Stephen Spector

Title(s)Professor, Pediatrics
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
Emailsaspector@ucsd.edu
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MAMD05/1975Medicine
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA06/1977Pediatric Residency
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA06/1978Fellow, Neonatogy and Pediatric Infectious Diseases
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA06/1979NIH Fellow, Pediatric Infectious Diseases
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Tufts University School of Medicine1972NIH Research Fellow in Immunology
    UCSD1978  - 1979NIH Fellow in Infectious Diseases
    NIAID1995  - 2006Chair, Executive Committe Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
    2000  - presBest Doctors in America
    South Africa Embassy2006Honored by South African Embassy to U.S. for contributions to halting HIV/AIDS epidemic
    NIAID2006Honored by PACTG for exceptional contributions and leadership
    American Association of Physicians 2009Elected to American Association of Physicians
    UCSD.Rady Children's Hospital2010Recipient of Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego Research Award
    Children's Hospital of Philadelphia2010Gertrude and Herman Silver Award in Recognition of work on behalf of children, adolescents and famil

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Spector, a world leader in HIV research for more than 25 years, is Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, the Chief of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Director of the UCSD Mother-Child-Adolescent HIV Program. His research has used molecular and Immunologic approaches to study host-virus interactions of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) with a particular emphasis developing novel approaches for the detection, treatment and eradication of persistent viruses. Current CMV related research is examining the role of CMV in endothelial cell inflammation and the development of cardiovascular diseases. The laboratory has been involved with HIV/AIDS research since the beginning of the epidemic. Current research examines HIV pathogenesis with a particular emphasis on host-virus interactions, and the associations of host genetic variants on HIV diseases progression and HIV-related diseases including CNS impairment in children and adults. The laboratory’s interest in the identification of host factors that affect HIV pathogenesis led us to the novel finding that during permissive infection, HIV down-regulates autophagy to promote its own replication, and the induction of autophagy (using mTOR inhibitors as well as vitamin D3) inhibits HIV replication. The laboratory has also identified specific host genetic variants that are associated with mother-to-child transmission, HIV disease progression, and antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and adverse effects. This research has led to our examining the association of host factors that control HIV replication with the goal of identifying novel strategies to eradicate HIV from those infected.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Nanopeptide Targeting of HIV-CNS Reservoirs without Reactivation
    NIH R01NS104015May 1, 2017 - Feb 28, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of CMV in Heart Disease of HIV-Infected Women and Perinatally Infected Youth
    NIH R56HL125028Sep 12, 2014 - Feb 28, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Modulating Autophagy to Eradicate HIV-1 from CNS Reservoirs
    NIH R01NS084912May 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Host Genetic Factors Associated with CNS Disease of HIV-Infected Children
    NIH R01NS077874Aug 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Vitamin D Inhibition of HIV and M. Tuberculosis Coinfection in Macrophages
    NIH R21AI084573Jul 21, 2009 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Centers for Underrepresented Populations in Research Clinical Trials Unit (CURE CTU)
    NIH UM1AI069536Jan 1, 2007 - Nov 30, 2027
    Role: Principal Investigator
    University of California, San Diego Clinical Trial Unit
    NIH U01AI069536Jan 1, 2007 - Nov 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego EXPORT Comprehensive NCMHD Research Center
    NIH P60MD000220Sep 30, 2002 - Apr 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    San Diego Export: An University Community Partnership E*
    NIH P60MD000263Sep 30, 2002 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Co-Investigator
    ADOLESCENT MEDICINE TRIALS UNIT (AMTU)
    NIH U01HD040464Apr 16, 2001 - Feb 28, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pediatric ACTG Coordinating and Operations Center
    NIH U01AI041089Mar 1, 1997 - Feb 28, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH M01RR000827Jan 27, 1997 - Nov 30, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator
    FACTORS IN PEDIATRIC AIDS TRANSMISSION AND PATHOGENESIS
    NIH R01AI039004Sep 30, 1995 - Feb 28, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Center for AIDS Research
    NIH P30AI036214Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Investigator
    MOLECULAR INTERACTION OF HIV HCMV
    NIH R01AI028270Apr 1, 1989 - Aug 31, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
    NIH U01AI027563Sep 30, 1988 - Feb 28, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SAN DIEGO AIDS CLINICAL TRIAL UNIT
