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Tony Yaksh

TitleRecall Faculty
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentAnesthesiology
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0818
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone619-543-3597
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Ph.D.Purdue University

    Collapse Overview 

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Reversal of preexisting neuropathic pain by spinal delivery of AIBP
    NIH/NINDS R21NS104769Aug 1, 2018 - Jul 31, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    AIBP and regulation of neuropathic pain
    NIH/NINDS R01NS102432Aug 15, 2017 - May 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Sex, Stress and Immunity in the Acute to Chronic Pain Transition
    NIH/NINDS R01NS099338Dec 15, 2016 - Nov 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Construction and Analysis of BoNT derivatives as Pain Specific Inhibitors
    NIH/NIAID R21AI113580Aug 7, 2014 - Jul 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Discovery of novel small molecule analgesics
    NIH/NINDS R41NS086244May 15, 2014 - Apr 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Proteolysis of Myelin as a Source of Neuropathic Pain
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE022757Jul 30, 2012 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The role of selective brain penetrating GRPR antagonists in pruritis.
    NIH/NINDS R21NS077348Sep 30, 2011 - Dec 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pain Mechanisms and the Development of Analgesics
    NIH/NIDA R13DA021484Mar 1, 2006 - Feb 28, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
    NIH/NIDA R01DA015353Jul 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
    NIH/NINDS R01NS041954Jun 1, 2002 - May 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neurobiology of Pain
    NIH/NINDS T32NS007407Jul 1, 1997 - Jun 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF NMDA ANTAGONISTS
    NIH/NINDS R01NS033846Aug 1, 1994 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NEW MODALITIES FOR TREATMENT OF PAIN AND DRUG ABUSE
    NIH P01DA006284Sep 30, 1989 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Pain Evoked Release of Amino Acids and Prostanoids
    NIH/NINDS R37NS016541Sep 1, 1988 - Feb 28, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PEPTIDE RELEASE FROM PERIPHERAL TERMINALS OF AFFERENTS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI026249Apr 1, 1988 - Mar 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
    NIH/NIDA R01DA002110Jul 1, 1983 - Jan 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SPINAL PHARMACOLOGY OF BLADDER FUNCTION
    NIH/NINDS R01NS019650Jul 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
    NIH/NINDS R01NS016541Jul 1, 1980 - Dec 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Specialized Cancer Center Support Grant
    NIH/NCI P30CA023100Apr 1, 1978 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Yaksh TL, Hunt MA, Dos Santos GG. Development of New Analgesics: An Answer to Opioid Epidemic. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2018 Dec; 39(12):1000-1002. PMID: 30454767.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Woller SA, Ocheltree C, Wong SY, Bui A, Fujita Y, Dos Santos GG, Yaksh TL, Corr M. Neuraxial TNF and IFN-beta co-modulate persistent allodynia in arthritic mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 Nov 19. PMID: 30465880.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Shubayev V, Strongin A, Yaksh T. [EXPRESS] Structural homology of myelin basic protein and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: Significance in the pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome. Mol Pain. 2018 Nov 05; 1744806918815005. PMID: 30392459.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kokubu S, Eddinger KA, Nguyen TM, Huerta-Esquivel LL, Yamaguchi S, Schiller PW, Yaksh TL. "Characterization of the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal DALDA peptides following bolus intrathecal delivery". Scand J Pain. 2018 Oct 25. PMID: 30367811.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Gregus AM, Buczynski MW, Dumlao DS, Norris PC, Rai G, Simeonov A, Maloney DJ, Jadhav A, Xu Q, Wei SC, Fitzsimmons BL, Dennis EA, Yaksh TL. Inhibition of Spinal 15-LOX-1 Attenuates TLR4-Dependent, NSAID-Unresponsive Hyperalgesia in Male Rats. Pain. 2018 Aug 16. PMID: 30130298.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Bruno K, Woller SA, Miller YI, Yaksh TL, Wallace M, Beaton G, Chakravarthy K. Targeting Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4) - Emerging Therapeutic Target for Persistent Pain States. Pain. 2018 Jun 07. PMID: 29889119.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Woller SA, Choi SH, An EJ, Low H, Schneider DA, Ramachandran R, Kim J, Bae YS, Sviridov D, Corr M, Yaksh TL, Miller YI. Inhibition of Neuroinflammation by AIBP: Spinal Effects upon Facilitated Pain States. Cell Rep. 2018 May 29; 23(9):2667-2677. PMID: 29847797.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Price TJ, Basbaum AI, Bresnahan J, Chambers JF, De Koninck Y, Edwards RR, Ji RR, Katz J, Kavelaars A, Levine JD, Porter L, Schechter N, Sluka KA, Terman GW, Wager TD, Yaksh TL, Dworkin RH. Transition to chronic pain: opportunities for novel therapeutics. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2018 May 15. PMID: 29765159.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Yaksh TL, Di Nardo A. Complexity of systems and actions underlying neurogenic inflammation. Semin Immunopathol. 2018 May; 40(3):225-228. PMID: 29779134.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Ramachandran R, Marino MJ, Paul S, Wang Z, Mascarenhas NL, Pellett S, Johnson EA, DiNardo A, Yaksh TL. A Study and Review of Effects of Botulinum Toxins on Mast Cell Dependent and Independent Pruritus. Toxins (Basel). 2018 Mar 23; 10(4). PMID: 29570628.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Sorkin LS, Eddinger KA, Woller SA, Yaksh TL. Origins of antidromic activity in sensory afferent fibers and neurogenic inflammation. Semin Immunopathol. 2018 Feb 08. PMID: 29423889.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Woller SA, Eddinger KA, Corr M, Yaksh TL. An overview of pathways encoding nociception. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2018 Jan-Feb; 36(1):172. PMID: 29461960.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Woller SA, Ravula SB, Tucci FC, Beaton G, Corr M, Isseroff RR, Soulika AM, Chigbrow M, Eddinger KA, Yaksh TL. Corrigendum to "Systemic TAK-242 prevents intrathecal LPS evoked hyperalgesia in male, but not female mice and prevents delayed allodynia following intraplantar formalin in both male and female mice: The role of TLR4 in the evolution of a persistent pain state" [Brain Behav. Immun. 56 (2016) 271-280]. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 Mar; 69:632. PMID: 29291934.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Emami A, Tepper J, Short B, Yaksh TL, Bendele AM, Ramani T, Cisternas AF, Chang JH, Mellon RD. Toxicology Evaluation of Drugs Administered via Uncommon Routes: Intranasal, Intraocular, Intrathecal/Intraspinal, and Intra-Articular. Int J Toxicol. 2018 Jan/Feb; 37(1):4-27. PMID: 29264927.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Hockman TM, Cisternas AF, Jones B, Butt MT, Osborn KG, Steinauer JJ, Malkmus SA, Yaksh TL. Target engagement and histopathology of neuraxial resiniferatoxin in dog. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2018 Mar; 45(2):212-226. PMID: 29361418.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Knezevic NN, Yekkirala A, Yaksh TL. Basic/Translational Development of Forthcoming Opioid- and Nonopioid-Targeted Pain Therapeutics. Anesth Analg. 2017 11; 125(5):1714-1732. PMID: 29049116.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Schmidt-Rondon E, Wang Z, Malkmus SA, Di Nardo A, Hildebrand K, Page L, Yaksh TL. Effects of opioid and nonopioid analgesics on canine wheal formation and cultured human mast cell degranulation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018 01 01; 338:54-64. PMID: 29111148.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Woller SA, Eddinger KA, Corr M, Yaksh TL. An overview of pathways encoding nociception. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017 Sep-Oct; 35 Suppl 107(5):40-46. PMID: 28967373.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Mamet J, Yeomans DC, Yaksh TL, Manning DC, Harris S. Editor's Highlight: Formulation and Toxicology Evaluation of the Intrathecal AYX1 DNA-Decoy in Sprague Dawley Rats. Toxicol Sci. 2017 Sep 01; 159(1):76-85. PMID: 28903493.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Bert RJ, Hayek SM, Yaksh TL. Modeling Spinal Intrathecal Drug Distribution: The Challenge of Defining and Predicting Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics. Anesth Analg. 2017 05; 124(5):1403-1406. PMID: 28426585.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Yaksh TL, Schwarcz R, Snodgrass HR. Characterization of the Effects of L-4-Chlorokynurenine on Nociception in Rodents. J Pain. 2017 Oct; 18(10):1184-1196. PMID: 28428091.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Rijsdijk M, Agalave NM, van Wijck AJM, Kalkman CJ, Ramachandran R, Baharpoor A, Svensson CI, Yaksh TL. Effect of intrathecal glucocorticoids on the central glucocorticoid receptor in a rat nerve ligation model. Scand J Pain. 2017 Jul; 16:1-9. PMID: 28850381.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Flinspach M, Xu Q, Piekarz AD, Fellows R, Hagan R, Gibbs A, Liu Y, Neff RA, Freedman J, Eckert WA, Zhou M, Bonesteel R, Pennington MW, Eddinger KA, Yaksh TL, Hunter M, Swanson RV, Wickenden AD. Insensitivity to pain induced by a potent selective closed-state Nav1.7 inhibitor. Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 03; 7:39662. PMID: 28045073.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Deer TR, Pope JE, Hayek SM, Lamer TJ, Veizi IE, Erdek M, Wallace MS, Grider JS, Levy RM, Prager J, Rosen SM, Saulino M, Yaksh TL, De Andrés JA, Abejon Gonzalez D, Vesper J, Schu S, Simpson B, Mekhail N. The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC): Recommendations for Intrathecal Drug Delivery: Guidance for Improving Safety and Mitigating Risks. Neuromodulation. 2017 Feb; 20(2):155-176. PMID: 28042914.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Deer TR, Pope JE, Hayek SM, Bux A, Buchser E, Eldabe S, De Andrés JA, Erdek M, Patin D, Grider JS, Doleys DM, Jacobs MS, Yaksh TL, Poree L, Wallace MS, Prager J, Rauck R, DeLeon O, Diwan S, Falowski SM, Gazelka HM, Kim P, Leong M, Levy RM, McDowell G, McRoberts P, Naidu R, Narouze S, Perruchoud C, Rosen SM, Rosenberg WS, Saulino M, Staats P, Stearns LJ, Willis D, Krames E, Huntoon M, Mekhail N. The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC): Recommendations on Intrathecal Drug Infusion Systems Best Practices and Guidelines. Neuromodulation. 2017 02; 20(2):96-132. PMID: 28042904.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Mamet J, Harris S, Klukinov M, Yeomans DC, Donahue RR, Taylor BK, Eddinger K, Yaksh T, Manning DC. Pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of the DNA-decoy AYX1 for the prevention of acute and chronic post-surgical pain. Mol Pain. 2017 01; 13:1744806917703112. PMID: 28394696.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Yaksh TL, Fisher CJ, Hockman TM, Wiese AJ. Current and Future Issues in the Development of Spinal Agents for the Management of Pain. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017; 15(2):232-259. PMID: 26861470.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Hong S, Remacle AG, Shiryaev SA, Choi W, Hullugundi SK, Dolkas J, Angert M, Nishihara T, Yaksh TL, Strongin AY, Shubayev VI. Reciprocal relationship between membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and the algesic peptides of myelin basic protein contributes to chronic neuropathic pain. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Feb; 60:282-292. PMID: 27833045.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Eisenach JC, Yaksh TL. Ethical Concerns Regarding Human Study. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016 10; 22(10):866. PMID: 27577599.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Veizi IE, Hayek SM, Hanes M, Galica R, Katta S, Yaksh T. Primary Hydromorphone-Related Intrathecal Catheter Tip Granulomas: Is There a Role for Dose and Concentration? Neuromodulation. 2016 Oct; 19(7):760-769. PMID: 27505059.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Eddinger KA, Rondon ES, Shubayev VI, Grafe MR, Scadeng M, Hildebrand KR, Page LM, Malkmus SA, Steinauer JJ, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal Catheterization and Drug Delivery in Guinea Pigs: A Small-animal Model for Morphine-evoked Granuloma Formation. Anesthesiology. 2016 08; 125(2):378-94. PMID: 27272672.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Shubayev VI, Strongin AY, Yaksh TL. Role of myelin auto-antigens in pain: a female connection. Neural Regen Res. 2016 Jun; 11(6):890-1. PMID: 27482203; PMCID: PMC4962572.
    33. Sikandar S, Gustavsson Y, Marino MJ, Dickenson AH, Yaksh TL, Sorkin LS, Ramachandran R. Effects of intraplantar botulinum toxin-B on carrageenan-induced changes in nociception and spinal phosphorylation of GluA1 and Akt. Eur J Neurosci. 2016 07; 44(1):1714-22. PMID: 27108664.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Woller SA, Ravula SB, Tucci FC, Beaton G, Corr M, Isseroff RR, Soulika AM, Chigbrow M, Eddinger KA, Yaksh TL. Systemic TAK-242 prevents intrathecal LPS evoked hyperalgesia in male, but not female mice and prevents delayed allodynia following intraplantar formalin in both male and female mice: The role of TLR4 in the evolution of a persistent pain state. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Aug; 56:271-80. PMID: 27044335; PMCID: PMC4917460 [Available on 08/01/17].
    35. Merrick J, Lane B, Sebree T, Yaksh T, O'Neill C, Banks SL. Identification of Psychoactive Degradants of Cannabidiol in Simulated Gastric and Physiological Fluid. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2016; 1(1):102-112. PMID: 28861485.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Ko JS, Eddinger KA, Angert M, Chernov AV, Dolkas J, Strongin AY, Yaksh TL, Shubayev VI. Spinal activity of interleukin 6 mediates myelin basic protein-induced allodynia. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Aug; 56:378-89. PMID: 26970355; PMCID: PMC4917441 [Available on 08/01/17].
    37. Podvin S, Yaksh T, Hook V. The Emerging Role of Spinal Dynorphin in Chronic Pain: A Therapeutic Perspective. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016; 56:511-33. PMID: 26738478; PMCID: PMC4902163 [Available on 01/01/17].
    38. Rijsdijk M, Svensson CI, Wijck AJ, Kalkman CJ, Yaksh TL. Analgesic properties of intrathecal glucocorticoids in three well established preclinical pain models. Scand J Pain. 2016 Jan; 10:90-102. PMID: 28361779.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Pellett S, Yaksh TL, Ramachandran R. Current status and future directions of botulinum neurotoxins for targeting pain processing. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Nov 04; 7(11):4519-63. PMID: 26556371; PMCID: PMC4663519.
    40. Park HJ, Sandor K, McQueen J, Woller SA, Svensson CI, Corr M, Yaksh TL. The effect of gabapentin and ketorolac on allodynia and conditioned place preference in antibody-induced inflammation. Eur J Pain. 2016 07; 20(6):917-25. PMID: 26517300.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Park HJ, Marino MJ, Rondon ES, Xu Q, Yaksh TL. The effects of intraplantar and intrathecal botulinum toxin type B on tactile allodynia in mono and polyneuropathy in the mouse. Anesth Analg. 2015 Jul; 121(1):229-38. PMID: 26039418.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Yaksh TL, Woller SA, Ramachandran R, Sorkin LS. The search for novel analgesics: targets and mechanisms. F1000Prime Rep. 2015; 7:56. PMID: 26097729; PMCID: PMC4447049.
    43. Ramachandran R, Lam C, Yaksh TL. Botulinum toxin in migraine: Role of transport in trigemino-somatic and trigemino-vascular afferents. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Jul; 79:111-22. PMID: 25958249; PMCID: PMC4458441.
    44. Woller SA, Corr M, Yaksh TL. Differences in cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in male and female mice. Eur J Pain. 2015 Nov; 19(10):1476-85. PMID: 25716290; PMCID: PMC4755718.
    45. Pleticha J, Malkmus SA, Heilmann LF, Veesart SL, Rezek R, Xu Q, Yaksh TL, Beutler AS. High cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-10 attained by AAV in dogs. Gene Ther. 2015 Feb; 22(2):202-8. PMID: 25354684.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Ramachandran R, Yaksh TL. Therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in migraine: mechanisms of action. Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Sep; 171(18):4177-92. PMID: 24819339; PMCID: PMC4241086.
    47. Bas DB, Abdelmoaty S, Sandor K, Codeluppi S, Fitzsimmons B, Steinauer J, Hua XY, Yaksh TL, Svensson CI. Spinal release of tumour necrosis factor activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mediates inflammation-induced hypersensitivity. Eur J Pain. 2015 Feb; 19(2):260-70. PMID: 24942612; PMCID: PMC4270961.
    48. Rijsdijk M, van Wijck AJ, Kalkman CJ, Yaksh TL. The effects of glucocorticoids on neuropathic pain: a review with emphasis on intrathecal methylprednisolone acetate delivery. Anesth Analg. 2014 May; 118(5):1097-112. PMID: 24781577.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Yaksh TL. TRPV1 expression regulation… A further step in defining its biology: commentary for K. Zavala et al. "The anticancer antibiotic mithramycin-A inhibits TRPV1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons" [Neurosci. Lett. (2014) doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.01.021]. Neurosci Lett. 2014 Aug 22; 578:209-10. PMID: 24769421.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Yaksh TL, Hobo S, Peters C, Osborn KG, Richter PJ, Rossi SS, Grafe MR, Eisenach JC. Preclinical toxicity screening of intrathecal oxytocin in rats and dogs. Anesthesiology. 2014 Apr; 120(4):951-61. PMID: 24492326.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Leung A, Shukla S, Li E, Duann JR, Yaksh T. Supraspinal characterization of the thermal grill illusion with fMRI. Mol Pain. 2014 Mar 11; 10:18. PMID: 24612493; PMCID: PMC3995740.
    52. Ishikawa T, Suzuki H, Ishikawa K, Yasuda S, Matsui T, Yamamoto M, Kakeda T, Yamamoto S, Owada Y, Yaksh TL. Spinal cord ischemia/injury. Curr Pharm Des. 2014; 20(36):5738-43. PMID: 24502574.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Marino MJ, Terashima T, Steinauer JJ, Eddinger KA, Yaksh TL, Xu Q. Botulinum toxin B in the sensory afferent: transmitter release, spinal activation, and pain behavior. Pain. 2014 Apr; 155(4):674-84. PMID: 24333775; PMCID: PMC3960322.
    54. Stokes JA, Cheung J, Eddinger K, Corr M, Yaksh TL. Toll-like receptor signaling adapter proteins govern spread of neuropathic pain and recovery following nerve injury in male mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2013 Dec 09; 10:148. PMID: 24321498; PMCID: PMC3896749.
