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Ajit Varki

TitleDistinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentCellular and Molecular Medicine
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0687
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-534-2214
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    Education and Training
    MBBS (MD) - Christian Medical College, Vellore India - 1975
    Resident - University of Nebraska Medical Center - 1977-1978
    Fellow - Hematology-Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine - 1978-1982


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Exploring the biology of O-acetyl sialic acids using stable synthetic mimics
    NIH/NIAID R01AI130684Sep 25, 2017 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Ram S, Gulati S, Lewis LA, Chakraborti S, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Reed GW, Cox AD, Li J, St Michael F, Stupak J, Su XH, Saha S, Landig CS, Varki A, Rice PA. A novel sialylation site on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide links heptose II lactose expression with pathogenicity. Infect Immun. 2018 May 29. PMID: 29844237.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Cao H, Meng C, Sasmal A, Zhang Y, Gao T, Liu CC, Khan N, Varki A, Wang F. Chemoenzymatic assembly of mammalian O-mannose glycans. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 May 26. PMID: 29802667.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Owen CD, Tailford LE, Monaco S, Šuligoj T, Vaux L, Lallement R, Khedri Z, Yu H, Lecointe K, Walshaw J, Tribolo S, Horrex M, Bell A, Chen X, Taylor GL, Varki A, Angulo J, Juge N. Unravelling the specificity and mechanism of sialic acid recognition by the gut symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus. Nat Commun. 2017 Dec 19; 8(1):2196. PMID: 29259165.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Gao X, Deng L, Stack G, Yu H, Chen X, Naito-Matsui Y, Varki A, Galán JE. Author Correction: Evolution of host adaptation in the Salmonella typhoid toxin. Nat Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 2(12):1697. PMID: 29093550.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Hayakawa T, Khedri Z, Schwarz F, Landig C, Liang SY, Yu H, Chen X, Fujito NT, Satta Y, Varki A, Angata T. Coevolution of Siglec-11 and Siglec-16 via gene conversion in primates. BMC Evol Biol. 2017 11 23; 17(1):228. PMID: 29169316.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Varki A. New and updated glycoscience-related resources at NCBI. Glycobiology. 2017 Nov 01; 27(11):993. PMID: 28973256.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Gao X, Deng L, Stack G, Yu H, Chen X, Naito-Matsui Y, Varki A, Galán JE. Evolution of host adaptation in the Salmonella typhoid toxin. Nat Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 2(12):1592-1599. PMID: 28993610.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Bergfeld AK, Lawrence R, Diaz SL, Pearce OMT, Ghaderi D, Gagneux P, Leakey MG, Varki A. N-glycolyl groups of nonhuman chondroitin sulfates survive in ancient fossils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Sep 26; 114(39):E8155-E8164. PMID: 28893995.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Wasik BR, Barnard KN, Ossiboff RJ, Khedri Z, Feng KH, Yu H, Chen X, Perez DR, Varki A, Parrish CR. Distribution of O-Acetylated Sialic Acids among Target Host Tissues for Influenza Virus. mSphere. 2017 Sep-Oct; 2(5). PMID: 28904995.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Varki A. Scientific journals: Rename the impact factor. Nature. 2017 08 23; 548(7668):393. PMID: 28836596.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Patras KA, Coady A, Olson J, Ali SR, RamachandraRao SP, Kumar S, Varki A, Nizet V. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein engages human Siglec-9 to modulate neutrophil activation in the urinary tract. Immunol Cell Biol. 2017 Nov; 95(10):960-965. PMID: 28829050.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Varki A. Are humans prone to autoimmunity? Implications from evolutionary changes in hominin sialic acid biology. J Autoimmun. 2017 Sep; 83:134-142. PMID: 28755952.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Siddiqui SS, Springer SA, Verhagen A, Sundaramurthy V, Alisson-Silva F, Jiang W, Ghosh P, Varki A. The Alzheimer's disease-protective CD33 splice variant mediates adaptive loss of function via diversion to an intracellular pool. J Biol Chem. 2017 09 15; 292(37):15312-15320. PMID: 28747436.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Okerblom J, Varki A. Biochemical, Cellular, Physiological, and Pathological Consequences of Human Loss of N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid. Chembiochem. 2017 07 04; 18(13):1155-1171. PMID: 28423240.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Lizcano A, Secundino I, Döhrmann S, Corriden R, Rohena C, Diaz S, Ghosh P, Deng L, Nizet V, Varki A. Erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins engage Siglec-9 on neutrophils to suppress activation. Blood. 2017 06 08; 129(23):3100-3110. PMID: 28416510.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Dharmadhikari G, Stolz K, Hauke M, Morgan NG, Varki A, de Koning E, Kelm S, Maedler K. Siglec-7 restores ß-cell function and survival and reduces inflammation in pancreatic islets from patients with diabetes. Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 05; 7:45319. PMID: 28378743.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Graustein AD, Horne DJ, Fong JJ, Schwarz F, Mefford HC, Peterson GJ, Wells RD, Musvosvi M, Shey M, Hanekom WA, Hatherill M, Scriba TJ, Thuong NTT, Mai NTH, Caws M, Bang ND, Dunstan SJ, Thwaites GE, Varki A, Angata T, Hawn TR. The SIGLEC14 null allele is associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis- and BCG-induced clinical and immunologic outcomes. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2017 05; 104:38-45. PMID: 28454648.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Okerblom JJ, Schwarz F, Olson J, Fletes W, Ali SR, Martin PT, Glass CK, Nizet V, Varki A. Loss of CMAH during Human Evolution Primed the Monocyte-Macrophage Lineage toward a More Inflammatory and Phagocytic State. J Immunol. 2017 03 15; 198(6):2366-2373. PMID: 28148732.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Schwarz F, Landig CS, Siddiqui S, Secundino I, Olson J, Varki N, Nizet V, Varki A. Paired Siglec receptors generate opposite inflammatory responses to a human-specific pathogen. EMBO J. 2017 03 15; 36(6):751-760. PMID: 28100677.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Naito-Matsui Y, Davies LR, Takematsu H, Chou HH, Tangvoranuntakul P, Carlin AF, Verhagen A, Heyser CJ, Yoo SW, Choudhury B, Paton JC, Paton AW, Varki NM, Schnaar RL, Varki A. Physiological Exploration of the Long Term Evolutionary Selection against Expression of N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid in the Brain. J Biol Chem. 2017 02 17; 292(7):2557-2570. PMID: 28049733.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Khedri Z, Xiao A, Yu H, Landig CS, Li W, Diaz S, Wasik BR, Parrish CR, Wang LP, Varki A, Chen X. A Chemical Biology Solution to Problems with Studying Biologically Important but Unstable 9-O-Acetyl Sialic Acids. ACS Chem Biol. 2017 Jan 20; 12(1):214-224. PMID: 27936566.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Siddiqui S, Schwarz F, Springer S, Khedri Z, Yu H, Deng L, Verhagen A, Naito-Matsui Y, Jiang W, Kim D, Zhou J, Ding B, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A. Studies on the Detection, Expression, Glycosylation, Dimerization, and Ligand Binding Properties of Mouse Siglec-E. J Biol Chem. 2017 01 20; 292(3):1029-1037. PMID: 27920204.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Hentrich K, Löfling J, Pathak A, Nizet V, Varki A, Henriques-Normark B. Streptococcus pneumoniae Senses a Human-like Sialic Acid Profile via the Response Regulator CiaR. Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Sep 14; 20(3):307-317. PMID: 27593514; PMCID: PMC5025396 [Available on 09/14/17].
    24. Varki A. Biological roles of glycans. Glycobiology. 2017 01; 27(1):3-49. PMID: 27558841.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Alisson-Silva F, Kawanishi K, Varki A. Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: Analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid. Mol Aspects Med. 2016 10; 51:16-30. PMID: 27421909; PMCID: PMC5035214 [Available on 10/01/17].
    26. Mahajan VS, Demissie E, Mattoo H, Viswanadham V, Varki A, Morris R, Pillai S. Striking Immune Phenotypes in Gene-Targeted Mice Are Driven by a Copy-Number Variant Originating from a Commercially Available C57BL/6 Strain. Cell Rep. 2016 05 31; 15(9):1901-9. PMID: 27210752.
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    27. Läubli H, Varki A, Borsig L. Antimetastatic Properties of Low Molecular Weight Heparin. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jul 20; 34(21):2560-1. PMID: 27185851.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Varki A. Why are there no persisting hybrids of humans with Denisovans, Neanderthals, or anyone else? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr 26; 113(17):E2354. PMID: 27044111; PMCID: PMC4855598 [Available on 10/26/16].
    29. Bensing BA, Khedri Z, Deng L, Yu H, Prakobphol A, Fisher SJ, Chen X, Iverson TM, Varki A, Sullam PM. Novel aspects of sialoglycan recognition by the Siglec-like domains of streptococcal SRR glycoproteins. Glycobiology. 2016 11; 26(11):1222-1234. PMID: 27037304.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Song H, Qi J, Khedri Z, Diaz S, Yu H, Chen X, Varki A, Shi Y, Gao GF. Correction: An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Mar; 12(3):e1005505. PMID: 26954772; PMCID: PMC4782993.
    31. Springer SA, Schwarz F, Altheide TK, Varki NM, Varki A, Gagneux P. Reply to Liu and Jiang: Maintenance of postreproductive cognitive capacity by inclusive fitness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22; 113(12):E1591-2. PMID: 26933219; PMCID: PMC4812698 [Available on 09/22/16].
    32. Agre P, Bertozzi C, Bissell M, Campbell KP, Cummings RD, Desai UR, Estes M, Flotte T, Fogleman G, Gage F, Ginsburg D, Gordon JI, Hart G, Hascall V, Kiessling L, Kornfeld S, Lowe J, Magnani J, Mahal LK, Medzhitov R, Roberts RJ, Sackstein R, Sarkar R, Schnaar R, Schwartz N, Varki A, Walt D, Weissman I. Training the next generation of biomedical investigators in glycosciences. J Clin Invest. 2016 Feb; 126(2):405-8. PMID: 26829621; PMCID: PMC4731185 [Available on 02/01/17].
    33. Song H, Qi J, Khedri Z, Diaz S, Yu H, Chen X, Varki A, Shi Y, Gao GF. An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005411. PMID: 26816272; PMCID: PMC4729479.
    34. Tang XX, Ostedgaard LS, Hoegger MJ, Moninger TO, Karp PH, McMenimen JD, Choudhury B, Varki A, Stoltz DA, Welsh MJ. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2016 Mar 01; 126(3):879-91. PMID: 26808501.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Gulati S, Schoenhofen IC, Whitfield DM, Cox AD, Li J, St Michael F, Vinogradov EV, Stupak J, Zheng B, Ohnishi M, Unemo M, Lewis LA, Taylor RE, Landig CS, Diaz S, Reed GW, Varki A, Rice PA, Ram S. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1005290. PMID: 26630657.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Varki A, Cummings RD, Aebi M, Packer NH, Seeberger PH, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart G, Darvill A, Kinoshita T, Prestegard JJ, Schnaar RL, Freeze HH, Marth JD, Bertozzi CR, Etzler ME, Frank M, Vliegenthart JF, Lütteke T, Perez S, Bolton E, Rudd P, Paulson J, Kanehisa M, Toukach P, Aoki-Kinoshita KF, Dell A, Narimatsu H, York W, Taniguchi N, Kornfeld S. Symbol Nomenclature for Graphical Representations of Glycans. Glycobiology. 2015 Dec; 25(12):1323-4. PMID: 26543186; PMCID: PMC4643639 [Available on 12/01/16].
    37. Schwarz F, Springer SA, Altheide TK, Varki NM, Gagneux P, Varki A. Human-specific derived alleles of CD33 and other genes protect against postreproductive cognitive decline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jan 05; 113(1):74-9. PMID: 26621708; PMCID: PMC4711857.
    38. Fong JJ, Sreedhara K, Deng L, Varki NM, Angata T, Liu Q, Nizet V, Varki A. Immunomodulatory activity of extracellular Hsp70 mediated via paired receptors Siglec-5 and Siglec-14. EMBO J. 2015 Nov 12; 34(22):2775-88. PMID: 26459514; PMCID: PMC4682649 [Available on 11/12/16].
