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Elaine Muchmore

Title(s)Professor Of Clinical, Medicine
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-552-7444
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    Research Interests
    Dr. Muchmore has been active in delineating the effective components of resident supervision in the academic environment; she also maintains a small laboratory investigating the regulation of expression of selected cell surface sialic acid modifications. In her role as a clinician educator and administrator at the VA, she has worked with a small team to develop an electronic chart-based tool to measure the time spent performing direct and indirect supervision of resident trainees. It has been demonstrated that using this metric in outpatient settings, there is a direct correlation between direct supervision time required and stage of training. Her group is now working to launch use of this tool widely, with the goal of better assessing the quantity and quality of resident supervision in the academically-affiliated VA medical centers. She has also worked to define training milestones for Internal Medicine-based fellowships, and for Hematology/Oncology.

    Education and Training
    BS, MA - Biology, Stanford University - 1967-1972
    MD - University of California, Davis - 1975-1979
    Resident - Virginia Mason Hospital, Seattle - 1979-1982
    Fellow - Hematology-Oncology, University of California, San Diego - 1983-1987

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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Detection of Non-Human Sialic Acid in Biotherapeutic Applications
    NIH/NIGMS R41GM080959Mar 7, 2008 - Mar 6, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID HYDROXYLASE
    NIH/NIGMS R29GM043165Dec 1, 1989 - Jun 30, 1995
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Alweis RL, Williams CM, Luther VP, Simmons DL, Kopelman R, Angus SV, Liao S, Nagalla S, Muchmore EA. AAIM Guidelines for Interview and Post-Interview Communication for Graduate Medical Education Recruitment. Am J Med. 2019 Jun 05. PMID: 31175844.
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    2. Williams CM, Alweis RL, O'Connor AB, Dalal B, Rai D, Abdullah A, Kopelman R, Cornett P, Frank MO, Luther VP, Muchmore EA. Am J Med. 2019 Mar 07. PMID: 30851262.
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    3. O'Connor AB, Williams CM, Dalal B, Sulistio MS, Roth TK, Milne CK, Collichio FA, Muchmore EA, Alweis R. Internal medicine fellowship directors' perspectives on the quality and utility of letters conforming to residency program director letter of recommendation guidelines. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2018; 8(4):173-176. PMID: 30181820.
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    4. Collichio F, Muchmore EA. The American Society of Hematology and ASCO Curricular Milestones for Assessment of Fellows in Hematology/Oncology: Development, Reflection, and Next Steps. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2018 May 23; 38:887-893. PMID: 30231329.
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    5. Cornett PA, Williams C, Alweis RL, McConville J, Frank M, Dalal B, Kopelman RI, Luther VP, O'connor AB, Muchmore EA. Problematic communications during 2016 fellowship recruitment in internal medicine. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2017; 7(5):277-281. PMID: 29147467.
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    6. Collichio FA, Hess BJ, Muchmore EA, Duhigg L, Lipner RS, Haist S, Hawley JL, Morrison CA, Clayton CP, Raymond MJ, Kayoumi KM, Gitlin SD. Medical Knowledge Assessment by Hematology and Medical Oncology In-Training Examinations Are Better Than Program Director Assessments at Predicting Subspecialty Certification Examination Performance. J Cancer Educ. 2017 Sep; 32(3):647-654. PMID: 26897634.
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    7. Chang J, Kwan B, Panjwani N, Villanueva N, Diamond S, Wong-Sefidan I, Muchmore E. Prostate adenocarcinoma metastases to the testis and brain: case report and review of the literature. Oxf Med Case Reports. 2017 Aug; 2017(8):omx042. PMID: 28845236.
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    8. Alweis R, Collichio F, Milne CK, Dalal B, Williams CM, Sulistio MS, Roth TK, Muchmore EA. Guidelines for a Standardized Fellowship Letter of Recommendation. Am J Med. 2017 May; 130(5):606-611. PMID: 28189466.
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    9. von Gunten CF, Mullan PB, Nelesen R, Garman K, McNeal H, Savoia M, Muchmore E, Ikeda T, Amundson S, McKennett M, Diamant J, Pepper P, Gray C, Weissman D. Primary Care Residents Improve Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes, and Practice After a Clinical Curriculum With a Hospice. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 Sep; 34(8):713-720. PMID: 27353516.
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    10. Mink R, Caputo G, Fried E, Hofkosh D, Le-Bucklin KV, McMillan J, Muchmore E, Pryor A, Vargo D, Bale J. Delaying the Pediatric Fellowship Start Date to Improve Trainee Well-Being. J Pediatr. 2015 Aug; 167(2):222-3. PMID: 26210834.
