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Stephen Spector

Title(s)Professor, Pediatrics
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-534-7055
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MAMD05/1975Medicine
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA06/1977Pediatric Residency
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA06/1978Fellow, Neonatogy and Pediatric Infectious Diseases
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA06/1979NIH Fellow, Pediatric Infectious Diseases
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Tufts University School of Medicine1972NIH Research Fellow in Immunology
    UCSD1978  - 1979NIH Fellow in Infectious Diseases
    NIAID1995  - 2006Chair, Executive Committe Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
    2000  - presBest Doctors in America
    Soth Africa Embassy2006Honored by South African Embassy to U.S. for contributions to halting HIV/AIDS epidemic
    NIAID2006Honored by PACTG for exceptional contributions and leadership
    American Association of Physicians 2009Elected to American Association of Physicians
    UCSD.Rady Children's Hospital2010Recipient of Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego Research Award
    Children's Hospital of Philadelphia2010Gertrude and Herman Silver Award in Recognition of work on behalf of children, adolescents and famil

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Spector, a world leader in HIV research for more than 25 years, is Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, the Chief of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Director of the UCSD Mother-Child-Adolescent HIV Program. His research has used molecular and Immunologic approaches to study host-virus interactions of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) with a particular emphasis developing novel approaches for the detection, treatment and eradication of persistent viruses. Current CMV related research is examining the role of CMV in endothelial cell inflammation and the development of cardiovascular diseases. The laboratory has been involved with HIV/AIDS research since the beginning of the epidemic. Current research examines HIV pathogenesis with a particular emphasis on host-virus interactions, and the associations of host genetic variants on HIV diseases progression and HIV-related diseases including CNS impairment in children and adults. The laboratory’s interest in the identification of host factors that affect HIV pathogenesis led us to the novel finding that during permissive infection, HIV down-regulates autophagy to promote its own replication, and the induction of autophagy (using mTOR inhibitors as well as vitamin D3) inhibits HIV replication. The laboratory has also identified specific host genetic variants that are associated with mother-to-child transmission, HIV disease progression, and antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and adverse effects. This research has led to our examining the association of host factors that control HIV replication with the goal of identifying novel strategies to eradicate HIV from those infected.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Nanopeptide Targeting of HIV-CNS Reservoirs without Reactivation
    NIH/NINDS R01NS104015May 1, 2017 - Feb 28, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of CMV in Heart Disease of HIV-Infected Women and Perinatally Infected Youth
    NIH/NHLBI R56HL125028Sep 12, 2014 - Aug 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Modulating Autophagy to Eradicate HIV-1 from CNS Reservoirs
    NIH/NINDS R01NS084912May 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Host Genetic Factors Associated with CNS Disease of HIV-Infected Children
    NIH/NINDS R01NS077874Aug 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Vitamin D Inhibition of HIV and M. Tuberculosis Coinfection in Macrophages
    NIH/NIAID R21AI084573Jul 21, 2009 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV CENTERS FOR UNDEREPRESENTED POPULATIONS IN RESEARCH CTU (HIV CURE CTU)
    NIH/NIAID UM1AI069536Jan 1, 2007 - Nov 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    University of California, San Diego Clinical Trial Unit
    NIH/NIAID U01AI069536Jan 1, 2007 - Nov 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego EXPORT Comprehensive NCMHD Research Center
    NIH P60MD000220Sep 30, 2002 - Apr 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    San Diego Export: An University Community Partnership E*
    NIH P60MD000263Sep 30, 2002 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Co-Investigator
    ADOLESCENT MEDICINE TRIALS UNIT (AMTU)
    NIH/NICHD U01HD040464Apr 16, 2001 - Feb 28, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pediatric ACTG Coordinating and Operations Center
    NIH/NIAID U01AI041089Mar 1, 1997 - Feb 28, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    FACTORS IN PEDIATRIC AIDS TRANSMISSION AND PATHOGENESIS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI039004Sep 30, 1995 - Feb 28, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Center for AIDS Research
    NIH/NIAID P30AI036214Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Investigator
    MOLECULAR INTERACTION OF HIV HCMV
    NIH/NIAID R01AI028270Apr 1, 1989 - Aug 31, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
    NIH/NIAID U01AI027563Sep 30, 1988 - Feb 28, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SAN DIEGO AIDS CLINICAL TRIAL UNIT
    NIH/NIAID U01AI027670Jun 30, 1986 - Dec 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000827Mar 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Purswani MU, Russell JS, Dietrich M, Malee K, Spector SA, Williams PL, Frederick T, Burchett S, Redmond S, Hoffman HJ, Torre P, Lee S, Rice ML, Yao TJ. Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. J Pediatr. 2019 Oct 23. PMID: 31668479.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Aibana O, Huang CC, Aboud S, Arnedo-Pena A, Becerra MC, Bellido-Blasco JB, Bhosale R, Calderon R, Chiang S, Contreras C, Davaasambuu G, Fawzi WW, Franke MF, Galea JT, Garcia-Ferrer D, Gil-Fortuño M, Gomila-Sard B, Gupta A, Gupte N, Hussain R, Iborra-Millet J, Iqbal NT, Juan-Cerdán JV, Kinikar A, Lecca L, Mave V, Meseguer-Ferrer N, Montepiedra G, Mugusi FM, Owolabi OA, Parsonnet J, Roach-Poblete F, Romeu-García MA, Spector SA, Sudfeld CR, Tenforde MW, Togun TO, Yataco R, Zhang Z, Murray MB. Vitamin D status and risk of incident tuberculosis disease: A nested case-control study, systematic review, and individual-participant data meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2019 Sep; 16(9):e1002907. PMID: 31509529.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Bwakura Dangarembizi M, Samson P, Capparelli EV, Moore CB, Jean-Philippe P, Spector SA, Chakhtoura N, Benns A, Zimmer B, Purdue L, Jackson C, Wallis C, Libous JL, Chadwick EG. Establishing Dosing Recommendations for Efavirenz in HIV/TB-Coinfected Children Younger Than 3 Years. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Aug 01; 81(4):473-480. PMID: 31241542.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Margossian R, Williams PL, Yu W, Jacobson DL, Geffner ME, DiMeglio LA, Van Dyke RB, Spector SA, Schuster GU, Stephensen CB, Miller TL, Lipshultz SE. Markers of Bone Mineral Metabolism and Cardiac Structure and Function in Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Jun 01; 81(2):238-246. PMID: 30865170.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Zhang G, Luk BT, Wei X, Campbell GR, Fang RH, Zhang L, Spector SA. Selective cell death of latently HIV-infected CD4+ T cells mediated by autosis inducing nanopeptides. Cell Death Dis. 2019 May 29; 10(6):419. PMID: 31142734.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Farnaes L, Coufal NG, Spector SA. Vaccine Strain Varicella Infection in an Infant With Previously Undiagnosed Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Type-1 Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 Apr; 38(4):413-415. PMID: 30882735.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Garg A, Gianella S, Nakazawa M, Trout R, Spector SA. Association of Cytomegalovirus DNA and Immunologic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 May; 6(5):ofz113. PMID: 31139667.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Campbell GR, Spector SA. DIABLO/SMAC mimetics selectively kill HIV-1-infected resting memory CD4+ T cells: a potential role in a cure strategy for HIV-1 infection. Autophagy. 2019 Apr; 15(4):744-746. PMID: 30653393.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Rawat P, Teodorof-Diedrich C, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 single-stranded RNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and impairs autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria in human microglia. Glia. 2019 05; 67(5):802-824. PMID: 30582668.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Teodorof-Diedrich C, Spector SA. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 and Tat Induce Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Incomplete Mitophagy in Human Neurons. J Virol. 2018 11 15; 92(22). PMID: 30158296.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Campbell GR, Bruckman RS, Chu YL, Trout RN, Spector SA. SMAC Mimetics Induce Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis of HIV-1-Infected Resting Memory CD4+ T Cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 11 14; 24(5):689-702.e7. PMID: 30344003.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Wei X, Zhang G, Ran D, Krishnan N, Fang RH, Gao W, Spector SA, Zhang L. T-Cell-Mimicking Nanoparticles Can Neutralize HIV Infectivity. Adv Mater. 2018 Nov; 30(45):e1802233. PMID: 30252965.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Farnaes L, Coufal N, Spector SA. Vaccine Strain Varicella Infection in an Infant with Previously Undiagnosed Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Type-1 Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Sep 07. PMID: 30199479.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Zhang G, Luk BT, Hamidy M, Zhang L, Spector SA. Induction of a Na+/K+-ATPase-dependent form of autophagy triggers preferential cell death of human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected macrophages. Autophagy. 2018; 14(8):1359-1375. PMID: 29962265.
      View in: PubMed
    15. McFarland EJ, Karron RA, Muresan P, Cunningham CK, Valentine ME, Perlowski C, Thumar B, Gnanashanmugam D, Siberry GK, Schappell E, Barr E, Rexroad V, Yogev R, Spector SA, Aziz M, Patel N, Cielo M, Luongo C, Collins PL, Buchholz UJ. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate With Deletion of RNA Synthesis Regulatory Protein M2-2 is Highly Immunogenic in Children. J Infect Dis. 2018 04 11; 217(9):1347-1355. PMID: 29509911.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Buchholz UJ, Cunningham CK, Muresan P, Gnanashanmugam D, Sato P, Siberry GK, Rexroad V, Valentine M, Perlowski C, Schappell E, Thumar B, Luongo C, Barr E, Aziz M, Yogev R, Spector SA, Collins PL, McFarland EJ, Karron RA. Live Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Vaccine Candidate Containing Stabilized Temperature-Sensitivity Mutations Is Highly Attenuated in RSV-Seronegative Infants and Children. J Infect Dis. 2018 04 11; 217(9):1338-1346. PMID: 29509929.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Campbell GR, Bruckman RS, Herns SD, Joshi S, Durden DL, Spector SA. Induction of autophagy by PI3K/MTOR and PI3K/MTOR/BRD4 inhibitors suppresses HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2018 04 20; 293(16):5808-5820. PMID: 29475942.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Pinto JA, Capparelli EV, Warshaw M, Zimmer B, Cressey TR, Spector SA, Qin M, Smith B, Siberry GK, Mirochnick M. A Phase II/III Trial of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Dosed According to the WHO Pediatric Weight Band Dosing Guidelines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 02; 37(2):e29-e35. PMID: 29088027.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Dehority W, Viani RM, Araneta MRG, Lopez G, Spector SA. Comparison of the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube Assay With Tuberculin Skin Test for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Dec; 36(12):e317-e321. PMID: 29140946.
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    20. Jacobson DL, Stephensen CB, Miller TL, Patel K, Chen JS, Van Dyke RB, Mirza A, Schuster GU, Hazra R, Ellis A, Brummel SS, Geffner ME, Silio M, Spector SA, DiMeglio LA. Associations of Low Vitamin D and Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations With Bone Mineral Density in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 09 01; 76(1):33-42. PMID: 28797019.
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    21. Baker JV, Sharma S, Achhra AC, Bernardino JI, Bogner JR, Duprez D, Emery S, Gazzard B, Gordin J, Grandits G, Phillips AN, Schwarze S, Soliman EZ, Spector SA, Tambussi G, Lundgren J. Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors With Immediate Versus Deferred Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Among HIV-Positive Participants in the START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) Trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 22; 6(5). PMID: 28533305.
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    22. Bolton Moore C, Capparelli EV, Samson P, Bwakura-Dangarembizi M, Jean-Philippe P, Worrell C, Heckman B, Purdue L, Spector SA, Benns A, Borkowsky W, Loftis A, Hawkins E, Wallis C, Chadwick EG. CYP2B6 genotype-directed dosing is required for optimal efavirenz exposure in children 3-36 months with HIV infection. AIDS. 2017 05 15; 31(8):1129-1136. PMID: 28323755.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Garg A, Trout R, Spector SA. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Inhibit Cytomegalovirus Inflammation through Interleukin-27 and B7-H4. Sci Rep. 2017 03 24; 7:44485. PMID: 28338007.
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    24. Spector SA, Rappaport J. HIV cure strategists: ignore the central nervous system at your patients' peril. AIDS. 2017 01 02; 31(1):167-168. PMID: 27898594.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Torre P, Zeldow B, Yao TJ, Hoffman HJ, Siberry GK, Purswani MU, Frederick T, Spector SA, Williams PL. Newborn Hearing Screenings in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Infants. J AIDS Immune Res. 2016; 1(1). PMID: 28459118.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Spector SA, Brummel SS, Nievergelt CM, Maihofer AX, Singh KK, Purswani MU, Williams PL, Hazra R, Van Dyke R, Seage GR. Genetically determined ancestry is more informative than self-reported race in HIV-infected and -exposed children. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Sep; 95(36):e4733. PMID: 27603370.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Purswani MU, Patel K, Winkler CA, Spector SA, Hazra R, Seage GR, Mofenson L, Karalius B, Scott GB, Van Dyke RB, Kopp JB. Brief Report: APOL1 Renal Risk Variants Are Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease in Children and Youth With Perinatal HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 09 01; 73(1):63-8. PMID: 27035887.