    39. Secundino I, Lizcano A, Roupé KM, Wang X, Cole JN, Olson J, Ali SR, Dahesh S, Amayreh LK, Henningham A, Varki A, Nizet V. Host and pathogen hyaluronan signal through human siglec-9 to suppress neutrophil activation. J Mol Med (Berl). 2016 Feb; 94(2):219-33. PMID: 26411873; PMCID: PMC4766071 [Available on 02/01/17].
    40. Varki NM, Varki A. On the apparent rarity of epithelial cancers in captive chimpanzees. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jul 19; 370(1673). PMID: 26056369; PMCID: PMC4581030.
    41. Langereis MA, Bakkers MJ, Deng L, Padler-Karavani V, Vervoort SJ, Hulswit RJ, van Vliet AL, Gerwig GJ, de Poot SA, Boot W, van Ederen AM, Heesters BA, van der Loos CM, van Kuppeveld FJ, Yu H, Huizinga EG, Chen X, Varki A, Kamerling JP, de Groot RJ. Complexity and Diversity of the Mammalian Sialome Revealed by Nidovirus Virolectins. Cell Rep. 2015 Jun 30; 11(12):1966-78. PMID: 26095364.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Feng KH, Gonzalez G, Deng L, Yu H, Tse VL, Huang L, Huang K, Wasik BR, Zhou B, Wentworth DE, Holmes EC, Chen X, Varki A, Murcia PR, Parrish CR. Equine and Canine Influenza H3N8 Viruses Show Minimal Biological Differences Despite Phylogenetic Divergence. J Virol. 2015 Jul; 89(13):6860-73. PMID: 25903329; PMCID: PMC4468500.
    43. Schwarz F, Pearce OM, Wang X, Samraj AN, Läubli H, Garcia JO, Lin H, Fu X, Garcia-Bingman A, Secrest P, Romanoski CE, Heyser C, Glass CK, Hazen SL, Varki N, Varki A, Gagneux P. Siglec receptors impact mammalian lifespan by modulating oxidative stress. Elife. 2015 Apr 07; 4. PMID: 25846707; PMCID: PMC4384638.
    44. Sumida M, Hane M, Yabe U, Shimoda Y, Pearce OM, Kiso M, Miyagi T, Sawada M, Varki A, Kitajima K, Sato C. Rapid Trimming of Cell Surface Polysialic Acid (PolySia) by Exovesicular Sialidase Triggers Release of Preexisting Surface Neurotrophin. J Biol Chem. 2015 May 22; 290(21):13202-14. PMID: 25750127; PMCID: PMC4505574.
    45. Pearce OM, Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki NM, Varki A. Reply to Mackenzie: A comparison of Neu5Gc and a-gal xenoantigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 24; 112(12):E1405. PMID: 25713131; PMCID: PMC4378408.
    46. Schwarz F, Fong JJ, Varki A. Human-specific evolutionary changes in the biology of siglecs. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 842:1-16. PMID: 25408333.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Davies LR, Varki A. Why Is N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid Rare in the Vertebrate Brain? Top Curr Chem. 2015; 366:31-54. PMID: 23471785; PMCID: PMC4026345.
    48. Samraj AN, Pearce OM, Läubli H, Crittenden AN, Bergfeld AK, Banda K, Gregg CJ, Bingman AE, Secrest P, Diaz SL, Varki NM, Varki A. A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13; 112(2):542-7. PMID: 25548184; PMCID: PMC4299224.
    49. Deng L, Bensing BA, Thamadilok S, Yu H, Lau K, Chen X, Ruhl S, Sullam PM, Varki A. Oral streptococci utilize a Siglec-like domain of serine-rich repeat adhesins to preferentially target platelet sialoglycans in human blood. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Dec; 10(12):e1004540. PMID: 25474103; PMCID: PMC4256463.
    50. Deng L, Song J, Gao X, Wang J, Yu H, Chen X, Varki N, Naito-Matsui Y, Galán JE, Varki A. Host adaptation of a bacterial toxin from the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi. Cell. 2014 Dec 04; 159(6):1290-9. PMID: 25480294; PMCID: PMC4258231.
    51. Läubli H, Alisson-Silva F, Stanczak MA, Siddiqui SS, Deng L, Verhagen A, Varki N, Varki A. Lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) is a tumor-associated immunomodulatory ligand for CD33-related Siglecs. J Biol Chem. 2014 Nov 28; 289(48):33481-91. PMID: 25320078; PMCID: PMC4246102.
    52. Läubli H, Pearce OM, Schwarz F, Siddiqui SS, Deng L, Stanczak MA, Deng L, Verhagen A, Secrest P, Lusk C, Schwartz AG, Varki NM, Bui JD, Varki A. Engagement of myelomonocytic Siglecs by tumor-associated ligands modulates the innate immune response to cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 30; 111(39):14211-6. PMID: 25225409; PMCID: PMC4191788.
    53. Pearce OM, Läubli H, Bui J, Varki A. Hormesis in cancer immunology: Does the quantity of an immune reactant matter? Oncoimmunology. 2014; 3:e29312. PMID: 25083340.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Ali SR, Fong JJ, Carlin AF, Busch TD, Linden R, Angata T, Areschoug T, Parast M, Varki N, Murray J, Nizet V, Varki A. Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are polymorphic paired receptors that modulate neutrophil and amnion signaling responses to group B Streptococcus. J Exp Med. 2014 Jun 02; 211(6):1231-42. PMID: 24799499; PMCID: PMC4042635.
    55. Chang YC, Olson J, Louie A, Crocker PR, Varki A, Nizet V. Role of macrophage sialoadhesin in host defense against the sialylated pathogen group B Streptococcus. J Mol Med (Berl). 2014 Sep; 92(9):951-9. PMID: 24788876.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki N, Varki A. Corrigendum: involvement of a non-human sialic Acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:83. PMID: 24795860; PMCID: PMC4001053.
    57. Pearce OM, Läubli H, Verhagen A, Secrest P, Zhang J, Varki NM, Crocker PR, Bui JD, Varki A. Inverse hormesis of cancer growth mediated by narrow ranges of tumor-directed antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22; 111(16):5998-6003. PMID: 24711415; PMCID: PMC4000847.
    58. Muto J, Morioka Y, Yamasaki K, Kim M, Garcia A, Carlin AF, Varki A, Gallo RL. Hyaluronan digestion controls DC migration from the skin. J Clin Invest. 2014 Mar; 124(3):1309-19. PMID: 24487587; PMCID: PMC3934161.
    59. Samraj AN, Läubli H, Varki N, Varki A. Involvement of a non-human sialic Acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 2014; 4:33. PMID: 24600589; PMCID: PMC3928833.
    60. Martin PT, Golden B, Okerblom J, Camboni M, Chandrasekharan K, Xu R, Varki A, Flanigan KM, Kornegay JN. A comparative study of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate expression in normal and dystrophin-deficient dog and human skeletal muscle. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88226. PMID: 24505439; PMCID: PMC3914967.
    61. Chang YC, Olson J, Beasley FC, Tung C, Zhang J, Crocker PR, Varki A, Nizet V. Group B Streptococcus engages an inhibitory Siglec through sialic acid mimicry to blunt innate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jan; 10(1):e1003846. PMID: 24391502.
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    62. Cohen M, Varki A. Modulation of glycan recognition by clustered saccharide patches. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2014; 308:75-125. PMID: 24411170.
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    63. Ogata S, Shimizu C, Franco A, Touma R, Kanegaye JT, Choudhury BP, Naidu NN, Kanda Y, Hoang LT, Hibberd ML, Tremoulet AH, Varki A, Burns JC. Treatment response in Kawasaki disease is associated with sialylation levels of endogenous but not therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin G. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81448. PMID: 24324693; PMCID: PMC3855660.
    64. Padler-Karavani V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Chang YC, Sonnenburg JL, Ronaghy A, Yu H, Verhagen A, Nizet V, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A, Angata T. Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates. FASEB J. 2014 Mar; 28(3):1280-93. PMID: 24308974; PMCID: PMC3929681.
    65. Deng L, Chen X, Varki A. Exploration of sialic acid diversity and biology using sialoglycan microarrays. Biopolymers. 2013 Oct; 99(10):650-65. PMID: 23765393.
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    66. Scobie L, Padler-Karavani V, Le Bas-Bernardet S, Crossan C, Blaha J, Matouskova M, Hector RD, Cozzi E, Vanhove B, Charreau B, Blancho G, Bourdais L, Tallacchini M, Ribes JM, Yu H, Chen X, Kracikova J, Broz L, Hejnar J, Vesely P, Takeuchi Y, Varki A, Soulillou JP. Long-term IgG response to porcine Neu5Gc antigens without transmission of PERV in burn patients treated with porcine skin xenografts. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 15; 191(6):2907-15. PMID: 23945141; PMCID: PMC3782708.
    67. Varki A. Omics: Account for the 'dark matter' of biology. Nature. 2013 May 30; 497(7451):565. PMID: 23719451.
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    68. Buchlis G, Odorizzi P, Soto PC, Pearce OM, Hui DJ, Jordan MS, Varki A, Wherry EJ, High KA. Enhanced T cell function in a mouse model of human glycosylation. J Immunol. 2013 Jul 01; 191(1):228-37. PMID: 23709682; PMCID: PMC3691298.
    69. Suzukawa M, Miller M, Rosenthal P, Cho JY, Doherty TA, Varki A, Broide D. Sialyltransferase ST3Gal-III regulates Siglec-F ligand formation and eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice. J Immunol. 2013 Jun 15; 190(12):5939-48. PMID: 23677475; PMCID: PMC3679360.
    70. Kikkeri R, Padler-Karavani V, Diaz S, Verhagen A, Yu H, Cao H, Langereis MA, De Groot RJ, Chen X, Varki A. Quantum dot nanometal surface energy transfer based biosensing of sialic acid compositions and linkages in biological samples. Anal Chem. 2013 Apr 16; 85(8):3864-70. PMID: 23489180.
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    71. Angata T, Ishii T, Motegi T, Oka R, Taylor RE, Soto PC, Chang YC, Secundino I, Gao CX, Ohtsubo K, Kitazume S, Nizet V, Varki A, Gemma A, Kida K, Taniguchi N. Loss of Siglec-14 reduces the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013 Sep; 70(17):3199-210. PMID: 23519826.
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    72. Martin PT, Camboni M, Xu R, Golden B, Chandrasekharan K, Wang CM, Varki A, Janssen PM. N-Glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency worsens cardiac and skeletal muscle pathophysiology in a-sarcoglycan-deficient mice. Glycobiology. 2013 Jul; 23(7):833-43. PMID: 23514716; PMCID: PMC3671774.
    73. Löfling J, Lyi SM, Parrish CR, Varki A. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. Virology. 2013 May 25; 440(1):89-96. PMID: 23497940; PMCID: PMC3634669.
    74. Padler-Karavani V, Tremoulet AH, Yu H, Chen X, Burns JC, Varki A. A simple method for assessment of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies applied to Kawasaki disease. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58443. PMID: 23520510; PMCID: PMC3592828.
    75. O'Bleness M, Searles VB, Varki A, Gagneux P, Sikela JM. Evolution of genetic and genomic features unique to the human lineage. Nat Rev Genet. 2012 Dec; 13(12):853-66. PMID: 23154808; PMCID: PMC4097811.
    76. Soto PC, Karris MY, Spina CA, Richman DD, Varki A. Cell-intrinsic mechanism involving Siglec-5 associated with divergent outcomes of HIV-1 infection in human and chimpanzee CD4 T cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 2013 Feb; 91(2):261-70. PMID: 22945238; PMCID: PMC3558668.
    77. Bergfeld AK, Pearce OM, Diaz SL, Lawrence R, Vocadlo DJ, Choudhury B, Esko JD, Varki A. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: incorporation of N-glycolylhexosamines into mammalian glycans by feeding N-glycolylgalactosamine. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17; 287(34):28898-916. PMID: 22692203; PMCID: PMC3436526.
    78. Bergfeld AK, Pearce OM, Diaz SL, Pham T, Varki A. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: elucidating the intracellular fate of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17; 287(34):28865-81. PMID: 22692205; PMCID: PMC3436522.
    79. Banda K, Gregg CJ, Chow R, Varki NM, Varki A. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal incorporation of the non-human sialic acid xeno-autoantigen N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17; 287(34):28852-64. PMID: 22692204; PMCID: PMC3436511.