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    11. Barrett JC, Alweis R, Frank M, O'Connor A, McConville JF, Adams ND, Arfons L, Bernard S, Bradley T, Buckley JD, Cohen E, Cornett P, Elkins S, Kopelman R, Luther VP, Petrusky J, McNeill DB, Omar B, Palapiano N, Roth T, Satko S, Fried ED, Muchmore EA. Adoption of a Uniform Start Date for Internal Medicine Fellowships and Other Advanced Training: An AAIM White Paper. Am J Med. 2015 Sep; 128(9):1039-43. PMID: 26071819.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Collichio F, Kayoumi K, Sierra L, Clayton CP, Raymond M, Muchmore EA. The Next Accreditation System: a strategy for implementing new reporting standards using a Hematology/Oncology model. Am J Med. 2015 Feb; 128(2):200-7. PMID: 25448172.
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    13. Kashner TM, Henley SS, Golden RM, Byrne JM, Keitz SA, Cannon GW, Chang BK, Holland GJ, Aron DC, Muchmore EA, Wicker A, White H. Studying the effects of ACGME duty hours limits on resident satisfaction: results from VA learners' perceptions survey. Acad Med. 2010 Jul; 85(7):1130-9. PMID: 20592508.
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    14. Byrne JM, Kashner M, Gilman SC, Aron DC, Cannon GW, Chang BK, Godleski L, Golden RM, Henley SS, Holland GJ, Kaminetzky CP, Keitz SA, Kirsh S, Muchmore EA, Wicker AB. Measuring the intensity of resident supervision in the department of veterans affairs: the resident supervision index. Acad Med. 2010 Jul; 85(7):1171-81. PMID: 20305532.
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    15. Kashner TM, Byrne JM, Henley SS, Golden RM, Aron DC, Cannon GW, Chang BK, Gilman SC, Holland GJ, Kaminetzky CP, Keitz SA, Muchmore EA, Kashner TK, Wicker AB. Measuring progressive independence with the resident supervision index: theoretical approach. J Grad Med Educ. 2010 Mar; 2(1):8-16. PMID: 21975879; PMCID: PMC2931231.
    16. Kashner TM, Byrne JM, Chang BK, Henley SS, Golden RM, Aron DC, Cannon GW, Gilman SC, Holland GJ, Kaminetzky CP, Keitz SA, Muchmore EA, Kashner TK, Wicker AB. Measuring progressive independence with the resident supervision index: empirical approach. J Grad Med Educ. 2010 Mar; 2(1):17-30. PMID: 21975880; PMCID: PMC2931230.
    17. Dosanjh A, Muchmore EA. Expression of DeltaF508 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) Decreases Membrane Sialylation. Open Respir Med J. 2009 May 18; 3:79-84. PMID: 19572026.
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    18. Gagneux P, Muchmore EA. The chimpanzee model: contributions and considerations for studies of hepatitis B virus. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 96:289-318. PMID: 14762278.
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    19. Tangvoranuntakul P, Gagneux P, Diaz S, Bardor M, Varki N, Varki A, Muchmore E. Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 14; 100(21):12045-50. PMID: 14523234; PMCID: PMC218710.
    20. Enard W, Khaitovich P, Klose J, Zöllner S, Heissig F, Giavalisco P, Nieselt-Struwe K, Muchmore E, Varki A, Ravid R, Doxiadis GM, Bontrop RE, Pääbo S. Intra- and interspecific variation in primate gene expression patterns. Science. 2002 Apr 12; 296(5566):340-3. PMID: 11951044.
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    21. Muchmore EA. Chimpanzee models for human disease and immunobiology. Immunol Rev. 2001 Oct; 183:86-93. PMID: 11782249.
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    22. Heijtink R, Paulij W, van Bergen P, van Roosmalen M, Rohm D, Eichentopf B, Muchmore E, de Man R, Osterhaus A. In vivo activity of a mixture of two human monoclonal antibodies (anti-HBs) in a chronic hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee. J Gen Virol. 1999 Jun; 80 ( Pt 6):1529-35. PMID: 10374972.
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    23. Muchmore E. The chimpanzee model : contributions and considerations elizabeth muchmore. Methods Mol Med. 1999; 19:577-88. PMID: 21374398.
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    24. Muchmore EA, Diaz S, Varki A. A structural difference between the cell surfaces of humans and the great apes. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1998 Oct; 107(2):187-98. PMID: 9786333.
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    25. Chou HH, Takematsu H, Diaz S, Iber J, Nickerson E, Wright KL, Muchmore EA, Nelson DL, Warren ST, Varki A. A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 29; 95(20):11751-6. PMID: 9751737.