    55. Wiese AJ, Rathbun M, Butt MT, Malkmus SA, Richter PJ, Osborn KG, Xu Q, Veesart SL, Steinauer JJ, Higgins D, Lappi DA, Russell B, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal substance P-saporin in the dog: distribution, safety, and spinal neurokinin-1 receptor ablation. Anesthesiology. 2013 Nov; 119(5):1163-77. PMID: 24051388.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Park HJ, Stokes JA, Corr M, Yaksh TL. Toll-like receptor signaling regulates cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014 Jan; 73(1):25-34. PMID: 24162377; PMCID: PMC3917999.
    57. Mamet J, Klukinov M, Yaksh TL, Malkmus SA, Williams S, Harris S, Manning DC, Taylor BK, Donahue RR, Porreca F, Xie JY, Oyarzo J, Brennan TJ, Subieta A, Schmidt WK, Yeomans DC. Single intrathecal administration of the transcription factor decoy AYX1 prevents acute and chronic pain after incisional, inflammatory, or neuropathic injury. Pain. 2014 Feb; 155(2):322-33. PMID: 24145208.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Kouchek M, Takasusuki T, Terashima T, Yaksh TL, Xu Q. Effects of intrathecal SNC80, a delta receptor ligand, on nociceptive threshold and dorsal horn substance p release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Nov; 347(2):258-64. PMID: 23978562; PMCID: PMC3807063.
    59. Nizet V, Yaksh T. Neuroscience: Bacteria get on your nerves. Nature. 2013 Sep 05; 501(7465):43-4. PMID: 23965630.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Takasusuki T, Yamaguchi S, Hamaguchi S, Yaksh TL. Effects of general anesthetics on substance P release and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn. Anesthesiology. 2013 Aug; 119(2):433-42. PMID: 23708866; PMCID: PMC3788114.
    61. Hamurtekin E, Fitzsimmons BL, Shubayev VI, Grafe MR, Deumens R, Yaksh TL, Walker SM. Evaluation of spinal toxicity and long-term spinal reflex function after intrathecal levobupivaciane in the neonatal rat. Anesthesiology. 2013 Jul; 119(1):142-55. PMID: 23514721; PMCID: PMC3732172.
    62. Terashima T, Xu Q, Yamaguchi S, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal P/Q- and R-type calcium channel blockade of spinal substance P release and c-Fos expression. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Dec; 75:1-8. PMID: 23810829; PMCID: PMC3865027.
    63. Svensson E, Persson J, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal neurosteroids and a neurosteroid antagonist: effects on inflammation-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. Neurosci Lett. 2013 Aug 26; 548:27-32. PMID: 23707652; PMCID: PMC3761066.
    64. Yaksh TL, Allen JW, Veesart SL, Horais KA, Malkmus SA, Scadeng M, Steinauer JJ, Rossi SS. Role of meningeal mast cells in intrathecal morphine-evoked granuloma formation. Anesthesiology. 2013 Mar; 118(3):664-78. PMID: 23426209; PMCID: PMC3788115.
    65. Gregus AM, Dumlao DS, Wei SC, Norris PC, Catella LC, Meyerstein FG, Buczynski MW, Steinauer JJ, Fitzsimmons BL, Yaksh TL, Dennis EA. Systematic analysis of rat 12/15-lipoxygenase enzymes reveals critical role for spinal eLOX3 hepoxilin synthase activity in inflammatory hyperalgesia. FASEB J. 2013 May; 27(5):1939-49. PMID: 23382512; PMCID: PMC3633813.
    66. Stokes JA, Corr M, Yaksh TL. Spinal toll-like receptor signaling and nociceptive processing: regulatory balance between TIRAP and TRIF cascades mediated by TNF and IFNß. Pain. 2013 May; 154(5):733-42. PMID: 23489833; PMCID: PMC3622773.
    67. Wahlert A, Funkelstein L, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh T, Hook V. Spinal astrocytes produce and secrete dynorphin neuropeptides. Neuropeptides. 2013 Apr; 47(2):109-15. PMID: 23290538; PMCID: PMC3606903.
    68. Park HJ, Stokes JA, Pirie E, Skahen J, Shtaerman Y, Yaksh TL. Persistent hyperalgesia in the cisplatin-treated mouse as defined by threshold measures, the conditioned place preference paradigm, and changes in dorsal root ganglia activated transcription factor 3: the effects of gabapentin, ketorolac, and etanercept. Anesth Analg. 2013 Jan; 116(1):224-31. PMID: 23223118; PMCID: PMC3530135.
    69. Yaksh TL, Steinauer JJ, Veesart SL, Malkmus SA. Alfentanil: correlations between absence of effect upon subcutaneous mast cells and absence of granuloma formation after intrathecal infusion in the dog. Neuromodulation. 2013 Sep-Oct; 16(5):459-66; discussion 466. PMID: 23170763; PMCID: PMC3582801.
    70. Marino M, Huang P, Malkmus S, Robertshaw E, Mac EA, Shatterman Y, Yaksh TL. Development and validation of an automated system for detection and assessment of scratching in the rodent. J Neurosci Methods. 2012 Oct 15; 211(1):1-10. PMID: 22971351; PMCID: PMC3473159.
    71. Deer TR, Levy R, Prager J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell GC, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Sitzman BT, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference--2012: recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality in intrathecal drug delivery in the treatment of chronic pain. Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):467-82; discussion 482. PMID: 22849581.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Wallace M, Yaksh TL. Characteristics of distribution of morphine and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma with chronic intrathecal morphine infusion in humans. Anesth Analg. 2012 Oct; 115(4):797-804. PMID: 22822192; PMCID: PMC3456964.
    73. Lampa J, Westman M, Kadetoff D, Agréus AN, Le Maître E, Gillis-Haegerstrand C, Andersson M, Khademi M, Corr M, Christianson CA, Delaney A, Yaksh TL, Kosek E, Svensson CI. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 31; 109(31):12728-33. PMID: 22802629; PMCID: PMC3411968.
    74. Walker SM, Yaksh TL. Neuraxial analgesia in neonates and infants: a review of clinical and preclinical strategies for the development of safety and efficacy data. Anesth Analg. 2012 Sep; 115(3):638-62. PMID: 22798528; PMCID: PMC4451199.
    75. Yaksh TL, de Kater A, Dean R, Best BM, Miljanich GP. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ziconotide (SNX-111), an intrathecal N-type calcium channel blocking analgesic, delivered by bolus and infusion in the dog. Neuromodulation. 2012 Nov-Dec; 15(6):508-19; discussion 519. PMID: 22748108; PMCID: PMC3514653.
    76. Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Rathmell J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell GC, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Sitzman BT, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference 2012: recommendations for the management of pain by intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):436-64; discussion 464-6. PMID: 22748024.
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    77. Yaksh TL, Ilfeld BM, Wiese AJ. Perineural local anesthetic and adjuvant action: the meaning of an ex vivo data set for efficacy and safety. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012 Jul-Aug; 37(4):366-8. PMID: 22660488.
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    78. Cohen SP, White RL, Kurihara C, Larkin TM, Chang A, Griffith SR, Gilligan C, Larkin R, Morlando B, Pasquina PF, Yaksh TL, Nguyen C. Epidural steroids, etanercept, or saline in subacute sciatica: a multicenter, randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Apr 17; 156(8):551-9. PMID: 22508732.
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    79. Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Rathmell J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell GC, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Sitzman BT, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference--2012: consensus on diagnosis, detection, and treatment of catheter-tip granulomas (inflammatory masses). Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):483-95; discussion 496. PMID: 22494332.
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    80. Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Burton A, Buchser E, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs M, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell G, Panchal SJ, Rauck R, Saulino M, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Sitzman BT, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference--2012: recommendations on trialing for intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):420-35; discussion 435. PMID: 22494357.
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    81. Gregus AM, Doolen S, Dumlao DS, Buczynski MW, Takasusuki T, Fitzsimmons BL, Hua XY, Taylor BK, Dennis EA, Yaksh TL. Spinal 12-lipoxygenase-derived hepoxilin A3 contributes to inflammatory hyperalgesia via activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 24; 109(17):6721-6. PMID: 22493235; PMCID: PMC3340022.
    82. Walker SM, Grafe M, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal clonidine in the neonatal rat: dose-dependent analgesia and evaluation of spinal apoptosis and toxicity. Anesth Analg. 2012 Aug; 115(2):450-60. PMID: 22467896; PMCID: PMC4455964.
    83. Rijsdijk M, van Wijck AJ, Kalkman CJ, Meulenhoff PC, Grafe MR, Steinauer J, Yaksh TL. Safety assessment and pharmacokinetics of intrathecal methylprednisolone acetate in dogs. Anesthesiology. 2012 Jan; 116(1):170-81. PMID: 22139590.
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    84. Christianson CA, Corr M, Yaksh TL, Svensson CI. K/BxN serum transfer arthritis as a model of inflammatory joint pain. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 851:249-60. PMID: 22351097.
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    85. Suhail MS, Christianson C, Koehrn F, Malkmus SA, Mitchell W, Corr M, Yaksh TL. Effects of long term polyarthritis and subsequent NSAID treatment on activity with disassociation of tactile allodynia in the mouse. Neurocomputing. 2012 May 01; 84:47-52. PMID: 22547902.
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    86. Christianson CA, Dumlao DS, Stokes JA, Dennis EA, Svensson CI, Corr M, Yaksh TL. Spinal TLR4 mediates the transition to a persistent mechanical hypersensitivity after the resolution of inflammation in serum-transferred arthritis. Pain. 2011 Dec; 152(12):2881-91. PMID: 22019135; PMCID: PMC3347973.
    87. Christianson CA, Fitzsimmons BL, Shim JH, Agrawal A, Cohen SM, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Spinal matrix metalloproteinase 3 mediates inflammatory hyperalgesia via a tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanism. Neuroscience. 2012 Jan 03; 200:199-210. PMID: 22056600; PMCID: PMC3346277.
    88. Kim HJ, Seol TK, Lee HJ, Yaksh TL, Jun JH. The effect of intrathecal mu, delta, kappa, and alpha-2 agonists on thermal hyperalgesia induced by mild burn on hind paw in rats. J Anesth. 2011 Dec; 25(6):884-91. PMID: 21983967.
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    89. Stokes JA, Corr M, Yaksh TL. Transient tactile allodynia following intrathecal puncture in mouse: contributions of Toll-like receptor signaling. Neurosci Lett. 2011 Oct 31; 504(3):215-8. PMID: 21964382; PMCID: PMC3338641.
    90. Fuchigami T, Kakinohana O, Hefferan MP, Lukacova N, Marsala S, Platoshyn O, Sugahara K, Yaksh TL, Marsala M. Potent suppression of stretch reflex activity after systemic or spinal delivery of tizanidine in rats with spinal ischemia-induced chronic spastic paraplegia. Neuroscience. 2011 Oct 27; 194:160-9. PMID: 21871540; PMCID: PMC3192017.
    91. Xu Q, Yaksh TL. A brief comparison of the pathophysiology of inflammatory versus neuropathic pain. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011 Aug; 24(4):400-7. PMID: 21659872; PMCID: PMC3290396.
    92. Yaksh TL. Care to wrestle with a Brazilian armed spider? Pain. 2011 Oct; 152(10):2193-5. PMID: 21782344.
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    93. Takasusuki T, Yaksh TL. Regulation of spinal substance p release by intrathecal calcium channel blockade. Anesthesiology. 2011 Jul; 115(1):153-64. PMID: 21577088; PMCID: PMC3360553.
    94. Yaksh TL. Spinal toxins can have persistent adverse effects. Pain Med. 2011 Jul; 12(7):991-2. PMID: 21752177.
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    95. Huang PP, Khan I, Suhail MS, Malkmus S, Yaksh TL. Spinal botulinum neurotoxin B: effects on afferent transmitter release and nociceptive processing. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 29; 6(4):e19126. PMID: 21559464; PMCID: PMC3084763.
    96. Takasusuki T, Yaksh TL. The effects of intrathecal and systemic gabapentin on spinal substance P release. Anesth Analg. 2011 Apr; 112(4):971-6. PMID: 21385982; PMCID: PMC3347974.
    97. Xu Q, Fitzsimmons B, Steinauer J, O'Neill A, Newton AC, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Spinal phosphinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling cascades in inflammation-induced hyperalgesia. J Neurosci. 2011 Feb 09; 31(6):2113-24. PMID: 21307248; PMCID: PMC3097059.
    98. Oshiro M, Hefferan MP, Kakinohana O, Lukacova N, Sugahara K, Yaksh TL, Marsala M. Suppression of stretch reflex activity after spinal or systemic treatment with AMPA receptor antagonist NGX424 in rats with developed baclofen tolerance. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Nov; 161(5):976-85. PMID: 20977450; PMCID: PMC2998680.
    99. Poole R, Blake S, Buschmann M, Goldring S, Laverty S, Lockwood S, Matyas J, McDougall J, Pritzker K, Rudolphi K, van den Berg W, Yaksh T. Recommendations for the use of preclinical models in the study and treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010 Oct; 18 Suppl 3:S10-6. PMID: 20864015.
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    100. Christianson CA, Corr M, Firestein GS, Mobargha A, Yaksh TL, Svensson CI. Characterization of the acute and persistent pain state present in K/BxN serum transfer arthritis. Pain. 2010 Nov; 151(2):394-403. PMID: 20739123; PMCID: PMC2955775.
    101. Saito O, Svensson CI, Buczynski MW, Wegner K, Hua XY, Codeluppi S, Schaloske RH, Deems RA, Dennis EA, Yaksh TL. Spinal glial TLR4-mediated nociception and production of prostaglandin E(2) and TNF. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug; 160(7):1754-64. PMID: 20649577; PMCID: PMC2936846.
    102. Peters CM, Hayashida K, Ewan EE, Nakajima K, Obata H, Xu Q, Yaksh TL, Eisenach JC. Lack of analgesic efficacy of spinal ondansetron on thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following spinal nerve ligation in the rat. Brain Res. 2010 Sep 17; 1352:83-93. PMID: 20637741; PMCID: PMC2943762.
    103. Matsui T, Svensson CI, Hirata Y, Mizobata K, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Release of prostaglandin E(2) and nitric oxide from spinal microglia is dependent on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Anesth Analg. 2010 Aug; 111(2):554-60. PMID: 20610553.
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    104. Westin BD, Walker SM, Deumens R, Grafe M, Yaksh TL. Validation of a preclinical spinal safety model: effects of intrathecal morphine in the neonatal rat. Anesthesiology. 2010 Jul; 113(1):183-99. PMID: 20526189; PMCID: PMC2902725.
    105. Walker SM, Westin BD, Deumens R, Grafe M, Yaksh TL. Effects of intrathecal ketamine in the neonatal rat: evaluation of apoptosis and long-term functional outcome. Anesthesiology. 2010 Jul; 113(1):147-59. PMID: 20526188; PMCID: PMC2904694.
    106. Watabiki T, Nagakura Y, Wegner K, Kakimoto S, Tozier NA, Malkmus SA, Yaksh TL. Assessment of canine sensory function by using sine-wave electrical stimuli paradigm. Physiol Behav. 2010 Oct 05; 101(3):327-30. PMID: 20570687.
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    107. Buczynski MW, Svensson CI, Dumlao DS, Fitzsimmons BL, Shim JH, Scherbart TJ, Jacobsen FE, Hua XY, Yaksh TL, Dennis EA. Inflammatory hyperalgesia induces essential bioactive lipid production in the spinal cord. J Neurochem. 2010 Aug; 114(4):981-93. PMID: 20492349; PMCID: PMC3994888.
    108. Eisenach JC, Curry R, Tong C, Houle TT, Yaksh TL. Effects of intrathecal ketorolac on human experimental pain. Anesthesiology. 2010 May; 112(5):1216-24. PMID: 20395821; PMCID: PMC2924167.
    109. Eisenach JC, Curry R, Rauck R, Pan P, Yaksh TL. Role of spinal cyclooxygenase in human postoperative and chronic pain. Anesthesiology. 2010 May; 112(5):1225-33. PMID: 20395820; PMCID: PMC2892621.
    110. Usvald D, Vodicka P, Hlucilova J, Prochazka R, Motlik J, Kuchorova K, Johe K, Marsala S, Scadeng M, Kakinohana O, Navarro R, Santa M, Hefferan MP, Yaksh TL, Marsala M. Analysis of dosing regimen and reproducibility of intraspinal grafting of human spinal stem cells in immunosuppressed minipigs. Cell Transplant. 2010; 19(9):1103-22. PMID: 20412634.
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    111. Yaksh TL, Eisenach JC, Shafer SL. Consent contraindicated? Science. 2010 Apr 02; 328(5974):45; author reply 45. PMID: 20360092.
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    112. Eisenach JC, Shafer SL, Yaksh T. The need for a journal policy on intrathecal, epidural, and perineural administration of non-approved drugs. Pain. 2010 Jun; 149(3):417-9. PMID: 20227830.
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    113. Fitzsimmons BL, Zattoni M, Svensson CI, Steinauer J, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Role of spinal p38alpha and beta MAPK in inflammatory hyperalgesia and spinal COX-2 expression. Neuroreport. 2010 Mar 10; 21(4):313-7. PMID: 20134354; PMCID: PMC2877130.
    114. Scholz J, Yaksh TL. Preclinical research on persistent postsurgical pain: what we don't know, but should start studying. Anesthesiology. 2010 Mar; 112(3):511-3. PMID: 20124975; PMCID: PMC2828501.
    115. Yaksh TL. [Vacuoles: a hollow threat?]. Can J Anaesth. 2010 Mar; 57(3):195-200. PMID: 20054677; PMCID: PMC2821579.
    116. McCann S, Yaksh TL, von Gunten CF. Correlation between myoclonus and the 3-glucuronide metabolites in patients treated with morphine or hydromorphone: a pilot study. J Opioid Manag. 2010 Mar-Apr; 6(2):87-94. PMID: 20481173.
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    117. Park P, Schachter S, Yaksh T. Intrathecal huperzine A increases thermal escape latency and decreases flinching behavior in the formalin test in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Feb 05; 470(1):6-9. PMID: 20026382; PMCID: PMC2834555.
    118. Sorkin LS, Yaksh TL. Behavioral models of pain states evoked by physical injury to the peripheral nerve. Neurotherapeutics. 2009 Oct; 6(4):609-19. PMID: 19789066.