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    28. Rawat P, Spector SA. Development and characterization of a human microglia cell model of HIV-1 infection. J Neurovirol. 2017 02; 23(1):33-46. PMID: 27538994.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Brummel SS, Singh KK, Maihofer AX, Farhad M, Qin M, Fenton T, Nievergelt CM, Spector SA. Associations of Genetically Determined Continental Ancestry With CD4+ Count and Plasma HIV-1 RNA Beyond Self-Reported Race and Ethnicity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Apr 15; 71(5):544-50. PMID: 26536313.
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    30. Van Dyke RB, Patel K, Kagan RM, Karalius B, Traite S, Meyer WA, Tassiopoulos KK, Seage GR, Seybolt LM, Burchett S, Hazra R, Lurie RH, Yogev R, Sanders MA, Malee K, Hunter S, Shearer W, Paul M, Cooper N, Harris L, Purswani M, Baig M, Cintron A, Puga A, Navarro S, Garvie P, Blood J, Burchett S, Karthas N, Kammerer B, Wiznia A, Burey M, Nozyce M, Dieudonne A, Bettica L, Adubato S, Chen J, Bulkley MG, Ivey L, Grant M, Knapp K, Allison K, Wilkins M, Acevedo-Flores M, Rios H, Olivera V, Silio M, Jones M, Sirois P, Spector S, Norris K, Nichols S, McFarland E, Katai A, Dunn J, Paul S, Scott G, Bryan P, Willen E. Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Among Children and Youth in the United States With Perinatal HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 07 01; 63(1):133-137. PMID: 27056398.
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    31. Singh KK, Qin M, Brummel SS, Angelidou K, Trout RN, Fenton T, Spector SA. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Alleles Alter HIV Disease in Children. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151364. PMID: 26983081.
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    32. Gupta A, Montepiedra G, Gupte A, Zeldow B, Jubulis J, Detrick B, Violari A, Madhi S, Bobat R, Cotton M, Mitchell C, Spector S. Low Vitamin-D Levels Combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J Host Variants Is Associated with Tuberculosis and Death in HIV-Infected and -Exposed Infants. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148649. PMID: 26872154.
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    33. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, Adachi H, Adams CM, Adams PD, Adeli K, Adhihetty PJ, Adler SG, Agam G, Agarwal R, Aghi MK, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguilar PV, Aguirre-Ghiso J, Airoldi EM, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akporiaye ET, Al-Rubeai M, Albaiceta GM, Albanese C, Albani D, Albert ML, Aldudo J, Algül H, Alirezaei M, Alloza I, Almasan A, Almonte-Beceril M, Alnemri ES, Alonso C, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Alvarez S, Alvarez-Erviti L, Alves S, Amadoro G, Amano A, Amantini C, Ambrosio S, Amelio I, Amer AO, Amessou M, Amon A, An Z, Anania FA, Andersen SU, Andley UP, Andreadi CK, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anel A, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Antonioli M, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Aquila S, Aquilano K, Araki K, Arama E, Aranda A, Araya J, Arcaro A, Arias E, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong JL, Arnould T, Arsov I, Asanuma K, Askanas V, Asselin E, Atarashi R, Atherton SS, Atkin JD, Attardi LD, Auberger P, Auburger G, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Avantaggiati ML, Avrahami L, Awale S, Azad N, Bachetti T, Backer JM, Bae DH, Bae JS, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek SH, Baghdiguian S, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Balaji KN, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Balzan R, Banerjee R, Bánhegyi G, Bao H, Barbeau B, Barrachina MD, Barreiro E, Bartel B, Bartolomé A, Bassham DC, Bassi MT, Bast RC, Basu A, Batista MT, Batoko H, Battino M, Bauckman K, Baumgarner BL, Bayer KU, Beale R, Beaulieu JF, Beck GR, Becker C, Beckham JD, Bédard PA, Bednarski PJ, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Behrens GM, Behrns KE, Bejarano E, Belaid A, Belleudi F, Bénard G, Berchem G, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Berkhout B, Berliocchi L, Bernard A, Bernard M, Bernassola F, Bertolotti A, Bess AS, Besteiro S, Bettuzzi S, Bhalla S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhutia SK, Biagosch C, Bianchi MW, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Billes V, Bincoletto C, Bingol B, Bird SW, Bitoun M, Bjedov I, Blackstone C, Blanc L, Blanco GA, Blomhoff HK, Boada-Romero E, Böckler S, Boes M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boise LH, Bolino A, Boman A, Bonaldo P, Bordi M, Bosch J, Botana LM, Botti J, Bou G, Bouché M, Bouchecareilh M, Boucher MJ, Boulton ME, Bouret SG, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady N, Braga VM, Brancolini C, Braus GH, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brennan LA, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bringer MA, Brini M, Brito GC, Brodin B, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brown K, Broxmeyer HE, Bruhat A, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Buch S, Buchan AM, Budak H, Bulavin DV, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Bumbasirevic V, Burelle Y, Burke RE, Burmeister M, Bütikofer P, Caberlotto L, Cadwell K, Cahova M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calatayud S, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell GR, Campbell M, Campello S, Candau R, Caniggia I, Cantoni L, Cao L, Caplan AB, Caraglia M, Cardinali C, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carleton LA, Carlin CR, Carloni S, Carlsson SR, Carmona-Gutierrez D, Carneiro LA, Carnevali O, Carra S, Carrier A, Carroll B, Casas C, Casas J, Cassinelli G, Castets P, Castro-Obregon S, Cavallini G, Ceccherini I, Cecconi F, Cederbaum AI, Ceña V, Cenci S, Cerella C, Cervia D, Cetrullo S, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chagin AS, Chai CY, Chakrabarti G, Chamilos G, Chan EY, Chan MT, Chandra D, Chandra P, Chang CP, Chang RC, Chang TY, Chatham JC, Chatterjee S, Chauhan S, Che Y, Cheetham ME, Cheluvappa R, Chen CJ, Chen G, Chen GC, Chen G, Chen H, Chen JW, Chen JK, Chen M, Chen M, Chen P, Chen Q, Chen Q, Chen SD, Chen S, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen WJ, Chen WQ, Chen W, Chen X, Chen YH, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen YQ, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng H, Cheong H, Cherry S, Chesney J, Cheung CH, Chevet E, Chi HC, Chi SG, Chiacchiera F, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiariello M, Chieppa M, Chin LS, Chiong M, Chiu GN, Cho DH, Cho SG, Cho WC, Cho YY, Cho YS, Choi AM, Choi EJ, Choi EK, Choi J, Choi ME, Choi SI, Chou TF, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chow KC, Chowdhury K, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chun T, Chung H, Chung T, Chung YL, Chwae YJ, Cianfanelli V, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy. 2016; 12(1):1-222. PMID: 26799652.
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    34. Purswani MU, Karalius B, Yao TJ, Schmid DS, Burchett SK, Siberry GK, Patel K, Van Dyke RB, Yogev R, Lurie RH, Yogev R, Sanders MA, Malee K, Hunter S, Shearer W, Paul M, Cooper N, Harris L, Purswani M, Baig M, Cintron A, Puga A, Navarro S, Garvie P, Blood J, Burchett S, Karthas N, Kammerer B, Wiznia A, Burey M, Nozyce M, Dieudonne A, Bettica L, Adubato S, Chen J, Bulkley MG, Ivey L, Grant M, Knapp K, Allison K, Wilkins M, Acevedo-Flores M, Rios H, Olivera V, Silio M, Jones M, Sirois P, Spector S, Norris K, Nichols S, McFarland E, Katai A, Dunn J, Paul S, Scott G, Bryan P, Willen E. Prevalence and Persistence of Varicella Antibodies in Previously Immunized Children and Youth With Perinatal HIV-1 Infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 01; 62(1):106-114. PMID: 26385992.
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    35. Campbell GR, Rawat P, Bruckman RS, Spector SA. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Inhibits Autophagy through Transcription Factor EB Sequestration. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jun; 11(6):e1005018. PMID: 26115100.
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    36. Curtis DJ, Muresan P, Nachman S, Fenton T, Richardson KM, Dominguez T, Flynn PM, Spector SA, Cunningham CK, Bloom A, Weinberg A. Characterization of functional antibody and memory B-cell responses to pH1N1 monovalent vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0118567. PMID: 25785995.
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    37. Nachman S, Alvero C, Acosta EP, Teppler H, Homony B, Graham B, Fenton T, Xu X, Rizk ML, Spector SA, Frenkel LM, Worrell C, Handelsman E, Wiznia A. Pharmacokinetics and 48-Week Safety and Efficacy of Raltegravir for Oral Suspension in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1-Infected Children 4 Weeks to 2 Years of Age. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015 Dec; 4(4):e76-83. PMID: 26582887.
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    38. Moodley A, Spector SA. Single high-dose vitamin D at birth corrects vitamin D deficiency in infants in Mexico. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 May; 66(3):336-41. PMID: 25582182.
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    39. Marsit CJ, Brummel SS, Kacanek D, Seage GR, Spector SA, Armstrong DA, Lester BM, Rich K. Infant peripheral blood repetitive element hypomethylation associated with antiretroviral therapy in utero. Epigenetics. 2015; 10(8):708-16. PMID: 26067216.
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    40. Campbell GR, Bruckman RS, Chu YL, Spector SA. Autophagy induction by histone deacetylase inhibitors inhibits HIV type 1. J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 20; 290(8):5028-40. PMID: 25540204.
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    41. Clarke DF, Acosta EP, Rizk ML, Bryson YJ, Spector SA, Mofenson LM, Handelsman E, Teppler H, Welebob C, Persaud D, Cababasay MP, Wang J, Mirochnick M. Raltegravir pharmacokinetics in neonates following maternal dosing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Nov 01; 67(3):310-5. PMID: 25162819.
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    42. Garg A, Rawat P, Spector SA. Interleukin 23 produced by myeloid dendritic cells contributes to T-cell dysfunction in HIV type 1 infection by inducing SOCS1 expression. J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 01; 211(5):755-68. PMID: 25234720.
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    43. Qin M, Brummel S, Singh KK, Fenton T, Spector SA. Associations of host genetic variants on CD4? lymphocyte count and plasma HIV-1 RNA in antiretroviral naïve children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Sep; 33(9):946-52. PMID: 24797997.
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    109. Feun L, You M, Wu CJ, Kuo MT, Wangpaichitr M, Spector S, Savaraj N. Arginine deprivation as a targeted therapy for cancer. Curr Pharm Des. 2008; 14(11):1049-57. PMID: 18473854.
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    110. Saitoh A, Sarles E, Capparelli E, Aweeka F, Kovacs A, Burchett SK, Wiznia A, Nachman S, Fenton T, Spector SA. CYP2B6 genetic variants are associated with nevirapine pharmacokinetics and clinical response in HIV-1-infected children. AIDS. 2007 Oct 18; 21(16):2191-9. PMID: 18090046.
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    111. Flynn PM, Rudy BJ, Lindsey JC, Douglas SD, Lathey J, Spector SA, Martinez J, Silio M, Belzer M, Friedman L, D'Angelo L, Smith E, Hodge J, Hughes MD. Long-term observation of adolescents initiating HAART therapy: three-year follow-up. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Oct; 23(10):1208-14. PMID: 17961106.
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    112. Bolovan-Fritts CA, Spector SA. Endothelial damage from cytomegalovirus-specific host immune response can be prevented by targeted disruption of fractalkine-CX3CR1 interaction. Blood. 2008 Jan 01; 111(1):175-82. PMID: 17895402.
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    113. Saitoh A, Fenton T, Alvero C, Fletcher CV, Spector SA. Impact of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on mitochondria in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Dec; 51(12):4236-42. PMID: 17893156.
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    114. Singh KK, Spector SA. Fidelity of whole-genome amplification of blood spot DNA for HLA typing and SNP analyses. Clin Genet. 2007 Aug; 72(2):156-9. PMID: 17661821.
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    115. McKinney RE, Rodman J, Hu C, Britto P, Hughes M, Smith ME, Serchuck LK, Kraimer J, Ortiz AA, Flynn P, Yogev R, Spector S, Draper L, Tran P, Scites M, Dickover R, Weinberg A, Cunningham C, Abrams E, Blum MR, Chittick GE, Reynolds L, Rathore M. Long-term safety and efficacy of a once-daily regimen of emtricitabine, didanosine, and efavirenz in HIV-infected, therapy-naive children and adolescents: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol P1021. Pediatrics. 2007 Aug; 120(2):e416-23. PMID: 17646352.
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    116. Fletcher CV, Brundage RC, Fenton T, Alvero CG, Powell C, Mofenson LM, Spector SA. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of efavirenz and nelfinavir in HIV-infected children participating in an area-under-the-curve controlled trial. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Feb; 83(2):300-6. PMID: 17609682.