    NIH U01AI027670Jun 30, 1986 - Dec 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Longitudinal changes in epigenetic age in youth with perinatally acquired HIV and youth who are perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected. AIDS. 2021 04 01; 35(5):811-819. Shiau S, Brummel SS, Kennedy EM, Hermetz K, Spector SA, Williams PL, Kacanek D, Smith R, Drury SS, Agwu A, Ellis A, Patel K, Seage GR, Van Dyke RB, Marsit CJ, Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) . PMID: 33587437.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and HIV-1 derived ssRNA sequences activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages through a non-classical pathway. iScience. 2021 Apr 23; 24(4):102295. Campbell GR, To RK, Hanna J, Spector SA. PMID: 33718825.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    3. Live-attenuated Vaccines Prevent Respiratory Syncytial Virus-associated Illness in Young Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 03 01; 203(5):594-603. Karron RA, Atwell JE, McFarland EJ, Cunningham CK, Muresan P, Perlowski C, Libous J, Spector SA, Yogev R, Aziz M, Woods S, Wanionek K, Collins PL, Buchholz UJ. PMID: 32871092.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    4. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1. Autophagy. 2021 Jan; 17(1):1-382. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, Abeliovich H, Abildgaard MH, Abudu YP, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adamopoulos IE, Adeli K, Adolph TE, Adornetto A, Aflaki E, Agam G, Agarwal A, Aggarwal BB, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Agrewala JN, Agrotis A, Aguilar PV, Ahmad ST, Ahmed ZM, Ahumada-Castro U, Aits S, Aizawa S, Akkoc Y, Akoumianaki T, Akpinar HA, Al-Abd AM, Al-Akra L, Al-Gharaibeh A, Alaoui-Jamali MA, Alberti S, Alcocer-Gómez E, Alessandri C, Ali M, Alim Al-Bari MA, Aliwaini S, Alizadeh J, Almacellas E, Almasan A, Alonso A, Alonso GD, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Álvarez ÉMC, Alves S, Alves da Costa C, Alzaharna MM, Amadio M, Amantini C, Amaral C, Ambrosio S, Amer AO, Ammanathan V, An Z, Andersen SU, Andrabi SA, Andrade-Silva M, Andres AM, Angelini S, Ann D, Anozie UC, Ansari MY, Antas P, Antebi A, Antón Z, Anwar T, Apetoh L, Apostolova N, Araki T, Araki Y, Arasaki K, Araújo WL, Araya J, Arden C, Arévalo MA, Arguelles S, Arias E, Arikkath J, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong-James D, Arnauné-Pelloquin L, Aroca A, Arroyo DS, Arsov I, Artero R, Asaro DML, Aschner M, Ashrafizadeh M, Ashur-Fabian O, Atanasov AG, Au AK, Auberger P, Auner HW, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Ávalos Y, Aveic S, Aveleira CA, Avin-Wittenberg T, Aydin Y, Ayton S, Ayyadevara S, Azzopardi M, Baba M, Backer JM, Backues SK, Bae DH, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek A, Baek SH, Baek SH, Bagetta G, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai X, Bai Y, Bairagi N, Baksi S, Balbi T, Baldari CT, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Ballester M, Balazadeh S, Balzan R, Bandopadhyay R, Banerjee S, Banerjee S, Bánréti Á, Bao Y, Baptista MS, Baracca A, Barbati C, Bargiela A, Barilà D, Barlow PG, Barmada SJ, Barreiro E, Barreto GE, Bartek J, Bartel B, Bartolome A, Barve GR, Basagoudanavar SH, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Basu A, Batoko H, Batten I, Baulieu EE, Baumgarner BL, Bayry J, Beale R, Beau I, Beaumatin F, Bechara LRG, Beck GR, Beers MF, Begun J, Behrends C, Behrens GMN, Bei R, Bejarano E, Bel S, Behl C, Belaid A, Belgareh-Touzé N, Bellarosa C, Belleudi F, Belló Pérez M, Bello-Morales R, Beltran JSO, Beltran S, Benbrook DM, Bendorius M, Benitez BA, Benito-Cuesta I, Bensalem J, Berchtold MW, Berezowska S, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Bergmann A, Berliocchi L, Berlioz-Torrent C, Bernard A, Berthoux L, Besirli CG, Besteiro S, Betin VM, Beyaert R, Bezbradica JS, Bhaskar K, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhuiyan MS, Bhutia SK, Bi L, Bi X, Biden TJ, Bijian K, Billes VA, Binart N, Bincoletto C, Birgisdottir AB, Bjorkoy G, Blanco G, Blas-Garcia A, Blasiak J, Blomgran R, Blomgren K, Blum JS, Boada-Romero E, Boban M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boeuf P, Boland B, Bomont P, Bonaldo P, Bonam SR, Bonfili L, Bonifacino JS, Boone BA, Bootman MD, Bordi M, Borner C, Bornhauser BC, Borthakur G, Bosch J, Bose S, Botana LM, Botas J, Boulanger CM, Boulton ME, Bourdenx M, Bourgeois B, Bourke NM, Bousquet G, Boya P, Bozhkov PV, Bozi LHM, Bozkurt TO, Brackney DE, Brandts CH, Braun RJ, Braus GH, Bravo-Sagua R, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brest P, Bringer MA, Briones-Herrera A, Broaddus VC, Brodersen P, Brodsky JL, Brody SL, Bronson PG, Bronstein JM, Brown CN, Brown RE, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bruno D, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Bucci C, Buchrieser C, Bueno M, Buitrago-Molina LE, Buraschi S, Buch S, Buchan JR, Buckingham EM, Budak H, Budini M, Bultynck G, Burada F, Burgoyne JR, Burón MI, Bustos V, Büttner S, Butturini E, Byrd A, Cabas I, Cabrera-Benitez S, Cadwell K, Cai J, Cai L, Cai Q, Cairó M, Calbet JA, Caldwell GA, Caldwell KA, Call JA, Calvani R, Calvo AC, Calvo-Rubio Barrera M, Camara NO, Camonis JH, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell EM, Campbell-Valois FX, Campello S, Campesi I, Campos JC, Camuzard O, Cancino J, Candido de Almeida D, Canesi L, Caniggia I, Canonico B, Cantí C, Cao B, Caraglia M, Caramés B, Carchman EH, Cardenal-Muñoz E, Cardenas C, Cardenas L, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carle GF, Carleton G, Carloni S, Carmona-Gutierrez D, et al. PMID: 33634751.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 51     Fields:    