    80. Davies LR, Pearce OM, Tessier MB, Assar S, Smutova V, Pajunen M, Sumida M, Sato C, Kitajima K, Finne J, Gagneux P, Pshezhetsky A, Woods R, Varki A. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: resistance of a2-8-linked N-glycolylneuraminic acid to enzymatic cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17; 287(34):28917-31. PMID: 22692207; PMCID: PMC3436535.
    81. Macauley MS, Chan J, Zandberg WF, He Y, Whitworth GE, Stubbs KA, Yuzwa SA, Bennet AJ, Varki A, Davies GJ, Vocadlo DJ. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: intracellular ß-O-linked N-glycolylglucosamine (GlcNGc), UDP-GlcNGc, and the biochemical and structural rationale for the substrate tolerance of ß-O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17; 287(34):28882-97. PMID: 22692202; PMCID: PMC3436527.
    82. Wang X, Mitra N, Secundino I, Banda K, Cruz P, Padler-Karavani V, Verhagen A, Reid C, Lari M, Rizzi E, Balsamo C, Corti G, De Bellis G, Longo L. Specific inactivation of two immunomodulatory SIGLEC genes during human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 19; 109(25):9935-40. PMID: 22665810.
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    84. Varki A. Nothing in medicine makes sense, except in the light of evolution. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 May; 90(5):481-94. PMID: 22538272.
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    85. Varki A, Gagneux P. Multifarious roles of sialic acids in immunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 Apr; 1253:16-36. PMID: 22524423; PMCID: PMC3357316.
    86. Wang X, Mitra N, Cruz P, Deng L. Evolution of siglec-11 and siglec-16 genes in hominins. Mol Biol Evol. 2012 Aug; 29(8):2073-86. PMID: 22383531; PMCID: PMC3408085.
    87. Lu Q, Padler-Karavani V, Yu H, Chen X, Wu SL, Varki A, Hancock WS. LC-MS analysis of polyclonal human anti-Neu5Gc xeno-autoantibodies immunoglobulin G Subclass and partial sequence using multistep intravenous immunoglobulin affinity purification and multienzymatic digestion. Anal Chem. 2012 Mar 20; 84(6):2761-8. PMID: 22390546; PMCID: PMC4142218.
    88. Chang YC, Uchiyama S, Varki A, Nizet V. Leukocyte inflammatory responses provoked by pneumococcal sialidase. MBio. 2012; 3(1). PMID: 22215570; PMCID: PMC3251504.
    89. Ghaderi D, Zhang M, Hurtado-Ziola N, Varki A. Production platforms for biotherapeutic glycoproteins. Occurrence, impact, and challenges of non-human sialylation. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 2012; 28:147-75. PMID: 22616486.
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    90. Ghaderi D, Springer SA, Ma F, Cohen M, Secrest P, Taylor RE, Varki A, Gagneux P. Sexual selection by female immunity against paternal antigens can fix loss of function alleles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 25; 108(43):17743-8. PMID: 21987817; PMCID: PMC3203784.
    91. Rubinstein E, Cho JY, Rosenthal P, Chao J, Miller M, Pham A, Aceves SS, Varki A, Broide DH. Siglec-F inhibition reduces esophageal eosinophilia and angiogenesis in a mouse model of eosinophilic esophagitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Oct; 53(4):409-16. PMID: 21970996; PMCID: PMC3980963.
    92. Varki A. Since there are PAMPs and DAMPs, there must be SAMPs? Glycan “self-associated molecular patterns” dampen innate immunity, but pathogens can mimic them. Glycobiology. 2011 Sep; 21(9):1121-4. PMID: 21932452; PMCID: PMC3150115.
    93. Shao B, Wahrenbrock MG, Yao L, David T, Coughlin SR, Xia L, Varki A, McEver RP. Carcinoma mucins trigger reciprocal activation of platelets and neutrophils in a murine model of Trousseau syndrome. Blood. 2011 Oct 13; 118(15):4015-23. PMID: 21860019; PMCID: PMC3204725.
    94. Nordström T, Movert E, Olin AI, Ali SR, Nizet V, Varki A, Areschoug T. Human Siglec-5 inhibitory receptor and immunoglobulin A (IgA) have separate binding sites in streptococcal beta protein. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 30; 286(39):33981-91. PMID: 21795693; PMCID: PMC3190825.
    95. Varki A. Evolutionary forces shaping the Golgi glycosylation machinery: why cell surface glycans are universal to living cells. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Jun 01; 3(6). PMID: 21525513; PMCID: PMC3098673.
    96. Mitra N, Banda K, Altheide TK, Schaffer L, Johnson-Pais TL, Beuten J, Leach RJ, Angata T, Varki N, Varki A. SIGLEC12, a human-specific segregating (pseudo)gene, encodes a signaling molecule expressed in prostate carcinomas. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 01; 286(26):23003-11. PMID: 21555517; PMCID: PMC3123068.
    97. Padler-Karavani V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Pu M, Yu H, Huang S, Muthana S, Chokhawala HA, Cao H, Secrest P, Friedmann-Morvinski D, Singer O, Ghaderi D, Verma IM, Liu YT, Messer K, Chen X, Varki A, Schwab R. Human xeno-autoantibodies against a non-human sialic acid serve as novel serum biomarkers and immunotherapeutics in cancer. Cancer Res. 2011 May 01; 71(9):3352-63. PMID: 21505105.
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    98. Wang X, Chow R, Deng L, Anderson D, Weidner N, Godwin AK, Bewtra C, Zlotnik A, Bui J, Varki A, Varki N. Expression of Siglec-11 by human and chimpanzee ovarian stromal cells, with uniquely human ligands: implications for human ovarian physiology and pathology. Glycobiology. 2011 Aug; 21(8):1038-48. PMID: 21467073; PMCID: PMC3130538.
    99. Kavaler S, Morinaga H, Jih A, Fan W, Hedlund M, Varki A, Kim JJ. Pancreatic beta-cell failure in obese mice with human-like CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase deficiency. FASEB J. 2011 Jun; 25(6):1887-93. PMID: 21350118; PMCID: PMC3101031.
    100. Varki NM, Strobert E, Dick EJ, Benirschke K, Varki A. Biomedical differences between human and nonhuman hominids: potential roles for uniquely human aspects of sialic acid biology. Annu Rev Pathol. 2011; 6:365-93. PMID: 21073341.
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    101. Padler-Karavani V, Varki A. Potential impact of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid on transplant rejection risk. Xenotransplantation. 2011 Jan-Feb; 18(1):1-5. PMID: 21342282; PMCID: PMC3098739.
    102. Cho JY, Song DJ, Pham A, Rosenthal P, Miller M, Dayan S, Doherty TA, Varki A, Broide DH. Chronic OVA allergen challenged Siglec-F deficient mice have increased mucus, remodeling, and epithelial Siglec-F ligands which are up-regulated by IL-4 and IL-13. Respir Res. 2010 Nov 01; 11:154. PMID: 21040544; PMCID: PMC2988013.
    103. Varki A. Fate of 'retired' research chimps. Nature. 2010 Oct 28; 467(7319):1047. PMID: 20981079.
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    104. Cohen M, Varki A. The sialome--far more than the sum of its parts. OMICS. 2010 Aug; 14(4):455-64. PMID: 20726801.
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    105. Chandrasekharan K, Yoon JH, Xu Y, deVries S, Camboni M, Janssen PM, Varki A, Martin PT. A human-specific deletion in mouse Cmah increases disease severity in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sci Transl Med. 2010 Jul 28; 2(42):42ra54. PMID: 20668298; PMCID: PMC2950110.
    106. Ghaderi D, Taylor RE, Padler-Karavani V, Diaz S, Varki A. Implications of the presence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in recombinant therapeutic glycoproteins. Nat Biotechnol. 2010 Aug; 28(8):863-7. PMID: 20657583; PMCID: PMC3077421.
    107. Taylor RE, Gregg CJ, Padler-Karavani V, Ghaderi D, Yu H, Huang S, Sorensen RU, Chen X, Inostroza J, Nizet V, Varki A. Novel mechanism for the generation of human xeno-autoantibodies against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Exp Med. 2010 Aug 02; 207(8):1637-46. PMID: 20624889.
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    108. Varki A. Introduction of Stuart Kornfeld. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jul; 120(7):2635-8. PMID: 20592476; PMCID: PMC2898621.
    109. Surolia I, Pirnie SP, Chellappa V, Taylor KN, Cariappa A, Moya J, Liu H, Bell DW, Driscoll DR, Diederichs S, Haider K, Netravali I, Le S, Elia R, Dow E, Lee A, Freudenberg J, De Jager PL, Chretien Y, Varki A, MacDonald ME, Gillis T, Behrens TW, Bloch D, Collier D, Korzenik J, Podolsky DK, Hafler D, Murali M, Sands B, Stone JH, Gregersen PK, Pillai S. Functionally defective germline variants of sialic acid acetylesterase in autoimmunity. Nature. 2010 Jul 08; 466(7303):243-7. PMID: 20555325; PMCID: PMC2900412.
    110. Weiman S, Uchiyama S, Lin FY, Chaffin D, Varki A, Nizet V, Lewis AL. O-Acetylation of sialic acid on Group B Streptococcus inhibits neutrophil suppression and virulence. Biochem J. 2010 May 13; 428(2):163-8. PMID: 20334627.
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    111. Varki A. Colloquium paper: uniquely human evolution of sialic acid genetics and biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 11; 107 Suppl 2:8939-46. PMID: 20445087; PMCID: PMC3024026.
    112. Pearce OM, Varki A. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of the carbohydrate antigen N-glycolylneuraminic acid from glucose. Carbohydr Res. 2010 Jun 16; 345(9):1225-9. PMID: 20452577; PMCID: PMC2898718.
    113. Soto PC, Stein LL, Hurtado-Ziola N, Hedrick SM, Varki A. Relative over-reactivity of human versus chimpanzee lymphocytes: implications for the human diseases associated with immune activation. J Immunol. 2010 Apr 15; 184(8):4185-95. PMID: 20231688; PMCID: PMC3085894.
    114. Chen X, Varki A. Advances in the biology and chemistry of sialic acids. ACS Chem Biol. 2010 Feb 19; 5(2):163-76. PMID: 20020717; PMCID: PMC2825284.
    115. Pham T, Gregg CJ, Karp F, Chow R, Padler-Karavani V, Cao H, Chen X, Witztum JL, Varki NM, Varki A. Evidence for a novel human-specific xeno-auto-antibody response against vascular endothelium. Blood. 2009 Dec 10; 114(25):5225-35. PMID: 19828701; PMCID: PMC2792214.
    116. Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Freeze HH, Stanley P, Marth JD, Bertozzi CR, Hart GW, Etzler ME. Symbol nomenclature for glycan representation. Proteomics. 2009 Dec; 9(24):5398-9. PMID: 19902428; PMCID: PMC2882983.
    117. Song DJ, Cho JY, Lee SY, Miller M, Rosenthal P, Soroosh P, Croft M, Zhang M, Varki A, Broide DH. Anti-Siglec-F antibody reduces allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodeling. J Immunol. 2009 Oct 15; 183(8):5333-41. PMID: 19783675; PMCID: PMC2788790.
    118. Varki A. Ajit Varki: on the origin of maladies. Interviewed by Amy Maxmen. J Exp Med. 2009 Aug 31; 206(9):1836-7. PMID: 19720841; PMCID: PMC2737166.
    119. Varki A, Gagneux P. Human-specific evolution of sialic acid targets: explaining the malignant malaria mystery? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 01; 106(35):14739-40. PMID: 19717444; PMCID: PMC2736437.
    120. Cohen M, Hurtado-Ziola N, Varki A. ABO blood group glycans modulate sialic acid recognition on erythrocytes. Blood. 2009 Oct 22; 114(17):3668-76. PMID: 19704115; PMCID: PMC2766682.
    121. Varki A. Human uniqueness and the denial of death. Nature. 2009 Aug 06; 460(7256):684. PMID: 19661895.
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    122. Varki A, Freeze HH, Manzi AE. Overview of glycoconjugate analysis. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2009 Aug; Chapter 12:Unit 12.1 12.1.1-8. PMID: 19688734; PMCID: PMC2749716.