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    26. Coëffier E, Girard M, Barré-Sinoussi F, Meignier B, Muchmore E, Fultz PN, LeClerc C. Fine specificity of anti-V3 antibodies induced in chimpanzees by HIV candidate vaccines. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Aug 10; 14(12):1023-34. PMID: 9718117.
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    27. Pride MW, Bailey CR, Muchmore E, Thanavala Y. Evaluation of B and T-cell responses in chimpanzees immunized with Hepagene, a hepatitis B vaccine containing pre-S1, pre-S2 gene products. Vaccine. 1998 Apr; 16(6):543-50. PMID: 9569463.
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    28. Girard M, Yue L, Barré-Sinoussi F, van der Ryst E, Meignier B, Muchmore E, Fultz PN. Failure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B-derived vaccine to prevent infection of chimpanzees by an HIV-1 subtype E strain. J Virol. 1996 Nov; 70(11):8229-33. PMID: 8892959.
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    29. Girard M, Meignier B, Barré-Sinoussi F, Kieny MP, Matthews T, Muchmore E, Nara PL, Wei Q, Rimsky L, Weinhold K. Vaccine-induced protection of chimpanzees against infection by a heterologous human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1995 Oct; 69(10):6239-48. PMID: 7666524.
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    30. Weiner A, Erickson AL, Kansopon J, Crawford K, Muchmore E, Hughes AL, Houghton M, Walker CM. Persistent hepatitis C virus infection in a chimpanzee is associated with emergence of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape variant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28; 92(7):2755-9. PMID: 7708719.
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    31. Persidsky Y, Liska V, Huss T, Gendrault JL, Venet A, Muchmore E, Traincard F, Kirn A, Aubertin AM. Presence of virion protein x (Vpx) of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac 251 in target cells in vivo. J Med Primatol. 1995 Jan; 24(1):35-42. PMID: 7563009.
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    32. Takano R, Muchmore E, Dennis JW. Sialylation and malignant potential in tumour cell glycosylation mutants. Glycobiology. 1994 Oct; 4(5):665-74. PMID: 7881181.
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    33. Warrier SV, Pinter A, Honnen WJ, Girard M, Muchmore E, Tilley SA. A novel, glycan-dependent epitope in the V2 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 is recognized by a highly potent, neutralizing chimpanzee monoclonal antibody. J Virol. 1994 Jul; 68(7):4636-42. PMID: 7515975.
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    34. Tabor E, Hsia CC, Muchmore E. Histochemical and immunohistochemical similarities between hepatic tumors in two chimpanzees and man. J Med Primatol. 1994 Jul; 23(5):271-9. PMID: 7869355.
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    35. Hubbard SC, Walls L, Ruley HE, Muchmore EA. Generation of Chinese hamster ovary cell glycosylation mutants by retroviral insertional mutagenesis. Integration into a discrete locus generates mutants expressing high levels of N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 04; 269(5):3717-24. PMID: 8106417.
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    36. Prince DL, Prince HN, Thraenhart O, Muchmore E, Bonder E, Pugh J. Methodological approaches to disinfection of human hepatitis B virus. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Dec; 31(12):3296-304. PMID: 8308123.
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    37. Saksela K, Muchmore E, Girard M, Fultz P, Baltimore D. High viral load in lymph nodes and latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood cells of HIV-1-infected chimpanzees. J Virol. 1993 Dec; 67(12):7423-7. PMID: 8230463.
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    38. Erickson AL, Houghton M, Choo QL, Weiner AJ, Ralston R, Muchmore E, Walker CM. Hepatitis C virus-specific CTL responses in the liver of chimpanzees with acute and chronic hepatitis C. J Immunol. 1993 Oct 15; 151(8):4189-99. PMID: 7691940.
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    39. Muchmore EA. Developmental sialic acid modifications in rat organs. Glycobiology. 1992 Aug; 2(4):337-43. PMID: 1421755.
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    40. Muchmore EA, Dahl BJ. One blue man with mucositis. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jul 09; 327(2):133. PMID: 1603136.
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    41. Neurath AR, Jiang S, Strick N, Kolbe H, Kieny MP, Muchmore E, Girard M. Antibody responses of chimpanzees immunized with synthetic peptides corresponding to full-length V3 hypervariable loops of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1991 Oct; 7(10):813-23. PMID: 1720628.
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    42. Gill PS, Rarick M, McCutchan JA, Slater L, Parker B, Muchmore E, Bernstein-Singer M, Akil B, Espina BM, Krailo M. Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results of a randomized trial. Am J Med. 1991 Apr; 90(4):427-33. PMID: 1707230.