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    117. Saitoh A, Fletcher CV, Brundage R, Alvero C, Fenton T, Hsia K, Spector SA. Efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected children are associated with CYP2B6-G516T polymorphism. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Jul 01; 45(3):280-5. PMID: 17356468.
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    118. Bolovan-Fritts CA, Trout RN, Spector SA. High T-cell response to human cytomegalovirus induces chemokine-mediated endothelial cell damage. Blood. 2007 Sep 15; 110(6):1857-63. PMID: 17519388.
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    119. Viani RM, Hsia K, Hubbard P, Ruiz-Calderon J, Lozada R, Alvelais J, Gallardo M, Spector SA. Prevalence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance in pregnant women and in newly diagnosed adults at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico. Int J STD AIDS. 2007 Apr; 18(4):235-8. PMID: 17509172.
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    120. Campbell GR, Watkins JD, Singh KK, Loret EP, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C Tat fails to induce intracellular calcium flux and induces reduced tumor necrosis factor production from monocytes. J Virol. 2007 Jun; 81(11):5919-28. PMID: 17376903.
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    121. Viani RM, Hubbard P, Ruiz-Calderon J, Araneta MR, Lopez G, Chacón-Cruz E, Spector SA. Performance of rapid HIV testing using Determine HIV-1/2 for the diagnosis of HIV infection during pregnancy in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Int J STD AIDS. 2007 Feb; 18(2):101-4. PMID: 17331281.
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    122. Viani RM, Peralta L, Aldrovandi G, Kapogiannis BG, Mitchell R, Spector SA, Lie YS, Weidler JM, Bates MP, Liu N, Wilson CM. Prevalence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance among recently infected adolescents: a multicenter adolescent medicine trials network for HIV/AIDS interventions study. J Infect Dis. 2006 Dec 01; 194(11):1505-9. PMID: 17083034.
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    123. Spector SA, Saitoh A. Mitochondrial dysfunction: prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-infant transmission outweighs fear. AIDS. 2006 Aug 22; 20(13):1777-8. PMID: 16931943.
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    124. Arnold JC, Singh KK, Spector SA, Sawyer MH. Human bocavirus: prevalence and clinical spectrum at a children's hospital. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Aug 01; 43(3):283-8. PMID: 16804840.
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    125. Saitoh A, Singh KK, Sandall S, Powell CA, Fenton T, Fletcher CV, Hsia K, Spector SA. Association of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and new thymic emigrants in HIV-infected children during successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Apr; 117(4):909-15. PMID: 16630951.
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    126. Best BM, Mirochnick M, Capparelli EV, Stek A, Burchett SK, Holland DT, Read JS, Smith E, Hu C, Spector SA, Connor JD. Impact of pregnancy on abacavir pharmacokinetics. AIDS. 2006 Feb 28; 20(4):553-60. PMID: 16470119.
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    127. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Spector SA. Impact of MCP-1-2518-G allele on the HIV-1 disease of children in the United States. AIDS. 2006 Feb 14; 20(3):475-8. PMID: 16439891.
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    128. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Ruiz-Calderon J, Hubbard P, Lopez G, Chacón-Cruz E, Spector SA. Perinatal HIV counseling and rapid testing in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico: seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Jan 01; 41(1):87-92. PMID: 16340479.
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    129. Campbell GR, Watkins JD, Esquieu D, Pasquier E, Loret EP, Spector SA. The C terminus of HIV-1 Tat modulates the extent of CD178-mediated apoptosis of T cells. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 18; 280(46):38376-82. PMID: 16155003.
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    130. Rutstein RM, Gebo KA, Siberry GK, Flynn PM, Spector SA, Sharp VL, Fleishman JA. Hospital and outpatient health services utilization among HIV-infected children in care 2000-2001. Med Care. 2005 Sep; 43(9 Suppl):III31-9. PMID: 16116307.
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    131. Rutstein RM, Gebo KA, Flynn PM, Fleishman JA, Sharp VL, Siberry GK, Spector SA. Immunologic function and virologic suppression among children with perinatally acquired HIV Infection on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Med Care. 2005 Sep; 43(9 Suppl):III15-22. PMID: 16116305.
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    132. Saitoh A, Hull AD, Franklin P, Spector SA. Myelomeningocele in an infant with intrauterine exposure to efavirenz. J Perinatol. 2005 Aug; 25(8):555-6. PMID: 16047034.
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    133. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Ruiz-Calderon J, Hubbard P, Lopez G, Chacón-Cruz E, Spector SA. Migration and risk factors for HIV acquisition in pregnant women in Baja California, Mexico. MedGenMed. 2005 Jun 22; 7(2):69. PMID: 16369447.
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    134. Wohl DA, Kendall MA, Owens S, Holland G, Nokta M, Spector SA, Schrier R, Fiscus S, Davis M, Jacobson MA, Currier JS, Squires K, Alston-Smith B, Andersen J, Freeman WR, Higgins M, Torriani FJ. The safety of discontinuation of maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and incidence of immune recovery uveitis following potent antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2005 May-Jun; 6(3):136-46. PMID: 16192248.
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    135. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Spector SA. Genetic polymorphisms in CX3CR1 predict HIV-1 disease progression in children independently of CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV-1 RNA load. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 01; 191(11):1971-80. PMID: 15871132.
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    136. Saitoh A, Singh KK, Powell CA, Fenton T, Fletcher CV, Brundage R, Starr S, Spector SA. An MDR1-3435 variant is associated with higher plasma nelfinavir levels and more rapid virologic response in HIV-1 infected children. AIDS. 2005 Mar 04; 19(4):371-80. PMID: 15750390.
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    137. Letendre S, Marquie-Beck J, Singh KK, de Almeida S, Zimmerman J, Spector SA, Grant I, Ellis R. The monocyte chemotactic protein-1 -2578G allele is associated with elevated MCP-1 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157(1-2):193-6. PMID: 15579297.
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    138. Bolovan-Fritts CA, Trout RN, Spector SA. Human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+-T-cell cytokine response induces fractalkine in endothelial cells. J Virol. 2004 Dec; 78(23):13173-81. PMID: 15542669.
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    139. Singh KK, Ellis RJ, Marquie-Beck J, Letendre S, Heaton RK, Grant I, Spector SA. CCR2 polymorphisms affect neuropsychological impairment in HIV-1-infected adults. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157(1-2):185-92. PMID: 15579296.
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    140. Saitoh A, Viani RM, Schrier RD, Spector SA. Treatment of infants coinfected with HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus with combination antiretrovirals and ganciclovir. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Oct; 114(4):983-5. PMID: 15480350.
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    141. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Deville JG, Spector SA. Decrease in hospitalization and mortality rates among children with perinatally acquired HIV type 1 infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 01; 39(5):725-31. PMID: 15356789.
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    142. Flynn PM, Rudy BJ, Douglas SD, Lathey J, Spector SA, Martinez J, Silio M, Belzer M, Friedman L, D'Angelo L, McNamara J, Hodge J, Hughes MD, Lindsey JC. Virologic and immunologic outcomes after 24 weeks in HIV type 1-infected adolescents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15; 190(2):271-9. PMID: 15216461.
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    143. Spector S. Omalizumab: efficacy in allergic disease. Panminerva Med. 2004 Jun; 46(2):141-8. PMID: 15507883.
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    144. Saitoh A, Powell CA, Fenton T, Douglas SD, Starr SE, Fletcher CV, Spector SA. Longitudinal analysis of lymphocyte ratios and HIV-1 intracellular DNA levels in children. J Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 01; 189(7):1216-20. PMID: 15031790.
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    145. Moutaftsi M, Brennan P, Spector SA, Tabi Z. Impaired lymphoid chemokine-mediated migration due to a block on the chemokine receptor switch in human cytomegalovirus-infected dendritic cells. J Virol. 2004 Mar; 78(6):3046-54. PMID: 14990723.
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    146. Brundage RC, Yong FH, Fenton T, Spector SA, Starr SE, Fletcher CV. Intrapatient variability of efavirenz concentrations as a predictor of virologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Mar; 48(3):979-84. PMID: 14982792.
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    147. Singh KK, Barroga CF, Hughes MD, Chen J, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Spector SA. Prevalence of chemokine and chemokine receptor polymorphisms in seroprevalent children with symptomatic HIV-1 infection in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Mar 01; 35(3):309-13. PMID: 15076247.
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    148. Wu H, Lathey J, Ruan P, Douglas SD, Spector SA, Lindsey J, Hughes MD, Rudy BJ, Flynn PM. Relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA dynamics to baseline factors and virological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy in adolescents (aged 12-22 years) infected through high-risk behavior. J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15; 189(4):593-601. PMID: 14767811.
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    149. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Spector SA. Lack of protective effects of interleukin-4 -589-C/T polymorphism against HIV-1-related disease progression and central nervous system impairment, in children. J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15; 189(4):587-92. PMID: 14767810.
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    150. Soh CH, Oleske JM, Brady MT, Spector SA, Borkowsky W, Burchett SK, Foca MD, Handelsman E, Jiménez E, Dankner WM, Hughes MD. Long-term effects of protease-inhibitor-based combination therapy on CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. Lancet. 2003 Dec 20; 362(9401):2045-51. PMID: 14697803.
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    151. Singh KK, Barroga CF, Hughes MD, Chen J, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Spector SA. Genetic influence of CCR5, CCR2, and SDF1 variants on human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-related disease progression and neurological impairment, in children with symptomatic HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2003 Nov 15; 188(10):1461-72. PMID: 14624371.
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    152. Shearer WT, Rosenblatt HM, Gelman RS, Oyomopito R, Plaeger S, Stiehm ER, Wara DW, Douglas SD, Luzuriaga K, McFarland EJ, Yogev R, Rathore MH, Levy W, Graham BL, Spector SA. Lymphocyte subsets in healthy children from birth through 18 years of age: the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov; 112(5):973-80. PMID: 14610491.
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    153. Caliendo AM, Yen-Lieberman B, Baptista J, Andersen J, Crumpacker C, Schuurman R, Spector SA, Bremer J, Lurain NS. Comparison of molecular tests for detection and quantification of cell-associated cytomegalovirus DNA. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Aug; 41(8):3509-13. PMID: 12904347.
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    154. Viani RM, Calderon JR, Van Pratt C, Lopez G, Spector SA. HIV prevalence during pregnancy in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. AIDS. 2003 May 02; 17(7):1113-4. PMID: 12700474.
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    155. Capparelli EV, Englund JA, Connor JD, Spector SA, McKinney RE, Palumbo P, Baker CJ. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zidovudine in HIV-infected infants and children. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Feb; 43(2):133-40. PMID: 12616665.
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    156. Williams MA, Trout R, Spector SA. HIV-1 gp120 modulates the immunological function and expression of accessory and co-stimulatory molecules of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2002 Oct; 11(5):829-47. PMID: 12427289.
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    157. Chmait R, Franklin P, Spector SA, Hull AD. Protease inhibitors and decreased birth weight in HIV-infected pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. J Perinatol. 2002 Jul-Aug; 22(5):370-3. PMID: 12082471.
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    158. Starr SE, Fletcher CV, Spector SA, Brundage RC, Yong FH, Douglas SD, Flynn PM, Kline MW. Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Jul; 21(7):659-63. PMID: 12237599.
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    159. Demeter LM, Bosch RJ, Coombs RW, Fiscus S, Bremer J, Johnson VA, Erice A, Jackson JB, Spector SA, Squires KM, Fischl MA, Hughes MD, Hammer SM. Detection of replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultures from patients with levels of HIV-1 RNA in plasma suppressed to less than 500 or 50 copies per milliliter. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jun; 40(6):2089-94. PMID: 12037070.
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    160. Ellis RJ, Moore DJ, Childers ME, Letendre S, McCutchan JA, Wolfson T, Spector SA, Hsia K, Heaton RK, Grant I. Progression to neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus infection predicted by elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of human immunodeficiency virus RNA. Arch Neurol. 2002 Jun; 59(6):923-8. PMID: 12056927.
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    161. Saitoh A, Hsia K, Fenton T, Powell CA, Christopherson C, Fletcher CV, Starr SE, Spector SA. Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 DNA in peripheral blood despite prolonged suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA in children. J Infect Dis. 2002 May 15; 185(10):1409-16. PMID: 11992275.
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    162. Demeter LM, Hughes MD, Coombs RW, Jackson JB, Grimes JM, Bosch RJ, Fiscus SA, Spector SA, Squires KE, Fischl MA, Hammer SM. Predictors of virologic and clinical outcomes in HIV-1-infected patients receiving concurrent treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 320. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Dec 04; 135(11):954-64. PMID: 11730396.