    123. Diaz S, Varki A. Metabolic radiolabeling of animal cell glycoconjugates. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2009 Aug; Chapter 12:Unit 12.2 12.2.1-55. PMID: 19688735.
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    124. Weiman S, Dahesh S, Carlin AF, Varki A, Nizet V, Lewis AL. Genetic and biochemical modulation of sialic acid O-acetylation on group B Streptococcus: phenotypic and functional impact. Glycobiology. 2009 Nov; 19(11):1204-13. PMID: 19643844.
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    125. Lewis AL, Desa N, Hansen EE, Knirel YA, Gordon JI, Gagneux P, Nizet V, Varki A. Innovations in host and microbial sialic acid biosynthesis revealed by phylogenomic prediction of nonulosonic acid structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 11; 106(32):13552-7. PMID: 19666579; PMCID: PMC2726416.
    126. Carlin AF, Chang YC, Areschoug T, Lindahl G, Hurtado-Ziola N, King CC, Varki A, Nizet V. Group B Streptococcus suppression of phagocyte functions by protein-mediated engagement of human Siglec-5. J Exp Med. 2009 Aug 03; 206(8):1691-9. PMID: 19596804; PMCID: PMC2722167.
    127. Diaz S, Varki A. Metabolic radiolabeling of animal cell glycoconjugates. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2009 Jul; Chapter 17:Unit17.4. PMID: 19575476.
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    128. Varki A. Natural ligands for CD33-related Siglecs? Glycobiology. 2009 Aug; 19(8):810-2. PMID: 19429924; PMCID: PMC2704899.
    129. Löfling JC, Paton AW, Varki NM, Paton JC, Varki A. A dietary non-human sialic acid may facilitate hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Kidney Int. 2009 Jul; 76(2):140-4. PMID: 19387473; PMCID: PMC2752721.
    130. Varki A, Varki NM, Borsig L. Molecular basis of metastasis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 16; 360(16):1678-9; author reply 1679-80. PMID: 19369678.
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    131. Carlin AF, Uchiyama S, Chang YC, Lewis AL, Nizet V, Varki A. Molecular mimicry of host sialylated glycans allows a bacterial pathogen to engage neutrophil Siglec-9 and dampen the innate immune response. Blood. 2009 Apr 02; 113(14):3333-6. PMID: 19196661; PMCID: PMC2665898.
    132. Banda K, Kang G, Varki A. 'Sialidase sensitivity' of rotaviruses revisited. Nat Chem Biol. 2009 Feb; 5(2):71-2. PMID: 19148170.
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    133. Varki N, Anderson D, Herndon JG, Pham T, Gregg CJ, Cheriyan M, Murphy J, Strobert E, Fritz J, Else JG, Varki A. Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes. Evol Appl. 2009 Feb; 2(1):101-12. PMID: 25567850; PMCID: PMC3352420.
    134. Diaz SL, Padler-Karavani V, Ghaderi D, Hurtado-Ziola N, Yu H, Chen X, Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Varki A, Varki NM. Sensitive and specific detection of the non-human sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human tissues and biotherapeutic products. PLoS One. 2009; 4(1):e4241. PMID: 19156207; PMCID: PMC2626223.
    135. Song DJ, Cho JY, Miller M, Strangman W, Zhang M, Varki A, Broide DH. Anti-Siglec-F antibody inhibits oral egg allergen induced intestinal eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model. Clin Immunol. 2009 Apr; 131(1):157-69. PMID: 19135419; PMCID: PMC2683248.
    136. Cariappa A, Takematsu H, Liu H, Diaz S, Haider K, Boboila C, Kalloo G, Connole M, Shi HN, Varki N, Varki A, Pillai S. B cell antigen receptor signal strength and peripheral B cell development are regulated by a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid esterase. J Exp Med. 2009 Jan 16; 206(1):125-38. PMID: 19103880; PMCID: PMC2626685.
    137. Hedlund M, Padler-Karavani V, Varki NM, Varki A. Evidence for a human-specific mechanism for diet and antibody-mediated inflammation in carcinoma progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 02; 105(48):18936-41. PMID: 19017806; PMCID: PMC2596253.
    138. Byres E, Paton AW, Paton JC, Löfling JC, Smith DF, Wilce MC, Talbot UM, Chong DC, Yu H, Huang S, Chen X, Varki NM, Varki A, Rossjohn J, Beddoe T. Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin. Nature. 2008 Dec 04; 456(7222):648-52. PMID: 18971931; PMCID: PMC2723748.
    139. Varki A, Geschwind DH, Eichler EE. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture. Nat Rev Genet. 2008 Oct; 9(10):749-63. PMID: 18802414; PMCID: PMC2756412.
    140. Winn VD, Gormley M, Paquet AC, Kjaer-Sorensen K, Kramer A, Rumer KK, Haimov-Kochman R, Yeh RF, Overgaard MT, Varki A, Oxvig C, Fisher SJ. Severe preeclampsia-related changes in gene expression at the maternal-fetal interface include sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-6 and pappalysin-2. Endocrinology. 2009 Jan; 150(1):452-62. PMID: 18818296; PMCID: PMC2630905.
    141. Varki A. Multiple changes in sialic acid biology during human evolution. Glycoconj J. 2009 Apr; 26(3):231-45. PMID: 18777136.
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    142. Chokhawala HA, Huang S, Lau K, Yu H, Cheng J, Thon V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Guerrero JA, Varki A, Chen X. Combinatorial chemoenzymatic synthesis and high-throughput screening of sialosides. ACS Chem Biol. 2008 Sep 19; 3(9):567-76. PMID: 18729452; PMCID: PMC2588434.
    143. Padler-Karavani V, Yu H, Cao H, Chokhawala H, Karp F, Varki N, Chen X, Varki A. Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: potential implications for disease. Glycobiology. 2008 Oct; 18(10):818-30. PMID: 18669916; PMCID: PMC2586336.
    144. Varki A, Baum LG, Bellis SL, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Hart GW, Linhardt RJ, Lowe JB, McEver RP, Srivastava A, Sarkar R. Working group report: the roles of glycans in hemostasis, inflammation and vascular biology. Glycobiology. 2008 Oct; 18(10):747-9. PMID: 18621991.
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    145. Varki A. Sialic acids in human health and disease. Trends Mol Med. 2008 Aug; 14(8):351-60. PMID: 18606570; PMCID: PMC2553044.
    146. Hedlund M, Ng E, Varki A, Varki NM. alpha 2-6-Linked sialic acids on N-glycans modulate carcinoma differentiation in vivo. Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 15; 68(2):388-94. PMID: 18199532.
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    147. Lanctot PM, Gage FH, Varki A. The glycans of stem cells. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2007 Aug; 11(4):373-80. PMID: 17681848; PMCID: PMC2697851.
    148. Lewis AL, Cao H, Patel SK, Diaz S, Ryan W, Carlin AF, Thon V, Lewis WG, Varki A, Chen X, Nizet V. NeuA sialic acid O-acetylesterase activity modulates O-acetylation of capsular polysaccharide in group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 21; 282(38):27562-71. PMID: 17646166; PMCID: PMC2588433.
    149. Varki NM, Varki A. Diversity in cell surface sialic acid presentations: implications for biology and disease. Lab Invest. 2007 Sep; 87(9):851-7. PMID: 17632542.
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    150. Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Varki A, Chen X. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of biotinylated human serum albumin-sialoglycoside conjugates containing O-acetylated sialic acids. Org Biomol Chem. 2007 Aug 07; 5(15):2458-63. PMID: 17637967; PMCID: PMC2769491.
    151. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Hurtado-Ziola N, Hayakawa T, Wiggleton L, Benirschke K, Varki A, Varki N. Human-specific expression of Siglec-6 in the placenta. Glycobiology. 2007 Sep; 17(9):922-31. PMID: 17580316.
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    152. Varki A. Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms. Blood. 2007 Sep 15; 110(6):1723-9. PMID: 17496204; PMCID: PMC1976377.
    153. Varki A. Glycan-based interactions involving vertebrate sialic-acid-recognizing proteins. Nature. 2007 Apr 26; 446(7139):1023-9. PMID: 17460663.
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    154. Hedlund M, Tangvoranuntakul P, Takematsu H, Long JM, Housley GD, Kozutsumi Y, Suzuki A, Wynshaw-Boris A, Ryan AF, Gallo RL, Varki N, Varki A. N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in mice: implications for human biology and evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; 27(12):4340-6. PMID: 17420276; PMCID: PMC1900035.
    155. Crocker PR, Paulson JC, Varki A. Siglecs and their roles in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 Apr; 7(4):255-66. PMID: 17380156.
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    156. Sakamoto N, Tsuji K, Muul LM, Lawler AM, Petricoin EF, Candotti F, Metcalf JA, Tavel JA, Lane HC, Urba WJ, Fox BA, Varki A, Lunney JK, Rosenberg AS. Bovine apolipoprotein B-100 is a dominant immunogen in therapeutic cell populations cultured in fetal calf serum in mice and humans. Blood. 2007 Jul 15; 110(2):501-8. PMID: 17395779; PMCID: PMC1924480.
    157. Varki A. The uncertain future of research chimpanzees. Science. 2007 Mar 16; 315(5818):1493-4. PMID: 17363643.
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    158. Zhang M, Angata T, Cho JY, Miller M, Broide DH, Varki A. Defining the in vivo function of Siglec-F, a CD33-related Siglec expressed on mouse eosinophils. Blood. 2007 May 15; 109(10):4280-7. PMID: 17272508; PMCID: PMC1885492.
    159. Stevenson JL, Varki A, Borsig L. Heparin attenuates metastasis mainly due to inhibition of P- and L-selectin, but non-anticoagulant heparins can have additional effects. Thromb Res. 2007; 120 Suppl 2:S107-11. PMID: 18023703.
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    160. Angata T, Hayakawa T, Yamanaka M, Varki A, Nakamura M. Discovery of Siglec-14, a novel sialic acid receptor undergoing concerted evolution with Siglec-5 in primates. FASEB J. 2006 Oct; 20(12):1964-73. PMID: 17012248.
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    161. Carlin AF, Lewis AL, Varki A, Nizet V. Group B streptococcal capsular sialic acids interact with siglecs (immunoglobulin-like lectins) on human leukocytes. J Bacteriol. 2007 Feb; 189(4):1231-7. PMID: 16997964; PMCID: PMC1797352.
    162. Varki A. Nothing in glycobiology makes sense, except in the light of evolution. Cell. 2006 Sep 08; 126(5):841-5. PMID: 16959563.
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    163. Altheide TK, Hayakawa T, Mikkelsen TS, Diaz S, Varki N, Varki A. System-wide genomic and biochemical comparisons of sialic acid biology among primates and rodents: Evidence for two modes of rapid evolution. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 01; 281(35):25689-702. PMID: 16769723.
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    164. Nguyen DH, Ball ED, Varki A. Myeloid precursors and acute myeloid leukemia cells express multiple CD33-related Siglecs. Exp Hematol. 2006 Jun; 34(6):728-35. PMID: 16728277.
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    165. Nguyen DH, Hurtado-Ziola N, Gagneux P, Varki A. Loss of Siglec expression on T lymphocytes during human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 16; 103(20):7765-70. PMID: 16682635; PMCID: PMC1472519.
    166. Varki A, Holmes E, Yamada T, Agre P, Brenner S. Physician-scientists are needed now more than ever. Nature. 2006 Apr 06; 440(7085):740. PMID: 16598232.
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    167. Lewis AL, Hensler ME, Varki A, Nizet V. The group B streptococcal sialic acid O-acetyltransferase is encoded by neuD, a conserved component of bacterial sialic acid biosynthetic gene clusters. J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 21; 281(16):11186-92. PMID: 16490781.
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    168. Wahrenbrock MG, Varki A. Multiple hepatic receptors cooperate to eliminate secretory mucins aberrantly entering the bloodstream: are circulating cancer mucins the "tip of the iceberg"? Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 15; 66(4):2433-41. PMID: 16489050.
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    169. Läubli H, Stevenson JL, Varki A, Varki NM, Borsig L. L-selectin facilitation of metastasis involves temporal induction of Fut7-dependent ligands at sites of tumor cell arrest. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 01; 66(3):1536-42. PMID: 16452210.