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    119. Walker SM, Yaksh TL. New caudal additives in children: benefit vs. risk? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009 Sep; 53(8):1097-8; author reply 1098-9. PMID: 19694618.
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    120. Cohen SP, Bogduk N, Dragovich A, Buckenmaier CC, Griffith S, Kurihara C, Raymond J, Richter PJ, Williams N, Yaksh TL. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response, and preclinical safety study of transforaminal epidural etanercept for the treatment of sciatica. Anesthesiology. 2009 May; 110(5):1116-26. PMID: 19387178.
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    121. Ilfeld BM, Yaksh TL. The end of postoperative pain--a fast-approaching possibility? And, if so, will we be ready? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009 Mar-Apr; 34(2):85-7. PMID: 19282704.
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    122. Bradesi S, Svensson CI, Steinauer J, Pothoulakis C, Yaksh TL, Mayer EA. Role of spinal microglia in visceral hyperalgesia and NK1R up-regulation in a rat model of chronic stress. Gastroenterology. 2009 Apr; 136(4):1339-48, e1-2. PMID: 19249394; PMCID: PMC2812027.
    123. Ray SB, Yaksh TL. Spinal antinociceptive action of loperamide is mediated by opioid receptors in the formalin test in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Dec 31; 448(3):260-2. PMID: 18973791; PMCID: PMC2753543.
    124. Svensson CI, Medicherla S, Malkmus S, Jiang Y, Ma JY, Kerr I, Brainin-Mattos J, Powell HC, Luo ZD, Chakravarty S, Dugar S, Higgins LS, Protter AA, Yaksh TL. Role of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase in a model of osteosarcoma-induced pain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Oct; 90(4):664-75. PMID: 18584857.
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    125. Nazarian A, Christianson CA, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Dexmedetomidine and ST-91 analgesia in the formalin model is mediated by alpha2A-adrenoceptors: a mechanism of action distinct from morphine. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Dec; 155(7):1117-26. PMID: 18846040; PMCID: PMC2597249.
    126. Ilieva HS, Yamanaka K, Malkmus S, Kakinohana O, Yaksh T, Marsala M, Cleveland DW. Mutant dynein (Loa) triggers proprioceptive axon loss that extends survival only in the SOD1 ALS model with highest motor neuron death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 26; 105(34):12599-604. PMID: 18719118; PMCID: PMC2527957.
    127. Nagakura Y, Jones TL, Malkmus SA, Sorkin L, Yaksh TL. The sensitization of a broad spectrum of sensory nerve fibers in a rat model of acute postoperative pain and its response to intrathecal pharmacotherapy. Pain. 2008 Oct 31; 139(3):569-77. PMID: 18692315; PMCID: PMC3346272.
    128. Crawley B, Saito O, Malkmus S, Fitzsimmons B, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Acetaminophen prevents hyperalgesia in central pain cascade. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Sep 05; 442(1):50-3. PMID: 18601979; PMCID: PMC2669887.
    129. Leung AY, Kim SJ, Schulteis G, Yaksh T. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 May 01; 8:18. PMID: 18452622; PMCID: PMC2386116.
    130. Yaksh TL, Tozier N, Horais KA, Malkmus S, Rathbun M, Lafranco L, Eisenach J. Toxicology profile of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists delivered by intrathecal infusion in the canine model. Anesthesiology. 2008 May; 108(5):938-49. PMID: 18431131.
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    131. Kim DH, Fitzsimmons B, Hefferan MP, Svensson CI, Wancewicz E, Monia BP, Hung G, Butler M, Marsala M, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Inhibition of spinal cytosolic phospholipase A(2) expression by an antisense oligonucleotide attenuates tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia. Neuroscience. 2008 Jun 26; 154(3):1077-87. PMID: 18511207; PMCID: PMC2640426.
    132. Nazarian A, Gu G, Gracias NG, Wilkinson K, Hua XY, Vasko MR, Yaksh TL. Spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and nociception-evoked release of primary afferent substance P. Neuroscience. 2008 Mar 03; 152(1):119-27. PMID: 18222611; PMCID: PMC2730522.
    133. Khan IM, Wart CV, Singletary EA, Stanislaus S, Deerinck T, Yaksh TL, Printz MP. Elimination of rat spinal substance P receptor bearing neurons dissociates cardiovascular and nocifensive responses to nicotinic agonists. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Feb; 54(2):269-79. PMID: 18037142; PMCID: PMC4418974.
    134. Hefferan MP, Kucharova K, Kinjo K, Kakinohana O, Sekerkova G, Nakamura S, Fuchigami T, Tomori Z, Yaksh TL, Kurtz N, Marsala M. Spinal astrocyte glutamate receptor 1 overexpression after ischemic insult facilitates behavioral signs of spasticity and rigidity. J Neurosci. 2007 Oct 17; 27(42):11179-91. PMID: 17942713.
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    135. Wegner K, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Rathbun ML, Shtaerman Y, Yaksh TL. Development of a canine nociceptive thermal escape model. J Neurosci Methods. 2008 Feb 15; 168(1):88-97. PMID: 18054083; PMCID: PMC2266689.
    136. Yaksh TL. Neonates have a spinal alpha receptor too, as do adults. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug; 151(8):1139-40. PMID: 17641678; PMCID: PMC2189816.
    137. Ilfeld BM, Yaksh TL, Neal JM. Mandating two-year regional anesthesia fellowships: fanning the academic flame or extinguishing it? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 32(4):275-9. PMID: 17720109; PMCID: PMC2048748.
    138. Nagakura Y, Malkmus S, Yaksh TL. Determination of current threshold for paw withdrawal with sine-wave electrical stimulation in rats: effect of drugs and alteration in acute inflammation. Pain. 2008 Feb; 134(3):293-301. PMID: 17583428.
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    139. Allen JW, Hofer K, McCumber D, Wagstaff JD, Layer RT, McCabe RT, Yaksh TL. An assessment of the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal and epidural contulakin-G in rats and dogs. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1505-13, table of contents. PMID: 17513650.
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    140. Kern SE, Allen J, Wagstaff J, Shafer SL, Yaksh T. The pharmacokinetics of the conopeptide contulakin-G (CGX-1160) after intrathecal administration: an analysis of data from studies in beagles. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1514-20, table of contents. PMID: 17513651.
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    141. Tang Q, Svensson CI, Fitzsimmons B, Webb M, Yaksh TL, Hua XY. Inhibition of spinal constitutive NOS-2 by 1400W attenuates tissue injury and inflammation-induced hyperalgesia and spinal p38 activation. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May; 25(10):2964-72. PMID: 17561811.
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    142. Svensson CI, Tran TK, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh TL, Hua XY. Descending serotonergic facilitation of spinal ERK activation and pain behavior. FEBS Lett. 2006 Dec 11; 580(28-29):6629-34. PMID: 17113581; PMCID: PMC2291024.
    143. Leung AY, Park J, Schulteis G, Duann JR, Yaksh T. The electrophysiology of de qi sensations. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Oct; 12(8):743-50. PMID: 17034280.
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    144. Allen JW, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Yaksh TL. Opiate pharmacology of intrathecal granulomas. Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep; 105(3):590-8. PMID: 16931994.
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    145. Allen JW, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Wegner K, Corbeil JA, Mattrey RF, Rossi SS, Yaksh TL. Time course and role of morphine dose and concentration in intrathecal granuloma formation in dogs: a combined magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology investigation. Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep; 105(3):581-9. PMID: 16931993.
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    146. Kakinohana O, Hefferan MP, Nakamura S, Kakinohana M, Galik J, Tomori Z, Marsala J, Yaksh TL, Marsala M. Development of GABA-sensitive spasticity and rigidity in rats after transient spinal cord ischemia: a qualitative and quantitative electrophysiological and histopathological study. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 01; 141(3):1569-83. PMID: 16797137.
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    147. Rossi S, Yaksh T, Bentley H, van den Brande G, Grant I, Ellis R. Characterization of interference with 6 commercial delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol immunoassays by efavirenz (glucuronide) in urine. Clin Chem. 2006 May; 52(5):896-7. PMID: 16638958.
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    148. Svensson CI, Schäfers M, Jones TL, Yaksh TL, Sorkin LS. Covariance among age, spinal p38 MAP kinase activation and allodynia. J Pain. 2006 May; 7(5):337-45. PMID: 16632323.
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    149. Brainin-Mattos J, Smith ND, Malkmus S, Rew Y, Goodman M, Taulane J, Yaksh TL. Cancer-related bone pain is attenuated by a systemically available delta-opioid receptor agonist. Pain. 2006 May; 122(1-2):174-81. PMID: 16545911.
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    150. Allen JW, Mantyh PW, Horais K, Tozier N, Rogers SD, Ghilardi JR, Cizkova D, Grafe MR, Richter P, Lappi DA, Yaksh TL. Safety evaluation of intrathecal substance P-saporin, a targeted neurotoxin, in dogs. Toxicol Sci. 2006 May; 91(1):286-98. PMID: 16500924.
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    151. Shi TJ, Hua XY, Lu X, Malkmus S, Kinney J, Holmberg K, Wirz S, Ceccatelli S, Yaksh T, Bartfai T, Hökfelt T. Sensory neuronal phenotype in galanin receptor 2 knockout mice: focus on dorsal root ganglion neurone development and pain behaviour. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Feb; 23(3):627-36. PMID: 16487144.
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    152. Yaksh TL. Calcium channels as therapeutic targets in neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2006 Jan; 7(1 Suppl 1):S13-30. PMID: 16426997.
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    153. Hua XY, Svensson CI, Matsui T, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh TL, Webb M. Intrathecal minocycline attenuates peripheral inflammation-induced hyperalgesia by inhibiting p38 MAPK in spinal microglia. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Nov; 22(10):2431-40. PMID: 16307586.
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    154. Yaksh TL, Kokotos G, Svensson CI, Stephens D, Kokotos CG, Fitzsimmons B, Hadjipavlou-Litina D, Hua XY, Dennis EA. Systemic and intrathecal effects of a novel series of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on hyperalgesia and spinal prostaglandin E2 release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan; 316(1):466-75. PMID: 16203828.
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    155. Svensson CI, Hua XY, Powell HC, Lai J, Porreca F, Yaksh TL. Prostaglandin E2 release evoked by intrathecal dynorphin is dependent on spinal p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Neuropeptides. 2005 Oct; 39(5):485-94. PMID: 16176831.
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    156. Nielsen CK, Lewis RJ, Alewood D, Drinkwater R, Palant E, Patterson M, Yaksh TL, McCumber D, Smith MT. Anti-allodynic efficacy of the chi-conopeptide, Xen2174, in rats with neuropathic pain. Pain. 2005 Nov; 118(1-2):112-24. PMID: 16154696.
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    157. Torchia M, Yaksh T. Unexpected pain in a dog: aberration or worthy of a citation? Agree to disagree. Lab Anim (NY). 2005 Sep; 34(8):19. PMID: 16136070.
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    158. Leung A, Khadivi B, Duann JR, Cho ZH, Yaksh T. The effect of Ting point (tendinomuscular meridians) electroacupuncture on thermal pain: a model for studying the neuronal mechanism of acupuncture analgesia. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug; 11(4):653-61. PMID: 16131289.
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    159. Leung AY, Wallace MS, Schulteis G, Yaksh TL. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the thermal grill. Pain. 2005 Jul; 116(1-2):26-32. PMID: 15935558.
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    160. Gu G, Kondo I, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Resting and evoked spinal substance P release during chronic intrathecal morphine infusion: parallels with tolerance and dependence. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep; 314(3):1362-9. PMID: 15908510.
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    161. Kondo I, Marvizon JC, Song B, Salgado F, Codeluppi S, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Inhibition by spinal mu- and delta-opioid agonists of afferent-evoked substance P release. J Neurosci. 2005 Apr 06; 25(14):3651-60. PMID: 15814796.
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    162. Lucas KK, Svensson CI, Hua XY, Yaksh TL, Dennis EA. Spinal phospholipase A2 in inflammatory hyperalgesia: role of group IVA cPLA2. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr; 144(7):940-52. PMID: 15685208; PMCID: PMC1576074.
    163. Hua XY, Salgado KF, Gu G, Fitzsimmons B, Kondo I, Bartfai T, Yaksh TL. Mechanisms of antinociception of spinal galanin: how does galanin inhibit spinal sensitization? Neuropeptides. 2005 Jun; 39(3):211-6. PMID: 15944014.
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    164. Svensson CI, Fitzsimmons B, Azizi S, Powell HC, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Spinal p38beta isoform mediates tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia and spinal sensitization. J Neurochem. 2005 Mar; 92(6):1508-20. PMID: 15748168.
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    165. Malkmus S, Lu X, Bartfai T, Yaksh TL, Hua XY. Increased hyperalgesia after tissue injury and faster recovery of allodynia after nerve injury in the GalR1 knockout mice. Neuropeptides. 2005 Jun; 39(3):217-21. PMID: 15944015.
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    166. Svensson CI, Lucas KK, Hua XY, Powell HC, Dennis EA, Yaksh TL. Spinal phospholipase A2 in inflammatory hyperalgesia: role of the small, secretory phospholipase A2. Neuroscience. 2005; 133(2):543-53. PMID: 15885922.
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    167. Butler M, Hayes CS, Chappell A, Murray SF, Yaksh TL, Hua XY. Spinal distribution and metabolism of 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-modified oligonucleotides after intrathecal administration in rats. Neuroscience. 2005; 131(3):705-15. PMID: 15730875.
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    168. Marsala M, Kakinohana O, Yaksh TL, Tomori Z, Marsala S, Cizkova D. Spinal implantation of hNT neurons and neuronal precursors: graft survival and functional effects in rats with ischemic spastic paraplegia. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Nov; 20(9):2401-14. PMID: 15525281.
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    169. Khan IM, Wennerholm M, Singletary E, Polston K, Zhang L, Deerinck T, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Ablation of primary afferent terminals reduces nicotinic receptor expression and the nociceptive responses to nicotinic agonists in the spinal cord. J Neurocytol. 2004 Sep; 33(5):543-56. PMID: 15906161.
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    170. Massie JB, Huang B, Malkmus S, Yaksh TL, Kim CW, Garfin SR, Akeson WH. A preclinical post laminectomy rat model mimics the human post laminectomy syndrome. J Neurosci Methods. 2004 Aug 30; 137(2):283-9. PMID: 15262072.
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    171. Bartfai T, Lu X, Badie-Mahdavi H, Barr AM, Mazarati A, Hua XY, Yaksh T, Haberhauer G, Ceide SC, Trembleau L, Somogyi L, Kröck L, Rebek J. Galmic, a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist, affects behaviors in seizure, pain, and forced-swim tests. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13; 101(28):10470-5. PMID: 15240875; PMCID: PMC478593.
    172. Koetzner L, Gregory JA, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal protease-activated receptor stimulation produces thermal hyperalgesia through spinal cyclooxygenase activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct; 311(1):356-63. PMID: 15175421.
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    173. Yaksh TL, Allen JW. Preclinical insights into the implementation of intrathecal midazolam: a cautionary tale. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jun; 98(6):1509-11. PMID: 15155298.
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    174. Yaksh TL, Allen JW. The use of intrathecal midazolam in humans: a case study of process. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jun; 98(6):1536-45, table of contents. PMID: 15155302.
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    175. Yaksh TL, Horais KA, Tozier N, Rathbun M, Richter P, Rossi S, Grafe M, Tong C, Meschter C, Cline JM, Eisenach J. Intrathecal ketorolac in dogs and rats. Toxicol Sci. 2004 Aug; 80(2):322-34. PMID: 15141096.
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    176. Ghilardi JR, Svensson CI, Rogers SD, Yaksh TL, Mantyh PW. Constitutive spinal cyclooxygenase-2 participates in the initiation of tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia. J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 17; 24(11):2727-32. PMID: 15028765.
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    177. Koetzner L, Hua XY, Lai J, Porreca F, Yaksh T. Nonopioid actions of intrathecal dynorphin evoke spinal excitatory amino acid and prostaglandin E2 release mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. J Neurosci. 2004 Feb 11; 24(6):1451-8. PMID: 14960618.
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    178. Eisenach JC, Hood DD, Curry R, Sawynok J, Yaksh TL, Li X. Intrathecal but not intravenous opioids release adenosine from the spinal cord. J Pain. 2004 Feb; 5(1):64-8. PMID: 14975380.
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    179. Schäfers M, Marziniak M, Sorkin LS, Yaksh TL, Sommer C. Cyclooxygenase inhibition in nerve-injury- and TNF-induced hyperalgesia in the rat. Exp Neurol. 2004 Jan; 185(1):160-8. PMID: 14697327.
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    180. Allen JW, Yaksh TL. Tissue injury models of persistent nociception in rats. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 99:25-34. PMID: 15131326.
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    181. Malkmus SA, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal catheterization and drug delivery in the rat. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 99:109-21. PMID: 15131333.
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    182. Allen JW, Yaksh TL. Assessment of acute thermal nociception in laboratory animals. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 99:11-23. PMID: 15131325.
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    183. Khan I, Osaka H, Stanislaus S, Calvo RM, Deerinck T, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor distribution in relation to spinal neurotransmission pathways. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Dec 01; 467(1):44-59. PMID: 14574679.
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    184. Hua XY, Hayes CS, Hofer A, Fitzsimmons B, Kilk K, Langel U, Bartfai T, Yaksh TL. Galanin acts at GalR1 receptors in spinal antinociception: synergy with morphine and AP-5. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb; 308(2):574-82. PMID: 14610237.
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    185. Svensson CI, Marsala M, Westerlund A, Calcutt NA, Campana WM, Freshwater JD, Catalano R, Feng Y, Protter AA, Scott B, Yaksh TL. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia is a critical link in inflammation-induced spinal pain processing. J Neurochem. 2003 Sep; 86(6):1534-44. PMID: 12950462.
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    186. Yaksh TL, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Allen JW, Rathbun M, Rossi SS, Sommer C, Meschter C, Richter PJ, Hildebrand KR. Chronically infused intrathecal morphine in dogs. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul; 99(1):174-87. PMID: 12826858.
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    187. Yaksh TL. Preclinical work leading to the development of spinal analgesia. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul; 99(1):224-5. PMID: 12826864.
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    188. Hayes CS, Mulkmus SA, Cizkova D, Yaksh TL, Hua XY. A double-lumen intrathecal catheter for studies of modulation of spinal opiate tolerance. J Neurosci Methods. 2003 Jun 30; 126(2):165-73. PMID: 12814841.
