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Napoleone Ferrara

Title(s)Professor, Pathology
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-822-6822
Emailnferrara@ucsd.edu
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of Catania Medical SchoolM.D.1981Medicine and Surgery
    UCSF, San Francisco, CAPostdoctoral Fellowship1983-85Reproductive Endocrinology
    Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, ORInternship 1985-86
    UCSF, San Francisco, CAPostdoctoral Fellowship1986-88Cancer Research
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2019G.B. Bietti Medal
    2015Elected to the National Academy of Medicine
    2015Leslie Dana Gold Medal
    2014Gairdner Foundation Int’l Award
    2014A. Champalimaud Vision Award
    2013Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences
    2013Elected Fellow, AACR Academy
    2012The Economist Innovation Award
    2011Dr. Paul Janssen Award
    2010Lasker Award
    2009Pezcoller Foundation/AACR International Award
    2008Macula Society-Arnall Patz Award
    2007ASCO Science of Oncology Award
    2006Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
    2006General Motors Cancer Research Award
    2006Passano Award
    2005Lefoulon-Delalande-Institut-de France Prize
    2005AACR Bruce F. Cain Memorial Award
    2004Italian Assoc. Res. Therapy Eye Disorders (AIRCMO) Prize
    2004American-Italian Cancer Foundation Prize

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Napoleone Ferrara, M.D., is currently Distinguished Professor of Pathology and Adjunct Professor of Ophthalmology and Pharmacology. His main research interests are the biology of angiogenesis and the identification of its regulators. In 1989, while at Genentech, Inc., he reported the isolation and cloning of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and subsequently focused his research on the investigation of the molecular and biological properties of VEGF. These studies established VEGF as a key regulator of normal and pathological angiogenesis. Together with his colleagues, he reported that VEGF inhibition results in suppression of growth of a variety of tumors in vivo. These findings represented the first direct evidence that inhibition of angiogenesis can block tumor growth and led to the development of a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) as a cancer therapy. Bevacizumab has been approved by the USA FDA for 11 indications in multiple cancer types. The discovery that VEGF is a key mediator of angiogenesis associated with intraocular neovascular syndromes resulted in the clinical development of a humanized anti-VEGF Fab (Ranibizumab), which has been approved for therapy of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular vascular disorders. Ranibizumab and other anti-VEGF agents represent the first effective therapy for such blinding disorders and rank among the most widely used drugs in older adults.

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Apte RS, Chen DS, Ferrara N. VEGF in Signaling and Disease: Beyond Discovery and Development. Cell. 2019 Mar 07; 176(6):1248-1264. PMID: 30849371.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Protopsaltis NJ, Liang W, Nudleman E, Ferrara N. Interleukin-22 promotes tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis. 2019 May; 22(2):311-323. PMID: 30539314.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Liang W, Li Q, Ferrara N. Metastatic growth instructed by neutrophil-derived transferrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 10 23; 115(43):11060-11065. PMID: 30301793.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Nowak-Sliwinska P, Alitalo K, Allen E, Anisimov A, Aplin AC, Auerbach R, Augustin HG, Bates DO, van Beijnum JR, Bender RHF, Bergers G, Bikfalvi A, Bischoff J, Böck BC, Brooks PC, Bussolino F, Cakir B, Carmeliet P, Castranova D, Cimpean AM, Cleaver O, Coukos G, Davis GE, De Palma M, Dimberg A, Dings RPM, Djonov V, Dudley AC, Dufton NP, Fendt SM, Ferrara N, Fruttiger M, Fukumura D, Ghesquière B, Gong Y, Griffin RJ, Harris AL, Hughes CCW, Hultgren NW, Iruela-Arispe ML, Irving M, Jain RK, Kalluri R, Kalucka J, Kerbel RS, Kitajewski J, Klaassen I, Kleinmann HK, Koolwijk P, Kuczynski E, Kwak BR, Marien K, Melero-Martin JM, Munn LL, Nicosia RF, Noel A, Nurro J, Olsson AK, Petrova TV, Pietras K, Pili R, Pollard JW, Post MJ, Quax PHA, Rabinovich GA, Raica M, Randi AM, Ribatti D, Ruegg C, Schlingemann RO, Schulte-Merker S, Smith LEH, Song JW, Stacker SA, Stalin J, Stratman AN, Van de Velde M, van Hinsbergh VWM, Vermeulen PB, Waltenberger J, Weinstein BM, Xin H, Yetkin-Arik B, Yla-Herttuala S, Yoder MC, Griffioen AW. Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays. Angiogenesis. 2018 08; 21(3):425-532. PMID: 29766399.