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    163. Lathey JL, Tierney C, Chang SY, D'Aquila RT, Bettendorf DM, Alexander HC, Santini CD, Hughes AM, Barroga CF, Spector SA, Landes JE, Hammer SM, Katzenstein DA. Associations of CCR5, CCR2, and stromal cell-derived factor 1 genotypes with human immunodeficiency virus disease progression in patients receiving nucleoside therapy. J Infect Dis. 2001 Dec 01; 184(11):1402-11. PMID: 11709782.
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    164. McFarland EJ, Borkowsky W, Fenton T, Wara D, McNamara J, Samson P, Kang M, Mofenson L, Cunningham C, Duliege AM, Sinangil F, Spector SA, Jimenez E, Bryson Y, Burchett S, Frenkel LM, Yogev R, Gigliotti F, Luzuriaga K, Livingston RA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120-specific antibodies in neonates receiving an HIV-1 recombinant gp120 vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2001 Nov 15; 184(10):1331-5. PMID: 11679925.
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    165. Corren J, Spector S, Fuller L, Minkwitz M, Mezzanotte W. Effects of zafirlukast upon clinical, physiologic, and inflammatory responses to natural cat allergen exposure. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001 Sep; 87(3):211-7. PMID: 11570617.
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    166. Mirochnick M, Cooper E, Capparelli E, McIntosh K, Lindsey J, Xu J, Jacobus D, Mofenson L, Bonagura VR, Nachman S, Yogev R, Sullivan JL, Spector SA. Population pharmacokinetics of dapsone in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Jul; 70(1):24-32. PMID: 11452241.
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    167. Caliendo AM, Schuurman R, Yen-Lieberman B, Spector SA, Andersen J, Manjiry R, Crumpacker C, Lurain NS, Erice A. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative PCR assays for cytomegalovirus DNA in plasma. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Apr; 39(4):1334-8. PMID: 11283052.
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    168. Nathan JD, Zdankiewicz PD, Wang J, Spector SA, Aspelund G, Jena BP, Seymour NE, Geibel JP, Andersen DK. Impaired hepatocyte glucose transport protein (GLUT2) internalization in chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2001 Mar; 22(2):172-8. PMID: 11249072.
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    169. Dalakas MC, Koffman B, Fujii M, Spector S, Sivakumar K, Cupler E. A controlled study of intravenous immunoglobulin combined with prednisone in the treatment of IBM. Neurology. 2001 Feb 13; 56(3):323-7. PMID: 11171896.
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    170. Spector SA. Mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1: the placenta fights back. J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb; 107(3):267-9. PMID: 11160148.
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    171. Kramer U, Spector S, Nasser W, Siomin V, Fried I, Constantini S. Surgical treatment of hypothalamic hamartoma and refractory seizures: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2001 Jan; 34(1):40-2. PMID: 11275785.
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    172. Frenkel LM, Capparelli EV, Dankner WM, Xu J, Smith IL, Ballow A, Culnane M, Read JS, Thompson M, Mohan KM, Shaver A, Robinson CA, Stempien MJ, Burchett SK, Melvin AJ, Borkowsky W, Petru A, Kovacs A, Yogev R, Goldsmith J, McFarland EJ, Spector SA. Oral ganciclovir in children: pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerance, and antiviral effects. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. J Infect Dis. 2000 Dec; 182(6):1616-24. PMID: 11069232.
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    173. Spector SA. Factors impacting on drug choices. Issues for developing countries. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Nov; 918:346-50. PMID: 11131721.
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    174. Winn B, Ade H, Buckley C, Feser M, Howells M, Hulbert S, Jacobsen C, Kaznacheyev K, Kirz J, Osanna A, Maser J, McNulty I, Miao J, Oversluizen T, Spector S, Sullivan B, Wang Y, Wirick S, Zhang H. Illumination for coherent soft X-ray applications: the new X1A beamline at the NSLS. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2000 Nov 01; 7(Pt 6):395-404. PMID: 16609227.
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    175. Spector SA, Hsia K, Yong FH, Cabral S, Fenton T, Fletcher CV, McNamara J, Mofenson LM, Starr SE. Patterns of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in infected children. J Infect Dis. 2000 Dec; 182(6):1769-73. PMID: 11069252.
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    176. Frimpong K, Spector SA. Cotransduction of nondividing cells using lentiviral vectors. Gene Ther. 2000 Sep; 7(18):1562-9. PMID: 11021594.
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    177. Spector S. Noncompliance with asthma therapy--are there solutions? J Asthma. 2000 Aug; 37(5):381-8. PMID: 10983615.
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    178. Barroga CF, Raskino C, Fangon MC, Palumbo PE, Baker CJ, Englund JA, Spector SA. The CCR5Delta32 allele slows disease progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral treatment. J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug; 182(2):413-9. PMID: 10915070.
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    179. Xia W, Spector S, Hardy L, Zhao S, Saluk A, Alemane L, Spector NL. Tumor selective G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of epithelial and hematological malignancies by BBL22, a benzazepine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 20; 97(13):7494-9. PMID: 10861014.
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    180. Shingadia D, Viani RM, Yogev R, Binns H, Dankner WM, Spector SA, Chadwick EG. Gastrostomy tube insertion for improvement of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in pediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatrics. 2000 Jun; 105(6):E80. PMID: 10835093.
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    181. Borkowsky W, Wara D, Fenton T, McNamara J, Kang M, Mofenson L, McFarland E, Cunningham C, Duliege AM, Francis D, Bryson Y, Burchett S, Spector SA, Frenkel LM, Starr S, Van Dyke R, Jimenez E. Lymphoproliferative responses to recombinant HIV-1 envelope antigens in neonates and infants receiving gp120 vaccines. AIDS Clinical Trial Group 230 Collaborators. J Infect Dis. 2000 Mar; 181(3):890-6. PMID: 10720509.
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    182. Landry ML, Stanat S, Biron K, Brambilla D, Britt W, Jokela J, Chou S, Drew WL, Erice A, Gilliam B, Lurain N, Manischewitz J, Miner R, Nokta M, Reichelderfer P, Spector S, Weinberg A, Yen-Lieberman B, Crumpacker C. A standardized plaque reduction assay for determination of drug susceptibilities of cytomegalovirus clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Mar; 44(3):688-92. PMID: 10681339.
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    183. Ellis RJ, Gamst AC, Capparelli E, Spector SA, Hsia K, Wolfson T, Abramson I, Grant I, McCutchan JA. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA originates from both local CNS and systemic sources. Neurology. 2000 Feb 22; 54(4):927-36. PMID: 10690988.
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    184. Spector S, Wang M, Carp SA, Robblee J, Hendsch ZS, Fairman R, Tidor B, Raleigh DP. Rational modification of protein stability by the mutation of charged surface residues. Biochemistry. 2000 Feb 08; 39(5):872-9. PMID: 10653630.
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    185. Garrison N, Spector S, Buffington D, Stafford C, Granito K, Zhang H, Talbot GH. Sparfloxacin for the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis documented by sinus puncture. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000 Jan; 84(1):63-71. PMID: 10674567.
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    186. Maser J, Osanna A, Wang Y, Jacobsen C, Kirz J, Spector S, Winn B, Tennant D. Soft X-ray microscopy with a cryo scanning transmission X-ray microscope: I. Instrumentation, imaging and spectroscopy. J Microsc. 2000 Jan; 197(Pt 1):68-79. PMID: 10620150.
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    187. Tawil R, McDermott MP, Brown R, Shapiro BC, Ptacek LJ, McManis PG, Dalakas MC, Spector SA, Mendell JR, Hahn AF, Griggs RC. Randomized trials of dichlorphenamide in the periodic paralyses. Working Group on Periodic Paralysis. Ann Neurol. 2000 Jan; 47(1):46-53. PMID: 10632100.
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    188. Starr SE, Fletcher CV, Spector SA, Yong FH, Fenton T, Brundage RC, Manion D, Ruiz N, Gersten M, Becker M, McNamara J, Mofenson LM, Purdue L, Siminski S, Graham B, Kornhauser DM, Fiske W, Vincent C, Lischner HW, Dankner WM, Flynn PM. Combination therapy with efavirenz, nelfinavir, and nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 382 Team. N Engl J Med. 1999 Dec 16; 341(25):1874-81. PMID: 10601506.
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    189. Viani RM, Dankner WM, Muelenaer PA, Spector SA. Resolution of HIV-associated nephrotic syndrome with highly active antiretroviral therapy delivered by gastrostomy tube. Pediatrics. 1999 Dec; 104(6):1394-6. PMID: 10585995.
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    190. Spector S, Raleigh DP. Submillisecond folding of the peripheral subunit-binding domain. J Mol Biol. 1999 Nov 05; 293(4):763-8. PMID: 10543965.
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    191. Zuckerman A, Bolan E, de Paulis T, Schmidt D, Spector S, Pasternak GW. Pharmacological characterization of morphine-6-sulfate and codeine-6-sulfate. Brain Res. 1999 Sep 18; 842(1):1-5. PMID: 10526089.
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    192. Davis CL, Field D, Metzgar D, Saiz R, Morin PA, Smith IL, Spector SA, Wills C. Numerous length polymorphisms at short tandem repeats in human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8):6265-70. PMID: 10400717.
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    193. Lathey JL, Tsou J, Brinker K, Hsia K, Meyer WA, Spector SA. Lack of autologous neutralizing antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and macrophage tropism are associated with mother-to-infant transmission. J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug; 180(2):344-50. PMID: 10395848.
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    194. Spector SA, Hsia K, Crager M, Pilcher M, Cabral S, Stempien MJ. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load is an independent predictor of CMV disease and survival in advanced AIDS. J Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8):7027-30. PMID: 10400803.
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    195. Spector S, Tranah A, Cull C, Goldstein LH. Reduction in seizure frequency following a short-term group intervention for adults with epilepsy. Seizure. 1999 Aug; 8(5):297-303. PMID: 10486295.
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    196. Viani RM, Gutteberg TJ, Lathey JL, Spector SA. Lactoferrin inhibits HIV-1 replication in vitro and exhibits synergy when combined with zidovudine. AIDS. 1999 Jul 09; 13(10):1273-4. PMID: 10416533.
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    197. Smith IL, Macdonald JC, Freeman WR, Shapiro AM, Spector SA. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis activity is accurately reflected by the presence and level of CMV DNA in aqueous humor and vitreous. J Infect Dis. 1999 May; 179(5):1249-53. PMID: 10191231.
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    198. McIntosh K, Cooper E, Xu J, Mirochnick M, Lindsey J, Jacobus D, Mofenson L, Yogev R, Spector SA, Sullivan JL, Sacks H, Kovacs A, Nachman S, Sleasman J, Bonagura V, McNamara J. Toxicity and efficacy of daily vs. weekly dapsone for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. ACTG 179 Study Team. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999 May; 18(5):432-9. PMID: 10353516.
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    199. Krogstad P, Wiznia A, Luzuriaga K, Dankner W, Nielsen K, Gersten M, Kerr B, Hendricks A, Boczany B, Rosenberg M, Jung D, Spector SA, Bryson Y. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected infants and children with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 May; 28(5):1109-18. PMID: 10452644.
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    200. Corren J, Rachelefsky G, Spector S, Schanker H, Siegel S, Holton D, Karcher K, Travers S. Onset and duration of action of levocabastine nasal spray in atopic patients under nasal challenge conditions. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Apr; 103(4):574-80. PMID: 10200003.
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    201. Spector S, Young P, Raleigh DP. Nativelike structure and stability in a truncation mutant of a protein minidomain: the peripheral subunit-binding domain. Biochemistry. 1999 Mar 30; 38(13):4128-36. PMID: 10194328.
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    202. Spector S. Ideal pharmacotherapy for allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Mar; 103(3 Pt 2):S386-7. PMID: 10069898.
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    203. Spector S. Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of allergic rhinitis. Foreword. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Mar; 103(3 Pt 2):S377. PMID: 10069895.
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    204. Palumbo PE, Raskino C, Fiscus S, Pahwa S, Schutzbank T, Spector SA, Baker CJ, Englund JA. Virologic and immunologic response to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected infants and children. J Infect Dis. 1999 Mar; 179(3):576-83. PMID: 9952363.
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    205. Spector SA. Oral ganciclovir. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 458:121-7. PMID: 10549384.
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    206. Spector S, Rosconi M, Raleigh DP. Conformational analysis of peptide fragments derived from the peripheral subunit-binding domain from the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus: evidence for nonrandom structure in the unfolded state. Biopolymers. 1999 Jan; 49(1):29-40. PMID: 10070261.
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    207. Finn AF, Aaronson D, Korenblat P, Lumry W, Settipane G, Spector S, Woehler T, Drda K, Wood CC. Ipratropium bromide nasal spray 0.03% provides additional relief from rhinorrhea when combined with terfenadine in perennial rhinitis patients; a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. Am J Rhinol. 1998 Nov-Dec; 12(6):441-9. PMID: 9883302.