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    189. South SM, Kohno T, Kaspar BK, Hegarty D, Vissel B, Drake CT, Ohata M, Jenab S, Sailer AW, Malkmus S, Masuyama T, Horner P, Bogulavsky J, Gage FH, Yaksh TL, Woolf CJ, Heinemann SF, Inturrisi CE. A conditional deletion of the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in adult spinal cord dorsal horn reduces NMDA currents and injury-induced pain. J Neurosci. 2003 Jun 15; 23(12):5031-40. PMID: 12832526.
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    190. Svensson CI, Hua XY, Protter AA, Powell HC, Yaksh TL. Spinal p38 MAP kinase is necessary for NMDA-induced spinal PGE(2) release and thermal hyperalgesia. Neuroreport. 2003 Jun 11; 14(8):1153-7. PMID: 12821799.
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    191. Schäfers M, Lee DH, Brors D, Yaksh TL, Sorkin LS. Increased sensitivity of injured and adjacent uninjured rat primary sensory neurons to exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha after spinal nerve ligation. J Neurosci. 2003 Apr 01; 23(7):3028-38. PMID: 12684490.
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    192. Kakinohana M, Marsala M, Carter C, Davison JK, Yaksh TL. Neuraxial morphine may trigger transient motor dysfunction after a noninjurious interval of spinal cord ischemia: a clinical and experimental study. Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr; 98(4):862-70. PMID: 12657847.
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    193. Rossi S, Yaksh T. Rapid quantification of the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 in canine cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by capillary gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003 Feb 26; 31(2):243-50. PMID: 12609663.
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    194. Horais K, Hruby V, Rossi S, Cizkova D, Meschter C, Dorr R, Yaksh TL. Effects of chronic intrathecal infusion of a partial differential opioid agonist in dogs. Toxicol Sci. 2003 Feb; 71(2):263-75. PMID: 12563112.
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    195. Svensson CI, Rew Y, Malkmus S, Schiller PW, Taulane JP, Goodman M, Yaksh TL. Systemic and spinal analgesic activity of a delta-opioid-selective lanthionine enkephalin analog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb; 304(2):827-32. PMID: 12538839.
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    196. Ibuki T, Marsala M, Masuyama T, Yaksh TL. Spinal amino acid release and repeated withdrawal in spinal morphine tolerant rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Feb; 138(4):689-97. PMID: 12598423; PMCID: PMC1573708.
    197. Eisenach JC, Yaksh TL. Epidural ketamine in healthy children--what's the point? Anesth Analg. 2003 Feb; 96(2):626; author reply 626-7. PMID: 12538224.
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    198. Yaksh TL, Hassenbusch S, Burchiel K, Hildebrand KR, Page LM, Coffey RJ. Inflammatory masses associated with intrathecal drug infusion: a review of preclinical evidence and human data. Pain Med. 2002 Dec; 3(4):300-12. PMID: 15099235.
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    199. Eisenach JC, Yaksh TL. Safety in numbers: how do we study toxicity of spinal analgesics? Anesthesiology. 2002 Nov; 97(5):1047-9. PMID: 12411784.
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    200. Khan IM, Singletary E, Alemayehu A, Stanislaus S, Printz MP, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Nicotinic receptor gene cluster on rat chromosome 8 in nociceptive and blood pressure hyperresponsiveness. Physiol Genomics. 2002 Oct 29; 11(2):65-72. PMID: 12388796.
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    201. Eisenach JC, Curry R, Hood DD, Yaksh TL. Phase I safety assessment of intrathecal ketorolac. Pain. 2002 Oct; 99(3):599-604. PMID: 12406536.
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    202. Luger NM, Sabino MA, Schwei MJ, Mach DB, Pomonis JD, Keyser CP, Rathbun M, Clohisy DR, Honore P, Yaksh TL, Mantyh PW. Efficacy of systemic morphine suggests a fundamental difference in the mechanisms that generate bone cancer vs inflammatory pain. Pain. 2002 Oct; 99(3):397-406. PMID: 12406514.
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    203. Cizkova D, Marsala J, Lukacova N, Marsala M, Jergova S, Orendacova J, Yaksh TL. Localization of N-type Ca2+ channels in the rat spinal cord following chronic constrictive nerve injury. Exp Brain Res. 2002 Dec; 147(4):456-63. PMID: 12444477.
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    204. Rew Y, Malkmus S, Svensson C, Yaksh TL, Chung NN, Schiller PW, Cassel JA, DeHaven RN, Taulane JP, Goodman M. Synthesis and biological activities of cyclic lanthionine enkephalin analogues: delta-opioid receptor selective ligands. J Med Chem. 2002 Aug 15; 45(17):3746-54. PMID: 12166947.
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    205. Rossi S, Yaksh T. Rapid quantification of the delta-opioid receptor selective enkephalin DPDPE in canine cerebrospinal fluid by liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 May 25; 772(1):73-9. PMID: 12016017.
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    206. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh TL. Spinal and peripheral mu opioids and the development of secondary tactile allodynia after thermal injury. Anesth Analg. 2002 Apr; 94(4):968-74, table of contents. PMID: 11916806.
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    207. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of spinal glutamatergic receptors in post-thermal injury-evoked tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Anesthesiology. 2002 Mar; 96(3):617-26. PMID: 11873037.
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    208. Schäfers M, Geis C, Brors D, Yaksh TL, Sommer C. Anterograde transport of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the intact and injured rat sciatic nerve. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15; 22(2):536-45. PMID: 11784800.
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    209. Hua XY, Moore A, Malkmus S, Murray SF, Dean N, Yaksh TL, Butler M. Inhibition of spinal protein kinase Calpha expression by an antisense oligonucleotide attenuates morphine infusion-induced tolerance. Neuroscience. 2002; 113(1):99-107. PMID: 12123688.
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    210. Yaksh TL. Future advances in pain pharmacology: what does the present say about the future? Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2002; 45:211-8. PMID: 12434582.
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    211. Wallace MS, Ridgeway B, Leung A, Schulteis G, Yaksh TL. Concentration-effect relationships for intravenous alfentanil and ketamine infusions in human volunteers: effects on acute thresholds and capsaicin-evoked hyperpathia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Jan; 42(1):70-80. PMID: 11808827.
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    212. Yaksh TL, Scott B, LeBel CL. Effects of continuous lumbar intrathecal infusion of leptin in rats on weight regulation. Neuroscience. 2002; 110(4):703-10. PMID: 11934477.
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    213. Svensson CI, Yaksh TL. The spinal phospholipase-cyclooxygenase-prostanoid cascade in nociceptive processing. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002; 42:553-83. PMID: 11807183.
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    214. Sorkin LS, Yaksh TL, Doom CM. Pain models display differential sensitivity to Ca2+-permeable non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct; 95(4):965-73. PMID: 11605940.
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    215. Khan IM, Stanislaus S, Zhang L, Vaughn D, Printz MP, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Spinal nicotinic receptor activity in a genetic model of hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2001 Oct; 23(7):555-68. PMID: 11710757.
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    216. Yaksh TL, Dirig DM, Conway CM, Svensson C, Luo ZD, Isakson PC. The acute antihyperalgesic action of nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs and release of spinal prostaglandin E2 is mediated by the inhibition of constitutive spinal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) but not COX-1. J Neurosci. 2001 Aug 15; 21(16):5847-53. PMID: 11487607.
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    217. Mantyh PW, Yaksh TL. Sensory neurons are PARtial to pain. Nat Med. 2001 Jul; 7(7):772-3. PMID: 11433334.
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    218. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Chaplan SR, Higuera ES, Ajakwe RC, Yaksh TL. Vincristine-induced allodynia in the rat. Pain. 2001 Jul; 93(1):69-76. PMID: 11406340.
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    219. Yaksh TL, Ozaki G, McCumber D, Rathbun M, Svensson C, Malkmus S, Yaksh MC. An automated flinch detecting system for use in the formalin nociceptive bioassay. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001 Jun; 90(6):2386-402. PMID: 11356806.
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    220. Khan IM, Stanislaus S, Zhang L, Taylor P, Yaksh TL. A-85380 and epibatidine each interact with disparate spinal nicotinic receptor subtypes to achieve analgesia and nociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Apr; 297(1):230-9. PMID: 11259549.
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    221. Luo ZD, Chaplan SR, Higuera ES, Sorkin LS, Stauderman KA, Williams ME, Yaksh TL. Upregulation of dorsal root ganglion (alpha)2(delta) calcium channel subunit and its correlation with allodynia in spinal nerve-injured rats. J Neurosci. 2001 Mar 15; 21(6):1868-75. PMID: 11245671.
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    222. Leung A, Wallace MS, Ridgeway B, Yaksh T. Concentration-effect relationship of intravenous alfentanil and ketamine on peripheral neurosensory thresholds, allodynia and hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2001 Mar; 91(1-2):177-87. PMID: 11240090.
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    223. Wajima Z, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C blocks substance P-mediated hyperalgesia. Brain Res. 2000 Sep 22; 877(2):314-21. PMID: 10986346.
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    224. Yaksh T, Birnbach DJ. Intrathecal nalbuphine after cesarean delivery: are we ready? Anesth Analg. 2000 Sep; 91(3):505-8. PMID: 10960366.
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    225. Nishiyama T, Ho RJ, Shen DD, Yaksh TL. The effects of intrathecal morphine encapsulated in L- and D-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline liposomes on acute nociception in rats. Anesth Analg. 2000 Aug; 91(2):423-8. PMID: 10910861.
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    226. Bennett G, Serafini M, Burchiel K, Buchser E, Classen A, Deer T, Du Pen S, Ferrante FM, Hassenbusch SJ, Lou L, Maeyaert J, Penn R, Portenoy RK, Rauck R, Willis KD, Yaksh T. Evidence-based review of the literature on intrathecal delivery of pain medication. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000 Aug; 20(2):S12-36. PMID: 10989255.
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    227. Bennett G, Burchiel K, Buchser E, Classen A, Deer T, Du Pen S, Ferrante FM, Hassenbusch SJ, Lou L, Maeyaert J, Penn R, Portenoy RK, Rauck R, Serafini M, Willis KD, Yaksh T. Clinical guidelines for intraspinal infusion: report of an expert panel. PolyAnalgesic Consensus Conference 2000. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000 Aug; 20(2):S37-43. PMID: 10989256.
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    228. Bennett G, Deer T, Du Pen S, Rauck R, Yaksh T, Hassenbusch SJ. Future directions in the management of pain by intraspinal drug delivery. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000 Aug; 20(2):S44-50. PMID: 10989257.
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    229. Yang LC, Orendacova J, Wang V, Ishikawa T, Yaksh TL, Marsala M. Transient spinal cord ischemia in rat: the time course of spinal FOS protein expression and the effect of intraischemic hypothermia (27 degrees C). Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2000 Jun; 20(3):351-65. PMID: 10789833.
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    230. Granados-Soto V, Kalcheva I, Hua X, Newton A, Yaksh TL. Spinal PKC activity and expression: role in tolerance produced by continuous spinal morphine infusion. Pain. 2000 Apr; 85(3):395-404. PMID: 10781912.
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    231. Wallace M, Yaksh TL. Long-term spinal analgesic delivery: a review of the preclinical and clinical literature. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000 Mar-Apr; 25(2):117-57. PMID: 10746527.
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    232. Ishikawa T, Marsala M, Sakabe T, Yaksh TL. Characterization of spinal amino acid release and touch-evoked allodynia produced by spinal glycine or GABA(A) receptor antagonist. Neuroscience. 2000; 95(3):781-6. PMID: 10670445.
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    233. Yaksh TL, Provencher JC, Rathbun ML, Myers RR, Powell H, Richter P, Kohn FR. Safety assessment of encapsulated morphine delivered epidurally in a sustained-release multivesicular liposome preparation in dogs. Drug Deliv. 2000 Jan-Mar; 7(1):27-36. PMID: 10895417.
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    234. Wallace MS, Ridgeway BM, Leung AY, Gerayli A, Yaksh TL. Concentration-effect relationship of intravenous lidocaine on the allodynia of complex regional pain syndrome types I and II. Anesthesiology. 2000 Jan; 92(1):75-83. PMID: 10638902.
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    235. Hua XY, Chen P, Yaksh TL. Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C reduces nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia in neuropathic rats. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Dec 03; 276(2):99-102. PMID: 10624801.
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    236. Sorkin LS, Yaksh TL, Doom CM. Mechanical allodynia in rats is blocked by a Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist. Neuroreport. 1999 Nov 26; 10(17):3523-6. PMID: 10619637.
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    237. Yaksh TL. A drug has to do what a drug has to do. Anesth Analg. 1999 Nov; 89(5):1075-7. PMID: 10553814.
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    238. Luo ZD, Chaplan SR, Scott BP, Cizkova D, Calcutt NA, Yaksh TL. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA upregulation in rat sensory neurons after spinal nerve ligation: lack of a role in allodynia development. J Neurosci. 1999 Nov 01; 19(21):9201-8. PMID: 10531423.
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    239. Sailer A, Swanson GT, Pérez-Otaño I, O'Leary L, Malkmus SA, Dyck RH, Dickinson-Anson H, Schiffer HH, Maron C, Yaksh TL, Gage FH, O'Gorman S, Heinemann SF. Generation and analysis of GluR5(Q636R) kainate receptor mutant mice. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 15; 19(20):8757-64. PMID: 10516295.
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    240. Yoon MH, Yaksh TL. Evaluation of interaction between gabapentin and ibuprofen on the formalin test in rats. Anesthesiology. 1999 Oct; 91(4):1006-13. PMID: 10519504.
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    241. Chiari A, Yaksh TL, Myers RR, Provencher J, Moore L, Lee CS, Eisenach JC. Preclinical toxicity screening of intrathecal adenosine in rats and dogs. Anesthesiology. 1999 Sep; 91(3):824-32. PMID: 10485794.
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    242. Yaksh TL. Spinal systems and pain processing: development of novel analgesic drugs with mechanistically defined models. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1999 Aug; 20(8):329-37. PMID: 10431212.
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    243. Yoon MH, Yaksh TL. The effect of intrathecal gabapentin on pain behavior and hemodynamics on the formalin test in the rat. Anesth Analg. 1999 Aug; 89(2):434-9. PMID: 10439761.
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    244. Yaksh TL. Regulation of spinal nociceptive processing: where we went when we wandered onto the path marked by the gate. Pain. 1999 Aug; Suppl 6:S149-52. PMID: 10491984.
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    245. Yaksh TL, Hua XY, Kalcheva I, Nozaki-Taguchi N, Marsala M. The spinal biology in humans and animals of pain states generated by persistent small afferent input. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jul 06; 96(14):7680-6. PMID: 10393880; PMCID: PMC33601.
    246. Yaksh TL, Provencher JC, Rathbun ML, Kohn FR. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of epidurally delivered sustained-release encapsulated morphine in dogs. Anesthesiology. 1999 May; 90(5):1402-12. PMID: 10319789.
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    247. DeHaven-Hudkins DL, Burgos LC, Cassel JA, Daubert JD, DeHaven RN, Mansson E, Nagasaka H, Yu G, Yaksh T. Loperamide (ADL 2-1294), an opioid antihyperalgesic agent with peripheral selectivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr; 289(1):494-502. PMID: 10087042.
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    248. Dirig DM, Yaksh TL. In vitro prostanoid release from spinal cord following peripheral inflammation: effects of substance P, NMDA and capsaicin. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Mar; 126(6):1333-40. PMID: 10217526; PMCID: PMC1565904.
    249. Hua XY, Chen P, Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal substance P-induced thermal hyperalgesia and spinal release of prostaglandin E2 and amino acids. Neuroscience. 1999 Mar; 89(2):525-34. PMID: 10077333.
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    250. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh TL. Characterization of the antihyperalgesic action of a novel peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist--loperamide. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jan; 90(1):225-34. PMID: 9915332.
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    251. Dirig DM, Yaksh TL. Spinal synthesis and release of prostanoids after peripheral injury and inflammation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 469:401-8. PMID: 10667359.
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    252. Khan IM, Buerkle H, Taylor P, Yaksh TL. Nociceptive and antinociceptive responses to intrathecally administered nicotinic agonists. Neuropharmacology. 1998 Dec; 37(12):1515-25. PMID: 9886674.
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    253. Eisenach JC, James FM, Gordh T, Yaksh TL. New epidural drugs: primum non nocere. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov; 87(5):1211-2. PMID: 9806714.
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    254. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh TL. A novel model of primary and secondary hyperalgesia after mild thermal injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1998 Sep 18; 254(1):25-8. PMID: 9780083.
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    255. Nishiyama T, Yaksh TL, Weber E. Effects of intrathecal NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on acute thermal nociception and their interaction with morphine. Anesthesiology. 1998 Sep; 89(3):715-22. PMID: 9743410.
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    256. Buerkle H, Yaksh TL. Pharmacological evidence for different alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites mediating analgesia and sedation in the rat. Br J Anaesth. 1998 Aug; 81(2):208-15. PMID: 9813525.
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    257. Shreder K, Zhang L, Dang T, Yaksh TL, Umeno H, DeHaven R, Daubert J, Goodman M. Synthesis and biological activity of a novel methylamine-bridged enkephalin analogue (MABE): a new route to cyclic peptides and peptidomimetics. J Med Chem. 1998 Jul 02; 41(14):2631-5. PMID: 9651168.
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    258. Dirig DM, Isakson PC, Yaksh TL. Effect of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition on induction and maintenance of carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jun; 285(3):1031-8. PMID: 9618405.
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    259. Vanický I, Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Neurodegeneration induced by reversed microdialysis of NMDA; a quantitative model for excitotoxicity in vivo. Brain Res. 1998 Apr 13; 789(2):347-50. PMID: 9573401.
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    260. Högman M, Reber A, Hua XY, Dueck R, Yaksh TL. Effects of endotracheal intubation on airway neuropeptide content, arterial oxygenation and lung volumes in anaesthetized rats. Eur J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar; 28(3):249-55. PMID: 9568472.
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    261. Buerkle H, Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Effect of continuous spinal remifentanil infusion on behaviour and spinal glutamate release evoked by subcutaneous formalin in the rat. Br J Anaesth. 1998 Mar; 80(3):348-53. PMID: 9623437.
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    262. Hua XY, Chen P, Polgar E, Nagy I, Marsala M, Phillips E, Wollaston L, Urban L, Yaksh TL, Webb M. Spinal neurokinin NK1 receptor down-regulation and antinociception: effects of spinal NK1 receptor antisense oligonucleotides and NK1 receptor occupancy. J Neurochem. 1998 Feb; 70(2):688-98. PMID: 9453563.