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    5. Ferrara N, Chen DS. Introduction by the Guest Editors: Bevacizumab. Cancer J. 2018 Jul/Aug; 24(4):163-164. PMID: 30119078.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Negri L, Ferrara N. The Prokineticins: Neuromodulators and Mediators of Inflammation and Myeloid Cell-Dependent Angiogenesis. Physiol Rev. 2018 04 01; 98(2):1055-1082. PMID: 29537336.
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    7. Eilken HM, Diéguez-Hurtado R, Schmidt I, Nakayama M, Jeong HW, Arf H, Adams S, Ferrara N, Adams RH. Pericytes regulate VEGF-induced endothelial sprouting through VEGFR1. Nat Commun. 2017 11 17; 8(1):1574. PMID: 29146905.
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    8. Ferrara N. Microvascular Density as a Predictive Biomarker for Bevacizumab Survival Benefit in Ovarian Cancer: Back to First Principles? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017 11 01; 109(11). PMID: 29059427.
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    9. Pitulescu ME, Schmidt I, Giaimo BD, Antoine T, Berkenfeld F, Ferrante F, Park H, Ehling M, Biljes D, Rocha SF, Langen UH, Stehling M, Nagasawa T, Ferrara N, Borggrefe T, Adams RH. Dll4 and Notch signalling couples sprouting angiogenesis and artery formation. Nat Cell Biol. 2017 Aug; 19(8):915-927. PMID: 28714968.
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    10. Xin H, Zhong C, Nudleman E, Ferrara N. Evidence for Pro-angiogenic Functions of VEGF-Ax. Cell. 2016 Sep 22; 167(1):275-284.e6. PMID: 27662093.
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    11. Ferrara N. Commentary on "Humanization of an Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody for the Therapy of Solid Tumors and Other Disorders". Cancer Res. 2016 09 01; 76(17):4913-5. PMID: 27587649.
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    12. Jais A, Solas M, Backes H, Chaurasia B, Kleinridders A, Theurich S, Mauer J, Steculorum SM, Hampel B, Goldau J, Alber J, Förster CY, Eming SA, Schwaninger M, Ferrara N, Karsenty G, Brüning JC. Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity. Cell. 2016 Aug 25; 166(5):1338-1340. PMID: 27565353.
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    13. Jais A, Solas M, Backes H, Chaurasia B, Kleinridders A, Theurich S, Mauer J, Steculorum SM, Hampel B, Goldau J, Alber J, Förster CY, Eming SA, Schwaninger M, Ferrara N, Karsenty G, Brüning JC. Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity. Cell. 2016 May 05; 165(4):882-95. PMID: 27133169.
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    14. Ferrara N. VEGF and Intraocular Neovascularization: From Discovery to Therapy. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2016 Mar; 5(2):10. PMID: 26981332.
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    15. Osterberg N, Ferrara N, Vacher J, Gaedicke S, Niedermann G, Weyerbrock A, Doostkam S, Schaefer HE, Plate KH, Machein MR. Decrease of VEGF-A in myeloid cells attenuates glioma progression and prolongs survival in an experimental glioma model. Neuro Oncol. 2016 07; 18(7):939-49. PMID: 26951383.
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    16. Liang W, Ferrara N. The Complex Role of Neutrophils in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016 Feb; 4(2):83-91. PMID: 26839309.
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    17. Ferrara N, Adamis AP. Ten years of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 06; 15(6):385-403. PMID: 26775688.