    5. Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021 02 04; 384(5):403-416. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, Diemert D, Spector SA, Rouphael N, Creech CB, McGettigan J, Khetan S, Segall N, Solis J, Brosz A, Fierro C, Schwartz H, Neuzil K, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Mascola J, Polakowski L, Ledgerwood J, Graham BS, Bennett H, Pajon R, Knightly C, Leav B, Deng W, Zhou H, Han S, Ivarsson M, Miller J, Zaks T, COVE Study Group . PMID: 33378609.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 616     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    6. Genomics Links Inflammation with Neurocognitive Impairment in Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1. J Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 29. Rawat P, Brummel SS, Singh KK, Kim J, Frazer KA, Nichols S, Seage Iii GR, Williams PL, Van Dyke RB, Harismendy O, Trout RN, Spector SA, Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Tr . PMID: 33373444.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    7. Impact of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity on Neonatal Raltegravir Pharmacokinetics: Impaact P1097. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 12 15; 85(5):626-634. Clarke DF, Lommerse J, Acosta EP, Cababasay MP, Wang J, Spector SA, Chain A, Smith E, Teppler H, Hazra R, Calabrese K, Graham B, Popson S, Bryson Y, Mirochnick M, International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1097 Study Team . PMID: 32925360.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Pharmacokinetics and safety of early nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy for neonates at high risk for perinatal HIV infection: a phase 1/2 proof of concept study. Lancet HIV. 2021 03; 8(3):e149-e157. Ruel TD, Capparelli EV, Tierney C, Nelson BS, Coletti A, Bryson Y, Cotton MF, Spector SA, Mirochnick M, LeBlanc R, Reding C, Zimmer B, Persaud D, Bwakura-Dangarembizi M, Naidoo KL, Hazra R, Jean-Philippe P, Chadwick EG. PMID: 33242457.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Methamphetamine-Mediated Mitochondrial Damage and Neuronal Degeneration in Human Neurons. J Virol. 2020 09 29; 94(20). Teodorof-Diedrich C, Spector SA. PMID: 32796068.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. CD4+ T Cell-Mimicking Nanoparticles Broadly Neutralize HIV-1 and Suppress Viral Replication through Autophagy. mBio. 2020 09 15; 11(5). Zhang G, Campbell GR, Zhang Q, Maule E, Hanna J, Gao W, Zhang L, Spector SA. PMID: 32934078.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    11. Trehalose Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Primary Human Macrophages and CD4+ T Lymphocytes through Two Distinct Mechanisms. J Virol. 2020 08 17; 94(17). Rawat P, Hon S, Teodorof-Diedrich C, Spector SA. PMID: 32554696.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    12. SMAC mimetics induce autophagy-dependent apoptosis of HIV-1-infected macrophages. Cell Death Dis. 2020 07 27; 11(7):590. Campbell GR, To RK, Zhang G, Spector SA. PMID: 32719312.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. Raltegravir (RAL) in Neonates: Dosing, Pharmacokinetics (PK), and Safety in HIV-1-Exposed Neonates at Risk of Infection (IMPAACT P1110). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 05 01; 84(1):70-77. Clarke DF, Acosta EP, Cababasay M, Wang J, Chain A, Teppler H, Popson S, Graham B, Smith B, Hazra R, Calabrese K, Bryson Y, Spector SA, Lommerse J, Mirochnick M, IMPAACT P1110 Protocol Team . PMID: 31913995.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    14. Live Respiratory Syncytial Virus Attenuated by M2-2 Deletion and Stabilized Temperature Sensitivity Mutation 1030s Is a Promising Vaccine Candidate in Children. J Infect Dis. 2020 02 03; 221(4):534-543. McFarland EJ, Karron RA, Muresan P, Cunningham CK, Libous J, Perlowski C, Thumar B, Gnanashanmugam D, Moye J, Schappell E, Barr E, Rexroad V, Fearn L, Spector SA, Aziz M, Cielo M, Beneri C, Wiznia A, Luongo C, Collins P, Buchholz UJ. PMID: 31758177.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    15. TREM-1 Protects HIV-1-Infected Macrophages from Apoptosis through Maintenance of Mitochondrial Function. mBio. 2019 11 12; 10(6). Campbell GR, To RK, Spector SA. PMID: 31719184.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    16. Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. J Pediatr. 2020 01; 216:82-87.e2. Purswani MU, Russell JS, Dietrich M, Malee K, Spector SA, Williams PL, Frederick T, Burchett S, Redmond S, Hoffman HJ, Torre P, Lee S, Rice ML, Yao TJ, Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study . PMID: 31668479.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    17. Vitamin D status and risk of incident tuberculosis disease: A nested case-control study, systematic review, and individual-participant data meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2019 09; 16(9):e1002907. Aibana O, Huang CC, Aboud S, Arnedo-Pena A, Becerra MC, Bellido-Blasco JB, Bhosale R, Calderon R, Chiang S, Contreras C, Davaasambuu G, Fawzi WW, Franke MF, Galea JT, Garcia-Ferrer D, Gil-Fortuño M, Gomila-Sard B, Gupta A, Gupte N, Hussain R, Iborra-Millet J, Iqbal NT, Juan-Cerdán JV, Kinikar A, Lecca L, Mave V, Meseguer-Ferrer N, Montepiedra G, Mugusi FM, Owolabi OA, Parsonnet J, Roach-Poblete F, Romeu-García MA, Spector SA, Sudfeld CR, Tenforde MW, Togun TO, Yataco R, Zhang Z, Murray MB. PMID: 31509529.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Establishing Dosing Recommendations for Efavirenz in HIV/TB-Coinfected Children Younger Than 3 Years. . 2019 08 01; 81(4):473-480. Bwakura Dangarembizi M, Samson P, Capparelli EV, Moore CB, Jean-Philippe P, Spector SA, Chakhtoura N, Benns A, Zimmer B, Purdue L, Jackson C, Wallis C, Libous JL, Chadwick EG, IMPAACT P1070 Study Team . PMID: 31241542.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    19. Markers of Bone Mineral Metabolism and Cardiac Structure and Function in Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents. . 2019 06 01; 81(2):238-246. Margossian R, Williams PL, Yu W, Jacobson DL, Geffner ME, DiMeglio LA, Van Dyke RB, Spector SA, Schuster GU, Stephensen CB, Miller TL, Lipshultz SE, Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) . PMID: 30865170.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    20. Selective cell death of latently HIV-infected CD4+ T cells mediated by autosis inducing nanopeptides. Cell Death Dis. 2019 05 29; 10(6):419. Zhang G, Luk BT, Wei X, Campbell GR, Fang RH, Zhang L, Spector SA. PMID: 31142734.