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    263. Jun JH, Yaksh TL. The effect of intrathecal gabapentin and 3-isobutyl gamma-aminobutyric acid on the hyperalgesia observed after thermal injury in the rat. Anesth Analg. 1998 Feb; 86(2):348-54. PMID: 9459247.
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    264. Yaksh TL, Dirig DM, Malmberg AB. Mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Invest. 1998; 16(7):509-27. PMID: 9774958.
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    265. Kohn FR, Malkmus SA, Brownson EA, Rossi SS, Yaksh TL. Fate of the predominant phospholipid component of DepoFoam drug delivery matrix after intrathecal administration of sustained-release encapsulated cytarabine in rats. Drug Deliv. 1998; 5(2):143-51. PMID: 19570006.
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    266. Partridge BJ, Chaplan SR, Sakamoto E, Yaksh TL. Characterization of the effects of gabapentin and 3-isobutyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid on substance P-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Anesthesiology. 1998 Jan; 88(1):196-205. PMID: 9447873.
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    267. Chritton SL, Chinnow SL, Grabau C, Dousa MK, Lucas D, Roddy D, Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Adrenomedullary secretion of DOPA, catecholamines, catechol metabolites, and neuropeptides. J Neurochem. 1997 Dec; 69(6):2413-20. PMID: 9375673.
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    268. Dirig DM, Salami A, Rathbun ML, Ozaki GT, Yaksh TL. Characterization of variables defining hindpaw withdrawal latency evoked by radiant thermal stimuli. J Neurosci Methods. 1997 Oct 03; 76(2):183-91. PMID: 9350970.
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    269. Wallace MS, Lee J, Sorkin L, Dunn JS, Yaksh T, Yu A. Intravenous lidocaine: effects on controlling pain after anti-GD2 antibody therapy in children with neuroblastoma--a report of a series. Anesth Analg. 1997 Oct; 85(4):794-6. PMID: 9322457.
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    270. Naguib M, Yaksh TL. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes that mediate antinociception in the rat spinal cord. Anesth Analg. 1997 Oct; 85(4):847-53. PMID: 9322468.
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    271. Dirig DM, Konin GP, Isakson PC, Yaksh TL. Effect of spinal cyclooxygenase inhibitors in rat using the formalin test and in vitro prostaglandin E2 release. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Jul 23; 331(2-3):155-60. PMID: 9274974.
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    272. Hua XY, Chen P, Hwang J, Yaksh TL. Antinociception induced by civamide, an orally active capsaicin analogue. Pain. 1997 Jul; 71(3):313-22. PMID: 9231875.
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    273. Yaksh TL, Rathbun ML, Dragani JC, Malkmus S, Bourdeau AR, Richter P, Powell H, Myers RR, Lebel CP. Kinetic and safety studies on intrathecally infused recombinant-methionyl human brain-derived neurotrophic factor in dogs. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1997 Jul; 38(1):89-100. PMID: 9268608.
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    274. Marsala M, Galik J, Ishikawa T, Yaksh TL. Technique of selective spinal cord cooling in rat: methodology and application. J Neurosci Methods. 1997 Jun 06; 74(1):97-106. PMID: 9210579.
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    275. Wallace MS, Laitin S, Licht D, Yaksh TL. Concentration-effect relations for intravenous lidocaine infusions in human volunteers: effects on acute sensory thresholds and capsaicin-evoked hyperpathia. Anesthesiology. 1997 Jun; 86(6):1262-72. PMID: 9197294.
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    276. Dunbar SA, Yaksh TL. Spinal infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK801 induces hypersensitivity to the spinal alpha-2 agonist ST91 in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun; 281(3):1219-25. PMID: 9190856.
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    277. Dirig DM, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Temperature dependency of basal and evoked release of amino acids and calcitonin gene-related peptide from rat dorsal spinal cord. J Neurosci. 1997 Jun 01; 17(11):4406-14. PMID: 9151757.
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    278. Hwang JH, Yaksh TL. Effect of subarachnoid gabapentin on tactile-evoked allodynia in a surgically induced neuropathic pain model in the rat. Reg Anesth. 1997 May-Jun; 22(3):249-56. PMID: 9168217.
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    279. Khan IM, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Epibatidine binding sites and activity in the spinal cord. Brain Res. 1997 Apr 11; 753(2):269-82. PMID: 9125412.
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    280. Yang LC, Marsala M, Orendacova J, Yaksh TL. Knee joint inflammation attenuates spinal FOS expression after unilateral paw formalin injection in rat. Neurosci Lett. 1997 Apr 04; 225(2):89-92. PMID: 9147381.
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    281. Ibuki T, Dunbar SA, Yaksh TL. Effect of transient naloxone antagonism on tolerance development in rats receiving continuous spinal morphine infusion. Pain. 1997 Apr; 70(2-3):125-32. PMID: 9150285.
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    282. Rossi SS, Moore AC, Hagey LR, Yaksh TL, Chaplan SR. An improved method for the measurement of lidocaine and its metabolites in rat plasma. Ther Drug Monit. 1997 Apr; 19(2):179-84. PMID: 9108647.
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    283. Zhang Y, Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL, Sjölund B, Sundler F, Håkanson R. Capsaicin-evoked release of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from rat spinal cord in vivo. Regul Pept. 1997 Mar 26; 69(2):83-7. PMID: 9178350.
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    284. Hwang JH, Yaksh TL. The effect of spinal GABA receptor agonists on tactile allodynia in a surgically-induced neuropathic pain model in the rat. Pain. 1997 Mar; 70(1):15-22. PMID: 9106805.
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    285. Chaplan SR, Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Efficacy of spinal NMDA receptor antagonism in formalin hyperalgesia and nerve injury evoked allodynia in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Feb; 280(2):829-38. PMID: 9023297.
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    286. Yaksh TL. Pharmacology and mechanisms of opioid analgesic activity. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997 Jan; 41(1 Pt 2):94-111. PMID: 9061092.
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    287. Yaksh TL. Pain after injury: some basic mechanisms. J Fla Med Assoc. 1997 Jan; 84(1):16-9. PMID: 9037993.
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    288. Dyck JB, Wallace MS, Lu JQ, Rossi SS, Yaksh TL. The pharmacokinetics of lignocaine in humans during a computer-controlled infusion. Eur J Pain. 1997; 1(2):141-8. PMID: 15102415.
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    289. Slart R, Yu AL, Yaksh TL, Sorkin LS. An animal model of pain produced by systemic administration of an immunotherapeutic anti-ganglioside antibody. Pain. 1997 Jan; 69(1-2):119-25. PMID: 9060021.
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    290. Dowlatshahi P, Yaksh TL. Differential effects of two intraventricularly injected alpha 2 agonists, ST-91 and dexmedetomidine, on electroencephalogram, feeding, and electromyogram. Anesth Analg. 1997 Jan; 84(1):133-8. PMID: 8989014.
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    291. Dirig DM, Yaksh TL. Hyperalgesia-associated spinal synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 433:205-8. PMID: 9561136.
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    292. Dirig DM, Yaksh TL. Thermal hyperalgesia in rat evoked by intrathecal substance P at multiple stimulus intensities reflects an increase in the gain of nociceptive processing. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Dec 13; 220(2):93-6. PMID: 8981481.
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    293. Calcutt NA, Jorge MC, Yaksh TL, Chaplan SR. Tactile allodynia and formalin hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: effects of insulin, aldose reductase inhibition and lidocaine. Pain. 1996 Dec; 68(2-3):293-9. PMID: 9121817.
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    294. Khan IM, Youngblood KL, Printz MP, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Spinal nicotinic receptor expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1996 Dec; 28(6):1093-9. PMID: 8952602.
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    295. Yang LC, Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Effect of spinal kainic acid receptor activation on spinal amino acid and prostaglandin E2 release in rat. Neuroscience. 1996 Nov; 75(2):453-61. PMID: 8931009.
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    296. Yang LC, Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Characterization of time course of spinal amino acids, citrulline and PGE2 release after carrageenan/kaolin-induced knee joint inflammation: a chronic microdialysis study. Pain. 1996 Oct; 67(2-3):345-54. PMID: 8951928.
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    297. Nagasaka H, Awad H, Yaksh TL. Peripheral and spinal actions of opioids in the blockade of the autonomic response evoked by compression of the inflamed knee joint. Anesthesiology. 1996 Oct; 85(4):808-16. PMID: 8873551.
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    298. Takano Y, Takano M, Sato I, Yaksh TL. Effects of spinal naloxone and naltrindole on the antinociceptive action of intrathecally administered dexmedetomidine. J Anesth. 1996 Sep; 10(3):194-8. PMID: 23839625.
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    299. Hamra JG, Yaksh TL. Equianalgesic doses of subcutaneous but not intrathecal morphine alter phenotypic expression of cell surface markers and mitogen-induced proliferation in rat lymphocytes. Anesthesiology. 1996 Aug; 85(2):355-65. PMID: 8712452.
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    300. Wallace MS, Dyck JB, Rossi SS, Yaksh TL. Computer-controlled lidocaine infusion for the evaluation of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Pain. 1996 Jul; 66(1):69-77. PMID: 8857633.
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    301. Khan IM, Marsala M, Printz MP, Taylor P, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal nicotinic agonist-elicited release of excitatory amino acids as measured by in vivo spinal microdialysis in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jul; 278(1):97-106. PMID: 8764340.
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    302. Lee YW, Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of the spinal adenosine receptor which mediates the antiallodynic action of intrathecal adenosine agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jun; 277(3):1642-8. PMID: 8667233.
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    303. Dunbar S, Yaksh TL. Concurrent spinal infusion of MK801 blocks spinal tolerance and dependence induced by chronic intrathecal morphine in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1996 May; 84(5):1177-88. PMID: 8624012.
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    304. Hamra JG, Yaksh TL. Halothane inhibits T cell proliferation and interleukin-2 receptor expression in rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1996 May; 18(2):323-36. PMID: 8771374.
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    305. Jhamandas KH, Marsala M, Ibuki T, Yaksh TL. Spinal amino acid release and precipitated withdrawal in rats chronically infused with spinal morphine. J Neurosci. 1996 Apr 15; 16(8):2758-66. PMID: 8786451.
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    306. Zhang Y, Malmberg AB, Sjölund B, Yaksh TL. The effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) on the nociceptive formalin test. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Apr 05; 207(3):187-90. PMID: 8728481.
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    307. Buerkle H, Yaksh TL. Continuous intrathecal administration of shortlasting mu opioids remifentanil and alfentanil in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1996 Apr; 84(4):926-35. PMID: 8638848.
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    308. Ishikawa T, Yaksh TL. [Concurrent characterization of spinal amino acid release and touch-evoked allodynia produced by spinal glycine or GABAA receptor antagonists]. Masui. 1996 Apr; 45(4):439-44. PMID: 8725598.
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    309. Galik J, Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Changes in spontaneous unit activity in lumbar spinal cord after reversible aortic occlusion in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 22; 207(1):45-8. PMID: 8710206.
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    310. Dunbar S, Yaksh TL. Effect of spinal infusion of L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on spinal tolerance and dependence induced by chronic intrathecal morphine in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 22; 207(1):33-6. PMID: 8710203.
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    311. Rossi SS, Dyck JB, Yaksh TL. Simultaneous extraction of sufentanil and midazolam from human plasma. Clin Chim Acta. 1996 Jan 15; 244(1):103-10. PMID: 8919205.
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    312. Yaksh TL. Horizons in Pain Research. San Diego, California, May 19-21, 1995. Anesthesiology. 1996 Jan; 84(1):245-8. PMID: 8572351.
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    313. Buerkle H, Yaksh TL. Comparison of the spinal actions of the mu-opioid remifentanil with alfentanil and morphine in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1996 Jan; 84(1):94-102. PMID: 8572360.
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    314. Bach FW, Yaksh TL. Release of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity into ventriculo-cisternal perfusate by lumbar intrathecal capsaicin in the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Dec 01; 701(1-2):192-200. PMID: 8925284.
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    315. Marsala M, Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. The spinal loop dialysis catheter: characterization of use in the unanesthetized rat. J Neurosci Methods. 1995 Nov; 62(1-2):43-53. PMID: 8750084.
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    316. Isackson J, Wallace MS, Ho RJ, Shen DD, Yaksh TL. Antinociception and side effects of L- and D-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline liposome-encapsulated alfentanil after spinal delivery in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Nov; 77(5):333-40. PMID: 8778746.
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    317. Lee YW, Chaplan SR, Yaksh TL. Systemic and supraspinal, but not spinal, opiates suppress allodynia in a rat neuropathic pain model. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Oct 20; 199(2):111-4. PMID: 8584236.
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    318. Calcutt NA, Li L, Yaksh TL, Malmberg AB. Different effects of two aldose reductase inhibitors on nociception and prostaglandin E. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Oct 16; 285(2):189-97. PMID: 8566138.
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    319. Chaplan SR, Bach FW, Shafer SL, Yaksh TL. Prolonged alleviation of tactile allodynia by intravenous lidocaine in neuropathic rats. Anesthesiology. 1995 Oct; 83(4):775-85. PMID: 7574057.
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    320. Dirig DM, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal baclofen and muscimol, but not midazolam, are antinociceptive using the rat-formalin model. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Oct; 275(1):219-27. PMID: 7562553.
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    321. Yaksh TL, Malmberg AB, Ro S, Schiller P, Goodman M. Characterization of the spinal antinociceptive activity of constrained peptidomimetic opioids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Oct; 275(1):63-72. PMID: 7562596.
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    322. Bach FW, Chaplan SR, Jang J, Yaksh TL. Cerebrospinal fluid beta-endorphin in models of hyperalgesia in the rat. Regul Pept. 1995 Sep 22; 59(1):79-86. PMID: 12506417.
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    323. Bach FW, Yaksh TL. Release into ventriculo-cisternal perfusate of beta-endorphin- and Met-enkephalin-immunoreactivity: effects of electrical stimulation in the arcuate nucleus and periaqueductal gray of the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Sep 04; 690(2):167-76. PMID: 8535833.
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    324. Dirig DM, Yaksh TL. Differential right shifts in the dose-response curve for intrathecal morphine and sufentanil as a function of stimulus intensity. Pain. 1995 Sep; 62(3):321-8. PMID: 8657432.
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    325. Hua XY, Wong S, Jinno S, Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of calcitonin gene related peptide release from sensory terminals in the rat trachea. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Jul; 73(7):999-1006. PMID: 8846444.
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    326. Yanez AM, Wallace M, Ho R, Shen D, Yaksh TL. Touch-evoked agitation produced by spinally administered phospholipid emulsion and liposomes in rats. Structure-activity relation. Anesthesiology. 1995 May; 82(5):1189-98. PMID: 7741294.
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    327. Ro S, Zhu Q, Lee CW, Goodman M, Darlak K, Spatola AF, Chung NN, Schiller PW, Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Highly potent side chain-main chain cyclized dermorphin-deltorphin analogues: an integrated approach including synthesis, bioassays, NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. J Pept Sci. 1995 May-Jun; 1(3):157-74. PMID: 9222993.
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    328. Bach FW, Yaksh TL. Release of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity from brain by activation of a hypothalamic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Neuroscience. 1995 Apr; 65(3):775-83. PMID: 7609876.
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    329. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Cyclooxygenase inhibition and the spinal release of prostaglandin E2 and amino acids evoked by paw formalin injection: a microdialysis study in unanesthetized rats. J Neurosci. 1995 Apr; 15(4):2768-76. PMID: 7722627.
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    330. Lee YW, Yaksh TL. Analysis of drug interaction between intrathecal clonidine and MK-801 in peripheral neuropathic pain rat model. Anesthesiology. 1995 Mar; 82(3):741-8. PMID: 7879942.
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    331. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. The effect of morphine on formalin-evoked behaviour and spinal release of excitatory amino acids and prostaglandin E2 using microdialysis in conscious rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Mar; 114(5):1069-75. PMID: 7780642; PMCID: PMC1510315.
    332. Nagasaka H, Yaksh TL. Effects of intrathecal mu, delta, and kappa agonists on thermally evoked cardiovascular and nociceptive reflexes in halothane-anesthetized rats. Anesth Analg. 1995 Mar; 80(3):437-43. PMID: 7864404.
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    333. Yaksh TL, Grafe MR, Malkmus S, Rathbun ML, Eisenach JC. Studies on the safety of chronically administered intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate in rats and dogs. Anesthesiology. 1995 Feb; 82(2):412-27. PMID: 7856900.
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    334. Beutler AS, Banck MS, Bach FW, Gage FH, Porreca F, Bilsky EJ, Yaksh TL. Retrovirus-mediated expression of an artificial beta-endorphin precursor in primary fibroblasts. J Neurochem. 1995 Feb; 64(2):475-81. PMID: 7830038.
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    335. Hood DD, Eisenach JC, Tong C, Tommasi E, Yaksh TL. Cardiorespiratory and spinal cord blood flow effects of intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate, clonidine, and their combination in sheep. Anesthesiology. 1995 Feb; 82(2):428-35. PMID: 7856901.
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    336. Yaksh TL, Pogrel JW, Lee YW, Chaplan SR. Reversal of nerve ligation-induced allodynia by spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Jan; 272(1):207-14. PMID: 7815335.
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    337. Yaksh TL, Chaplan SR, Malmberg AB. Future directions in the pharmacological management of hyperalgesic and allodynic pain states: the NMDA receptor. NIDA Res Monogr. 1995; 147:84-103. PMID: 8742782.
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    338. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Effect of continuous intrathecal infusion of omega-conopeptides, N-type calcium-channel blockers, on behavior and antinociception in the formalin and hot-plate tests in rats. Pain. 1995 Jan; 60(1):83-90. PMID: 7715945.
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    339. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Capsaicin-evoked prostaglandin E2 release in spinal cord slices: relative effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Dec 27; 271(2-3):293-9. PMID: 7705429.
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    340. Khan IM, Taylor P, Yaksh TL. Stimulatory pathways and sites of action of intrathecally administered nicotinic agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Dec; 271(3):1550-7. PMID: 7996469.
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    341. Abram SE, Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Analgesic and neurotoxic effects of intrathecal corticosteroids in rats. Anesthesiology. 1994 Nov; 81(5):1198-205. PMID: 7978478.
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    342. Khan IM, Printz MP, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Augmented responses to intrathecal nicotinic agonists in spontaneous hypertension. Hypertension. 1994 Nov; 24(5):611-9. PMID: 7960022.