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    18. Espina M, Arcinue CA, Ma F, Camacho N, Barteselli G, Mendoza N, Ferrara N, Freeman WR. Outer retinal tubulations response to anti-VEGF treatment. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016 06; 100(6):819-23. PMID: 26423451.
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    19. Selvaraj D, Gangadharan V, Michalski CW, Kurejova M, Stösser S, Srivastava K, Schweizerhof M, Waltenberger J, Ferrara N, Heppenstall P, Shibuya M, Augustin HG, Kuner R. A Functional Role for VEGFR1 Expressed in Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Cancer Pain. Cancer Cell. 2015 Jun 08; 27(6):780-96. PMID: 26058077.
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    20. Moriya J, Ferrara N. Inhibition of protein kinase C enhances angiogenesis induced by platelet-derived growth factor C in hyperglycemic endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015 Feb 07; 14:19. PMID: 25849290.
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    21. Sargent KM, Lu N, Clopton DT, Pohlmeier WE, Brauer VM, Ferrara N, Silversides DW, Cupp AS. Loss of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoforms in granulosa cells using pDmrt-1-Cre or Amhr2-Cre reduces fertility by arresting follicular development and by reducing litter size in female mice. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0116332. PMID: 25658474.
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    22. Yang J, Wang X, Fuh G, Yu L, Wakshull E, Khosraviani M, Day ES, Demeule B, Liu J, Shire SJ, Ferrara N, Yadav S. Comparison of binding characteristics and in vitro activities of three inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor A. Mol Pharm. 2014 Oct 06; 11(10):3421-30. PMID: 25162961.
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    23. Ferrara N, Neill US. A conversation with Napoleone Ferrara. J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug; 124(8):3275-6. PMID: 25083827.
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    24. Guérit S, Allain AE, Léon C, Cazenave W, Ferrara N, Branchereau P, Bikfalvi A. VEGF modulates synaptic activity in the developing spinal cord. Dev Neurobiol. 2014 Nov; 74(11):1110-22. PMID: 24782305.
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    25. Moriya J, Ferrara N. Inhibiting the response to VEGF in diabetes. Sci Signal. 2014 Jan 07; 7(307):pe1. PMID: 24399294.
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    26. Fan J, Ponferrada VG, Sato T, Vemaraju S, Fruttiger M, Gerhardt H, Ferrara N, Lang RA. Crim1 maintains retinal vascular stability during development by regulating endothelial cell Vegfa autocrine signaling. Development. 2014 Jan; 141(2):448-59. PMID: 24353059.
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    27. Lu N, Sargent KM, Clopton DT, Pohlmeier WE, Brauer VM, McFee RM, Weber JS, Ferrara N, Silversides DW, Cupp AS. Loss of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoforms in the testes of male mice causes subfertility, reduces sperm numbers, and alters expression of genes that regulate undifferentiated spermatogonia. Endocrinology. 2013 Dec; 154(12):4790-802. PMID: 24169552.
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    28. Chung AS, Wu X, Zhuang G, Ngu H, Kasman I, Zhang J, Vernes JM, Jiang Z, Meng YG, Peale FV, Ouyang W, Ferrara N. An interleukin-17-mediated paracrine network promotes tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. Nat Med. 2013 Sep; 19(9):1114-23. PMID: 23913124.
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    29. Kim M, Park HJ, Seol JW, Jang JY, Cho YS, Kim KR, Choi Y, Lydon JP, Demayo FJ, Shibuya M, Ferrara N, Sung HK, Nagy A, Alitalo K, Koh GY. VEGF-A regulated by progesterone governs uterine angiogenesis and vascular remodelling during pregnancy. EMBO Mol Med. 2013 Sep; 5(9):1415-30. PMID: 23853117.
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    30. Moriya J, Wu X, Zavala-Solorio J, Ross J, Liang XH, Ferrara N. Platelet-derived growth factor C promotes revascularization in ischemic limbs of diabetic mice. J Vasc Surg. 2014 May; 59(5):1402-9.e1-4. PMID: 23856609.