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    21. Vaccine Strain Varicella Infection in an Infant With Previously Undiagnosed Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Type-1 Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 04; 38(4):413-415. Farnaes L, Coufal NG, Spector SA. PMID: 30882735.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. Association of Cytomegalovirus DNA and Immunologic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 May; 6(5):ofz113. Garg A, Gianella S, Nakazawa M, Trout R, Spector SA. PMID: 31139667.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    23. DIABLO/SMAC mimetics selectively kill HIV-1-infected resting memory CD4+ T cells: a potential role in a cure strategy for HIV-1 infection. Autophagy. 2019 04; 15(4):744-746. Campbell GR, Spector SA. PMID: 30653393.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 single-stranded RNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and impairs autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria in human microglia. Glia. 2019 05; 67(5):802-824. Rawat P, Teodorof-Diedrich C, Spector SA. PMID: 30582668.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    25. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 and Tat Induce Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Incomplete Mitophagy in Human Neurons. J Virol. 2018 11 15; 92(22). Teodorof-Diedrich C, Spector SA. PMID: 30158296.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    26. SMAC Mimetics Induce Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis of HIV-1-Infected Resting Memory CD4+ T Cells. . 2018 11 14; 24(5):689-702.e7. Campbell GR, Bruckman RS, Chu YL, Trout RN, Spector SA. PMID: 30344003.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    27. T-Cell-Mimicking Nanoparticles Can Neutralize HIV Infectivity. . 2018 Nov; 30(45):e1802233. Wei X, Zhang G, Ran D, Krishnan N, Fang RH, Gao W, Spector SA, Zhang L. PMID: 30252965.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    28. Induction of a Na+/K+-ATPase-dependent form of autophagy triggers preferential cell death of human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected macrophages. Autophagy. 2018; 14(8):1359-1375. Zhang G, Luk BT, Hamidy M, Zhang L, Spector SA. PMID: 29962265.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate With Deletion of RNA Synthesis Regulatory Protein M2-2 is Highly Immunogenic in Children. J Infect Dis. 2018 04 11; 217(9):1347-1355. McFarland EJ, Karron RA, Muresan P, Cunningham CK, Valentine ME, Perlowski C, Thumar B, Gnanashanmugam D, Siberry GK, Schappell E, Barr E, Rexroad V, Yogev R, Spector SA, Aziz M, Patel N, Cielo M, Luongo C, Collins PL, Buchholz UJ, International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) 2000 Study Team . PMID: 29509911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. Live Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Vaccine Candidate Containing Stabilized Temperature-Sensitivity Mutations Is Highly Attenuated in RSV-Seronegative Infants and Children. J Infect Dis. 2018 04 11; 217(9):1338-1346. Buchholz UJ, Cunningham CK, Muresan P, Gnanashanmugam D, Sato P, Siberry GK, Rexroad V, Valentine M, Perlowski C, Schappell E, Thumar B, Luongo C, Barr E, Aziz M, Yogev R, Spector SA, Collins PL, McFarland EJ, Karron RA, International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1114 Study Team . PMID: 29509929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    31. Induction of autophagy by PI3K/MTOR and PI3K/MTOR/BRD4 inhibitors suppresses HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2018 04 20; 293(16):5808-5820. Campbell GR, Bruckman RS, Herns SD, Joshi S, Durden DL, Spector SA. PMID: 29475942.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    32. A Phase II/III Trial of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Dosed According to the WHO Pediatric Weight Band Dosing Guidelines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 02; 37(2):e29-e35. Pinto JA, Capparelli EV, Warshaw M, Zimmer B, Cressey TR, Spector SA, Qin M, Smith B, Siberry GK, Mirochnick M, IMPAACT P1083 Team . PMID: 29088027.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    33. Comparison of the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube Assay With Tuberculin Skin Test for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Dec; 36(12):e317-e321. Dehority W, Viani RM, Araneta MRG, Lopez G, Spector SA. PMID: 29140946.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Associations of Low Vitamin D and Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations With Bone Mineral Density in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children. . 2017 09 01; 76(1):33-42. Jacobson DL, Stephensen CB, Miller TL, Patel K, Chen JS, Van Dyke RB, Mirza A, Schuster GU, Hazra R, Ellis A, Brummel SS, Geffner ME, Silio M, Spector SA, DiMeglio LA, Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study . PMID: 28797019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    35. Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors With Immediate Versus Deferred Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Among HIV-Positive Participants in the START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) Trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 22; 6(5). Baker JV, Sharma S, Achhra AC, Bernardino JI, Bogner JR, Duprez D, Emery S, Gazzard B, Gordin J, Grandits G, Phillips AN, Schwarze S, Soliman EZ, Spector SA, Tambussi G, Lundgren J, INSIGHT (International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials) START (Strategic Timi . PMID: 28533305.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
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    82. Antiretroviral therapy does not block the secretion of the human immunodeficiency virus tat protein. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2012 Feb; 12(1):81-6. Mediouni S, Darque A, Baillat G, Ravaux I, Dhiver C, Tissot-Dupont H, Mokhtari M, Moreau H, Tamalet C, Brunet C, Paul P, Dignat-George F, Stein A, Brouqui P, Spector SA, Campbell GR, Loret EP. PMID: 22280310.