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    170. Chen HY, Challa AK, Varki A. 9-O-acetylation of exogenously added ganglioside GD3. The GD3 molecule induces its own O-acetylation machinery. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 24; 281(12):7825-33. PMID: 16434401.
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    171. Varki A, Altheide TK. Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack. Genome Res. 2005 Dec; 15(12):1746-58. PMID: 16339373.
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    172. Hayakawa T, Aki I, Varki A, Satta Y, Takahata N. Fixation of the human-specific CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase pseudogene and implications of haplotype diversity for human evolution. Genetics. 2006 Feb; 172(2):1139-46. PMID: 16272417; PMCID: PMC1456212.
    173. Stevenson JL, Choi SH, Varki A. Differential metastasis inhibition by clinically relevant levels of heparins--correlation with selectin inhibition, not antithrombotic activity. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 01; 11(19 Pt 1):7003-11. PMID: 16203794.
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    174. Hayakawa T, Angata T, Lewis AL, Mikkelsen TS, Varki NM, Varki A. A human-specific gene in microglia. Science. 2005 Sep 09; 309(5741):1693. PMID: 16151003.
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    175. McConkey EH, Varki A. Genomics. Thoughts on the future of great ape research. Science. 2005 Sep 02; 309(5740):1499-501. PMID: 16141054.
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    176. Gagneux P, Moore JJ, Varki A. The ethics of research on great apes. Nature. 2005 Sep 01; 437(7055):27-9. PMID: 16136111.
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    177. Martin MJ, Rayner JC, Gagneux P, Barnwell JW, Varki A. Evolution of human-chimpanzee differences in malaria susceptibility: relationship to human genetic loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 06; 102(36):12819-24. PMID: 16126901; PMCID: PMC1200275.
    178. Varki A, Angata T. Siglecs--the major subfamily of I-type lectins. Glycobiology. 2006 Jan; 16(1):1R-27R. PMID: 16014749.
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    179. Nguyen DH, Tangvoranuntakul P, Varki A. Effects of natural human antibodies against a nonhuman sialic acid that metabolically incorporates into activated and malignant immune cells. J Immunol. 2005 Jul 01; 175(1):228-36. PMID: 15972653.
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    180. Jessani N, Young JA, Diaz SL, Patricelli MP, Varki A, Cravatt BF. Class assignment of sequence-unrelated members of enzyme superfamilies by activity-based protein profiling. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2005 Apr 15; 44(16):2400-3. PMID: 15765498.
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    181. Lewis AL, Altheide TK, Varki A, Arden K, Varki NM. Combining parenting and a science career. Science. 2005 Mar 18; 307(5716):1720-1. PMID: 15779114.
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    182. Djerassi C, Lewis AL, Altheide TK, Varki A, Arden K, Varki NM, Peekna A. Combining Parenting and a Science Career. Science. 2005 Mar 18; 307(5716):1720b-1721b. PMID: 15778202.
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    183. Martin MJ, Muotri A, Gage F, Varki A. Human embryonic stem cells express an immunogenic nonhuman sialic acid. Nat Med. 2005 Feb; 11(2):228-32. PMID: 15685172.
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    184. Hayakawa T, Altheide TK, Varki A. Genetic basis of human brain evolution: accelerating along the primate speedway. Dev Cell. 2005 Jan; 8(1):2-4. PMID: 15621523.
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    185. Bardor M, Nguyen DH, Diaz S, Varki A. Mechanism of uptake and incorporation of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid into human cells. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11; 280(6):4228-37. PMID: 15557321.
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    186. Insel PA, Kornfeld S, Majerus PW, Marks AR, Marks PA, Relman AS, Scharschmidt BF, Stossel TP, Varki A, Weiss SJ, Wilson JD. Blasts from the past. J Clin Invest. 2004 Oct; 114(8):1017-33. PMID: 15489944; PMCID: PMC522273.
    187. Varki A. How to make an ape brain. Nat Genet. 2004 Oct; 36(10):1034-6. PMID: 15454937.
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    188. Angata T, Margulies EH, Green ED, Varki A. Large-scale sequencing of the CD33-related Siglec gene cluster in five mammalian species reveals rapid evolution by multiple mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 07; 101(36):13251-6. PMID: 15331780; PMCID: PMC516556.
    189. Lewis AL, Nizet V, Varki A. Discovery and characterization of sialic acid O-acetylation in group B Streptococcus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 27; 101(30):11123-8. PMID: 15263085; PMCID: PMC503750.
    190. Olson MV, Varki A. Genomics. The chimpanzee genome--a bittersweet celebration. Science. 2004 Jul 09; 305(5681):191-2. PMID: 15247465.
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    191. Zhang M, Varki A. Cell surface sialic acids do not affect primary CD22 interactions with CD45 and surface IgM nor the rate of constitutive CD22 endocytosis. Glycobiology. 2004 Nov; 14(11):939-49. PMID: 15240561.
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    192. Taverna D, Moher H, Crowley D, Borsig L, Varki A, Hynes RO. Increased primary tumor growth in mice null for beta3- or beta3/beta5-integrins or selectins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jan 20; 101(3):763-8. PMID: 14718670; PMCID: PMC321755.
    193. Sonnenburg JL, Altheide TK, Varki A. A uniquely human consequence of domain-specific functional adaptation in a sialic acid-binding receptor. Glycobiology. 2004 Apr; 14(4):339-46. PMID: 14693915.
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    194. Varki A. Open access: the JCI has already shown it works. Nature. 2003 Nov 27; 426(6965):383. PMID: 14647355.
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    195. Tangvoranuntakul P, Gagneux P, Diaz S, Bardor M, Varki N, Varki A, Muchmore E. Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 14; 100(21):12045-50. PMID: 14523234; PMCID: PMC218710.
    196. Gagneux P, Cheriyan M, Hurtado-Ziola N, van der Linden EC, Anderson D, McClure H, Varki A, Varki NM. Human-specific regulation of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acids. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48):48245-50. PMID: 14500706.
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    197. Wahrenbrock M, Borsig L, Le D, Varki N, Varki A. Selectin-mucin interactions as a probable molecular explanation for the association of Trousseau syndrome with mucinous adenocarcinomas. J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep; 112(6):853-62. PMID: 12975470; PMCID: PMC193671.
    198. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Angata T, Reynolds SA, Powell LD, Hedrick SM, Varki A. CD33/Siglec-3 binding specificity, expression pattern, and consequences of gene deletion in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Jun; 23(12):4199-206. PMID: 12773563; PMCID: PMC156146.
    199. Martin LT, Verhagen A, Varki A. Recombinant influenza C hemagglutinin-esterase as a probe for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. Methods Enzymol. 2003; 363:489-98. PMID: 14579598.
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    200. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Varki A. Probing for masked and unmasked siglecs on cell surfaces. Methods Enzymol. 2003; 363:113-20. PMID: 14579571.
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    201. Olson MV, Varki A. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease. Nat Rev Genet. 2003 Jan; 4(1):20-8. PMID: 12509750.
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    202. Satake H, Chen HY, Varki A. Genes modulated by expression of GD3 synthase in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Evidence that the Tis21 gene is involved in the induction of GD3 9-O-acetylation. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 07; 278(10):7942-8. PMID: 12493756.
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    203. Chen HY, Varki A. O-acetylation of GD3: an enigmatic modification regulating apoptosis? J Exp Med. 2002 Dec 16; 196(12):1529-33. PMID: 12486095; PMCID: PMC2196069.
    204. Chou HH, Hayakawa T, Diaz S, Krings M, Indriati E, Leakey M, Paabo S, Satta Y, Takahata N, Varki A. Inactivation of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase occurred prior to brain expansion during human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Sep 03; 99(18):11736-41. PMID: 12192086; PMCID: PMC129338.
    205. Matsui NM, Varki A, Embury SH. Heparin inhibits the flow adhesion of sickle red blood cells to P-selectin. Blood. 2002 Nov 15; 100(10):3790-6. PMID: 12393591.
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    206. Ellies LG, Ditto D, Levy GG, Wahrenbrock M, Ginsburg D, Varki A, Le DT, Marth JD. Sialyltransferase ST3Gal-IV operates as a dominant modifier of hemostasis by concealing asialoglycoprotein receptor ligands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):10042-7. PMID: 12097641; PMCID: PMC126621.
    207. Wang L, Brown JR, Varki A, Esko JD. Heparin's anti-inflammatory effects require glucosamine 6-O-sulfation and are mediated by blockade of L- and P-selectins. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul; 110(1):127-36. PMID: 12093896; PMCID: PMC151027.
    208. Onami TM, Lin MY, Page DM, Reynolds SA, Katayama CD, Marth JD, Irimura T, Varki A, Varki N, Hedrick SM. Generation of mice deficient for macrophage galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin: limited role in lymphoid and erythroid homeostasis and evidence for multiple lectins. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jul; 22(14):5173-81. PMID: 12077344; PMCID: PMC139776.
    209. Martin LT, Marth JD, Varki A, Varki NM. Genetically altered mice with different sialyltransferase deficiencies show tissue-specific alterations in sialylation and sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 06; 277(36):32930-8. PMID: 12068010.
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    210. Varki A, Rosenberg LE. Emerging opportunities and career paths for the young physician-scientist. Nat Med. 2002 May; 8(5):437-9. PMID: 11984577.
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    211. Angata T, Kerr SC, Greaves DR, Varki NM, Crocker PR, Varki A. Cloning and characterization of human Siglec-11. A recently evolved signaling molecule that can interact with SHP-1 and SHP-2 and is expressed by tissue macrophages, including brain microglia. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 05; 277(27):24466-74. PMID: 11986327.
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    212. Enard W, Khaitovich P, Klose J, Zöllner S, Heissig F, Giavalisco P, Nieselt-Struwe K, Muchmore E, Varki A, Ravid R, Doxiadis GM, Bontrop RE, Pääbo S. Intra- and interspecific variation in primate gene expression patterns. Science. 2002 Apr 12; 296(5566):340-3. PMID: 11951044.
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    213. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Sonnenburg JL, Varki A. Effects of sialic acid substitutions on recognition by Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis hemagglutinin. Anal Biochem. 2002 Apr 01; 303(1):98-104. PMID: 11906157.
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    214. Sonnenburg JL, van Halbeek H, Varki A. Characterization of the acid stability of glycosidically linked neuraminic acid: use in detecting de-N-acetyl-gangliosides in human melanoma. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 17; 277(20):17502-10. PMID: 11884388.
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    215. Borsig L, Wong R, Hynes RO, Varki NM, Varki A. Synergistic effects of L- and P-selectin in facilitating tumor metastasis can involve non-mucin ligands and implicate leukocytes as enhancers of metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19; 99(4):2193-8. PMID: 11854515; PMCID: PMC122341.
    216. Angata T, Varki A. Chemical diversity in the sialic acids and related alpha-keto acids: an evolutionary perspective. Chem Rev. 2002 Feb; 102(2):439-69. PMID: 11841250.
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    217. Varki NM, Varki A. Heparin inhibition of selectin-mediated interactions during the hematogenous phase of carcinoma metastasis: rationale for clinical studies in humans. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2002 Feb; 28(1):53-66. PMID: 11885026.
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    218. Varki A. Six blind men and the elephant--the many faces of heparan sulfate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jan 22; 99(2):543-5. PMID: 11805308; PMCID: PMC117338.
    219. Angata T, Hingorani R, Varki NM, Varki A. Cloning and characterization of a novel mouse Siglec, mSiglec-F: differential evolution of the mouse and human (CD33) Siglec-3-related gene clusters. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 30; 276(48):45128-36. PMID: 11579105.
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    220. Hayakawa T, Satta Y, Gagneux P, Varki A, Takahata N. Alu-mediated inactivation of the human CMP- N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25; 98(20):11399-404. PMID: 11562455; PMCID: PMC58741.
    221. Matsui NM, Borsig L, Rosen SD, Yaghmai M, Varki A, Embury SH. P-selectin mediates the adhesion of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelium. Blood. 2001 Sep 15; 98(6):1955-62. PMID: 11535535.
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    222. Angata T, Varki NM, Varki A. A second uniquely human mutation affecting sialic acid biology. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26; 276(43):40282-7. PMID: 11546777.
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    223. Bai X, Brown JR, Varki A, Esko JD. Enhanced 3-O-sulfation of galactose in Asn-linked glycans and Maackia amurensis lectin binding in a new Chinese hamster ovary cell line. Glycobiology. 2001 Aug; 11(8):621-32. PMID: 11479273.