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    343. Hua XY, Back SM, Yaksh TL. Characterization of muscarinic receptors involved in tracheal CGRP release. Neuroreport. 1994 Oct 27; 5(16):2133-6. PMID: 7865762.
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    344. Wallace MS, Yanez AM, Ho RJ, Shen DD, Yaksh TL. Antinociception and side effects of liposome-encapsulated alfentanil after spinal delivery in rats. Anesth Analg. 1994 Oct; 79(4):778-86. PMID: 7943792.
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    345. Yaksh TL, Rathbun M, Jage J, Mirzai T, Grafe M, Hiles RA. Pharmacology and toxicology of chronically infused epidural clonidine.HCl in dogs. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1994 Oct; 23(3):319-35. PMID: 7835532.
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    346. Sabbe MB, Grafe MR, Mjanger E, Tiseo PJ, Hill HF, Yaksh TL. Spinal delivery of sufentanil, alfentanil, and morphine in dogs. Physiologic and toxicologic investigations. Anesthesiology. 1994 Oct; 81(4):899-920. PMID: 7943841.
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    347. Hua XY, Jinno S, Back SM, Tam EK, Yaksh TL. Multiple mechanisms for the effects of capsaicin, bradykinin and nicotine on CGRP release from tracheal afferent nerves: role of prostaglandins, sympathetic nerves and mast cells. Neuropharmacology. 1994 Oct; 33(10):1147-54. PMID: 7862250.
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    348. Marsala M, Vanicky I, Yaksh TL. Effect of graded hypothermia (27 degrees to 34 degrees C) on behavioral function, histopathology, and spinal blood flow after spinal ischemia in rat. Stroke. 1994 Oct; 25(10):2038-46. PMID: 8091450.
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    349. Yaksh TL. Spinal somatostatin for patients with cancer. Risk-benefit assessment of an analgesic. Anesthesiology. 1994 Sep; 81(3):531-3. PMID: 7916545.
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    350. Calcutt NA, Malmberg AB, Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Tolrestat treatment prevents modification of the formalin test model of prolonged pain in hyperglycemic rats. Pain. 1994 Sep; 58(3):413-20. PMID: 7838591.
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    351. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels in spinal nociceptive processing: blockade of N- and P-type channels inhibits formalin-induced nociception. J Neurosci. 1994 Aug; 14(8):4882-90. PMID: 8046458.
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    352. Patel PM, Drummond JC, Cole DJ, Yaksh TL. Differential temperature sensitivity of ischemia-induced glutamate release and eicosanoid production in rats. Brain Res. 1994 Jul 11; 650(2):205-11. PMID: 7953685.
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    353. Khan IM, Yaksh TL, Taylor P. Ligand specificity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat spinal cord: studies with nicotine and cytisine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jul; 270(1):159-66. PMID: 8035312.
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    354. Khan IM, Taylor P, Yaksh TL. Cardiovascular and behavioral responses to nicotinic agents administered intrathecally. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jul; 270(1):150-8. PMID: 8035311.
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    355. Chaplan SR, Bach FW, Pogrel JW, Chung JM, Yaksh TL. Quantitative assessment of tactile allodynia in the rat paw. J Neurosci Methods. 1994 Jul; 53(1):55-63. PMID: 7990513.
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    356. Marsala M, Sorkin LS, Yaksh TL. Transient spinal ischemia in rat: characterization of spinal cord blood flow, extracellular amino acid release, and concurrent histopathological damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jul; 14(4):604-14. PMID: 8014207.
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    357. Naguib M, Yaksh TL. Antinociceptive effects of spinal cholinesterase inhibition and isobolographic analysis of the interaction with mu and alpha 2 receptor systems. Anesthesiology. 1994 Jun; 80(6):1338-48. PMID: 8010479.
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    358. Chaplan SR, Pogrel JW, Yaksh TL. Role of voltage-dependent calcium channel subtypes in experimental tactile allodynia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jun; 269(3):1117-23. PMID: 8014856.
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    359. Malmberg AB, Rafferty MF, Yaksh TL. Antinociceptive effect of spinally delivered prostaglandin E receptor antagonists in the formalin test on the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1994 May 23; 173(1-2):193-6. PMID: 7936413.
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    360. Sabbe MB, Penning JP, Ozaki GT, Yaksh TL. Spinal and systemic action of the alpha 2 receptor agonist dexmedetomidine in dogs. Antinociception and carbon dioxide response. Anesthesiology. 1994 May; 80(5):1057-72. PMID: 7912480.
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    361. Marsala M, Yaksh TL. Transient spinal ischemia in the rat: characterization of behavioral and histopathological consequences as a function of the duration of aortic occlusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 May; 14(3):526-35. PMID: 8163596.
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    362. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Antinociception produced by spinal delivery of the S and R enantiomers of flurbiprofen in the formalin test. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Apr 21; 256(2):205-9. PMID: 8050472.
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    363. Jinno S, Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Nicotine and acetylcholine induce release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from rat trachea. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994 Apr; 76(4):1651-6. PMID: 8045845.
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    364. Abram SE, Yaksh TL. Systemic lidocaine blocks nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia and nociceptor-driven spinal sensitization in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1994 Feb; 80(2):383-91; discussion 25A. PMID: 8311320.
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    365. Young RF, Bach FW, Van Norman AS, Yaksh TL. Release of beta-endorphin and methionine-enkephalin into cerebrospinal fluid during deep brain stimulation for chronic pain. Effects of stimulation locus and site of sampling. J Neurosurg. 1993 Dec; 79(6):816-25. PMID: 8246048.
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    366. Calcutt NA, Mizisin AP, Yaksh TL. Impaired induction of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide after sciatic nerve injury in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. J Neurol Sci. 1993 Nov; 119(2):154-61. PMID: 8277329.
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    367. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Effects of colchicine applied to the peripheral nerve on the thermal hyperalgesia evoked with chronic nerve constriction. Pain. 1993 Nov; 55(2):227-33. PMID: 7508592.
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    368. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL, Calcutt NA. Anti-nociceptive effects of the GM1 ganglioside derivative AGF 44 on the formalin test in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Neurosci Lett. 1993 Oct 14; 161(1):45-8. PMID: 8255545.
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    369. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Spinal nitric oxide synthesis inhibition blocks NMDA-induced thermal hyperalgesia and produces antinociception in the formalin test in rats. Pain. 1993 Sep; 54(3):291-300. PMID: 8233543.
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    370. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of the spinal action of ketorolac, morphine, ST-91, U50488H, and L-PIA on the formalin test and an isobolographic analysis of the NSAID interaction. Anesthesiology. 1993 Aug; 79(2):270-81. PMID: 8102041.
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    371. Saeki S, Yaksh TL. Suppression of nociceptive responses by spinal mu opioid agonists: effects of stimulus intensity and agonist efficacy. Anesth Analg. 1993 Aug; 77(2):265-74. PMID: 8346825.
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    372. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Effects of intrathecal strychnine and bicuculline on nerve compression-induced thermal hyperalgesia and selective antagonism by MK-801. Pain. 1993 Jul; 54(1):79-84. PMID: 8378105.
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    373. Patel PM, Drummond JC, Sano T, Cole DJ, Kalkman CJ, Yaksh TL. Effect of ibuprofen on regional eicosanoid production and neuronal injury after forebrain ischemia in rats. Brain Res. 1993 Jun 18; 614(1-2):315-24. PMID: 8348324.
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    374. Tiseo PJ, Yaksh TL. Dose-dependent antagonism of spinal opioid receptor agonists by naloxone and naltrindole: additional evidence for delta-opioid receptor subtypes in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993 May 12; 236(1):89-96. PMID: 8391455.
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    375. Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of the effects of bradykinin, serotonin, and histamine on the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from C-fiber terminals in the rat trachea. J Neurosci. 1993 May; 13(5):1947-53. PMID: 8478685.
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    376. Abram SE, Yaksh TL. Morphine, but not inhalation anesthesia, blocks post-injury facilitation. The role of preemptive suppression of afferent transmission. Anesthesiology. 1993 Apr; 78(4):713-21. PMID: 8385425.
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    377. Yaksh TL. New horizons in our understanding of the spinal physiology and pharmacology of pain processing. Semin Oncol. 1993 Apr; 20(2 Suppl 1):6-18. PMID: 8475414.
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    378. Yaksh TL. The spinal pharmacology of facilitation of afferent processing evoked by high-threshold afferent input of the postinjury pain state. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg. 1993 Apr; 6(2):250-6. PMID: 8097639.
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    379. Sawynok J, Yaksh TL. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant: a review of pharmacology and mechanisms of action. Pharmacol Rev. 1993 Mar; 45(1):43-85. PMID: 8475169.
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    380. Takano M, Takano Y, Yaksh TL. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from rat spinal cord: modulation by alpha 2 agonists. Peptides. 1993 Mar-Apr; 14(2):371-8. PMID: 7683402.
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    381. Myers RR, Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL, Powell HC. The role of focal nerve ischemia and Wallerian degeneration in peripheral nerve injury producing hyperesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1993 Feb; 78(2):308-16. PMID: 8439027.
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    382. Yaksh TL, Malmberg AB. Spinal actions of NSAIDS in blocking spinally mediated hyperalgesia: the role of cyclooxygenase products. Agents Actions Suppl. 1993; 41:89-100. PMID: 8317344.
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    383. Takano Y, Yaksh TL. Chronic spinal infusion of dexmedetomidine, ST-91 and clonidine: spinal alpha 2 adrenoceptor subtypes and intrinsic activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jan; 264(1):327-35. PMID: 8093729.
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    384. Sabbe MB, Grafe MR, Pfeifer BL, Mirzai TH, Yaksh TL. Toxicology of baclofen continuously infused into the spinal intrathecal space of the dog. Neurotoxicology. 1993; 14(4):397-410. PMID: 8164885.
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    385. Penning JP, Yaksh TL. Interaction of intrathecal morphine with bupivacaine and lidocaine in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Dec; 77(6):1186-2000. PMID: 1466469.
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    386. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Effects of intrathecal capsaicin and an NK-1 antagonist, CP,96-345, on the thermal hyperalgesia observed following unilateral constriction of the sciatic nerve in the rat. Pain. 1992 Dec; 51(3):329-34. PMID: 1337198.
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    387. Cantor SL, Zornow MH, Miller LP, Yaksh TL. The effect of cyclohexyladenosine on the periischemic increases of hippocampal glutamate and glycine in the rabbit. J Neurochem. 1992 Nov; 59(5):1884-92. PMID: 1357102.
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    388. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Isobolographic and dose-response analyses of the interaction between intrathecal mu and delta agonists: effects of naltrindole and its benzofuran analog (NTB). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Oct; 263(1):264-75. PMID: 1328610.
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    389. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Antinociceptive actions of spinal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on the formalin test in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Oct; 263(1):136-46. PMID: 1403779.
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    390. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Comparison of the antinociceptive effects of pre- and posttreatment with intrathecal morphine and MK801, an NMDA antagonist, on the formalin test in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Oct; 77(4):757-63. PMID: 1416174.
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    391. Takano Y, Takano M, Yaksh TL. The effect of intrathecally administered imiloxan and WB4101: possible role of alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes in the spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Sep 04; 219(3):465-8. PMID: 1358645.
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    392. Bernards CM, Luger TJ, Malmberg AB, Hill HF, Yaksh TL. Liposome encapsulation prolongs alfentanil spinal analgesia and alters systemic redistribution in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Sep; 77(3):529-35. PMID: 1519790.
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    393. Herold EE, Yaksh TL. Anesthesia and muscle relaxation with intrathecal injections of AR636 and AG489, two acylpolyamine spider toxins, in rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Sep; 77(3):507-12. PMID: 1519789.
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    394. Malmberg AB, Yaksh TL. Hyperalgesia mediated by spinal glutamate or substance P receptor blocked by spinal cyclooxygenase inhibition. Science. 1992 Aug 28; 257(5074):1276-9. PMID: 1381521.
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    395. Takano Y, Yaksh TL. Characterization of the pharmacology of intrathecally administered alpha-2 agonists and antagonists in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 May; 261(2):764-72. PMID: 1349648.
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    396. Jang J, Yaksh TL, Hill HF. Use of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as an intrathecal drug vehicle with opioids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 May; 261(2):592-600. PMID: 1349642.
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    397. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Spinal pharmacology of thermal hyperesthesia induced by constriction injury of sciatic nerve. Excitatory amino acid antagonists. Pain. 1992 Apr; 49(1):121-8. PMID: 1594273.
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    398. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Studies of morphine and D-ala2-D-leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) cross-tolerance after continuous intrathecal infusion in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Apr; 76(4):596-603. PMID: 1550284.
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    399. Saeki S, Yaksh TL. Suppression by spinal alpha-2 agonists of motor and autonomic responses evoked by low- and high-intensity thermal stimuli. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Feb; 260(2):795-802. PMID: 1346645.
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    400. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Studies on the spinal interaction of morphine and the NMDA antagonist MK-801 on the hyperesthesia observed in a rat model of sciatic mononeuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Jan 20; 135(1):67-70. PMID: 1311824.
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    401. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. The antinociceptive activity of excitatory amino acids in the rat brainstem: an anatomical and pharmacological analysis. Brain Res. 1992 Jan 13; 569(2):255-67. PMID: 1347242.
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    402. Hua XY, Yaksh TL. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and tachykinins from the rat trachea. Peptides. 1992 Jan-Feb; 13(1):113-20. PMID: 1377821.
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    403. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. Brainstem excitatory amino acid receptors in nociception: microinjection mapping and pharmacological characterization of glutamate-sensitive sites in the brainstem associated with algogenic behavior. Neuroscience. 1992; 46(3):535-47. PMID: 1347650.
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    404. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Spinal pharmacology of thermal hyperesthesia induced by incomplete ligation of sciatic nerve. I. Opioid and nonopioid receptors. Anesthesiology. 1991 Nov; 75(5):817-26. PMID: 1659256.
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    405. Baker AJ, Zornow MH, Scheller MS, Yaksh TL, Skilling SR, Smullin DH, Larson AA, Kuczenski R. Changes in extracellular concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, dopamine, serotonin, and dopamine metabolites after transient global ischemia in the rabbit brain. J Neurochem. 1991 Oct; 57(4):1370-9. PMID: 1895110.
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    406. al-Rodhan NR, Richelson E, Gilbert JA, McCormick DJ, Kanba KS, Pfenning MA, Nelson A, Larson EW, Yaksh TL. Structure-antinociceptive activity of neurotensin and some novel analogues in the periaqueductal gray region of the brainstem. Brain Res. 1991 Aug 23; 557(1-2):227-35. PMID: 1660754.
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    407. Mjanger E, Yaksh TL. Characteristics of dose-dependent antagonism by beta-funaltrexamine of the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal mu agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Aug; 258(2):544-50. PMID: 1650833.
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    408. Takano Y, Yaksh TL. Relative efficacy of spinal alpha-2 agonists, dexmedetomidine, clonidine and ST-91, determined in vivo by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline, an irreversible antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Aug; 258(2):438-46. PMID: 1678011.
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    409. Hua XY, Boublik JH, Spicer MA, Rivier JE, Brown MR, Yaksh TL. The antinociceptive effects of spinally administered neuropeptide Y in the rat: systematic studies on structure-activity relationship. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Jul 01; 258(1):243-8. PMID: 1677040.
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    410. Yaksh TL, Sabbe MB, Lucas D, Mjanger E, Chipkin RE. Effects of [N-(L-(1-carboxy-2-phenyl)ethyl]-L-phenylalanyl-beta-alanine (SCH32615), a neutral endopeptidase (enkephalinase) inhibitor, on levels of enkephalin, encrypted enkephalins and substance P in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of primates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Mar; 256(3):1033-41. PMID: 1706428.
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    411. Fisher B, Zornow MH, Yaksh TL, Peterson BM. Antinociceptive properties of intrathecal dexmedetomidine in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Jan 10; 192(2):221-5. PMID: 1674472.
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    412. Yamamoto T, Yaksh TL. Stereospecific effects of a nonpeptidic NK1 selective antagonist, CP-96,345: antinociception in the absence of motor dysfunction. Life Sci. 1991; 49(26):1955-63. PMID: 1721102.
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    413. Yaksh TL, Jang JD, Nishiuchi Y, Braun KP, Ro SG, Goodman M. The utility of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as a vehicle for the intracerebral and intrathecal administration of drugs. Life Sci. 1991; 48(7):623-33. PMID: 1703620.
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    414. Nagasaka H, Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of intrathecal adrenergic agonists: cardiovascular and nociceptive reflexes in halothane-anesthetized rats. Anesthesiology. 1990 Dec; 73(6):1198-207. PMID: 1978989.
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    415. Sosnowski M, Yaksh TL. Differential cross-tolerance between intrathecal morphine and sufentanil in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1990 Dec; 73(6):1141-7. PMID: 1978988.
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    416. Lucas D, Yaksh TL. Release in vivo of Met-enkephalin and encrypted forms of Met-enkephalin from brain and spinal cord of the anesthetized cat. Peptides. 1990 Nov-Dec; 11(6):1119-25. PMID: 2087436.
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    417. Thomforde GM, Malagelada JR, Camilleri M, Yaksh TL. Demonstration of intrathecal and systemic morphine and ST-91 effects on fed canine upper gut motility. Dig Dis Sci. 1990 Oct; 35(10):1249-56. PMID: 1976496.
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    418. Gaumann DM, Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Effects of intrathecal morphine, clonidine, and midazolam on the somato-sympathoadrenal reflex response in halothane-anesthetized cats. Anesthesiology. 1990 Sep; 73(3):425-32. PMID: 2393126.
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    419. Monasky MS, Zinsmeister AR, Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Interaction of intrathecal morphine and ST-91 on antinociception in the rat: dose-response analysis, antagonism and clearance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Aug; 254(2):383-92. PMID: 1974633.
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    420. Roddy DR, Yaksh TL, Aimone LD, Go VL. Distribution of neuropeptide Y in the spinal cords of cat, dog, rat, man and pig. Regul Pept. 1990 Jul 30; 29(2-3):81-92. PMID: 2217906.
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    421. al-Rodhan N, Chipkin R, Yaksh TL. The antinociceptive effects of SCH-32615, a neutral endopeptidase (enkephalinase) inhibitor, microinjected into the periaqueductal, ventral medulla and amygdala. Brain Res. 1990 Jun 18; 520(1-2):123-30. PMID: 2207626.
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    422. Oshita S, Yaksh TL, Chipkin R. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered SCH32615, an enkephalinase inhibitor in the rat. Brain Res. 1990 May 07; 515(1-2):143-8. PMID: 2357551.