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    43. Girard M, Kieny MP, Pinter A, Barre-Sinoussi F, Nara P, Kolbe H, Kusumi K, Chaput A, Reinhart T, Muchmore E. Immunization of chimpanzees confers protection against challenge with human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 15; 88(2):542-6. PMID: 1988952.
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    44. Bahraoui E, Yagello M, Billaud JN, Sabatier JM, Guy B, Muchmore E, Girard M, Gluckman JC. Immunogenicity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) recombinant nef gene product. Mapping of T-cell and B-cell epitopes in immunized chimpanzees. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1990 Sep; 6(9):1087-98. PMID: 1702299.
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    45. Muchmore EA, Milewski M, Varki A, Diaz S. Biosynthesis of N-glycolyneuraminic acid. The primary site of hydroxylation of N-acetylneuraminic acid is the cytosolic sugar nucleotide pool. J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 05; 264(34):20216-23. PMID: 2684973.
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    46. Muchmore E, Popper H, Peterson DA, Miller MF, Lieberman HM. Non-A, non-B hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a chimpanzee. J Med Primatol. 1988; 17(5):235-46. PMID: 3148034.
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    47. Muchmore EA, Varki NM, Fukuda M, Varki A. Developmental regulation of sialic acid modifications in rat and human colon. FASEB J. 1987 Sep; 1(3):229-35. PMID: 3623000.
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    48. Muchmore EA, Varki A. Selective inactivation of influenza C esterase: a probe for detecting 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Science. 1987 Jun 05; 236(4806):1293-5. PMID: 3589663.
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    49. Muchmore E. An overview of biohazards associated with nonhuman primates. J Med Primatol. 1987; 16(2):55-82. PMID: 3295249.
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    50. Varki A, Muchmore E, Diaz S. A sialic acid-specific O-acetylesterase in human erythrocytes: possible identity with esterase D, the genetic marker of retinoblastomas and Wilson disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Feb; 83(4):882-6. PMID: 3456572.
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    51. Valenza FP, Muchmore E. The clinical chemistry of chimpanzees: II. Gamma glutamyl transferase levels in hepatitis studies. J Med Primatol. 1985; 14(6):305-15. PMID: 2867223.
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    52. Berthelot P, Courouce AM, Eyquem A, Feldmann G, Jacob J, Ravisse P, Vacher B, Moor-Jankowski J, Muchmore E, Prince A. Hepatitis B vaccine safety monitoring in the chimpanzee: interpretation of results. J Med Primatol. 1984; 13(3):119-33. PMID: 6239039.
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    53. Muchmore E, Moor-Jankowski J. Hepatitis research in chimpanzees: evaluations of clinical laboratory methodologies. J Med Primatol. 1983; 12(2):65-7. PMID: 6438329.
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    54. Wands JR, Lieberman HM, Muchmore E, Isselbacher K, Shafritz DA. Detection and transmission in chimpanzees of hepatitis B virus-related agents formerly designated "non-A, non-B" hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Dec; 79(23):7552-6. PMID: 6818547.
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    55. Valenza FP, Muchmore E. The clinical chemistry of chimpanzees. I. Determination of aminotransferase baseline values for hepatitis studies. J Med Primatol. 1982; 11(6):342-51. PMID: 6153021.
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    56. Shouval D, Chakraborty PR, Ruiz-Opazo N, Baum S, Spigland I, Muchmore E, Gerber MA, Thung SN, Popper H, Shafritz DA. Chronic hepatitis in chimpanzee carriers of hepatitis B virus: morphologic, immunologic, and viral DNA studies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Oct; 77(10):6147-51. PMID: 6934542.
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    57. Muchmore E. Hepatitis surveillance standards for hepatitis studies in a chimpanzee colony. Dev Biol Stand. 1980; 45:13-21. PMID: 7399145.
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    58. Victoria EJ, Muchmore EA, Sudora EJ, Masouredis SP. The role of antigen mobility in anti-Rh0(D)-induced agglutination. J Clin Invest. 1975 Aug; 56(2):292-301. PMID: 807597.
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    59. Muchmore E. Clinical care of nonhuman primates. Synopsis and evaluation of a workshop held at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD., 7-8 March 1973. J Med Primatol. 1973; 2(6):341-52. PMID: 4365539.
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    60. Cohen N, Kneip TJ, Goldstein DH, Muchmore EA. The juvenile baboon as a model for studies of lead poisoning in children. J Med Primatol. 1972; 1(3):142-55. PMID: 4633129.
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