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    208. de Jong MD, Galasso GJ, Gazzard B, Griffiths PD, Jabs DA, Kern ER, Spector SA. Summary of the II International Symposium on Cytomegalovirus. Antiviral Res. 1998 Oct; 39(3):141-62. PMID: 9833956.
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    209. Gozlan J, Lathey JL, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induction mediated by genistein is linked to cell cycle arrest in G2. J Virol. 1998 Oct; 72(10):8174-80. PMID: 9733859.
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    210. McKinney RE, Johnson GM, Stanley K, Yong FH, Keller A, O'Donnell KJ, Brouwers P, Mitchell WG, Yogev R, Wara DW, Wiznia A, Mofenson L, McNamara J, Spector SA. A randomized study of combined zidovudine-lamivudine versus didanosine monotherapy in children with symptomatic therapy-naive HIV-1 infection. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 300 Study Team. J Pediatr. 1998 Oct; 133(4):500-8. PMID: 9787687.
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    211. Mirochnick M, Fenton T, Gagnier P, Pav J, Gwynne M, Siminski S, Sperling RS, Beckerman K, Jimenez E, Yogev R, Spector SA, Sullivan JL. Pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected pregnant women and their neonates. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 250 Team. J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug; 178(2):368-74. PMID: 9697716.
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    212. Whitley RJ, Jacobson MA, Friedberg DN, Holland GN, Jabs DA, Dieterich DT, Hardy WD, Polis MA, Deutsch TA, Feinberg J, Spector SA, Walmsley S, Drew WL, Powderly WG, Griffiths PD, Benson CA, Kessler HA. Guidelines for the treatment of cytomegalovirus diseases in patients with AIDS in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: recommendations of an international panel. International AIDS Society-USA. Arch Intern Med. 1998 May 11; 158(9):957-69. PMID: 9588429.
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    213. Spector S, Tan RA. Antileukotrienes in chronic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998 Apr; 101(4 Pt 1):572. PMID: 9564821.
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    214. Mirochnick M, Capparelli E, Dankner W, Sperling RS, van Dyke R, Spector SA. Zidovudine pharmacokinetics in premature infants exposed to human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Apr; 42(4):808-12. PMID: 9559787.
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    215. Palumbo PE, Raskino C, Fiscus S, Pahwa S, Fowler MG, Spector SA, Englund JA, Baker CJ. Predictive value of quantitative plasma HIV RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte count in HIV-infected infants and children. JAMA. 1998 Mar 11; 279(10):756-61. PMID: 9508151.
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    216. Viani RM, Smith IL, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 phenotypes in children with advanced disease treated with long-term zalcitabine. J Infect Dis. 1998 Mar; 177(3):565-70. PMID: 9498433.
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    217. Spector S, Kuhlman B, Fairman R, Wong E, Boice JA, Raleigh DP. Cooperative folding of a protein mini domain: the peripheral subunit-binding domain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. J Mol Biol. 1998 Feb 20; 276(2):479-89. PMID: 9512717.
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    218. Li X, Gervaix A, Kang D, Law P, Spector SA, Ho AD, Wong-Staal F. Gene therapy targeting cord blood-derived CD34+ cells from HIV-exposed infants: preclinical studies. Gene Ther. 1998 Feb; 5(2):233-9. PMID: 9578843.
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    219. Smith IL, Taskintuna I, Rahhal FM, Powell HC, Ai E, Mueller AJ, Spector SA, Freeman WR. Clinical failure of CMV retinitis with intravitreal cidofovir is associated with antiviral resistance. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998 Feb; 116(2):178-85. PMID: 9488269.
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    220. Spector SA, Wong R, Hsia K, Pilcher M, Stempien MJ. Plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts CMV disease and survival in AIDS patients. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jan 15; 101(2):497-502. PMID: 9435323.
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    221. Marschner IC, Collier AC, Coombs RW, D'Aquila RT, DeGruttola V, Fischl MA, Hammer SM, Hughes MD, Johnson VA, Katzenstein DA, Richman DD, Smeaton LM, Spector SA, Saag MS. Use of changes in plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA to assess the clinical benefit of antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan; 177(1):40-7. PMID: 9419168.
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    222. Hsia K, Spector DH, Spector SA. Molecular analysis of the differential restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in neuronal cell lines. J Gen Virol. 1997 Dec; 78 ( Pt 12):3255-64. PMID: 9400976.
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    223. Spector SA. Detection and quantification of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a marker for development of CMV disease and survival in patients with AIDS. Antivir Ther. 1997 Dec; 2(4):200-5. PMID: 11327439.
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    224. Noraz N, Gozlan J, Corbeil J, Brunner T, Spector SA. HIV-induced apoptosis of activated primary CD4+ T lymphocytes is not mediated by Fas-Fas ligand. AIDS. 1997 Nov 15; 11(14):1671-80. PMID: 9386801.
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    225. Ellis RJ, Hsia K, Spector SA, Nelson JA, Heaton RK, Wallace MR, Abramson I, Atkinson JH, Grant I, McCutchan JA. Cerebrospinal fluid human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels are elevated in neurocognitively impaired individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group. Ann Neurol. 1997 Nov; 42(5):679-88. PMID: 9392566.
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    226. Barroga CF, Ellis R, Nelson J, Heaton RK, Atkinson JH, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Spector SA. HIV-1 neurocognitive disorders and chemokine receptors. AIDS. 1997 Nov; 11(13):1651-2. PMID: 9365772.
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    227. Spector SA, Lemmer JT, Koffman BM, Fleisher TA, Feuerstein IM, Hurley BF, Dalakas MC. Safety and efficacy of strength training in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis. Muscle Nerve. 1997 Oct; 20(10):1242-8. PMID: 9324080.
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    228. Smith IL, Cherrington JM, Jiles RE, Fuller MD, Freeman WR, Spector SA. High-level resistance of cytomegalovirus to ganciclovir is associated with alterations in both the UL97 and DNA polymerase genes. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jul; 176(1):69-77. PMID: 9207351.
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    229. Hughes MD, Johnson VA, Hirsch MS, Bremer JW, Elbeik T, Erice A, Kuritzkes DR, Scott WA, Spector SA, Basgoz N, Fischl MA, D'Aquila RT. Monitoring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in addition to CD4+ lymphocyte count improves assessment of antiretroviral therapeutic response. ACTG 241 Protocol Virology Substudy Team. Ann Intern Med. 1997 Jun 15; 126(12):929-38. PMID: 9182469.
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    230. Spector SA, Blanchard S, Wara DW, Oleske JM, McIntosh K, Hodes D, Dankner WM, Salgo M, McNamara J. Comparative trial of two dosages of zalcitabine in zidovudine-experienced children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997 Jun; 16(6):623-6. PMID: 9194115.
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    231. Whitley RJ, Cloud G, Gruber W, Storch GA, Demmler GJ, Jacobs RF, Dankner W, Spector SA, Starr S, Pass RF, Stagno S, Britt WJ, Alford C, Soong S, Zhou XJ, Sherrill L, FitzGerald JM, Sommadossi JP. Ganciclovir treatment of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: results of a phase II study. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1997 May; 175(5):1080-6. PMID: 9129069.
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    232. Moreno TN, Fortunato EA, Hsia K, Spector SA, Spector DH. A model system for human cytomegalovirus-mediated modulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat activity in brain cells. J Virol. 1997 May; 71(5):3693-701. PMID: 9094643.
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    233. Noraz N, Lathey JL, Spector SA. Human cytomegalovirus-associated immunosuppression is mediated through interferon-alpha. Blood. 1997 Apr 01; 89(7):2443-52. PMID: 9116288.
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    234. Lathey JL, Marschner IC, Kabat B, Spector SA. Deterioration of detectable human immunodeficiency virus serum p24 antigen in samples stored for batch testing. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Mar; 35(3):631-5. PMID: 9041402.
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    235. Shinkai M, Bozzette SA, Powderly W, Frame P, Spector SA. Utility of urine and leukocyte cultures and plasma DNA polymerase chain reaction for identification of AIDS patients at risk for developing human cytomegalovirus disease. J Infect Dis. 1997 Feb; 175(2):302-8. PMID: 9203650.
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    236. Lathey JL, Pratt RD, Spector SA. Appearance of autologous neutralizing antibody correlates with reduction in virus load and phenotype switch during primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan; 175(1):231-2. PMID: 8985228.
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    237. Spector SA. Current therapeutic challenges in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997; 14 Suppl 1:S32-5. PMID: 9058616.
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    238. Luciano CA, Sivakumar K, Spector SA, Dalakas MC. Electrophysiologic and histologic studies in clinically unaffected muscles of patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Muscle Nerve. 1996 Nov; 19(11):1413-20. PMID: 8874398.
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    239. van der Meer JT, Drew WL, Bowden RA, Galasso GJ, Griffiths PD, Jabs DA, Katlama C, Spector SA, Whitley RJ. Summary of the International Consensus Symposium on Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prophylaxis and Cytomegalovirus Infection. Antiviral Res. 1996 Nov; 32(3):119-40. PMID: 8955508.
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    240. Spector SA, Gordon PL, Feuerstein IM, Sivakumar K, Hurley BF, Dalakas MC. Strength gains without muscle injury after strength training in patients with postpolio muscular atrophy. Muscle Nerve. 1996 Oct; 19(10):1282-90. PMID: 8808654.
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    241. Khatter AS, Kurth MC, Brewer MA, Crinnian CT, Drazkowski JF, Flitman SS, Imke S, Spector SA, Wood KL, Lieberman AN. Prevalence of tremor and Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 1996 Oct; 2(4):205-8. PMID: 18591041.
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    242. Pratt RD, Nichols S, McKinney N, Kwok S, Dankner WM, Spector SA. Virologic markers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cerebrospinal fluid of infected children. J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug; 174(2):288-93. PMID: 8699057.
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    243. Spector SA, McKinley GF, Lalezari JP, Samo T, Andruczk R, Follansbee S, Sparti PD, Havlir DV, Simpson G, Buhles W, Wong R, Stempien M. Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. Roche Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jun 06; 334(23):1491-7. PMID: 8618603.
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    244. Smith IL, Shinkai M, Freeman WR, Spector SA. Polyradiculopathy associated with ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus in an AIDS patient: phenotypic and genotypic characterization of sequential virus isolates. J Infect Dis. 1996 Jun; 173(6):1481-4. PMID: 8648225.
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    245. Spector SA. Spectrum and treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care. 1996 May; 2(5):9-12, 15-22. PMID: 11363539.
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    246. Morris CR, Araba-Owoyele L, Spector SA, Maldonado YA. Disease patterns and survival after acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Apr; 15(4):321-8. PMID: 8866801.
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    247. Haubrich RH, Flexner C, Lederman MM, Hirsch M, Pettinelli CP, Ginsberg R, Lietman P, Hamzeh FM, Spector SA, Richman DD. A randomized trial of the activity and safety of Ro 24-7429 (Tat antagonist) versus nucleoside for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group 213 Team. J Infect Dis. 1995 Nov; 172(5):1246-52. PMID: 7594660.
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    248. Wolf DG, Lee DJ, Spector SA. Detection of human cytomegalovirus mutations associated with ganciclovir resistance in cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients with central nervous system disease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 Nov; 39(11):2552-4. PMID: 8585743.
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    249. Cohn SM, Burns GA, Sawyer MD, Tolomeo C, Milner KA, Spector S. Esmarch closure of laparotomy incisions in unstable trauma patients. J Trauma. 1995 Nov; 39(5):978-9. PMID: 7474018.
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    250. Spector SA, Hsia K, Wolf D, Shinkai M, Smith I. Molecular detection of human cytomegalovirus and determination of genotypic ganciclovir resistance in clinical specimens. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Oct; 21 Suppl 2:S170-3. PMID: 8845447.
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    251. Drew WL, Ives D, Lalezari JP, Crumpacker C, Follansbee SE, Spector SA, Benson CA, Friedberg DN, Hubbard L, Stempien MJ. Oral ganciclovir as maintenance treatment for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Syntex Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Sep 07; 333(10):615-20. PMID: 7637721.
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    252. Pratt RD, Shapiro JF, McKinney N, Kwok S, Spector SA. Virologic characterization of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in a health care worker following needlestick injury. J Infect Dis. 1995 Sep; 172(3):851-4. PMID: 7658081.
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    253. Foygel K, Spector S, Chatterjee S, Kahn PC. Volume changes of the molten globule transitions of horse heart ferricytochrome c: a thermodynamic cycle. Protein Sci. 1995 Jul; 4(7):1426-9. PMID: 7670384.
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    254. Spector SA, Busch DF, Follansbee S, Squires K, Lalezari JP, Jacobson MA, Connor JD, Jung D, Shadman A, Mastre B. Pharmacokinetic, safety, and antiviral profiles of oral ganciclovir in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a phase I/II study. AIDS Clinical Trials Group, and Cytomegalovirus Cooperative Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1995 Jun; 171(6):1431-7. PMID: 7769276.