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    83. Safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2- to 10-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012 Jan; 31(1):47-52. Siberry GK, Warshaw MG, Williams PL, Spector SA, Decker MD, Jean-Philippe P, Yogev R, Heckman BE, Manzella A, Roa J, Nachman S, Lujan-Zilbermann J, IMPAACT P1065 Protocol Team . PMID: 21987006.
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    85. Predictors of highly active antiretroviral therapy utilization for behaviorally HIV-1-infected youth: impact of adult versus pediatric clinical care site. J Adolesc Health. 2012 May; 50(5):471-7. Agwu AL, Siberry GK, Ellen J, Fleishman JA, Rutstein R, Gaur AH, Korthuis PT, Warford R, Spector SA, Gebo KA. PMID: 22525110.
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    86. CD4+ lymphocyte-based immunologic outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected children during antiretroviral therapy interruption. . 2011 Jul 01; 57(3):223-9. Siberry GK, Patel K, Van Dyke RB, Hazra R, Burchett SK, Spector SA, Paul ME, Read JS, Wiznia A, Seage GR, Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study(PHACS) . PMID: 21423022.
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    88. Autophagy is increased in postmortem brains of persons with HIV-1-associated encephalitis. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jun 01; 203(11):1647-57. Zhou D, Masliah E, Spector SA. PMID: 21592995.
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    89. Antiretroviral treatment of US children with perinatally acquired HIV infection: temporal changes in therapy between 1991 and 2009 and predictors of immunologic and virologic outcomes. . 2011 Jun 01; 57(2):165-73. Van Dyke RB, Patel K, Siberry GK, Burchett SK, Spector SA, Chernoff MC, Read JS, Mofenson LM, Seage GR, Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study . PMID: 21407086.
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    91. Hormonally active vitamin D3 (1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) triggers autophagy in human macrophages that inhibits HIV-1 infection. J Biol Chem. 2011 May 27; 286(21):18890-902. Campbell GR, Spector SA. PMID: 21454634.
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    92. Incidence of and risk factors for community acquired pneumonia in US HIV-infected children, 2000-2005. AIDS. 2011 Mar 13; 25(5):717-20. Steenhoff AP, Josephs JS, Rutstein RM, Gebo KA, Siberry GK, Gaur AH, Warford R, Korthuis PT, Spector SA, Shah SS. PMID: 21252630.
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    93. Vitamin D and HIV: letting the sun shine in. Top Antivir Med. 2011 Feb-Mar; 19(1):6-10. Spector SA. PMID: 21852710.
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    94. Psychological factors, beliefs about medication, and adherence of youth with human immunodeficiency virus in a multisite directly observed therapy pilot study. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Jun; 48(6):637-40. Garvie PA, Flynn PM, Belzer M, Britto P, Hu C, Graham B, Neely M, McSherry GD, Spector SA, Gaur AH, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) P1036B Team . PMID: 21575827.
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    95. Differential induction of rat neuronal excitotoxic cell death by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B and C tat proteins. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Jun; 27(6):647-54. Campbell GR, Watkins JD, Loret EP, Spector SA. PMID: 20977378.
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    96. Substance use in HIV-Infected women during pregnancy: self-report versus meconium analysis. AIDS Behav. 2010 Dec; 14(6):1269-78. Tassiopoulos K, Read JS, Brogly S, Rich K, Lester B, Spector SA, Yogev R, Seage GR. PMID: 20532607.
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    97. Associations of proinflammatory cytokine levels with lipid profiles, growth, and body composition in HIV-infected children initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Dec; 29(12):1118-22. Cervia JS, Chantry CJ, Hughes MD, Alvero C, Meyer WA, Hodge J, Borum P, Moye J, Spector SA, PACTG 1010 Team . PMID: 20631646.
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    98. Directly observed therapy (DOT) for nonadherent HIV-infected youth: lessons learned, challenges ahead. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Sep; 26(9):947-53. Gaur AH, Belzer M, Britto P, Garvie PA, Hu C, Graham B, Neely M, McSherry G, Spector SA, Flynn PM, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1036B Team . PMID: 20707731.
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    99. CYP2C19 genetic variants affect nelfinavir pharmacokinetics and virologic response in HIV-1-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. . 2010 Jul; 54(3):285-9. Saitoh A, Capparelli E, Aweeka F, Sarles E, Singh KK, Kovacs A, Burchett SK, Wiznia A, Nachman S, Fenton T, Spector SA. PMID: 19890215.