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    31. Sampath D, Oeh J, Wyatt SK, Cao TC, Koeppen H, Eastham-Anderson J, Robillard L, Ho CC, Ross J, Zhuang G, Reslan HB, Vitorino P, Barck KH, Ungersma SE, Vernes JM, Caunt M, Van Bruggen N, Ye W, Vijapurkar U, Meng YJ, Ferrara N, Friedman LS, Carano RA. Multimodal microvascular imaging reveals that selective inhibition of class I PI3K is sufficient to induce an antivascular response. Neoplasia. 2013 Jul; 15(7):694-711. PMID: 23814482.
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    32. Zhong C, Wang J, Li B, Xiang H, Ultsch M, Coons M, Wong T, Chiang NY, Clark S, Clark R, Quintana L, Gribling P, Suto E, Barck K, Corpuz R, Yao J, Takkar R, Lee WP, Damico-Beyer LA, Carano RD, Adams C, Kelley RF, Wang W, Ferrara N. Development and preclinical characterization of a humanized antibody targeting CXCL12. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Aug 15; 19(16):4433-45. PMID: 23812669.
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    33. Luo L, Uehara H, Zhang X, Das SK, Olsen T, Holt D, Simonis JM, Jackman K, Singh N, Miya TR, Huang W, Ahmed F, Bastos-Carvalho A, Le YZ, Mamalis C, Chiodo VA, Hauswirth WW, Baffi J, Lacal PM, Orecchia A, Ferrara N, Gao G, Young-Hee K, Fu Y, Owen L, Albuquerque R, Baehr W, Thomas K, Li DY, Chalam KV, Shibuya M, Grisanti S, Wilson DJ, Ambati J, Ambati BK. Photoreceptor avascular privilege is shielded by soluble VEGF receptor-1. Elife. 2013 Jun 18; 2:e00324. PMID: 23795287.
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    34. Brauer MJ, Zhuang G, Schmidt M, Yao J, Wu X, Kaminker JS, Jurinka SS, Kolumam G, Chung AS, Jubb A, Modrusan Z, Ozawa T, James CD, Phillips H, Haley B, Tam RN, Clermont AC, Cheng JH, Yang SX, Swain SM, Chen D, Scherer SJ, Koeppen H, Yeh RF, Yue P, Stephan JP, Hegde P, Ferrara N, Singh M, Bais C. Identification and analysis of in vivo VEGF downstream markers link VEGF pathway activity with efficacy of anti-VEGF therapies. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Jul 01; 19(13):3681-92. PMID: 23685835.
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    35. Zhuang G, Yu K, Jiang Z, Chung A, Yao J, Ha C, Toy K, Soriano R, Haley B, Blackwood E, Sampath D, Bais C, Lill JR, Ferrara N. Phosphoproteomic analysis implicates the mTORC2-FoxO1 axis in VEGF signaling and feedback activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Sci Signal. 2013 Apr 16; 6(271):ra25. PMID: 23592840.
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    36. Phan VT, Wu X, Cheng JH, Sheng RX, Chung AS, Zhuang G, Tran C, Song Q, Kowanetz M, Sambrone A, Tan M, Meng YG, Jackson EL, Peale FV, Junttila MR, Ferrara N. Oncogenic RAS pathway activation promotes resistance to anti-VEGF therapy through G-CSF-induced neutrophil recruitment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 09; 110(15):6079-84. PMID: 23530240.
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    37. Snuderl M, Batista A, Kirkpatrick ND, Ruiz de Almodovar C, Riedemann L, Walsh EC, Anolik R, Huang Y, Martin JD, Kamoun W, Knevels E, Schmidt T, Farrar CT, Vakoc BJ, Mohan N, Chung E, Roberge S, Peterson T, Bais C, Zhelyazkova BH, Yip S, Hasselblatt M, Rossig C, Niemeyer E, Ferrara N, Klagsbrun M, Duda DG, Fukumura D, Xu L, Carmeliet P, Jain RK. Targeting placental growth factor/neuropilin 1 pathway inhibits growth and spread of medulloblastoma. Cell. 2013 Feb 28; 152(5):1065-76. PMID: 23452854.