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    255. Spector SA, Gordon PL, Yildiz E, Sivakumar K, Hurley BF, Dalakas MC. Effect of strength training in patients with post-polio syndrome. A preliminary report. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 25; 753:402-4. PMID: 7611656.
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    256. Luciano CA, Sivakumar K, Spector SA, Dalakas MC. Reinnervation in clinically unaffected muscles of patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Correlation between macroelectromyography and histology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 25; 753:394-6. PMID: 7611654.
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    257. Hsia K, Tsai V, Zvaifler NJ, Spector SA. Low prevalence of HIV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood monocytes and dendritic cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS. 1995 Apr; 9(4):398-9. PMID: 7794548.
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    258. Gilles PN, Lathey JL, Spector SA. Replication of macrophage-tropic and T-cell-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is augmented by macrophage-endothelial cell contact. J Virol. 1995 Apr; 69(4):2133-9. PMID: 7884860.
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    259. Kimberlin DW, Spector SA, Hill EL, Biron KK, Hay AJ, Mayers DL, Whitley RJ. Assays for antiviral drug resistance. Antiviral Res. 1995 Apr; 26(4):403-13. PMID: 7574542.
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    260. Tatebayashi M, Neyts J, Besen G, Flores-Aguilar M, Smith IL, Wiley CA, Spector SA, Bergeron-Lynn G, Maudgal PC, De Clercq E. Absence of infectious retinitis after injection of human cytomegalovirus into rabbit eyes. J Infect Dis. 1995 Apr; 171(4):782-7. PMID: 7706803.
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    261. Bozzette SA, Finkelstein DM, Spector SA, Frame P, Powderly WG, He W, Phillips L, Craven D, van der Horst C, Feinberg J. A randomized trial of three antipneumocystis agents in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 16; 332(11):693-9. PMID: 7854375.
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    262. Koval V, Jault FM, Pal PG, Moreno TN, Aiken C, Trono D, Spector SA, Spector DH. Differential effects of human cytomegalovirus on integrated and unintegrated human immunodeficiency virus sequences. J Virol. 1995 Mar; 69(3):1645-51. PMID: 7853500.
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    263. Havlir D, Cheeseman SH, McLaughlin M, Murphy R, Erice A, Spector SA, Greenough TC, Sullivan JL, Hall D, Myers M. High-dose nevirapine: safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral effect in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1995 Mar; 171(3):537-45. PMID: 7533197.
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    264. Meng TC, Fischl MA, Cheeseman SH, Spector SA, Resnick L, Boota A, Petrakis T, Wright B, Richman DD. Combination therapy with recombinant human soluble CD4-immunoglobulin G and zidovudine in patients with HIV infection: a phase I study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Feb 01; 8(2):152-60. PMID: 7834398.
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    265. Cheeseman SH, Havlir D, McLaughlin MM, Greenough TC, Sullivan JL, Hall D, Hattox SE, Spector SA, Stein DS, Myers M. Phase I/II evaluation of nevirapine alone and in combination with zidovudine for infection with human immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Feb 01; 8(2):141-51. PMID: 7530585.
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    266. Reinhardt PP, Reinhardt B, Lathey JL, Spector SA. Human cord blood mononuclear cells are preferentially infected by non-syncytium-inducing, macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Feb; 33(2):292-7. PMID: 7714181.
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    267. Wolf DG, Smith IL, Lee DJ, Freeman WR, Flores-Aguilar M, Spector SA. Mutations in human cytomegalovirus UL97 gene confer clinical resistance to ganciclovir and can be detected directly in patient plasma. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jan; 95(1):257-63. PMID: 7814623.
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    268. Fiscus SA, Welles SL, Spector SA, Lathey JL. Length of incubation time for human immunodeficiency virus cultures. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Jan; 33(1):246-7. PMID: 7699053.
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    269. Shinkai M, Spector SA. Quantitation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid by competitive PCR in AIDS patients with different HCMV central nervous system diseases. Scand J Infect Dis. 1995; 27(6):559-61. PMID: 8685633.
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    270. Plotkin SA, Higgins R, Kurtz JB, Morris PJ, Campbell DA, Shope TC, Spector SA, Dankner WM. Multicenter trial of Towne strain attenuated virus vaccine in seronegative renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 1994 Dec 15; 58(11):1176-8. PMID: 7992358.
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    271. Lathey JL, Fiscus SA, Rasheed S, Kappes JC, Griffith BP, Elbeik T, Spector SA, Reichelderfer PS. Optimization of quantitative culture assay for human immunodeficiency virus from plasma. Plasma Viremia Group Laboratories of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases). J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Dec; 32(12):3064-7. PMID: 7883903.
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    272. Spector SA, Gelber RD, McGrath N, Wara D, Barzilai A, Abrams E, Bryson YJ, Dankner WM, Livingston RA, Connor EM. A controlled trial of intravenous immune globulin for the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children receiving zidovudine for advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 03; 331(18):1181-7. PMID: 7935655.
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    273. Lathey JL, Kanangat S, Rouse BT, Agosti JM, Spector SA. Dysregulation of cytokine expression in monocytes from HIV-positive individuals. J Leukoc Biol. 1994 Sep; 56(3):347-52. PMID: 8083606.
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    274. Spector SA. HIV therapy advances. Pediatric antiretroviral choices. AIDS. 1994 Sep; 8 Suppl 3:S15-8. PMID: 7840911.
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    275. Marsden D, Barshop BA, Capistrano-Estrada S, Rice M, Prodanos C, Sartoris D, Wolff J, Jones KL, Spector S, Nyhan WL. Anabolic effect of human growth hormone: management of inherited disorders of catabolic pathways. Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1994 Aug; 52(2):145-54. PMID: 7993663.
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    276. Spencer LT, Ogino MT, Dankner WM, Spector SA. Clinical significance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 phenotypes in infected children. J Infect Dis. 1994 Mar; 169(3):491-5. PMID: 7908924.
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    277. Richman DD, Havlir D, Corbeil J, Looney D, Ignacio C, Spector SA, Sullivan J, Cheeseman S, Barringer K, Pauletti D. Nevirapine resistance mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 selected during therapy. J Virol. 1994 Mar; 68(3):1660-6. PMID: 7509000.
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    278. Lathey JL, Spector DH, Spector SA. Human cytomegalovirus-mediated enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 production in monocyte-derived macrophages. Virology. 1994 Feb 15; 199(1):98-104. PMID: 8116259.
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    279. Reinhardt B, Torbett BE, Gulizia RJ, Reinhardt PP, Spector SA, Mosier DE. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of neonatal severe combined immunodeficient mice xenografted with human cord blood cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994 Feb; 10(2):131-41. PMID: 8198867.
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    280. Jault FM, Spector SA, Spector DH. The effects of cytomegalovirus on human immunodeficiency virus replication in brain-derived cells correlate with permissiveness of the cells for each virus. J Virol. 1994 Feb; 68(2):959-73. PMID: 8289398.
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    281. Richman DD, Meng TC, Spector SA, Fischl MA, Resnick L, Lai S. Resistance to AZT and ddC during long-term combination therapy in patients with advanced infection with human immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1994 Feb; 7(2):135-8. PMID: 7905522.
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    282. Hardy D, Spector S, Polsky B, Crumpacker C, van der Horst C, Holland G, Freeman W, Heinemann MH, Sharuk G, Klystra J. Combination of ganciclovir and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients. The ACTG 073 Team. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994; 13 Suppl 2:S34-40. PMID: 7875151.
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    283. Bozzette SA, McCutchan JA, Spector SA, Wright B, Richman DD. A cross-sectional comparison of persons with syncytium- and non-syncytium-inducing human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec; 168(6):1374-9. PMID: 7902382.
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    284. Stefano GB, Digenis A, Spector S, Leung MK, Bilfinger TV, Makman MH, Scharrer B, Abumrad NN. Opiate-like substances in an invertebrate, an opiate receptor on invertebrate and human immunocytes, and a role in immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 01; 90(23):11099-103. PMID: 8248214.
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    285. Spector SA, Weingeist T, Pollard RB, Dieterich DT, Samo T, Benson CA, Busch DF, Freeman WR, Montague P, Kaplan HJ. A randomized, controlled study of intravenous ganciclovir therapy for cytomegalovirus peripheral retinitis in patients with AIDS. AIDS Clinical Trials Group and Cytomegalovirus Cooperative Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep; 168(3):557-63. PMID: 8394858.
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    286. Wolf DG, Spector SA. Early diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus disease in transplant recipients by DNA amplification in plasma. Transplantation. 1993 Aug; 56(2):330-4. PMID: 8395098.
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    287. Ippolito JA, Palmer L, Spector S, Kane PB, Gorevic PD. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and rheumatoid arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1993 Aug; 23(1):70-8. PMID: 8235666.
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    288. Ogino MT, Dankner WM, Spector SA. Development and significance of zidovudine resistance in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatr. 1993 Jul; 123(1):1-8. PMID: 8100579.
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    289. Spector SA, Hsia K, Pratt D, Lathey J, McCutchan JA, Alcaraz JE, Atkinson JH, Gulevich S, Wallace M, Grant I. Virologic markers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cerebrospinal fluid. The HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jul; 168(1):68-74. PMID: 8515134.
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    290. Wu AW, Rubin HR, Mathews WC, Brysk LM, Bozzette SA, Hardy WD, Atkinson JH, Grant I, Spector SA, McCutchan JA. Functional status and well-being in a placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine in early symptomatic HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993 May; 6(5):452-8. PMID: 8483109.
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    291. Pratt RD, Hatch R, Dankner WM, Spector SA. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection in a low seroprevalence area. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1993 Apr; 12(4):304-10. PMID: 8483625.
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    292. Skowron G, Bozzette SA, Lim L, Pettinelli CB, Schaumburg HH, Arezzo J, Fischl MA, Powderly WG, Gocke DJ, Richman DD, Pottage JC, Antoniskis D, McKinley GF, Hyslop NE, Ray G, Simon G, Reed N, LoFaro ML, Uttamchandani RB, Gelb LD, Sperber SJ, Murphy RL, Leedom JM, Grieco MH, Zachary J, Hirsch MS, Spector SA, Bigley J, Soo W, Merigan TC. Alternating and intermittent regimens of zidovudine and dideoxycytidine in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Mar 01; 118(5):321-30. PMID: 8094279.
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    293. Wolf DG, Spector SA. Diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus central nervous system disease in AIDS patients by DNA amplification from cerebrospinal fluid. J Infect Dis. 1992 Dec; 166(6):1412-5. PMID: 1331254.
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    294. Greenwald M, Brandli D, Spector S, Silverman S, Golde G. Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: effects of a treatment with slow-release sodium fluoride. Osteoporos Int. 1992 Nov; 2(6):303-4. PMID: 1421799.
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    295. Spector SA, Merrill R, Wolf D, Dankner WM. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in plasma of AIDS patients during acute visceral disease by DNA amplification. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Sep; 30(9):2359-65. PMID: 1328287.
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    296. Bass HZ, Hardy WD, Mitsuyasu RT, Taylor JM, Wang YX, Fischl MA, Spector SA, Richman DD, Fahey JL. The effect of zidovudine treatment on serum neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin levels in mildly symptomatic, HIV type 1 seropositive individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992; 5(3):215-21. PMID: 1346807.
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    297. Bozzette SA, Arcia J, Bartok AE, McGlynn LM, McCutchan JA, Richman DD, Spector SA. Impact of Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus on the course and outcome of atypical pneumonia in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jan; 165(1):93-8. PMID: 1309375.
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    298. Day JJ, Grant I, Atkinson JH, Brysk LT, McCutchan JA, Hesselink JR, Heaton RK, Weinrich JD, Spector SA, Richman DD. Incidence of AIDS dementia in a two-year follow-up of AIDS and ARC patients on an initial phase II AZT placebo-controlled study: San Diego cohort. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992; 4(1):15-20. PMID: 1627957.
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    299. Alexander RC, Spector SA, Casanova M, Kleinman J, Wyatt RJ, Kirch DG. Search for cytomegalovirus in the postmortem brains of schizophrenic patients using the polymerase chain reaction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992 Jan; 49(1):47-53. PMID: 1309417.
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    300. Meng TC, Fischl MA, Boota AM, Spector SA, Bennett D, Bassiakos Y, Lai SH, Wright B, Richman DD. Combination therapy with zidovudine and dideoxycytidine in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. A phase I/II study. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Jan 01; 116(1):13-20. PMID: 1345755.
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    301. Koval V, Clark C, Vaishnav M, Spector SA, Spector DH. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits human immunodeficiency virus replication in cells productively infected by both viruses. J Virol. 1991 Dec; 65(12):6969-78. PMID: 1658386.