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    101. Phase I/II, open-label trial of safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal (groups A, C, Y, and W-135) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 May; 29(5):391-6. Siberry GK, Williams PL, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Warshaw MG, Spector SA, Decker MD, Heckman BE, Demske EF, Read JS, Jean-Philippe P, Kabat W, Nachman S, IMPAACT P1065 Protocol Team . PMID: 20431379.
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    102. Differential induction of interleukin-10 in monocytes by HIV-1 clade B and clade C Tat proteins. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 11; 285(24):18319-25. Wong JK, Campbell GR, Spector SA. PMID: 20378550.
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    103. Mother-to-child HIV transmission in a cohort of pregnant women diagnosed by rapid HIV testing at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2010 Mar-Apr; 9(2):82-6. Viani RM, Ruiz-Calderon J, Lopez G, Chacón-Cruz E, Spector SA. PMID: 20335496.
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    104. Human metapneumovirus associated with central nervous system infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Dec; 28(12):1057-60. Arnold JC, Singh KK, Milder E, Spector SA, Sawyer MH, Gavali S, Glaser C. PMID: 19755929.
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    105. HIV-1 clade B Tat, but not clade C Tat, increases X4 HIV-1 entry into resting but not activated CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 15; 285(3):1681-91. Campbell GR, Loret EP, Spector SA. PMID: 19917610.
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    106. Vitamin D earns more than a passing grade. J Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 01; 200(7):1015-7. Spector SA. PMID: 19673648.
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    107. Host genetic determinants of human immunodeficiency virus infection and disease progression in children. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5 Pt 2):55R-63R. Singh KK, Spector SA. PMID: 19190524.
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    108. Associations of chemokine receptor polymorphisms With HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: possible modulation of genetic effects by antiretrovirals. . 2008 Nov 01; 49(3):259-65. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Phiri K, Rousseau C, Kuhn L, Coutsoudis A, Jackson JB, Guay LA, Musoke P, Mmiro F, Semba RD, Spector SA. PMID: 18845960.
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    110. Analyses of HIV-1 drug-resistance profiles among infected adolescents experiencing delayed antiretroviral treatment switch after initial nonsuppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008 Jul; 22(7):545-52. Agwu A, Lindsey JC, Ferguson K, Zhang H, Spector S, Rudy BJ, Ray SC, Douglas SD, Flynn PM, Persaud D, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 381 Study Team . PMID: 18479228.
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    111. An age-dependent association of mannose-binding lectin-2 genetic variants on HIV-1-related disease in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Jul; 122(1):173-80, 180.e1-2. Singh KK, Lieser A, Ruan PK, Fenton T, Spector SA. PMID: 18602571.
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    112. Impact of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on mitochondrial DNA and RNA in human skeletal muscle cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Aug; 52(8):2825-30. Saitoh A, Haas RH, Naviaux RK, Salva NG, Wong JK, Spector SA. PMID: 18541728.
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    113. Autophagy: an overlooked mechanism of HIV-1 pathogenesis and neuroAIDS? Autophagy. 2008 Jul; 4(5):704-6. Spector SA, Zhou D. PMID: 18424919.
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    114. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection inhibits autophagy. AIDS. 2008 Mar 30; 22(6):695-9. Zhou D, Spector SA. PMID: 18356598.
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    115. Clinical outcomes after an unstructured treatment interruption in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):e513-21. Saitoh A, Foca M, Viani RM, Heffernan-Vacca S, Vaida F, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Emmanuel PJ, Deville JG, Spector SA. PMID: 18310171.
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    116. Undiagnosed respiratory viruses in children. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):e631-7. Arnold JC, Singh KK, Spector SA, Sawyer MH. PMID: 18310182.
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    117. Effect of Host Genetic Variation on the Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Response of Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Futur HIV Ther. 2008 Jan 01; 2(1):69-81. Saitoh A, Spector SA. PMID: 21197270.
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    119. Long-term observation of adolescents initiating HAART therapy: three-year follow-up. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Oct; 23(10):1208-14. Flynn PM, Rudy BJ, Lindsey JC, Douglas SD, Lathey J, Spector SA, Martinez J, Silio M, Belzer M, Friedman L, D'Angelo L, Smith E, Hodge J, Hughes MD, PACTG 381 Study Team . PMID: 17961106.
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    120. Endothelial damage from cytomegalovirus-specific host immune response can be prevented by targeted disruption of fractalkine-CX3CR1 interaction. Blood. 2008 Jan 01; 111(1):175-82. Bolovan-Fritts CA, Spector SA. PMID: 17895402.
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    121. Impact of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on mitochondria in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Dec; 51(12):4236-42. Saitoh A, Fenton T, Alvero C, Fletcher CV, Spector SA. PMID: 17893156.
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    122. Long-term safety and efficacy of a once-daily regimen of emtricitabine, didanosine, and efavirenz in HIV-infected, therapy-naive children and adolescents: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol P1021. Pediatrics. 2007 Aug; 120(2):e416-23. McKinney RE, Rodman J, Hu C, Britto P, Hughes M, Smith ME, Serchuck LK, Kraimer J, Ortiz AA, Flynn P, Yogev R, Spector S, Draper L, Tran P, Scites M, Dickover R, Weinberg A, Cunningham C, Abrams E, Blum MR, Chittick GE, Reynolds L, Rathore M, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol P1021 Study Team . PMID: 17646352.