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    224. Borsig L, Wong R, Feramisco J, Nadeau DR, Varki NM, Varki A. Pictures in molecular medicine: three-dimensional visualization of intravascular tumor cells in mice. Trends Mol Med. 2001 Aug; 7(8):377. PMID: 11517000.
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    225. Varki A. N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in humans. Biochimie. 2001 Jul; 83(7):615-22. PMID: 11522390.
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    226. Crocker PR, Varki A. Siglecs, sialic acids and innate immunity. Trends Immunol. 2001 Jun; 22(6):337-42. PMID: 11377294.
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    227. Varki A, Varki NM. P-selectin, carcinoma metastasis and heparin: novel mechanistic connections with therapeutic implications. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001 Jun; 34(6):711-7. PMID: 11378658.
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    228. Crocker PR, Varki A. Siglecs in the immune system. Immunology. 2001 Jun; 103(2):137-45. PMID: 11412300; PMCID: PMC1783234.
    229. Gagneux P, Amess B, Diaz S, Moore S, Patel T, Dillmann W, Parekh R, Varki A. Proteomic comparison of human and great ape blood plasma reveals conserved glycosylation and differences in thyroid hormone metabolism. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2001 Jun; 115(2):99-109. PMID: 11385598.
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    230. Hayes BK, Varki A. Fractionation and analysis of neutral oligosaccharides by HPLC. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001 May; Chapter 17:Unit17.21B. PMID: 18265156.
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    231. Manzi AE, Powell LD, Varki A. Analysis of monosaccharides. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001 May; Chapter 17:Unit17.18. PMID: 18265150.
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    232. Varki A. Analysis of oligosaccharide negative charge by anion-exchange chromatography. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001 May; Chapter 17:Unit17.20. PMID: 18265154.
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    233. Diaz S, Varki A. Metabolic radiolabeling of animal cell glycoconjugates. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001 May; Chapter 17:Unit17.4. PMID: 18265161; PMCID: PMC4498410.
    234. Varki A, Freeze HH, Manzi AE. Overview of glycoconjugate analysis. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2001 May; Chapter 12:Unit 12.1. PMID: 18429108.
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    235. Diaz S, Varki A. Metabolic radiolabeling of animal cell glycoconjugates. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2001 May; Chapter 12:Unit 12.2. PMID: 18429109.
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    236. Diaz S, Varki A. Metabolic radiolabeling of animal cell glycoconjugates. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2001 May; Chapter 8:Unit 8.13. PMID: 18432853.
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    237. Powell LD, Varki A, Freeze HH. Release of saccharides from glycoconjugates. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2001 May; Chapter 8:Unit 8.15. PMID: 18432855.
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    238. Powell LD, Varki A. Sialidases. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001 May; Chapter 17:Unit17.12. PMID: 18265140.
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    239. Srikrishna G, Panneerselvam K, Westphal V, Abraham V, Varki A, Freeze HH. Two proteins modulating transendothelial migration of leukocytes recognize novel carboxylated glycans on endothelial cells. J Immunol. 2001 Apr 01; 166(7):4678-88. PMID: 11254728.
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    240. Borsig L, Wong R, Feramisco J, Nadeau DR, Varki NM, Varki A. Heparin and cancer revisited: mechanistic connections involving platelets, P-selectin, carcinoma mucins, and tumor metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Mar 13; 98(6):3352-7. PMID: 11248082; PMCID: PMC30657.
    241. Varki A. Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in humans: Mechanisms, consequences, and implications for hominid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2001; Suppl 33:54-69. PMID: 11786991.
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    242. Srikrishna G, Toomre DK, Manzi A, Panneerselvam K, Freeze HH, Varki A, Varki NM. A novel anionic modification of N-glycans on mammalian endothelial cells is recognized by activated neutrophils and modulates acute inflammatory responses. J Immunol. 2001 Jan 01; 166(1):624-32. PMID: 11123346.
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    243. Gagneux P, Varki A. Genetic differences between humans and great apes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001 Jan; 18(1):2-13. PMID: 11161737.
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    244. McConkey EH, Varki A. A primate genome project deserves high priority. Science. 2000 Aug 25; 289(5483):1295-6. PMID: 10979852.
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    245. Varki A. A chimpanzee genome project is a biomedical imperative. Genome Res. 2000 Aug; 10(8):1065-70. PMID: 10958623.
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    246. Angata T, Varki A. Cloning, characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of siglec-9, a new member of the CD33-related group of siglecs. Evidence for co-evolution with sialic acid synthesis pathways. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jul 21; 275(29):22127-35. PMID: 10801860.
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    247. Norgard-Sumnicht K, Bai X, Esko JD, Varki A, Manzi AE. Exploring the outcome of genetic modifications of glycosylation in cultured cell lines by concurrent isolation of the major classes of vertebrate glycans. Glycobiology. 2000 Jul; 10(7):691-700. PMID: 10910973.
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    248. Manzi AE, Norgard-Sumnicht K, Argade S, Marth JD, van Halbeek H, Varki A. Exploring the glycan repertoire of genetically modified mice by isolation and profiling of the major glycan classes and nano-NMR analysis of glycan mixtures. Glycobiology. 2000 Jul; 10(7):669-89. PMID: 10910972.
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    249. McConkey EH, Fouts R, Goodman M, Nelson D, Penny D, Ruvolo M, Sikela J, Stewart CB, Varki A, Wise S. Proposal for a human genome evolution project. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2000 Apr; 15(1):1-4. PMID: 10764529.
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    250. Angata T, Varki A. Siglec-7: a sialic acid-binding lectin of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Glycobiology. 2000 Apr; 10(4):431-8. PMID: 10764831.
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    251. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Varki A. New aspects of siglec binding specificities, including the significance of fucosylation and of the sialyl-Tn epitope. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin superfamily lectins. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 24; 275(12):8625-32. PMID: 10722702.
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    252. Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Sjoberg ER, Juneja LR, Crocker PR, Varki N, Varki A. Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human evolution. Implications for sialic acid recognition by siglecs. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 24; 275(12):8633-40. PMID: 10722703.
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    253. Todeschini AR, Mendonça-Previato L, Previato JO, Varki A, van Halbeek H. Trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi catalyzes sialoside hydrolysis with retention of configuration. Glycobiology. 2000 Feb; 10(2):213-21. PMID: 10642613.
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    254. The 1999 ASCI Presidential Address: Executive Summary of the Nerflex Commission Report J Clin Invest. 1999 12 15; 104 Suppl(12):S1-10. PMID: 10515742.
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    255. Razi N, Varki A. Cryptic sialic acid binding lectins on human blood leukocytes can be unmasked by sialidase treatment or cellular activation. Glycobiology. 1999 Nov; 9(11):1225-34. PMID: 10536038.
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    256. Takematsu H, Diaz S, Stoddart A, Zhang Y, Varki A. Lysosomal and cytosolic sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterase activities can Be encoded by one gene via differential usage of a signal peptide-encoding exon at the N terminus. J Biol Chem. 1999 Sep 03; 274(36):25623-31. PMID: 10464298.
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    257. Patel N, Brinkman-Van der Linden EC, Altmann SW, Gish K, Balasubramanian S, Timans JC, Peterson D, Bell MP, Bazan JF, Varki A, Kastelein RA. OB-BP1/Siglec-6. a leptin- and sialic acid-binding protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 06; 274(32):22729-38. PMID: 10428856.
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    258. Gagneux P, Varki A. Evolutionary considerations in relating oligosaccharide diversity to biological function. Glycobiology. 1999 Aug; 9(8):747-55. PMID: 10406840.
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    259. Kim YJ, Borsig L, Han HL, Varki NM, Varki A. Distinct selectin ligands on colon carcinoma mucins can mediate pathological interactions among platelets, leukocytes, and endothelium. Am J Pathol. 1999 Aug; 155(2):461-72. PMID: 10433939; PMCID: PMC1866847.
    260. Chammas R, Sonnenburg JL, Watson NE, Tai T, Farquhar MG, Varki NM, Varki A. De-N-acetyl-gangliosides in humans: unusual subcellular distribution of a novel tumor antigen. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 15; 59(6):1337-46. PMID: 10096568.
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    261. Varki A. Disappearing physician-scientists. Science. 1999 Feb 05; 283(5403):791-2. PMID: 10049120.
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    262. Varki A, Wills C, Perlmutter D, Woodruff D, Gage F, Moore J, Semendeferi K, Bernirschke K, Katzman R, Doolittle R, Bullock T. Great Ape Phenome Project? Science. 1998 Oct 09; 282(5387):239-40. PMID: 9841385.
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    263. Muchmore EA, Diaz S, Varki A. A structural difference between the cell surfaces of humans and the great apes. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1998 Oct; 107(2):187-98. PMID: 9786333.
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    264. Chou HH, Takematsu H, Diaz S, Iber J, Nickerson E, Wright KL, Muchmore EA, Nelson DL, Warren ST, Varki A. A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 29; 95(20):11751-6. PMID: 9751737; PMCID: PMC21712.
    265. Kim YJ, Borsig L, Varki NM, Varki A. P-selectin deficiency attenuates tumor growth and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Aug 04; 95(16):9325-30. PMID: 9689079; PMCID: PMC21337.
    266. Jain RK, Piskorz CF, Huang BG, Locke RD, Han HL, Koenig A, Varki A, Matta KL. Inhibition of L- and P-selectin by a rationally synthesized novel core 2-like branched structure containing GalNAc-Lewisx and Neu5Acalpha2-3Galbeta1-3GalNAc sequences. Glycobiology. 1998 Jul; 8(7):707-17. PMID: 9621111.
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    267. Razi N, Varki A. Masking and unmasking of the sialic acid-binding lectin activity of CD22 (Siglec-2) on B lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 23; 95(13):7469-74. PMID: 9636173; PMCID: PMC22653.
    268. Koenig A, Norgard-Sumnicht K, Linhardt R, Varki A. Differential interactions of heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans with the selectins. Implications for the use of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins as therapeutic agents. J Clin Invest. 1998 Feb 15; 101(4):877-89. PMID: 9466983; PMCID: PMC508636.
    269. Shi WX, Chammas R, Varki A. Induction of sialic acid 9-O-acetylation by diverse gene products: implications for the expression cloning of sialic acid O-acetyltransferases. Glycobiology. 1998 Feb; 8(2):199-205. PMID: 9451030.
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    270. Crocker PR, Clark EA, Filbin M, Gordon S, Jones Y, Kehrl JH, Kelm S, Le Douarin N, Powell L, Roder J, Schnaar RL, Sgroi DC, Stamenkovic K, Schauer R, Schachner M, van den Berg TK, van der Merwe PA, Watt SM, Varki A. Siglecs: a family of sialic-acid binding lectins. Glycobiology. 1998 Feb; 8(2):v. PMID: 9498912.
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    271. Varki A. Factors controlling the glycosylation potential of the Golgi apparatus. Trends Cell Biol. 1998 Jan; 8(1):34-40. PMID: 9695806.
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    272. Varki A. Selectin ligands: will the real ones please stand up? J Clin Invest. 1997 Dec 01; 100(11 Suppl):S31-5. PMID: 9413398.
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    273. Srikrishna G, Varki NM, Newell PC, Varki A, Freeze HH. An IgG monoclonal antibody against Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins specifically recognizes Fucalpha1,6GlcNAcbeta in the core of N-linked glycans. Localized expression of core-fucosylated glycoconjugates in human tissues. J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 10; 272(41):25743-52. PMID: 9325301.
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    274. Kim YJ, Varki A. Perspectives on the significance of altered glycosylation of glycoproteins in cancer. Glycoconj J. 1997 Aug; 14(5):569-76. PMID: 9298689.
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    275. Krishna M, Varki A. 9-O-Acetylation of sialomucins: a novel marker of murine CD4 T cells that is regulated during maturation and activation. J Exp Med. 1997 Jun 02; 185(11):1997-2013. PMID: 9166429; PMCID: PMC2196344.
    276. Varki A. Sialic acids as ligands in recognition phenomena. FASEB J. 1997 Mar; 11(4):248-55. PMID: 9068613.
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    277. Varki A, Kagnoff MF, Insel PA. Passing the baton at high speed: time to hand over to a new editorial board. J Clin Invest. 1997 Feb 15; 99(4):553-4. PMID: 9045851; PMCID: PMC507831.