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    302. Lathey JL, Spector SA. Unrestricted replication of human cytomegalovirus in hydrocortisone-treated macrophages. J Virol. 1991 Nov; 65(11):6371-5. PMID: 1656103.
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    303. Bozzette SA, Arcia J, Bartok AE, McGlynn LM, McCutchan JA, Richman DD, Spragg R, Spector SA. The impact of concomitant viral pathogens on the course of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J Protozool. 1991 Nov-Dec; 38(6):183S-184S. PMID: 1667929.
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    304. Hsia K, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus DNA is present in a high percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes of seropositive individuals. J Infect Dis. 1991 Sep; 164(3):470-5. PMID: 1678399.
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    305. Wu AW, Rubin HR, Mathews WC, Ware JE, Brysk LT, Hardy WD, Bozzette SA, Spector SA, Richman DD. A health status questionnaire using 30 items from the Medical Outcomes Study. Preliminary validation in persons with early HIV infection. Med Care. 1991 Aug; 29(8):786-98. PMID: 1875745.
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    306. Amirhessami-Aghili N, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human placenta: potential route for fetal infection. J Virol. 1991 May; 65(5):2231-6. PMID: 2016757.
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    307. Mosier DE, Gulizia RJ, Baird SM, Wilson DB, Spector DH, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human-PBL-SCID mice. Science. 1991 Feb 15; 251(4995):791-4. PMID: 1990441.
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    308. Jacobson DL, McCutchan JA, Spechko PL, Abramson I, Smith RS, Bartok A, Boss GR, Durand D, Bozzette SA, Spector SA. The evolution of lymphadenopathy and hypergammaglobulinemia are evidence for early and sustained polyclonal B lymphocyte activation during human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1991 Feb; 163(2):240-6. PMID: 1671053.
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    309. Bozzette SA, Santangelo J, Villasana D, Fraser A, Wright B, Jacobsen C, Hayden E, Schnack J, Spector SA, Richman DD. Peripheral nerve function in persons with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic HIV disease: absence of zidovudine neurotoxicity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991; 4(9):851-5. PMID: 1654410.
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    310. Collier AC, Bozzette S, Coombs RW, Causey DM, Schoenfeld DA, Spector SA, Pettinelli CB, Davies G, Richman DD, Leedom JM. A pilot study of low-dose zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1990 Oct 11; 323(15):1015-21. PMID: 1977080.
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    311. Hochster H, Dieterich D, Bozzette S, Reichman RC, Connor JD, Liebes L, Sonke RL, Spector SA, Valentine F, Pettinelli C. Toxicity of combined ganciclovir and zidovudine for cytomegalovirus disease associated with AIDS. An AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Jul 15; 113(2):111-7. PMID: 2163228.
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    312. Dankner WM, Scholl D, Stanat SC, Martin M, Sonke RL, Spector SA. Rapid antiviral DNA-DNA hybridization assay for human cytomegalovirus. J Virol Methods. 1990 Jun; 28(3):293-8. PMID: 2166749.
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    313. Solowey WE, Pestka S, Spector S, Fryer RI, Fisher PB. Peripheral-acting benzodiazepines inhibit the growth of human melanoma cells and potentiate the antiproliferative activity of recombinant human interferons. J Interferon Res. 1990 Jun; 10(3):269-80. PMID: 1696606.
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    314. Spector DH, Wade E, Wright DA, Koval V, Clark C, Jaquish D, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus pseudotypes with expanded cellular and species tropism. J Virol. 1990 May; 64(5):2298-308. PMID: 1691314.
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    315. Gross JG, Bozzette SA, Mathews WC, Spector SA, Abramson IS, McCutchan JA, Mendez T, Munguia D, Freeman WR. Longitudinal study of cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1990 May; 97(5):681-6. PMID: 2160634.
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    316. Spector SA. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection. Semin Hematol. 1990 Apr; 27(2 Suppl 1):11-6; discussion 28-9. PMID: 2160126.
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    317. Wu AW, Mathews WC, Brysk LT, Atkinson JH, Grant I, Abramson I, Kennedy CJ, McCutchan JA, Spector SA, Richman DD. Quality of life in a placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990; 3(7):683-90. PMID: 2191113.
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    318. Dankner WM, McCutchan JA, Richman DD, Hirata K, Spector SA. Localization of human cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood leukocytes by in situ hybridization. J Infect Dis. 1990 Jan; 161(1):31-6. PMID: 2153186.
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    319. Hsia K, Spector DH, Lawrie J, Spector SA. Enzymatic amplification of human cytomegalovirus sequences by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Aug; 27(8):1802-9. PMID: 2549097.
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    320. Spector SA, Hsia K, Denaro F, Spector DH. Use of molecular probes to detect human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Chem. 1989 Aug; 35(8):1581-7. PMID: 2547533.
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    321. Dankner WM, Spector SA. Applications of immunogold-silver enhancement: testing of monoclonal antibodies and detection of human cytomegalovirus in histologic specimens. Am J Anat. 1989 Jun-Jul; 185(2-3):310-3. PMID: 2549777.
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    322. Spector SA, Ripley D, Hsia K. Human immunodeficiency virus inhibition is prolonged by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine alternating with 2',3'-dideoxycytidine compared with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine alone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jun; 33(6):920-3. PMID: 2548440.
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    323. Spector SA, Kennedy C, McCutchan JA, Bozzette SA, Straube RG, Connor JD, Richman DD. The antiviral effect of zidovudine and ribavirin in clinical trials and the use of p24 antigen levels as a virologic marker. J Infect Dis. 1989 May; 159(5):822-8. PMID: 2496173.
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    324. Bentin J, Tsoukas CD, McCutchan JA, Spector SA, Richman DD, Vaughan JH. Impairment in T-lymphocyte responses during early infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Clin Immunol. 1989 Mar; 9(2):159-68. PMID: 2785531.
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    325. Mosier DE, Gulizia RJ, Baird SM, Spector S, Spector D, Kipps TJ, Fox RI, Carson DA, Cooper N, Richman DD. Studies of HIV infection and the development of Epstein-Barr virus-related B cell lymphomas following transfer of human lymphocytes to mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1989; 152:195-9. PMID: 2553338.
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    326. Waecker NJ, Davis CE, Bernstein G, Spector SA. Plesiomonas shigelloides septicemia and meningitis in a newborn. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Dec; 7(12):877-9. PMID: 3211630.
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    327. Atkinson JH, Grant I, Kennedy CJ, Richman DD, Spector SA, McCutchan JA. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. A controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988 Sep; 45(9):859-64. PMID: 3415427.
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    328. Grant I, Atkinson JH, Hesselink JR, Kennedy CJ, Richman DD, Spector SA, McCutchan JA. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurobehavioural disorder. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1988 Jul; 22(3):149-57. PMID: 3411542.
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    329. Jarvik JG, Hesselink JR, Kennedy C, Teschke R, Wiley C, Spector S, Richman D, McCutchan JA. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Magnetic resonance patterns of brain involvement with pathologic correlation. Arch Neurol. 1988 Jul; 45(7):731-6. PMID: 3390027.
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    330. Chung KJ, Fulton DR, Lapp R, Spector S, Sahn DJ. One-year follow-up of cardiac and coronary artery disease in infants and children with Kawasaki disease. Am Heart J. 1988 Jun; 115(6):1263-7. PMID: 3376845.
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    331. Laubscher A, Bluestein HG, Spector SA, Zvaifler NJ. Generation of human cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in a short-term culture. J Immunol Methods. 1988 May 25; 110(1):69-77. PMID: 2836515.
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    332. Dankner WM, Connor JD, Sawyer M, Straube R, Spector SA. Treatment of bacterial meningitis with once daily ceftriaxone therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988 May; 21(5):637-45. PMID: 3391863.
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    333. Blumenthal MN, Selcow J, Spector S, Zeiger RS, Mellon M. A multicenter evaluation of the clinical benefits of cromolyn sodium aerosol by metered-dose inhaler in the treatment of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988 Apr; 81(4):681-7. PMID: 3128589.
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    334. Dittrich H, Chow L, Denaro F, Spector S. Human immunodeficiency virus, coxsackievirus, and cardiomyopathy. Ann Intern Med. 1988 Feb; 108(2):308-9. PMID: 2829676.
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    335. Grant I, Atkinson JH, Hesselink JR, Kennedy CJ, Richman DD, Spector SA, McCutchan JA. Evidence for early central nervous system involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Studies with neuropsychologic testing and magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Dec; 107(6):828-36. PMID: 3688675.
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    336. Richman DD, McCutchan JA, Spector SA. Detecting human immunodeficiency virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by nucleic acid hybridization. J Infect Dis. 1987 Nov; 156(5):823-7. PMID: 2821128.
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    337. Smith RS, Naso RB, Rosen J, Whalley A, Hom YL, Hoey K, Kennedy CJ, McCutchan JA, Spector SA, Richman DD. Antibody to a synthetic oligopeptide in subjects at risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug; 25(8):1498-504. PMID: 3476491.
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    338. Laskin OL, Cederberg DM, Mills J, Eron LJ, Mildvan D, Spector SA. Ganciclovir for the treatment and suppression of serious infections caused by cytomegalovirus. Am J Med. 1987 Aug; 83(2):201-7. PMID: 3039841.
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    339. Demmler GJ, Yow MD, Spector SA, Reis SG, Brady MT, Anderson DC, Taber LH. Nosocomial cytomegalovirus infections within two hospitals caring for infants and children. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul; 156(1):9-16. PMID: 3036963.
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    340. Dankner WM, Spector SA, Fierer J, Davis CE. Malassezia fungemia in neonates and adults: complication of hyperalimentation. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 Jul-Aug; 9(4):743-53. PMID: 3125578.
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    341. Sawyer MH, Edwards DK, Spector SA. Cytomegalovirus infection and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. Am J Dis Child. 1987 Mar; 141(3):303-5. PMID: 3028127.
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    342. Cardinale GJ, Donnerer J, Finck AD, Kantrowitz JD, Oka K, Spector S. Morphine and codeine are endogenous components of human cerebrospinal fluid. Life Sci. 1987 Jan 19; 40(3):301-6. PMID: 3796227.
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    343. Wang JK, Johnson MD, Morgan JI, Spector S. Vitamin D3 derivatives inhibit the differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1986 Dec; 30(6):639-42. PMID: 3023814.
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    344. Demmler GJ, O'Neil GW, O'Neil JH, Spector SA, Brady MT, Yow MD. Transmission of cytomegalovirus from husband to wife. J Infect Dis. 1986 Sep; 154(3):545-6. PMID: 3016116.
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    345. Dankner WM, Spector SA. Recurrent herpes simplex in a neonate. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Sep-Oct; 5(5):582-6. PMID: 3020520.
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    346. Johnson MD, Wang JK, Morgan JI, Spector S. Downregulation of [3H]Ro5-4864 binding sites after exposure to peripheral-type benzodiazepines in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 Sep; 238(3):855-9. PMID: 3018224.
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    347. Nyhan WL, Wilson N, Powers NG, Zwass M, Hilton S, Spector S, Albert D, Juarez P, Kaufman IA. Intussusception. West J Med. 1986 Jun; 144(6):722-7. PMID: 3727531.
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    348. Rachelefsky G, Rohr A, Katz R, Wo J, Gracey V, Spector S, Siegel S, Mickey MR. Sustained-release theophylline preparations in asthmatic children. A short-term comparison of two products and the relationship of serum theophylline levels and pulmonary function changes. Am J Dis Child. 1986 Apr; 140(4):336-40. PMID: 3513540.
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    349. Spector SA, Dankner WM. Rapid viral diagnostic techniques. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986; 1:37-59. PMID: 3331277.
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    350. Spector SA, Neuman TR, Hirata KK. Rapid determination of molecular relatedness of isolates of human cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis. 1985 Oct; 152(4):755-9. PMID: 2995501.
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    351. Dankner WM, Spector SA. Malasezzia furfur sepsis in neonates. J Pediatr. 1985 Oct; 107(4):643-4. PMID: 4045616.
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    352. Spector SA, Spector DH. The use of DNA probes in studies of human cytomegalovirus. Clin Chem. 1985 Sep; 31(9):1514-20. PMID: 2992841.
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    353. Nyhan WL, Sawyer M, Kearney T, Spector S, Hilton S. Lead intoxication in children. West J Med. 1985 Sep; 143(3):357-64. PMID: 3931357.
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    354. Morgan JI, Johnson MD, Wang JK, Sonnenfeld KH, Spector S. Peripheral-type benzodiazepines influence ornithine decarboxylase levels and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Aug; 82(15):5223-6. PMID: 2991912.
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    355. Spector SA, Kelley E. Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus by combined acyclovir and vidarabine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Apr; 27(4):600-4. PMID: 2988432.
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    356. Hersh EM, Gutterman JU, Spector S, Friedman H, Greenberg SB, Reuben JM, LaPushin R, Matza M, Mansell PW. Impaired in vitro interferon, blastogenic, and natural killer cell responses to viral stimulation in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Cancer Res. 1985 Jan; 45(1):406-10. PMID: 2578099.