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    123. Efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected children are associated with CYP2B6-G516T polymorphism. . 2007 Jul 01; 45(3):280-5. Saitoh A, Fletcher CV, Brundage R, Alvero C, Fenton T, Hsia K, Spector SA. PMID: 17356468.
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    125. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C Tat fails to induce intracellular calcium flux and induces reduced tumor necrosis factor production from monocytes. J Virol. 2007 Jun; 81(11):5919-28. Campbell GR, Watkins JD, Singh KK, Loret EP, Spector SA. PMID: 17376903.
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    126. Prevalence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance among recently infected adolescents: a multicenter adolescent medicine trials network for HIV/AIDS interventions study. J Infect Dis. 2006 Dec 01; 194(11):1505-9. Viani RM, Peralta L, Aldrovandi G, Kapogiannis BG, Mitchell R, Spector SA, Lie YS, Weidler JM, Bates MP, Liu N, Wilson CM, Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions . PMID: 17083034.
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    127. Mitochondrial dysfunction: prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-infant transmission outweighs fear. AIDS. 2006 Aug 22; 20(13):1777-8. Spector SA, Saitoh A. PMID: 16931943.
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    128. Human bocavirus: prevalence and clinical spectrum at a children's hospital. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Aug 01; 43(3):283-8. Arnold JC, Singh KK, Spector SA, Sawyer MH. PMID: 16804840.
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    129. Association of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and new thymic emigrants in HIV-infected children during successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Apr; 117(4):909-15. Saitoh A, Singh KK, Sandall S, Powell CA, Fenton T, Fletcher CV, Hsia K, Spector SA. PMID: 16630951.
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    130. Impact of pregnancy on abacavir pharmacokinetics. AIDS. 2006 Feb 28; 20(4):553-60. Best BM, Mirochnick M, Capparelli EV, Stek A, Burchett SK, Holland DT, Read JS, Smith E, Hu C, Spector SA, Connor JD, PACTG P1026s Study Team . PMID: 16470119.
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    131. Impact of MCP-1-2518-G allele on the HIV-1 disease of children in the United States. AIDS. 2006 Feb 14; 20(3):475-8. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Spector SA. PMID: 16439891.
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    132. Perinatal HIV counseling and rapid testing in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico: seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection. . 2006 Jan 01; 41(1):87-92. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Ruiz-Calderon J, Hubbard P, Lopez G, Chacón-Cruz E, Spector SA. PMID: 16340479.
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    137. Migration and risk factors for HIV acquisition in pregnant women in Baja California, Mexico. MedGenMed. 2005 Jun 22; 7(2):69. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Ruiz-Calderon J, Hubbard P, Lopez G, Chacón-Cruz E, Spector SA. PMID: 16369447.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    138. Genetic polymorphisms in CX3CR1 predict HIV-1 disease progression in children independently of CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV-1 RNA load. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 01; 191(11):1971-80. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Spector SA. PMID: 15871132.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    139. An MDR1-3435 variant is associated with higher plasma nelfinavir levels and more rapid virologic response in HIV-1 infected children. AIDS. 2005 Mar 04; 19(4):371-80. Saitoh A, Singh KK, Powell CA, Fenton T, Fletcher CV, Brundage R, Starr S, Spector SA. PMID: 15750390.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    140. Human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+-T-cell cytokine response induces fractalkine in endothelial cells. J Virol. 2004 Dec; 78(23):13173-81. Bolovan-Fritts CA, Trout RN, Spector SA. PMID: 15542669.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    141. CCR2 polymorphisms affect neuropsychological impairment in HIV-1-infected adults. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157(1-2):185-92. Singh KK, Ellis RJ, Marquie-Beck J, Letendre S, Heaton RK, Grant I, Spector SA. PMID: 15579296.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    142. The monocyte chemotactic protein-1 -2578G allele is associated with elevated MCP-1 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157(1-2):193-6. Letendre S, Marquie-Beck J, Singh KK, de Almeida S, Zimmerman J, Spector SA, Grant I, Ellis R, HNRC Group . PMID: 15579297.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    143. Treatment of infants coinfected with HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus with combination antiretrovirals and ganciclovir. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Oct; 114(4):983-5. Saitoh A, Viani RM, Schrier RD, Spector SA. PMID: 15480350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    144. Decrease in hospitalization and mortality rates among children with perinatally acquired HIV type 1 infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 01; 39(5):725-31. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Deville JG, Spector SA. PMID: 15356789.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    145. Virologic and immunologic outcomes after 24 weeks in HIV type 1-infected adolescents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15; 190(2):271-9. Flynn PM, Rudy BJ, Douglas SD, Lathey J, Spector SA, Martinez J, Silio M, Belzer M, Friedman L, D'Angelo L, McNamara J, Hodge J, Hughes MD, Lindsey JC, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group 381 Study Team . PMID: 15216461.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    146. Longitudinal analysis of lymphocyte ratios and HIV-1 intracellular DNA levels in children. J Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 01; 189(7):1216-20. Saitoh A, Powell CA, Fenton T, Douglas SD, Starr SE, Fletcher CV, Spector SA. PMID: 15031790.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    147. Intrapatient variability of efavirenz concentrations as a predictor of virologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Mar; 48(3):979-84. Brundage RC, Yong FH, Fenton T, Spector SA, Starr SE, Fletcher CV. PMID: 14982792.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    148. Impaired lymphoid chemokine-mediated migration due to a block on the chemokine receptor switch in human cytomegalovirus-infected dendritic cells. J Virol. 2004 Mar; 78(6):3046-54. Moutaftsi M, Brennan P, Spector SA, Tabi Z. PMID: 14990723.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    149. Prevalence of chemokine and chemokine receptor polymorphisms in seroprevalent children with symptomatic HIV-1 infection in the United States. . 