    278. Koenig A, Jain R, Vig R, Norgard-Sumnicht KE, Matta KL, Varki A. Selectin inhibition: synthesis and evaluation of novel sialylated, sulfated and fucosylated oligosaccharides, including the major capping group of GlyCAM-1. Glycobiology. 1997 Feb; 7(1):79-93. PMID: 9061367.
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    279. Varki A. Selectin ligands: will the real ones please stand up? J Clin Invest. 1997 Jan 15; 99(2):158-62. PMID: 9005982; PMCID: PMC507781.
    280. Hicke BJ, Watson SR, Koenig A, Lynott CK, Bargatze RF, Chang YF, Ringquist S, Moon-McDermott L, Jennings S, Fitzwater T, Han HL, Varki N, Albinana I, Willis MC, Varki A, Parma D. DNA aptamers block L-selectin function in vivo. Inhibition of human lymphocyte trafficking in SCID mice. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2688-92. PMID: 8981912; PMCID: PMC507731.
    281. Shi WX, Chammas R, Varki NM, Powell L, Varki A. Sialic acid 9-O-acetylation on murine erythroleukemia cells affects complement activation, binding to I-type lectins, and tissue homing. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 06; 271(49):31526-32. PMID: 8940168.
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    282. Shi WX, Chammas R, Varki A. Regulation of sialic acid 9-O-acetylation during the growth and differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 06; 271(49):31517-25. PMID: 8940167.
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    283. Chammas R, McCaffery JM, Klein A, Ito Y, Saucan L, Palade G, Farquhar MG, Varki A. Uptake and incorporation of an epitope-tagged sialic acid donor into intact rat liver Golgi compartments. Functional localization of sialyltransferase overlaps with beta-galactosyltransferase but not with sialic acid O-acetyltransferase. Mol Biol Cell. 1996 Nov; 7(11):1691-707. PMID: 8930893; PMCID: PMC276019.
    284. Varki A. "Unusual" modifications and variations of vertebrate oligosaccharides: are we missing the flowers for the trees? Glycobiology. 1996 Oct; 6(7):707-10. PMID: 8953282.
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    285. Shi WX, Chammas R, Varki A. Linkage-specific action of endogenous sialic acid O-acetyltransferase in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jun 21; 271(25):15130-8. PMID: 8662976.
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    286. O'Connell D, Koenig A, Jennings S, Hicke B, Han HL, Fitzwater T, Chang YF, Varki N, Parma D, Varki A. Calcium-dependent oligonucleotide antagonists specific for L-selectin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 11; 93(12):5883-7. PMID: 8650187; PMCID: PMC39156.
    287. Guimarães MJ, Bazan JF, Castagnola J, Diaz S, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Varki A, Zlotnik A. Molecular cloning and characterization of lysosomal sialic acid O-acetylesterase. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jun 07; 271(23):13697-705. PMID: 8662838.
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    288. Varki A. Does DG42 synthesize hyaluronan or chitin?: A controversy about oligosaccharides in vertebrate development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 May 14; 93(10):4523-5. PMID: 8643436; PMCID: PMC39309.
    289. Crottet P, Kim YJ, Varki A. Subsets of sialylated, sulfated mucins of diverse origins are recognized by L-selectin. Lack of evidence for unique oligosaccharide sequences mediating binding. Glycobiology. 1996 Mar; 6(2):191-208. PMID: 8727791.
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    290. Norgard-Sumnicht KE, Roux L, Toomre DK, Manzi A, Freeze HH, Varki A. Unusual anionic N-linked oligosaccharides from bovine lung. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 17; 270(46):27634-45. PMID: 7499228.
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    291. Hayes BK, Esquivel F, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW, Varki A. Structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides of MHC class I molecules from cells deficient in the antigenic peptide transporter. Implications for the site of peptide association. J Immunol. 1995 Oct 15; 155(8):3780-7. PMID: 7561082.
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    292. Mannori G, Crottet P, Cecconi O, Hanasaki K, Aruffo A, Nelson RM, Varki A, Bevilacqua MP. Differential colon cancer cell adhesion to E-, P-, and L-selectin: role of mucin-type glycoproteins. Cancer Res. 1995 Oct 01; 55(19):4425-31. PMID: 7545541.
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    293. Powell LD, Varki A. I-type lectins. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 16; 270(24):14243-6. PMID: 7782275.
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    294. Butor C, Griffiths G, Aronson NN, Varki A. Co-localization of hydrolytic enzymes with widely disparate pH optima: implications for the regulation of lysosomal pH. J Cell Sci. 1995 Jun; 108 ( Pt 6):2213-9. PMID: 7673341.
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    295. Norgard-Sumnicht K, Varki A. Endothelial heparan sulfate proteoglycans that bind to L-selectin have glucosamine residues with unsubstituted amino groups. J Biol Chem. 1995 May 19; 270(20):12012-24. PMID: 7538130.
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    296. Hanasaki K, Varki A, Powell LD. CD22-mediated cell adhesion to cytokine-activated human endothelial cells. Positive and negative regulation by alpha 2-6-sialylation of cellular glycoproteins. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 31; 270(13):7533-42. PMID: 7706300.
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    297. Powell LD, Jain RK, Matta KL, Sabesan S, Varki A. Characterization of sialyloligosaccharide binding by recombinant soluble and native cell-associated CD22. Evidence for a minimal structural recognition motif and the potential importance of multisite binding. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 31; 270(13):7523-32. PMID: 7706299.
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    298. Hanasaki K, Powell LD, Varki A. Binding of human plasma sialoglycoproteins by the B cell-specific lectin CD22. Selective recognition of immunoglobulin M and haptoglobin. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 31; 270(13):7543-50. PMID: 7706301.
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    299. Sjoberg ER, Chammas R, Ozawa H, Kawashima I, Khoo KH, Morris HR, Dell A, Tai T, Varki A. Expression of de-N-acetyl-gangliosides in human melanoma cells is induced by genistein or nocodazole. J Biol Chem. 1995 Feb 17; 270(7):2921-30. PMID: 7852370.
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    300. Powell LD, Paneerselvam K, Vij R, Diaz S, Manzi A, Buist N, Freeze H, Varki A. Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome: not an N-linked oligosaccharide processing defect, but an abnormality in lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis? J Clin Invest. 1994 Nov; 94(5):1901-9. PMID: 7962535; PMCID: PMC294598.
    301. Manzi AE, Higa HH, Diaz S, Varki A. Intramolecular self-cleavage of polysialic acid. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 23; 269(38):23617-24. PMID: 8089131.
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    302. Klein A, Krishna M, Varki NM, Varki A. 9-O-acetylated sialic acids have widespread but selective expression: analysis using a chimeric dual-function probe derived from influenza C hemagglutinin-esterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Aug 02; 91(16):7782-6. PMID: 8052660; PMCID: PMC44486.
    303. Varki A. Selectin ligands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Aug 02; 91(16):7390-7. PMID: 7519775; PMCID: PMC44407.
    304. Sjoberg ER, Powell LD, Klein A, Varki A. Natural ligands of the B cell adhesion molecule CD22 beta can be masked by 9-O-acetylation of sialic acids. J Cell Biol. 1994 Jul; 126(2):549-62. PMID: 8034751; PMCID: PMC2200033.
    305. Powell LD, Varki A. The oligosaccharide binding specificities of CD22 beta, a sialic acid-specific lectin of B cells. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 08; 269(14):10628-36. PMID: 8144652.
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    306. Hanasaki K, Varki A, Stamenkovic I, Bevilacqua MP. Cytokine-induced beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase in human endothelial cells mediates alpha 2,6-sialylation of adhesion molecules and CD22 ligands. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 08; 269(14):10637-43. PMID: 8144653.
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    307. Varki A, Freeze HH. The major glycosylation pathways of mammalian membranes. A summary. Subcell Biochem. 1994; 22:71-100. PMID: 8146888.
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    308. Varki A. Metabolic radiolabeling of glycoconjugates. Methods Enzymol. 1994; 230:16-32. PMID: 8139494.
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    309. Rothenberg BE, Hayes BK, Toomre D, Manzi AE, Varki A. Biotinylated diaminopyridine: an approach to tagging oligosaccharides and exploring their biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15; 90(24):11939-43. PMID: 8265652; PMCID: PMC48100.
    310. Hayes BK, Varki A. The biosynthesis of oligosaccharides in intact Golgi preparations from rat liver. Analysis of N-linked and O-linked glycans labeled by UDP-[6-3H]N-acetylgalactosamine. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 05; 268(22):16170-8. PMID: 8344901.
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    311. Hayes BK, Freeze HH, Varki A. Biosynthesis of oligosaccharides in intact Golgi preparations from rat liver. Analysis of N-linked glycans labeled by UDP-[6-3H]N-acetylglucosamine. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 05; 268(22):16139-54. PMID: 8344899.
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    312. Hayes BK, Varki A. Biosynthesis of oligosaccharides in intact Golgi preparations from rat liver. Analysis of N-linked glycans labeled by UDP-[6-3H]galactose, CMP-[9-3H]N-acetylneuraminic acid, and [acetyl-3H]acetyl-coenzyme A. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 05; 268(22):16155-69. PMID: 8344900.
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    313. Norgard-Sumnicht KE, Varki NM, Varki A. Calcium-dependent heparin-like ligands for L-selectin in nonlymphoid endothelial cells. Science. 1993 Jul 23; 261(5120):480-3. PMID: 7687382.
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    314. Norgard KE, Moore KL, Diaz S, Stults NL, Ushiyama S, McEver RP, Cummings RD, Varki A. Characterization of a specific ligand for P-selectin on myeloid cells. A minor glycoprotein with sialylated O-linked oligosaccharides. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jun 15; 268(17):12764-74. PMID: 7685350.
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    315. Sjoberg ER, Varki A. Kinetic and spatial interrelationships between ganglioside glycosyltransferases and O-acetyltransferase(s) in human melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 15; 268(14):10185-96. PMID: 8486686.
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    316. Butor C, Higa HH, Varki A. Structural, immunological, and biosynthetic studies of a sialic acid-specific O-acetylesterase from rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 15; 268(14):10207-13. PMID: 8486688.
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    317. Butor C, Diaz S, Varki A. High level O-acetylation of sialic acids on N-linked oligosaccharides of rat liver membranes. Differential subcellular distribution of 7- and 9-O-acetyl groups and of enzymes involved in their regulation. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 15; 268(14):10197-206. PMID: 8486687.
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    318. Sgroi D, Varki A, Braesch-Andersen S, Stamenkovic I. CD22, a B cell-specific immunoglobulin superfamily member, is a sialic acid-binding lectin. J Biol Chem. 1993 Apr 05; 268(10):7011-8. PMID: 8463234.
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    319. Powell LD, Sgroi D, Sjoberg ER, Stamenkovic I, Varki A. Natural ligands of the B cell adhesion molecule CD22 beta carry N-linked oligosaccharides with alpha-2,6-linked sialic acids that are required for recognition. J Biol Chem. 1993 Apr 05; 268(10):7019-27. PMID: 8463235.
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    320. Varki A. Biological roles of oligosaccharides: all of the theories are correct. Glycobiology. 1993 Apr; 3(2):97-130. PMID: 8490246.
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    321. Norgard KE, Han H, Powell L, Kriegler M, Varki A, Varki NM. Enhanced interaction of L-selectin with the high endothelial venule ligand via selectively oxidized sialic acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 01; 90(3):1068-72. PMID: 7679216; PMCID: PMC45812.
    322. Freeze HH, Sampath D, Varki A. Alpha- and beta-xylosides alter glycolipid synthesis in human melanoma and Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jan 25; 268(3):1618-27. PMID: 8420936.
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    323. Sjoberg ER, Manzi AE, Khoo KH, Dell A, Varki A. Structural and immunological characterization of O-acetylated GD2. Evidence that GD2 is an acceptor for ganglioside O-acetyltransferase in human melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1992 Aug 15; 267(23):16200-11. PMID: 1644805.
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    324. Moore KL, Stults NL, Diaz S, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Varki A, McEver RP. Identification of a specific glycoprotein ligand for P-selectin (CD62) on myeloid cells. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jul; 118(2):445-56. PMID: 1378449; PMCID: PMC2290037.