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    423. Sosnowski M, Yaksh TL. The role of spinal and brainstem adenosine receptors in the modulation of the volume-evoked micturition reflex in the unanesthetized rat. Brain Res. 1990 May 07; 515(1-2):207-13. PMID: 2357559.
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    424. Penning JP, Nagasaka H, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine in the rat; analgesic synergy without augmentation of motor dysfunction or hypotension. Can J Anaesth. 1990 May; 37(4 Pt 2):S49. PMID: 2361296.
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    425. Penning JP, Yaksh TL. The analgesic interaction between intrathecal morphine, lidocaine and bupivacaine in the rat. Can J Anaesth. 1990 May; 37(4 Pt 2):S48. PMID: 2361295.
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    426. Yanez A, Sabbe MB, Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Interaction of midazolam and morphine in the spinal cord of the rat. Neuropharmacology. 1990 Apr; 29(4):359-64. PMID: 2160622.
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    427. Schick RR, Harty GJ, Yaksh TL, Go VL. Sites in the brain at which cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) acts to suppress feeding in rats: a mapping study. Neuropharmacology. 1990 Feb; 29(2):109-18. PMID: 2330072.
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    428. Onofrio BM, Yaksh TL. Long-term pain relief produced by intrathecal morphine infusion in 53 patients. J Neurosurg. 1990 Feb; 72(2):200-9. PMID: 1688618.
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    429. Tiseo PJ, Sabbe MB, Yaksh TL. Epidural and intrathecal administration of sufentanil, alfentanil and morphine in the dog: a comparison of analgesic effects and the development of tolerance. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990; 105:560. PMID: 1831544.
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    430. Stevens MK, Yaksh TL. Systematic studies on the effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on cerebral blood flow and responsivity, EEG, and blood-brain barrier following complete reversible cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1990 Jan; 10(1):77-88. PMID: 2153692.
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    431. Gaumann DM, Grabow TS, Yaksh TL, Casey SJ, Rodriguez M. Intrathecal somatostatin, somatostatin analogs, substance P analog and dynorphin A cause comparable neurotoxicity in rats. Neuroscience. 1990; 39(3):761-74. PMID: 1711172.
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    432. Tiseo PJ, Yaksh TL. The spinal pharmacology of urinary function: studies on urinary continence in the unanaesthetized rat. Ciba Found Symp. 1990; 151:91-104; discussion 104-9. PMID: 1699710.
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    433. Sosnowski M, Yaksh TL. Role of spinal adenosine receptors in modulating the hyperesthesia produced by spinal glycine receptor antagonism. Anesth Analg. 1989 Nov; 69(5):587-92. PMID: 2552866.
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    434. Aimone LD, Yaksh TL. Opioid modulation of capsaicin-evoked release of substance P from rat spinal cord in vivo. Peptides. 1989 Nov-Dec; 10(6):1127-31. PMID: 2482963.
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    435. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Time course characteristics of tolerance development to continuously infused antinociceptive agents in rat spinal cord. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Oct; 251(1):216-23. PMID: 2795458.
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    436. Sosnowski M, Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Assessment of the role of A1/A2 adenosine receptors mediating the purine antinociception, motor and autonomic function in the rat spinal cord. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Sep; 250(3):915-22. PMID: 2778719.
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    437. Yaksh TL, Chipkin RE. Studies on the effect of SCH-34826 and thiorphan on [Met5]enkephalin levels and release in rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Aug 29; 167(3):367-73. PMID: 2806377.
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    438. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Magnitude of opioid dependence after continuous intrathecal infusion of mu- and delta-selective opioids in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Aug 03; 166(3):467-72. PMID: 2553435.
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    439. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Potency of infused spinal antinociceptive agents is inversely related to magnitude of tolerance after continuous infusion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Jul; 250(1):1-8. PMID: 2526212.
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    440. Borke JL, Caride AJ, Yaksh TL, Penniston JT, Kumar R. Cerebrospinal fluid calcium homeostasis: evidence for a plasma membrane Ca2+-pump in mammalian choroid plexus. Brain Res. 1989 Jun 12; 489(2):355-60. PMID: 2525946.
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    441. Grabow TS, Gaumann DM, Yaksh TL. Electroencephalographic and behavioral assessment of intracerebroventricular somatostatin and a substance P analogue. Brain Res. 1989 Jun 12; 489(2):223-30. PMID: 2472857.
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    442. Gaumann DM, Yaksh TL, Post C, Wilcox GL, Rodriguez M. Intrathecal somatostatin in cat and mouse studies on pain, motor behavior, and histopathology. Anesth Analg. 1989 May; 68(5):623-32. PMID: 2566288.
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    443. Yaksh TL. Behavioral and autonomic correlates of the tactile evoked allodynia produced by spinal glycine inhibition: effects of modulatory receptor systems and excitatory amino acid antagonists. Pain. 1989 Apr; 37(1):111-23. PMID: 2542867.
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    444. Ramberg DA, Yaksh TL. Effects of cervical spinal hemisection on dihydromorphine binding in brainstem and spinal cord in cat. Brain Res. 1989 Mar 27; 483(1):61-7. PMID: 2539891.
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    445. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. Comparison of the antinociceptive effect of morphine and glutamate at coincidental sites in the periaqueductal gray and medial medulla in rats. Brain Res. 1989 Jan 02; 476(1):1-9. PMID: 2563331.
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    446. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Opioid dependence after continuous intrathecal infusion of mu and delta opioids in the rat. NIDA Res Monogr. 1989; 95:544-5. PMID: 2577051.
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    447. Bower TC, Murray MJ, Gloviczki P, Yaksh TL, Hollier LH, Pairolero PC. Effects of thoracic aortic occlusion and cerebrospinal fluid drainage on regional spinal cord blood flow in dogs: correlation with neurologic outcome. J Vasc Surg. 1989 Jan; 9(1):135-44. PMID: 2911133.
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    448. Stevens MK, Yaksh TL. Time course of release in vivo of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and TxB2 into the brain extracellular space after 15 min of complete global ischemia in the presence and absence of cyclooxygenase inhibition. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1988 Dec; 8(6):790-8. PMID: 3142890.
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    449. Navarro E, Romero SD, Yaksh TL. Release of prostaglandin E2 from brain of cat: II. In vivo studies on the effects of adrenergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic agonists and antagonists. Neuropharmacology. 1988 Oct; 27(10):1067-72. PMID: 2907118.
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    450. Yaksh TL. Substance P release from knee joint afferent terminals: modulation by opioids. Brain Res. 1988 Aug 23; 458(2):319-24. PMID: 2463049.
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    451. Gaumann DM, Yaksh TL, Tyce GM, Stoddard S. Sympathetic stimulating effects of sufentanil in the cat are mediated centrally. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Aug 15; 91(1):30-5. PMID: 2845307.
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    452. Stoddard SL, Tyce GM, Carmichael SW, Gaumann DM, Yaksh TL. Effect of acute and chronic spinal transection on evoked secretion of adrenal medullary catecholamines in the cat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1988 Aug; 23(2):175-9. PMID: 3171091.
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    453. Durant PA, Yaksh TL. Micturition in the unanesthetized rat: effects of intrathecal capsaicin, N-vanillylnonanamide, 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine. Brain Res. 1988 Jun 07; 451(1-2):301-8. PMID: 3150817.
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    454. Schick RR, Stevens CW, Yaksh TL, Go VL. Chronic intraventricular administration of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) suppresses feeding in rats. Brain Res. 1988 May 17; 448(2):294-8. PMID: 3378151.
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    455. Gaumann DM, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal somatostatin in rats: antinociception only in the presence of toxic effects. Anesthesiology. 1988 May; 68(5):733-42. PMID: 2897175.
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    456. Yaksh TL, Michener SR, Bailey JE, Harty GJ, Lucas DL, Nelson DK, Roddy DR, Go VL. Survey of distribution of substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, Met-enkephalin, bombesin and PHI in the spinal cord of cat, dog, sloth and monkey. Peptides. 1988 Mar-Apr; 9(2):357-72. PMID: 2453858.
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    457. Durant PA, Yaksh TL. Drug effects on urinary bladder tone during spinal morphine-induced inhibition of the micturition reflex in unanesthetized rats. Anesthesiology. 1988 Mar; 68(3):325-34. PMID: 3344988.
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    458. Yaksh TL, Harty GJ. Pharmacology of the allodynia in rats evoked by high dose intrathecal morphine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Feb; 244(2):501-7. PMID: 3346833.
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    459. Yaksh TL, Gaumann DM, Stevens CW. Receptors in the dorsal horn and intrathecal drug administration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 531:90-107. PMID: 2898231.
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    460. Stevens CW, Monasky MS, Yaksh TL. Spinal infusion of opiate and alpha-2 agonists in rats: tolerance and cross-tolerance studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Jan; 244(1):63-70. PMID: 2891846.
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    461. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Chronic antagonist infusion does not increase morphine antinociception in rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1987 Nov 10; 425(2):388-90. PMID: 3427441.
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    462. Yaksh TL, Onofrio BM. Retrospective consideration of the doses of morphine given intrathecally by chronic infusion in 163 patients by 19 physicians. Pain. 1987 Nov; 31(2):211-23. PMID: 3431881.
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    463. Go VL, Yaksh TL. Release of substance P from the cat spinal cord. J Physiol. 1987 Oct; 391:141-67. PMID: 2451003.
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    464. Kim P, Yaksh TL, Romero SD, Sundt TM. Production of uric acid in cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage in dogs: investigation of the possible role of xanthine oxidase in chronic vasospasm. Neurosurgery. 1987 Jul; 21(1):39-44. PMID: 3614602.
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    465. Howe JR, Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Intrathecal 6-hydroxydopamine or cervical spinal hemisection reduces norepinephrine content, but not the density of alpha 2-adrenoceptors, in the cat lumbar spinal enlargement. Neuroscience. 1987 May; 21(2):377-84. PMID: 3039400.
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    466. Howe JR, Yaksh TL, Go VL. The effect of unilateral dorsal root ganglionectomies or ventral rhizotomies on alpha 2-adrenoceptor binding to, and the substance P, enkephalin, and neurotensin content of, the cat lumbar spinal cord. Neuroscience. 1987 May; 21(2):385-94. PMID: 2441314.
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    467. Yaksh TL, Furui T, Kanawati IS, Go VL. Release of cholecystokinin from rat cerebral cortex in vivo: role of GABA and glutamate receptor systems. Brain Res. 1987 Mar 17; 406(1-2):207-14. PMID: 3032357.
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    468. Stevens CW, Pezalla PD, Yaksh TL. Spinal antinociceptive action of three representative opioid peptides in frogs. Brain Res. 1987 Jan 27; 402(1):201-3. PMID: 2881600.
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    469. Kim P, Yaksh TL, Burnett PC, Blum MR, Sundt TM. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of uric acid in dogs and the effect of allopurinol. Brain Res. 1987 Jan 27; 402(1):87-92. PMID: 3828791.
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    470. Yaksh TL. Spinal opiates: a review of their effect on spinal function with emphasis on pain processing. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl. 1987; 85:25-37. PMID: 2821725.
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    471. Yaksh TL, Durant PA, Gaumann DM, Stevens CW, Mjanger E. Issues in drug management. Part 2. The use of receptor-selective agents as analgesics in the spinal cord: trends and possibilities. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1987; 2(3):129-38. PMID: 3039016.
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    472. Atchison SR, Durant PA, Yaksh TL. Cardiorespiratory effects and kinetics of intrathecally injected D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin and morphine in unanesthetized dogs. Anesthesiology. 1986 Dec; 65(6):609-16. PMID: 3098139.
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    473. Stevens MK, Yaksh TL, Hansen RB, Anderson RE. Effect of preischemia cyclooxygenase inhibition by zomepirac sodium on reflow, cerebral autoregulation, and EEG recovery in the cat after global ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1986 Dec; 6(6):691-702. PMID: 3098746.
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    474. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Spinal action of dermorphin, an extremely potent opioid peptide from frog skin. Brain Res. 1986 Oct 22; 385(2):300-4. PMID: 2877713.
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    475. Walker GE, Yaksh TL. Studies on the effects of intrathalamically injected DADL and morphine on nociceptive thresholds and electroencephalographic activity: a thalamic delta receptor syndrome. Brain Res. 1986 Sep 24; 383(1-2):1-14. PMID: 3021275.
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    476. Stevens CW, Yaksh TL. Dynorphin A and related peptides administered intrathecally in the rat: a search for putative kappa opiate receptor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 Sep; 238(3):833-8. PMID: 2875172.
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    477. Yaksh TL, Stevens CW. Simple catheter preparation for permitting bolus intrathecal administration during chronic intrathecal infusion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Aug; 25(2):483-5. PMID: 3763669.
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    478. Durant PA, Yaksh TL. Distribution in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and lymph of epidurally injected morphine and inulin in dogs. Anesth Analg. 1986 Jun; 65(6):583-92. PMID: 3706799.
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    479. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. Comparison of the antinociceptive action of mu and delta opioid receptor ligands in the periaqueductal gray matter, medial and paramedial ventral medulla in the rat as studied by the microinjection technique. Brain Res. 1986 May 07; 372(2):301-12. PMID: 2871901.
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    480. Yaksh TL, Harty GJ, Onofrio BM. High dose of spinal morphine produce a nonopiate receptor-mediated hyperesthesia: clinical and theoretic implications. Anesthesiology. 1986 May; 64(5):590-7. PMID: 2938524.
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    481. Jeftinija S, Raspantini C, Randic M, Yaksh TL, Go VL, Larson AA. Altered responsiveness to substance P and 5-hydroxytryptamine in cat dorsal horn neurons after 5-HT depletion with p-chlorophenylalanine. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 12; 368(1):107-15. PMID: 2420413.
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    482. Howe JR, Yaksh TL. Characterization of [3H]rauwolscine binding to alpha 2-adrenoceptor sites in the lumbar spinal cord of the cat: comparison to such binding sites in the cat frontal cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 12; 368(1):87-100. PMID: 2869820.
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    483. Furui T, Harty GJ, Yaksh TL. Studies on the effects of opioid, noradrenergic and serotonergic antagonists on the antinociceptive effects of electroconvulsive shock. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 05; 367(1-2):162-8. PMID: 2870768.
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    484. Sill JC, Schumacher K, Southorn PA, Reuter J, Yaksh TL. Bradycardia and hypotension associated with baclofen used during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1986 Feb; 64(2):255-8. PMID: 3511771.
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    485. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. Comparison of antinociceptive action of morphine in the periaqueductal gray, medial and paramedial medulla in rat. Brain Res. 1986 Jan 15; 363(1):99-113. PMID: 3004644.
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    486. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. Examination of spinal monoamine receptors through which brainstem opiate-sensitive systems act in the rat. Brain Res. 1986 Jan 15; 363(1):114-27. PMID: 3004638.
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    487. Kooistra KL, Rodriguez M, Powis G, Yaksh TL, Harty GJ, Hilton JF, Laws ER. Development of experimental models for meningeal neoplasia using intrathecal injection of 9L gliosarcoma and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in the rat. Cancer Res. 1986 Jan; 46(1):317-23. PMID: 3753551.
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    488. Durant PA, Yaksh TL. Epidural injections of bupivacaine, morphine, fentanyl, lofentanil, and DADL in chronically implanted rats: a pharmacologic and pathologic study. Anesthesiology. 1986 Jan; 64(1):43-53. PMID: 2867721.
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    489. Micevych PE, Stroink A, Yaksh T, Go VL. Immunochemical studies of substance P and cholecystokinin octapeptide recovery in dorsal horn following unilateral lumbosacral ganglionectomy. Somatosens Res. 1986; 3(3):239-60. PMID: 2428085.
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    490. Yaksh TL, Noueihed RY, Durant PA. Studies of the pharmacology and pathology of intrathecally administered 4-anilinopiperidine analogues and morphine in the rat and cat. Anesthesiology. 1986 Jan; 64(1):54-66. PMID: 2867722.
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    491. Moulin DE, Max MB, Kaiko RF, Inturrisi CE, Maggard J, Yaksh TL, Foley KM. The analgesic efficacy of intrathecal D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin in cancer patients with chronic pain. Pain. 1985 Nov; 23(3):213-21. PMID: 3906516.
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    492. Schmauss C, Shimohigashi Y, Jensen TS, Rodbard D, Yaksh TL. Studies on spinal opiate receptor pharmacology. III. Analgetic effects of enkephalin dimers as measured by cutaneous-thermal and visceral-chemical evoked responses. Brain Res. 1985 Jul 01; 337(2):209-15. PMID: 2992678.
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    493. Micevych PE, Yaksh TL, Go VW, Finkelstein JA. Effect of opiates on the release of cholecystokinin from in vitro hypothalamus and frontal cortex of Zucker lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) rats. Brain Res. 1985 Jul 01; 337(2):382-5. PMID: 3896389.
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    494. Camarata PJ, Yaksh TL. Characterization of the spinal adrenergic receptors mediating the spinal effects produced by the microinjection of morphine into the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1985 Jun 10; 336(1):133-42. PMID: 2988700.
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    495. Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of spinal adrenergic systems which modulate spinal nociceptive processing. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 May; 22(5):845-58. PMID: 2861606.
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    496. Yaksh TL, Noueihed R. The physiology and pharmacology of spinal opiates. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1985; 25:433-62. PMID: 2988422.
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    497. Romero SD, Chyatte D, Byer DE, Romero JC, Yaksh TL. Measurement of prostaglandins in the cerebrospinal fluid in cat, dog, and man. J Neurochem. 1984 Dec; 43(6):1642-9. PMID: 6593432.
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    498. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. Spinal monoamine and opiate systems partly mediate the antinociceptive effects produced by glutamate at brainstem sites. Brain Res. 1984 Nov 12; 321(2):287-97. PMID: 6149792.
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    499. Yaksh TL. Multiple opioid receptor systems in brain and spinal cord: Part 2. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1984 Sep; 1(3):201-43. PMID: 6152614.
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    500. Jhamandas K, Yaksh TL, Harty G, Szolcsanyi J, Go VL. Action of intrathecal capsaicin and its structural analogues on the content and release of spinal substance P: selectivity of action and relationship to analgesia. Brain Res. 1984 Jul 23; 306(1-2):215-25. PMID: 6205719.
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    501. Yaksh TL. Multiple opioid receptor systems in brain and spinal cord: Part I. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1984 Jun; 1(2):171-99. PMID: 6152613.