2004 Mar 01; 35(3):309-13. Singh KK, Barroga CF, Hughes MD, Chen J, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Spector SA. PMID: 15076247.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    150. Lack of protective effects of interleukin-4 -589-C/T polymorphism against HIV-1-related disease progression and central nervous system impairment, in children. J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15; 189(4):587-92. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Spector SA. PMID: 14767810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    151. Relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA dynamics to baseline factors and virological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy in adolescents (aged 12-22 years) infected through high-risk behavior. J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15; 189(4):593-601. Wu H, Lathey J, Ruan P, Douglas SD, Spector SA, Lindsey J, Hughes MD, Rudy BJ, Flynn PM, PACTG 381 Team . PMID: 14767811.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    152. Long-term effects of protease-inhibitor-based combination therapy on CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. Lancet. 2003 Dec 20; 362(9401):2045-51. Soh CH, Oleske JM, Brady MT, Spector SA, Borkowsky W, Burchett SK, Foca MD, Handelsman E, Jiménez E, Dankner WM, Hughes MD, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group . PMID: 14697803.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    153. Genetic influence of CCR5, CCR2, and SDF1 variants on human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-related disease progression and neurological impairment, in children with symptomatic HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2003 Nov 15; 188(10):1461-72. Singh KK, Barroga CF, Hughes MD, Chen J, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Spector SA. PMID: 14624371.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    154. Lymphocyte subsets in healthy children from birth through 18 years of age: the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov; 112(5):973-80. Shearer WT, Rosenblatt HM, Gelman RS, Oyomopito R, Plaeger S, Stiehm ER, Wara DW, Douglas SD, Luzuriaga K, McFarland EJ, Yogev R, Rathore MH, Levy W, Graham BL, Spector SA, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group . PMID: 14610491.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 263     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    155. Comparison of molecular tests for detection and quantification of cell-associated cytomegalovirus DNA. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Aug; 41(8):3509-13. Caliendo AM, Yen-Lieberman B, Baptista J, Andersen J, Crumpacker C, Schuurman R, Spector SA, Bremer J, Lurain NS. PMID: 12904347.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    156. HIV prevalence during pregnancy in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. AIDS. 2003 May 02; 17(7):1113-4. Viani RM, Calderon JR, Van Pratt C, Lopez G, Spector SA. PMID: 12700474.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    157. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zidovudine in HIV-infected infants and children. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Feb; 43(2):133-40. Capparelli EV, Englund JA, Connor JD, Spector SA, McKinney RE, Palumbo P, Baker CJ. PMID: 12616665.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    158. HIV-1 gp120 modulates the immunological function and expression of accessory and co-stimulatory molecules of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2002 Oct; 11(5):829-47. Williams MA, Trout R, Spector SA. PMID: 12427289.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    159. Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Jul; 21(7):659-63. Starr SE, Fletcher CV, Spector SA, Brundage RC, Yong FH, Douglas SD, Flynn PM, Kline MW, PACTG 382 Study Team. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group . PMID: 12237599.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    160. Protease inhibitors and decreased birth weight in HIV-infected pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. J Perinatol. 2002 Jul-Aug; 22(5):370-3. Chmait R, Franklin P, Spector SA, Hull AD. PMID: 12082471.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    161. Detection of replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultures from patients with levels of HIV-1 RNA in plasma suppressed to less than 500 or 50 copies per milliliter. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jun; 40(6):2089-94. Demeter LM, Bosch RJ, Coombs RW, Fiscus S, Bremer J, Johnson VA, Erice A, Jackson JB, Spector SA, Squires KM, Fischl MA, Hughes MD, Hammer SM. PMID: 12037070.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    162. Progression to neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus infection predicted by elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of human immunodeficiency virus RNA. Arch Neurol. 2002 Jun; 59(6):923-8. Ellis RJ, Moore DJ, Childers ME, Letendre S, McCutchan JA, Wolfson T, Spector SA, Hsia K, Heaton RK, Grant I. PMID: 12056927.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    163. Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 DNA in peripheral blood despite prolonged suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA in children. J Infect Dis. 2002 May 15; 185(10):1409-16. Saitoh A, Hsia K, Fenton T, Powell CA, Christopherson C, Fletcher CV, Starr SE, Spector SA. PMID: 11992275.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    164. Mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1: the placenta fights back. J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb; 107(3):267-9. Spector SA. PMID: 11160148.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    165. Factors impacting on drug choices. Issues for developing countries. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Nov; 918:346-50. Spector SA. PMID: 11131721.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    166. Patterns of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in infected children. J Infect Dis. 2000 Dec; 182(6):1769-73. Spector SA, Hsia K, Yong FH, Cabral S, Fenton T, Fletcher CV, McNamara J, Mofenson LM, Starr SE. PMID: 11069252.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    167. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load is an independent predictor of CMV disease and survival in advanced AIDS. J Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8):7027-30. Spector SA, Hsia K, Crager M, Pilcher M, Cabral S, Stempien MJ. PMID: 10400803.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    168. Plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts CMV disease and survival in AIDS patients. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jan 15; 101(2):497-502. Spector SA, Wong R, Hsia K, Pilcher M, Stempien MJ. PMID: 9435323.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
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