    325. Varki A. Of pride, prejudice, and discrimination. Why generalizations can be unfair to the individual. Ann Intern Med. 1992 May 01; 116(9):762-4. PMID: 1558349.
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    326. Varki A. Selectins and other mammalian sialic acid-binding lectins. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1992 Apr; 4(2):257-66. PMID: 1376130.
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    327. Sampath D, Varki A, Freeze HH. The spectrum of incomplete N-linked oligosaccharides synthesized by endothelial cells in the presence of brefeldin A. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 05; 267(7):4440-55. PMID: 1537830.
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    328. Hayes BK, Varki A. The synthesis of high-specific-activity UDP-[6-3H]galactose, UDP-N-[6-3H]acetylgalactosamine, and their corresponding monosaccharides. Anal Biochem. 1992 Feb 14; 201(1):140-5. PMID: 1621952.
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    329. Varki A. Diversity in the sialic acids. Glycobiology. 1992 Feb; 2(1):25-40. PMID: 1550987.
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    330. Zhou Q, Moore KL, Smith DF, Varki A, McEver RP, Cummings RD. The selectin GMP-140 binds to sialylated, fucosylated lactosaminoglycans on both myeloid and nonmyeloid cells. J Cell Biol. 1991 Oct; 115(2):557-64. PMID: 1717488; PMCID: PMC2289144.
    331. Varki A, Hooshmand F, Diaz S, Varki NM, Hedrick SM. Developmental abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing a sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterase. Cell. 1991 Apr 05; 65(1):65-74. PMID: 1826463.
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    332. Moore KL, Varki A, McEver RP. GMP-140 binds to a glycoprotein receptor on human neutrophils: evidence for a lectin-like interaction. J Cell Biol. 1991 Feb; 112(3):491-9. PMID: 1704009; PMCID: PMC2288839.
    333. Varki A. Radioactive tracer techniques in the sequencing of glycoprotein oligosaccharides. FASEB J. 1991 Feb; 5(2):226-35. PMID: 2004668.
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    334. Manzi AE, Sjoberg ER, Diaz S, Varki A. Biosynthesis and turnover of O-acetyl and N-acetyl groups in the gangliosides of human melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1990 Aug 05; 265(22):13091-103. PMID: 2198284.
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    335. Manzi AE, Diaz S, Varki A. High-pressure liquid chromatography of sialic acids on a pellicular resin anion-exchange column with pulsed amperometric detection: a comparison with six other systems. Anal Biochem. 1990 Jul; 188(1):20-32. PMID: 2221361.
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    336. Manzi AE, Dell A, Azadi P, Varki A. Studies of naturally occurring modifications of sialic acids by fast-atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. Analysis of positional isomers by periodate cleavage. J Biol Chem. 1990 May 15; 265(14):8094-107. PMID: 2159468.
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    337. Muchmore EA, Milewski M, Varki A, Diaz S. Biosynthesis of N-glycolyneuraminic acid. The primary site of hydroxylation of N-acetylneuraminic acid is the cytosolic sugar nucleotide pool. J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 05; 264(34):20216-23. PMID: 2684973.
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    338. Higa HH, Manzi A, Varki A. O-acetylation and de-O-acetylation of sialic acids. Purification, characterization, and properties of a glycosylated rat liver esterase specific for 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15; 264(32):19435-42. PMID: 2808434.
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    339. Higa HH, Butor C, Diaz S, Varki A. O-acetylation and de-O-acetylation of sialic acids. O-acetylation of sialic acids in the rat liver Golgi apparatus involves an acetyl intermediate and essential histidine and lysine residues--a transmembrane reaction? J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15; 264(32):19427-34. PMID: 2509477.
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    340. Hayes BK, Varki A. O-acetylation and de-O-acetylation of sialic acids. Sialic acid esterases of diverse evolutionary origins have serine active sites and essential arginine residues. J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15; 264(32):19443-8. PMID: 2509478.
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    341. Diaz S, Higa HH, Hayes BK, Varki A. O-acetylation and de-O-acetylation of sialic acids. 7- and 9-o-acetylation of alpha 2,6-linked sialic acids on endogenous N-linked glycans in rat liver Golgi vesicles. J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15; 264(32):19416-26. PMID: 2808433.
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    342. Diaz S, Higa HH, Varki A. Glycoprotein sialate 7(9)-O-acetyltransferase from rat liver Golgi vesicles. Methods Enzymol. 1989; 179:416-22. PMID: 2695769.
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    343. Higa HH, Manzi A, Diaz S, Varki A. Sialate 9-O-acetylesterase from rat liver. Methods Enzymol. 1989; 179:409-15. PMID: 2695768.
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    344. Roux L, Holojda S, Sundblad G, Freeze HH, Varki A. Sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. I. Complex-type chains with sialic acids and O-sulfate esters. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 25; 263(18):8879-89. PMID: 3379050.
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    345. Sundblad G, Holojda S, Roux L, Varki A, Freeze HH. Sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. II. Identification of glycosaminoglycan-like chains attached to complex-type glycans. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 25; 263(18):8890-6. PMID: 3379051.
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    346. Higa HH, Varki A. Acetyl-coenzyme A:polysialic acid O-acetyltransferase from K1-positive Escherichia coli. The enzyme responsible for the O-acetyl plus phenotype and for O-acetyl form variation. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 25; 263(18):8872-8. PMID: 2897964.
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    347. Sundblad G, Kajiji S, Quaranta V, Freeze HH, Varki A. Sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. III. Characterization of a pancreatic carcinoma cell surface glycoprotein with N- and O-sulfate esters on asparagine-linked glycans. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 25; 263(18):8897-903. PMID: 3379052.
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    348. Muchmore EA, Varki NM, Fukuda M, Varki A. Developmental regulation of sialic acid modifications in rat and human colon. FASEB J. 1987 Sep; 1(3):229-35. PMID: 3623000.
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    349. Muchmore EA, Varki A. Selective inactivation of influenza C esterase: a probe for detecting 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Science. 1987 Jun 05; 236(4806):1293-5. PMID: 3589663.
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    350. Higa HH, Diaz S, Varki A. Biochemical and genetic evidence for distinct membrane-bound and cytosolic sialic acid O-acetyl-esterases: serine-active-site enzymes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 May 14; 144(3):1099-108. PMID: 3107561.
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    351. Freeze HH, Varki A. Endo-glycosidase F and peptide N-glycosidase F release the great majority of total cellular N-linked oligosaccharides: use in demonstrating that sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides are frequently found in cultured cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Nov 14; 140(3):967-73. PMID: 3096333.
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    352. Fukuda MN, Dell A, Tiller PR, Varki A, Klock JC, Fukuda M. Structure of a novel sialylated fucosyl lacto-N-norhexaosylceramide isolated from chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. J Biol Chem. 1986 Feb 15; 261(5):2376-83. PMID: 3455927.
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    353. Varki A, Muchmore E, Diaz S. A sialic acid-specific O-acetylesterase in human erythrocytes: possible identity with esterase D, the genetic marker of retinoblastomas and Wilson disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Feb; 83(4):882-6. PMID: 3456572; PMCID: PMC322974.
    354. Fukuda M, Bothner B, Ramsamooj P, Dell A, Tiller PR, Varki A, Klock JC. Structures of sialylated fucosyl polylactosaminoglycans isolated from chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. J Biol Chem. 1985 Oct 25; 260(24):12957-67. PMID: 3863814.
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    355. Diaz S, Varki A. Metabolic labeling of sialic acids in tissue culture cell lines: methods to identify substituted and modified radioactive neuraminic acids. Anal Biochem. 1985 Oct; 150(1):32-46. PMID: 4083483.
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    356. Varki A, Diaz S. The transport and utilization of acetyl coenzyme A by rat liver Golgi vesicles. O-acetylated sialic acids are a major product. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jun 10; 260(11):6600-8. PMID: 3997840.
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    357. Cheresh DA, Reisfeld RA, Varki A. O-acetylation of disialoganglioside GD3 by human melanoma cells creates a unique antigenic determinant. Science. 1984 Aug 24; 225(4664):844-6. PMID: 6206564.
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    358. Cheresh DA, Varki A, Varki NM, Stallcup WB, Levine J, Reisfeld RA. A monoclonal antibody recognizes an O-acylated sialic acid in a human melanoma-associated ganglioside. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jun 25; 259(12):7453-9. PMID: 6203895.
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    359. Varki A, Diaz S. The release and purification of sialic acids from glycoconjugates: methods to minimize the loss and migration of O-acetyl groups. Anal Biochem. 1984 Feb; 137(1):236-47. PMID: 6731802.
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    360. Varki A, Diaz S. A neuraminidase from Streptococcus sanguis that can release O-acetylated sialic acids. J Biol Chem. 1983 Oct 25; 258(20):12465-71. PMID: 6630194.
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    361. Varki A, Sherman W, Kornfeld S. Demonstration of the enzymatic mechanisms of alpha-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-1-phosphodiester N-acetylglucosaminidase (formerly called alpha-N-acetylglucosaminylphosphodiesterase) and lysosomal alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1983 Apr 01; 222(1):145-9. PMID: 6301379.
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    362. Varki A, Kornfeld S. The spectrum of anionic oligosaccharides released by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H from glycoproteins. Structural studies and interactions with the phosphomannosyl receptor. J Biol Chem. 1983 Mar 10; 258(5):2808-18. PMID: 6298207.
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    363. Varki A, Reitman ML, Vannier A, Kornfeld S, Grubb JH, Sly WS. Demonstration of the heterozygous state for I-cell disease and pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy by assay of N-acetylglucosaminylphosphotransferase in white blood cells and fibroblasts. Am J Hum Genet. 1982 Sep; 34(5):717-29. PMID: 6289658; PMCID: PMC1685437.
    364. Thomas GH, Miller CS, Toomey KE, Reynolds LW, Reitman ML, Varki A, Vannier A, Rosebaum KN, Bias WB, Schofield BH. Two clonal cell populations (mosaicism) in a 46,XY male with mucolipidosis II (I-cell disease)--an autosomal recessive disorder. Am J Hum Genet. 1982 Jul; 34(4):611-22. PMID: 6125101; PMCID: PMC1685367.
    365. Kornfeld S, Reitman ML, Varki A, Goldberg D, Gabel CA. Steps in the phosphorylation of the high mannose oligosaccharides of lysosomal enzymes. Ciba Found Symp. 1982; (92):138-56. PMID: 6295719.
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    366. Varki A, Reitman ML, Kornfeld S. Identification of a variant of mucolipidosis III (pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy): a catalytically active N-acetylglucosaminylphosphotransferase that fails to phosphorylate lysosomal enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Dec; 78(12):7773-7. PMID: 6461005; PMCID: PMC349353.
    367. Varki A, Kornfeld S. Purification and characterization of rat liver alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyl phosphodiesterase. J Biol Chem. 1981 Oct 10; 256(19):9937-43. PMID: 6268636.
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    368. Reitman ML, Varki A, Kornfeld S. Fibroblasts from patients with I-cell disease and pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy are deficient in uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine: glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminylphosphotransferase activity. J Clin Invest. 1981 May; 67(5):1574-9. PMID: 6262380; PMCID: PMC370727.
    369. Varki A, Kornfeld S. Structural studies of phosphorylated high mannose-type oligosaccharides. J Biol Chem. 1980 Nov 25; 255(22):10847-58. PMID: 7430158.
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    370. Varki A, Kornfeld S. Identification of a rat liver alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyl phosphodiesterase capable of removing "blocking" alpha-N-acetylglucosamine residues from phosphorylated high mannose oligosaccharides of lysosomal enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1980 Sep 25; 255(18):8398-401. PMID: 6251056.
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    371. Varki A, Kornfeld S. An autosomal dominant gene regulates the extent of 9-O-acetylation of murine erythrocyte sialic acids. A probable explanation for the variation in capacity to activate the human alternate complement pathway. J Exp Med. 1980 Sep 01; 152(3):532-44. PMID: 7411019; PMCID: PMC2185929.
    372. Varki A, Fritz JL, Davis RB. Effects of cervical dislocation on colony-forming cells in murine marrow cultures. Exp Hematol. 1979 Sep; 7(8):397-400. PMID: 389652.
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