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    502. Hammond DL, Yaksh TL. Antagonism of stimulation-produced antinociception by intrathecal administration of methysergide or phentolamine. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 30; 298(2):329-37. PMID: 6326954.
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    503. Jhamandas K, Yaksh TL, Go VL. Acute and chronic morphine modifies the in vivo release of methionine enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from the cat spinal cord and brain. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 09; 297(1):91-103. PMID: 6722539.
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    504. Jensen TS, Yaksh TL. Effects of an intrathecal dopamine agonist, apomorphine, on thermal and chemical evoked noxious responses in rats. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 02; 296(2):285-93. PMID: 6322926.
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    505. Micevychi PE, Go VL, Yaksh TL. Simultaneous measurement of cholecystokinin- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity from cat frontal cortex in vitro: effect of morphine and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin. Brain Res. 1984 Jan 16; 291(1):55-62. PMID: 6697185.
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    506. Micevych PE, Yaksh TL, Go VL. Studies on the opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of K+-stimulated cholecystokinin and substance P release from cat hypothalamus in vitro. Brain Res. 1984 Jan 02; 290(1):87-94. PMID: 6198038.
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    507. Micevych PE, Go VL, Yaksh TL, Finkelstein J. In vitro, release of cholecystokinin from hypothalamus and frontal cortex of Sprague-Dawley, Zucker lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) rats. Peptides. 1984 Jan-Feb; 5(1):73-80. PMID: 6200866.
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    508. Schmauss C, Yaksh TL. In vivo studies on spinal opiate receptor systems mediating antinociception. II. Pharmacological profiles suggesting a differential association of mu, delta and kappa receptors with visceral chemical and cutaneous thermal stimuli in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jan; 228(1):1-12. PMID: 6319664.
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    509. Yaksh TL. Effects of spinally administered agents on spinal cord blood flow: a need for further studies. Anesthesiology. 1983 Sep; 59(3):173-4. PMID: 6688331.
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    510. Yaksh TL. In vivo studies on spinal opiate receptor systems mediating antinociception. I. Mu and delta receptor profiles in the primate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Aug; 226(2):303-16. PMID: 6308205.
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    511. Bergstrom L, Hammond DL, Go VL, Yaksh TL. Concurrent measurement of substance P and serotonin in spinal superfusates: failure of capsaicin and p-chloroamphetamine to co-release. Brain Res. 1983 Jun 27; 270(1):181-4. PMID: 6191841.
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    512. Onofrio BM, Yaksh TL. Intrathecal delta-receptor ligand produces analgesia in man. Lancet. 1983 Jun 18; 1(8338):1386-7. PMID: 6134164.
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    513. Schmauss C, Hammond DL, Ochi JW, Yaksh TL. Pharmacological antagonism of the antinociceptive effects of serotonin in the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 Jun 17; 90(4):349-57. PMID: 6688398.
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    514. Steinman JL, Komisaruk BR, Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Spinal cord monoamines modulate the antinociceptive effects of vaginal stimulation in rats. Pain. 1983 Jun; 16(2):155-66. PMID: 6877846.
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    515. Yaksh TL, Terenius L, Nyberg F, Jhamandas K, Wang JY. Studies on the release by somatic stimulation from rat and cat spinal cord of active materials which displace dihydromorphine in an opiate-binding assay. Brain Res. 1983 May 23; 268(1):119-28. PMID: 6860955.
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    516. Hammond DL, Tyce GM, Yaksh TL. Drug-induced alterations in the efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine and of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid into superfusates of the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 Mar 04; 87(4):441-8. PMID: 6189730.
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    517. Howe JR, Wang JY, Yaksh TL. Selective antagonism of the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally applied alpha adrenergic agonists by intrathecal prazosin and intrathecal yohimbine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Mar; 224(3):552-8. PMID: 6131120.
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    518. Yasuoka S, Yaksh TL. Effects on nociceptive threshold and blood pressure of intrathecally administered morphine and alpha-adrenergic agonists. Neuropharmacology. 1983 Mar; 22(3):309-15. PMID: 6133234.
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    519. Micevych PE, Yaksh TL, Szolcsanyi J. Effect of intrathecal capsaicin analogues on the immunofluorescence of peptides and serotonin in the dorsal horn in rats. Neuroscience. 1983 Jan; 8(1):123-31. PMID: 6188075.
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    520. Yaksh TL. Spinal pharmacology of pain and its modulation. Clin Neurosurg. 1983; 31:291-303. PMID: 6209049.
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    521. Schmauss C, Yaksh TL, Shimohigashi Y, Harty G, Jensen T, Rodbard D. Differential association of spinal mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors with cutaneous thermal and visceral chemical nociceptive stimuli in the rat. Life Sci. 1983; 33 Suppl 1:653-6. PMID: 6319919.
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    522. Schmauss C, Doherty C, Yaksh TL. The analgetic effects of an intrathecally administered partial opiate agonist, nalbuphine hydrochloride. Eur J Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 17; 86(1):1-7. PMID: 6897635.
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    523. Micevych PE, Yaksh TL, Go VL. Opiate-mediated inhibition of the release of cholecystokinin and substance P, but not neurotensin from cat hypothalamic slices. Brain Res. 1982 Nov 04; 250(2):283-9. PMID: 6184121.
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    524. Tung AS, Yaksh TL. In vivo evidence for multiple opiate receptors mediating analgesia in the rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1982 Sep 09; 247(1):75-83. PMID: 6127147.
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    525. Taylor JE, Yaksh TL, Richelson E. Agonist regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat spinal cord. J Neurochem. 1982 Aug; 39(2):521-4. PMID: 7086433.
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    526. Maderdrut JL, Yaksh TL, Petrusz P, Go VL. Origin and distribution of cholecystokinin-containing nerve terminals in the lumbar dorsal horn and nucleus caudalis of the cat. Brain Res. 1982 Jul 15; 243(2):363-8. PMID: 6179576.
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    527. Yaksh TL, Abay EO, Go VL. Studies on the location and release of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat and cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1982 Jun 24; 242(2):279-90. PMID: 6896838.
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    528. Yaksh TL, Gross KE, Li CH. Studies on the intrathecal effect of beta-endorphin in primate. Brain Res. 1982 Jun 10; 241(2):261-9. PMID: 6286042.
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    529. Yaksh TL, Hammond DL. Peripheral and central substrates involved in the rostrad transmission of nociceptive information. Pain. 1982 May; 13(1):1-85. PMID: 6287384.
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    530. Yaksh TL, Harty GJ. Effects of thiorphan on the antinociceptive actions of intrathecal [D-Ala2,Met5] enkephalin. Eur J Pharmacol. 1982 Apr 23; 79(3-4):293-300. PMID: 7047177.
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    531. Yaksh TL, Howe JR. Opiate receptors and their definition by antagonists. Anesthesiology. 1982 Apr; 56(4):246-9. PMID: 6278990.
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    532. Tung AS, Yaksh TL. The antinociceptive effects of epidural opiates in the cat: studies of the pharmacology and the effects of lipophilicity in spinal analgesia. Pain. 1982 Apr; 12(4):343-56. PMID: 7099701.
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    533. Howe JR, Yaksh TL. Changes in sensitivity to intrathecal norepinephrine and serotonin after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT) or repeated monoamine administration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1982 Feb; 220(2):311-21. PMID: 6120226.
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    534. Yaksh TL, Schmauss C, Micevych PE, Abay EO, Go VL. Pharmacological studies on the application, disposition, and release of neurotensin in the spinal cord. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982; 400:228-43. PMID: 6188399.
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    535. Yaksh TL. Spinal opiate analgesia: characteristics and principles of action. Pain. 1981 Dec; 11(3):293-346. PMID: 6276842.
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    536. Yaksh TL, Elde RP. Factors governing release of methionine enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from mesencephalon and spinal cord of the cat in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 1981 Nov; 46(5):1056-75. PMID: 7299446.
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    537. Hammond DL, Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Presence of conjugated 5-hydroxytryptamine in in vivo superfusates of rat spinal cord. J Neurochem. 1981 Oct; 37(4):1068-71. PMID: 6172561.
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    538. Yaksh TL. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered levonantradol and desacetyllevonantradol in the rat. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Aug-Sep; 21(8-9 Suppl):334S-340S. PMID: 6895380.
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    539. Onofrio BM, Yaksh TL, Arnold PG. Continuous low-dose intrathecal morphine administration in the treatment of chronic pain of malignant origin. Mayo Clin Proc. 1981 Aug; 56(8):516-20. PMID: 6894954.
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    540. Russell B, Yaksh TL. Antagonism by phenoxybenzamine and pentazocine of the antinociceptive effects of morphine in the spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1981 Jun; 20(6):575-9. PMID: 6894633.
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    541. Yaksh TL, Reddy SV. Studies in the primate on the analgetic effects associated with intrathecal actions of opiates, alpha-adrenergic agonists and baclofen. Anesthesiology. 1981 Jun; 54(6):451-67. PMID: 6112935.
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    542. Tyce GM, Yaksh TL. Monoamine release from cat spinal cord by somatic stimuli: an intrinsic modulatory system. J Physiol. 1981 May; 314:513-29. PMID: 7310700; PMCID: PMC1249448.
    543. Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Release of norepinephrine and serotonin in cat spinal cord: direct in vivo evidence for the activation of descending monoamine pathways by somatic stimulation. J Physiol (Paris). 1981; 77(2-3):483-7. PMID: 7288659.
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    544. Yaksh TL, Jessell TM, Gamse R, Mudge AW, Leeman SE. Intrathecal morphine inhibits substance P release from mammalian spinal cord in vivo. Nature. 1980 Jul 10; 286(5769):155-7. PMID: 6157098.
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    545. Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Resting and K+-evoked release of serotonin and norephinephrine in vivo from the rat and cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1980 Jun 16; 192(1):133-46. PMID: 7378777.
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    546. Reddy SV, Maderdrut JL, Yaksh TL. Spinal cord pharmacology of adrenergic agonist-mediated antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1980 Jun; 213(3):525-33. PMID: 6110767.
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    547. Yaksh TL, Elde RP. Release of methionine-enkephalin immunoreactivity from the rat spinal cord in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 1980 May 16; 63(4):359-62. PMID: 7389818.
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    548. Reddy SV, Yaksh TL. Spinal noradrenergic terminal system mediates antinociception. Brain Res. 1980 May 12; 189(2):391-401. PMID: 6245762.
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    549. Reddy SV, Yaksh TL. Antinociceptive effects of lanthanum neodymium and europium following intrathecal administration. Neuropharmacology. 1980 Feb; 19(2):181-5. PMID: 6892653.
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    550. Yaksh TL, Wilson PR, Kaiko RF, Inturrisi CE. Analgesia produced by a spinal action of morphine and effects upon parturition in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1979 Nov; 51(5):386-92. PMID: 582883.
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    551. Yaksh TL, Farb DH, Leeman SE, Jessell TM. Intrathecal capsaicin depletes substance P in the rat spinal cord and produces prolonged thermal analgesia. Science. 1979 Oct 26; 206(4417):481-3. PMID: 228392.
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    552. Yaksh TL, Tyce GM. Microinjection of morphine into the periaqueductal gray evokes the release of serotonin from spinal cord. Brain Res. 1979 Jul 27; 171(1):176-81. PMID: 466437.
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    553. Yaksh TL, Wilson PR. Spinal serotonin terminal system mediates antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1979 Mar; 208(3):446-53. PMID: 581884.
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    554. Wall PD, Merrill EG, Yaksh TL. Responses of single units in laminae 2 and 3 of cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1979 Jan 12; 160(2):245-60. PMID: 216459.
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    555. Yaksh TL. Direct evidence that spinal serotonin and noradrenaline terminals mediate the spinal antinociceptive effects of morphine in the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1979 Jan 05; 160(1):180-5. PMID: 581478.
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    556. Wilson PR, Yaksh TL. Baclofen is antinociceptive in the spinal intrathecal space of animals. Eur J Pharmacol. 1978 Oct 15; 51(4):323-30. PMID: 581376.
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    557. Yaksh TL, Henry JL. Antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered human beta-endorphin in the rat and cat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1978 Oct; 56(5):754-9. PMID: 581358.
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    558. Yaksh TL. Analgetic actions of intrathecal opiates in cat and primate. Brain Res. 1978 Sep 15; 153(1):205-10. PMID: 98219.
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    559. Wall PD, Yaksh TL. Effect of Lissauer tract stimulation on activity in dorsal roots and in ventral roots. Exp Neurol. 1978 Jul; 60(3):570-83. PMID: 680058.
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    560. Yeung JC, Yaksh TL, Rudy TA. Effect on the nociceptive threshold and EEG activity in the rat of morphine injected into the medial thalamus and the periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology. 1978 Jul; 17(7):525-32. PMID: 692816.
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    561. Yaksh TL, Frederickson RC, Huang SP, Rudy TA. In vivo comparison of the receptor populations acted upon in the spinal cord by morphine and pentapeptides in the production of analgesia. Brain Res. 1978 Jun 16; 148(2):516-20. PMID: 207391.
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    562. Yaksh TL. Inhibition by etorphine of the discharge of dorsal horn neurons: effects on the neuronal response to both high- and low-threshold sensory input in the decerebrate spinal cat. Exp Neurol. 1978 May 15; 60(1):23-40. PMID: 658193.
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    563. Yaksh TL, Rudy TA. Narcotic analgestics: CNS sites and mechanisms of action as revealed by intracerebral injection techniques. Pain. 1978 Apr; 4(4):299-359. PMID: 25403.
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    564. Yaksh TL. Opiate receptors for behavioral analgesia resemble those related to the depression of spinal nociceptive neurons. Science. 1978 Mar 17; 199(4334):1231-3. PMID: 204008.
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    565. Yaksh TL, Rudy TA. A dose ratio comparison of the interaction between morphine and cyclazocine with naloxone in rhesus monkeys on the shock titration task. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Nov 15; 46(2):83-92. PMID: 412680.
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    566. Yeung JC, Yaksh TL, Rudy TA. Concurrent mapping of brain sites for sensitivity to the direct application of morphine and focal electrical stimulation in the production of antinociception in the rat. Pain. 1977 Oct; 4(1):23-40. PMID: 927879.
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    567. Rudy TA, Yaksh TL. Hyperthermic effects of morphine: set point manipulation by a direct spinal action. Br J Pharmacol. 1977 Sep; 61(1):91-6. PMID: 912212; PMCID: PMC1667677.
    568. Yaksh TL, Rudy TA. Studies on the direct spinal action of narcotics in the production of analgesia in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1977 Aug; 202(2):411-28. PMID: 18600.
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    569. Rudy TA, Yaksh TL. Hyperthermic effects of morphine in the rat spinal cord [proceedings]. J Physiol. 1977 Jun; 268(1):10P-11P. PMID: 874880.
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    570. Yaksh TL, Kohl RL, Rudy TA. Induction of tolerance and withdrawal in rats receiving morphine in the spinal subarachnoid space. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Apr 07; 42(3):275-84. PMID: 15848.
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    571. Yaksh TL, Yamamura HI. Depression by morphine of the resting and evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine from the cat caudate nucleus in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1977 Apr; 16(4):227-33. PMID: 859683.
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    572. Yaksh TL, Plant RL, Rudy TA. Studies on the antagonism by raphe lesions of the antinociceptive action of systemic morphine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Feb 21; 41(4):399-408. PMID: 14836.
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    573. Yaksh TL, Yeung JC, Rudy TA. Medial thalamic lesions in the rat: effects on the nociceptive threshold and morphine antinociception. Neuropharmacology. 1977 Feb; 16(2):107-14. PMID: 840367.
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    574. Yaksh TL, Huang SP, Rudy TA. The direct and specific opiate-like effect of met5-enkephalin and analogues on the spinal cord. Neuroscience. 1977; 2(4):593-6. PMID: 917285.
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    575. Yaksh TL, Rudy TA. Chronic catheterization of the spinal subarachnoid space. Physiol Behav. 1976 Dec; 17(6):1031-6. PMID: 14677603.
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    576. Yaksh TL, Yeung JC, Rudy TA. Systematic examination in the rat of brain sites sensitive to the direct application of morphine: observation of differential effects within the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1976 Sep 10; 114(1):83-103. PMID: 963546.
      View in: PubMed
    577. Yaksh TL, Rudy TA. Analgesia mediated by a direct spinal action of narcotics. Science. 1976 Jun 25; 192(4246):1357-8. PMID: 1273597.
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    578. Yaksh TL, DuChateau JC, Rudy TA. Antagonism by methysergide and cinanserin of the antinociceptive action of morphine administered into the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1976 Mar 12; 104(2):367-72. PMID: 1260435.
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    579. Yaksh TL, Filbert MG, Harris LW, Yamamura HI. Acetylcholinesterase turnover in brain, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. J Neurochem. 1975 Dec; 25(6):853-60. PMID: 1206402.
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    580. Yaksh TL, Yamamura HI. Blockade by morphine of acetylcholine release from the caudate nucleus in the mid-pontine pretrigeminal cat. Brain Res. 1975 Jan 17; 83(3):520-4. PMID: 1111819.
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    581. Pert A, Yaksh T. Localization of the antinociceptive action of morphine in primate brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1975 Jan-Feb; 3(1):133-8. PMID: 1129350.
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    582. Pert A, Yaksh T. Sites of morphine induced analgesia in the primate brain: relation to pain pathways. Brain Res. 1974 Nov 08; 80(1):135-40. PMID: 4424093.
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    583. Myers RD, Rudy TA, Yaksh TL. Evocation of a biphasic febrile response in the rhesus monkey by intracerebral injection of bacterial endotoxins. Neuropharmacology. 1973 Dec; 12(12):1195-8. PMID: 4205774.
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    584. Yaksh TL, Fedele LA, Yamamura HI. Effects of repeated withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid by cisternal puncture on cisternal protein levels in the unanesthetized cat. Physiol Behav. 1973 Jan; 10(1):149-51. PMID: 4697008.
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    585. Myers RD, Evans JE, Yaksh TL. Ethanol preference in the rat: interactions between brain serotonin and ethanol, acetaldehyde, paraldehyde, 5-HTP and 5-HTOL. Neuropharmacology. 1972 Jul; 11(4):539-49. PMID: 4261739.
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    586. Yaksh TL, Myers RD. Hypothalamic "coding" in the unanesthetized monkey of noradrenergic sites mediating feeding and thermoregulation. Physiol Behav. 1972 Feb; 8(2):251-7. PMID: 4198736.
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