mediated apoptosis in otitis media: observations in the lpr/lpr mouse. Hear Res. 2005 Sep; 207(1-2):110-6. PMID: 15978756.
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    82. Ryan A, Jung TT, Juhn SK, Li JD, Andalibi A, Lin J, Bakaletz LO, Post CJ, Ehrlich GD. Recent advances in otitis media. 4A. Molecular biology. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 2005 Jan; 194:42-9. PMID: 15700934.
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    83. Ryan A, Jung TT, Juhn SK, Li JD, Andalibi A, Lin J, Bakaletz LO, Post CJ, Ehrlich GD. Recent advances in otitis media. 4C. Interaction between middle ear and inner ear in otitis media. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 2005 Jan; 194:56-9. PMID: 15700936.
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    84. Ryan A, Jung TT, Juhn SK, Li JD, Andalibi A, Lin J, Bakaletz LO, Post CJ, Ehrlich GD. Recent advances in otitis media. 4B. Biochemistry. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 2005 Jan; 194:50-5. PMID: 15700935.
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    85. Wittig JH, Ryan A, Asbeck PM. A reusable microfluidic plate with alternate-choice architecture for assessing growth preference in tissue culture. J Neurosci Methods. 2005 May 15; 144(1):79-89. PMID: 15848242.
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    86. Palacios SD, Pak K, Rivkin AZ, Kayali AG, Austen D, Aletsee C, Melhus A, Webster NJ, Ryan A. Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in middle ear mucosa hyperplasia during bacterial otitis media. Infect Immun. 2004 Aug; 72(8):4662-7. PMID: 15271927; PMCID: PMC470656.
    87. Melhus A, Ryan A. Effects of amoxicillin on cytokine and osteocalcin expression in bone tissue during experimental acute otitis media. Cytokine. 2004 Mar 21; 25(6):254-9. PMID: 15036240.
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    88. Barash IA, Mathew L, Ryan A, Chen J, Lieber RL. Rapid muscle-specific gene expression changes after a single bout of eccentric contractions in the mouse. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Feb; 286(2):C355-64. PMID: 14561590.
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    89. Melhus A, Ryan A. A mouse model for acute otitis media. APMIS. 2003 Oct; 111(10):989-94. PMID: 14616553.
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    90. Bodmer D, Brors D, Bodmer M, Pak K, Ryan A. Fas ligand expression in the organ of Corti. Audiol Neurootol. 2003 Sep-Oct; 8(5):243-9. PMID: 12904679.
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    91. Brors D, Bodmer D, Pak K, Aletsee C, Schäfers M, Dazert S, Ryan A. EphA4 provides repulsive signals to developing cochlear ganglion neurites mediated through ephrin-B2 and -B3. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Jul 14; 462(1):90-100. PMID: 12761826.
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    92. Wang JC, Raybould NP, Luo L, Ryan A, Cannell MB, Thorne PR, Housley GD. Noise induces up-regulation of P2X2 receptor subunit of ATP-gated ion channels in the rat cochlea. Neuroreport. 2003 May 06; 14(6):817-23. PMID: 12858039.
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    93. Aletsee C, Brors D, Mlynski R, Ryan A, Dazert S. Branching of spiral ganglion neurites is induced by focal application of fibroblast growth factor-1. Laryngoscope. 2003 May; 113(5):791-6. PMID: 12792312.
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    94. Bodmer D, Brors D, Pak K, Bodmer M, Ryan A. Gentamicin-induced hair cell death is not dependent on the apoptosis receptor Fas. Laryngoscope. 2003 Mar; 113(3):452-5. PMID: 12616196.
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    95. Skinner LJ, Enée V, Beurg M, Jung HH, Ryan A, Hafidi A, Aran JM, Dulon D. Contribution of BK Ca2+-activated K+ channels to auditory neurotransmission in the Guinea pig cochlea. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Jul; 90(1):320-32. PMID: 12611976.
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    96. Brors D, Aletsee C, Dazert S, Huverstuhl J, Ryan A, Bodmer D. Clostridium difficile toxin B, an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho, Rac and Cdc42, influences spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth. Acta Otolaryngol. 2003 Jan; 123(1):20-5. PMID: 12625568.
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    97. Ryan A. The cell cycle and the development and regeneration of hair cells. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2003; 57:449-66. PMID: 14674489.
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    98. Palacios SD, Pak K, Kayali AG, Rivkin AZ, Aletsee C, Melhus A, Webster NJ, Ryan A. Participation of Ras and extracellular regulated kinase in the hyperplastic response of middle-ear mucosa during bacterial otitis media. J Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 15; 186(12):1761-9. PMID: 12447762.
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    99. Bodmer D, Gloddek B, Ryan A, Huverstuhl J, Brors D. Inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway influences neurite outgrowth of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Laryngoscope. 2002 Nov; 112(11):2057-61. PMID: 12439181.
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    100. Gloddek B, Bodmer D, Brors D, Keithley EM, Ryan A. Induction of MHC class II antigens on cells of the inner ear. Audiol Neurootol. 2002 Nov-Dec; 7(6):317-23. PMID: 12463193.
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    101. Bodmer D, Brors D, Pak K, Gloddek B, Ryan A. Rescue of auditory hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity by Clostridium difficile toxin B, an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho/Rac/Cdc42. Hear Res. 2002 Oct; 172(1-2):81-6. PMID: 12361869.
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    102. Bodmer D, Brors D, Pak K, Keithley EM, Mullen L, Ryan A, Gloddek B. Inflammatory signals increase Fas ligand expression by inner ear cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2002 Aug; 129(1-2):10-7. PMID: 12161015.
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    103. Brors D, Aletsee C, Schwager K, Mlynski R, Hansen S, Schäfers M, Ryan A, Dazert S. Interaction of spiral ganglion neuron processes with alloplastic materials in vitro(1). Hear Res. 2002 May; 167(1-2):110-21. PMID: 12117535.
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    104. Ryan A. Molecular studies of hair cell development and survival. Audiol Neurootol. 2002 May-Jun; 7(3):138-40. PMID: 12053133.
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    105. Palacios SD, Pak K, Rivkin AZ, Bennett T, Ryan A. Growth factors and their receptors in the middle ear mucosa during otitis media. Laryngoscope. 2002 Mar; 112(3):420-3. PMID: 12148846.
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    106. Aletsee C, Brors D, Palacios S, Pak K, Mullen L, Dazert S, Ryan A. The effects of laminin-1 on spiral ganglion neurons are dependent on the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and are partially independent of Ras. Hear Res. 2002 Feb; 164(1-2):1-11. PMID: 11950519.
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    107. Ryan A, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Immune-mediated hearing loss: basic mechanisms and options for therapy. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2002; (548):38-43. PMID: 12211356.
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    108. Ryan A, Pak K, Low W, Battaglia A, Mullen L, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Immunological damage to the inner ear: current and future therapeutic strategies. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2002; 59:66-74. PMID: 11885663.
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    109. Ryan A, Bennett T. Nitric oxide contributes to control of effusion in experimental otitis media. Laryngoscope. 2001 Feb; 111(2):301-5. PMID: 11210879.
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    110. Ryan A. Summary: progress in inner-ear immunology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Dec 29; 830:326-9. PMID: 9616693.
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    111. Ryan A, Gloddek B, Harris JP. Lymphocyte trafficking to the inner ear. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Dec 29; 830:236-42. PMID: 9616682.
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