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    357. Spector SA, Hirata KK, Newman TR. Identification of multiple cytomegalovirus strains in homosexual men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1984 Dec; 150(6):953-6. PMID: 6094679.
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    358. Spector SA, Rua JA, Spector DH, McMillan R. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in clinical specimens by DNA-DNA hybridization. J Infect Dis. 1984 Jul; 150(1):121-6. PMID: 6086767.
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    359. Wang JK, Morgan JI, Spector S. Differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells induced by benzodiazepines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jun; 81(12):3770-2. PMID: 6587392.
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    360. Wang JK, Taniguchi T, Spector S. Structural requirements for the binding of benzodiazepines to their peripheral-type sites. Mol Pharmacol. 1984 May; 25(3):349-51. PMID: 6328261.
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    361. Van Dyke RB, Spector SA. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 to a newborn infant during endotracheal suctioning for meconium aspiration. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1984 Mar-Apr; 3(2):153-6. PMID: 6328457.
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    362. Wang JK, Morgan JI, Spector S. Benzodiazepines that bind at peripheral sites inhibit cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Feb; 81(3):753-6. PMID: 6322168.
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    363. Spector DH, Spector SA. The oncogenic potential of human cytomegalovirus. Prog Med Virol. 1984; 29:45-89. PMID: 6322235.
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    364. Spector SA, Straube RC. Protean manifestations of perinatal enterovirus infections. West J Med. 1983 Jun; 138(6):847-51. PMID: 6613112.
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    365. Straube RC, Thompson MA, Van Dyke RB, Wadell G, Connor JD, Wingard D, Spector SA. Adenovirus type 7b in a children's hospital. J Infect Dis. 1983 May; 147(5):814-9. PMID: 6302176.
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    366. Spector SA. Transmission of cytomegalovirus among infants in hospital documented by restriction-endonuclease-digestion analyses. Lancet. 1983 Feb 19; 1(8321):378-81. PMID: 6185807.
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    367. Hullihan JP, Spector S, Taniguchi T, Wang JK. The binding of [3H]-diazepam to guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle and the in vitro inhibition of contraction by benzodiazepines. Br J Pharmacol. 1983 Feb; 78(2):321-7. PMID: 6131717.
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    368. Spector SA, Tyndall M, Kelley E. Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus by trifluorothymidine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1983 Jan; 23(1):113-8. PMID: 6299179.
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    369. Spector SA, Spector DH. Molecular epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infections in premature twin infants and their mother. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1982 Nov-Dec; 1(6):405-9. PMID: 6298754.
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    370. Hintz M, Connor JD, Spector SA, Blum MR, Keeney RE, Yeager AS. Neonatal acyclovir pharmacokinetics in patients with herpes virus infections. Am J Med. 1982 Jul 20; 73(1A):210-4. PMID: 6285713.
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    371. Spector SA, Hintz M, Wyborny C, Connor JD, Keeney RE, Liao S. Treatment of herpes virus infections in immunocompromised patients with acyclovir by continuous intravenous infusion. Am J Med. 1982 Jul 20; 73(1A):275-80. PMID: 6285719.
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    372. Spector SA, Tyndall M, Kelley E. Effects of acyclovir combined with other antiviral agents on human cytomegalovirus. Am J Med. 1982 Jul 20; 73(1A):36-9. PMID: 6179416.
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    373. Taniguchi T, Wang JK, Spector S. [3H]Diazepam binding sites on rat heart and kidney. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Feb 15; 31(4):589-90. PMID: 6279112.
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    374. Labovitz E, Spector S. Placental theophylline transfer in pregnant asthmatics. JAMA. 1982 Feb 12; 247(6):786-8. PMID: 7057554.
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    375. Spector S, Brown KE. Lead study questioned. Pediatrics. 1982 Jan; 69(1):134-5. PMID: 7054754.
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    376. Spector S. Tolerance to beta-adrenergics and results of rising dose studies of albuterol, isoproterenol and placebo. Ann Allergy. 1981 Nov; 47(5 Pt 2):394-401. PMID: 7030154.
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    377. Taniguchi T, Wang JK, Spector S. Changes in platelet and renal benzodiazepine binding in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1981 Apr 09; 70(4):587-8. PMID: 6263642.
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    378. Spector SA, Connor JD, Hintz M, Quinn RP, Blum MR, Keeney RE. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of acyclovir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981 Apr; 19(4):608-12. PMID: 7247383.
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    379. Wang JK, Taniguchi T, Spector S. Properties of [3H]diazepam binding sites on rat blood platelets. Life Sci. 1980 Nov 17; 27(20):1881-8. PMID: 6257998.
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    380. Girsh LS, Spector S, Patel C, Friedman H. A screening test for influenza immunity: preimmunization antibody titers to influenza virus antigens in atopic patients. Ann Allergy. 1980 Sep; 45(3):163-6. PMID: 6251738.
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    381. Taniguchi T, Wang JK, Spector S. Properties of [3H] diazepam binding to rat peritoneal mast cells. Life Sci. 1980 Jul 14; 27(2):171-8. PMID: 6157072.
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    382. Edgerton VR, Goslow GE, Rasmussen SA, Spector SA. Is resistance of a muscle to fatigue controlled by its motoneurones? Nature. 1980 Jun 19; 285(5766):589-90. PMID: 6447252.
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    383. Strickland M, Spector S, Hamlin-Cook P, Hanna C, Moore C, Bellig L, Fiorato A. Nurse training and staffing in the neonatal intensive care unit. Clin Perinatol. 1980 Mar; 7(1):173-86. PMID: 7398178.
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    384. Spector S, Farr R. Bronchial inhalation challenge with antigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1979 Dec; 64(6 pt 2):580-6. PMID: 512249.
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    385. Spector SA, Schmidt K, Ticknor W, Grossman M. Cytomegaloviruria in older infants in intensive care nurseries. J Pediatr. 1979 Sep; 95(3):444-6. PMID: 224161.
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    386. Schachter J, Grossman M, Holt J, Sweet R, Spector S. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: involvement of multiple anatomic sites in neonates. J Infect Dis. 1979 Feb; 139(2):232-4. PMID: 438536.
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    387. Norris DA, Fine R, Weston WL, Spector S. Monocyte cellular function in asthmatic patients on alternate-day steroid therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1978 Apr; 61(4):255-60. PMID: 632474.
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    388. Ngai SH, Levy A, Finck AD, Yang JC, Spector S. Central nervous system toxicity of hyperbaric oxygen--effects of light, norepinephrine depletion and beta-adrenergic blockade. Neuropharmacology. 1977 Oct; 16(10):675-9. PMID: 22827.
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    389. Matteo RS, Pua EK, Khambatta HJ, Spector S. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of d-tubocurarine in man. Anesthesiology. 1977 Jun; 46(6):396-9. PMID: 860842.
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    390. Weinberger M, Hudgel D, Spector S, Chidsey C. Inhibition of theophylline clearance by troleandomycin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1977 Mar; 59(3):228-31. PMID: 300083.
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    391. Kinsman RA, Dahlem NW, Spector S, Staudenmayer H. Obervations on subjective symptomatology, coping behavior, and medical decisions is asthma. Psychosom Med. 1977 Mar-Apr; 39(2):102-19. PMID: 403566.
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    392. Robinson DS, Sourkes TL, Nies A, Harris LS, Spector S, Bartlett DL, Kaye IS. Monoamine metabolism in human brain. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977 Jan; 34(1):89-92. PMID: 13761.
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    393. Sathananthan GL, Gershon S, Almeida M, Spector N, Spector S. Correlation between plasma and cerebrospinal levels of imipramine. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976 Sep; 33(9):1109-10. PMID: 962493.
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    394. Gintzler AR, Levy A, Spector S. Antibodies as a means of isolating and characterizing biologically active substances: presence of a non-peptide, morphine-like compound in the central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Jun; 73(6):2132-6. PMID: 1064881.
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    395. Spector S, Lai FM, Ooshima A, Cardinale G, Udenfriend S. Relation of catecholamines to collagen synthesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976; 275:114-6. PMID: 1070267.
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    396. Udenfriend S, Ooshima A, Cardinale G, Fuller GC, Spector S. Increased formation of collagen in the blood vessels of hypertensive rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976; 275:101-3. PMID: 1070265.
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    397. Berkowitz BA, Tarver JH, Spector S. Release of norepinephrine in the central nervous system by theophylline and caffeine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1970 Apr; 10(1):64-71. PMID: 5458986.
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    398. Doershuk CF, Matthews LW, Gillespie CT, Lough MD, Spector S. Evaluation of jet-type and ultrasonic nebulizers in mist tent therapy for cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 1968 Apr; 41(4):723-32. PMID: 5643980.
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    399. Gold H, Spector S, Samaan NA, Pearson OH. Effect of growth hormone on carbohydrate metabolism in hypopituitary dwarfs. Metabolism. 1968 Jan; 17(1):74-83. PMID: 5638680.
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    400. Barchas J, DaCosta F, Spector S. Acute pharmacology of melatonin. Nature. 1967 May 27; 214(5091):919-20. PMID: 6054984.
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    401. Matthews LW, Doershuk CF, Spector S. Mist tent therapy of the obstructive pulmonary lesion of cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 1967 Feb; 39(2):176-85. PMID: 6017955.
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    402. Coffin R, Phillips JL, Staples WI, Spector S. Treatment of lead encephalopathy in children. J Pediatr. 1966 Aug; 69(2):198-206. PMID: 4957770.
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    403. Doershuk CF, Matthews LW, Tucker AS, Spector S. Evaluation of a prophylactic and therapeutic program for patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 1965 Nov; 36(5):675-88. PMID: 5844001.
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    404. Potter JL, Matthews LW, Spector S, Lemm J. Complex formation between basic antibiotics and deoxyribonucleic acid in human pulmonary secretions. Pediatrics. 1965 Nov; 36(5):714-20. PMID: 5844004.
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    405. DOERSHUK CF, MATTHEWS LW, TUCKER AS, NUDLEMAN H, EDDY G, WISE M, SPECTOR S. A 5 YEAR CLINICAL EVALUATION OF A THERAPEUTIC PROGRAM FOR PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS. J Pediatr. 1964 Nov; 65:677-93. PMID: 14221168.
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    406. MATTHEWS LW, DOERSHUK CF, WISE M, EDDY G, NUDELMAN H, SPECTOR S. A THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN FOR PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS. J Pediatr. 1964 Oct; 65:558-75. PMID: 14216644.
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    407. PETTINGER W, HORWITZ D, SPECTOR S, SJOERDSMA A. ENHANCEMENT BY METHYLDOPA OF TYRAMINE SENSITIVITY IN MAN. Nature. 1963 Dec 14; 200:1107-8. PMID: 14098446.
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    408. SPECTOR S. Monoamine oxidase in control of brain serotonin and norepinephrine content. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1963 Jul 08; 107:856-64. PMID: 13989974.
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    409. POTTER JL, MATTHEWS LW, LEMM J, SPECTOR S. Human pulmonary secretions in health and disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1963 Mar 30; 106:692-7. PMID: 13985747.
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    410. POTTER JL, MATTHEWS LW, LEMM J, SPECTOR S. The carbohydrate composition of pulmonary secretions. J Pediatr. 1962 Aug; 61:297-8. PMID: 14488293.
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    411. MATTHEWS LW, SPECTOR S. "Break-through in cystic fibrosis". Pediatrics. 1961 Mar; 27:351-3. PMID: 13768289.
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    412. BRODIE BB, SPECTOR S, SHORE PA. Interaction of monoamine oxidase inhibitors with physiological and biochemical mechanisms in brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1959 Sep 17; 80:609-16. PMID: 13804624.
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    413. SPECTOR S, MATTHEWS LW, LEMM FJ, VAN ERP Y, CLINE J. Study of fat absorption utilizing I 131-labeled corn oil in infants and children with and without steatorrhea. Pediatrics. 1958 Sep; 22(3):515-24. PMID: 13578543.
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    414. LAVIK PS, MATTHEWS LW, BUCKALOO GW, LEMM FJ, SPECTOR S, FRIEDELL HL. Use of I131 - labeled protein in the study of protein digestion and absorption in children with and without cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Pediatrics. 1952 Dec; 10(6):667-76. PMID: 13003415.
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    415. SPECTOR S, MERCER RD. The effect of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone on experimental tetanus in mice. J Infect Dis. 1951 Nov-Dec; 89(3):224-5. PMID: 14888946.
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    416. THOMPSON BF, SPECTOR S. Aureomycin in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis of infants. J Pediatr. 1949 Nov; 35(5):546-56. PMID: 15393433.
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    417. SPECTOR S, MC KHANN CF. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis in children. J Pediatr. 1948 Mar; 32(3):227-45. PMID: 18907142.
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