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    38. Rao S, Chun C, Fan J, Kofron JM, Yang MB, Hegde RS, Ferrara N, Copenhagen DR, Lang RA. A direct and melanopsin-dependent fetal light response regulates mouse eye development. Nature. 2013 Feb 14; 494(7436):243-6. PMID: 23334418.
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    39. Stefater JA, Rao S, Bezold K, Aplin AC, Nicosia RF, Pollard JW, Ferrara N, Lang RA. Macrophage Wnt-Calcineurin-Flt1 signaling regulates mouse wound angiogenesis and repair. Blood. 2013 Mar 28; 121(13):2574-8. PMID: 23303818.
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    40. Jin J, Sison K, Li C, Tian R, Wnuk M, Sung HK, Jeansson M, Zhang C, Tucholska M, Jones N, Kerjaschki D, Shibuya M, Fantus IG, Nagy A, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Pawson T, Quaggin SE. Soluble FLT1 binds lipid microdomains in podocytes to control cell morphology and glomerular barrier function. Cell. 2012 Oct 12; 151(2):384-99. PMID: 23063127.
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    41. Miller JW, Le Couter J, Strauss EC, Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor a in intraocular vascular disease. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jan; 120(1):106-14. PMID: 23031671.
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    42. Ben Shoham A, Malkinson G, Krief S, Shwartz Y, Ely Y, Ferrara N, Yaniv K, Zelzer E. S1P1 inhibits sprouting angiogenesis during vascular development. Development. 2012 Oct; 139(20):3859-69. PMID: 22951644.
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    43. Ferrara N, Henzel WJ. Pituitary follicular cells secrete a novel heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells. 1989. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Aug 31; 425(3):540-7. PMID: 22925671.
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    44. Liu Y, Berendsen AD, Jia S, Lotinun S, Baron R, Ferrara N, Olsen BR. Intracellular VEGF regulates the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. J Clin Invest. 2012 Sep; 122(9):3101-13. PMID: 22886301.
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    45. Singh M, Ferrara N. Modeling and predicting clinical efficacy for drugs targeting the tumor milieu. Nat Biotechnol. 2012 Jul 10; 30(7):648-57. PMID: 22781694.
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    46. Zhuang G, Wu X, Jiang Z, Kasman I, Yao J, Guan Y, Oeh J, Modrusan Z, Bais C, Sampath D, Ferrara N. Tumour-secreted miR-9 promotes endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis by activating the JAK-STAT pathway. EMBO J. 2012 Aug 29; 31(17):3513-23. PMID: 22773185.
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    47. Chung AS, Kowanetz M, Wu X, Zhuang G, Ngu H, Finkle D, Komuves L, Peale F, Ferrara N. Differential drug class-specific metastatic effects following treatment with a panel of angiogenesis inhibitors. J Pathol. 2012 Aug; 227(4):404-16. PMID: 22611017.
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    48. Singh M, Couto SS, Forrest WF, Lima A, Cheng JH, Molina R, Long JE, Hamilton P, McNutt A, Kasman I, Nannini MA, Reslan HB, Cao TC, Ho CC, Barck KH, Carano RA, Foreman O, Eastham-Anderson J, Jubb AM, Ferrara N, Johnson L. Anti-VEGF antibody therapy does not promote metastasis in genetically engineered mouse tumour models. J Pathol. 2012 Aug; 227(4):417-30. PMID: 22611036.
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    49. Argaw AT, Asp L, Zhang J, Navrazhina K, Pham T, Mariani JN, Mahase S, Dutta DJ, Seto J, Kramer EG, Ferrara N, Sofroniew MV, John GR. Astrocyte-derived VEGF-A drives blood-brain barrier disruption in CNS inflammatory disease. J Clin Invest. 2012 Jul; 122(7):2454-68. PMID: 22653056.
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    50. Willenborg S, Lucas T, van Loo G, Knipper JA, Krieg T, Haase I, Brachvogel B, Hammerschmidt M, Nagy A, Ferrara N, Pasparakis M, Eming SA. CCR2 recruits an inflammatory macrophage subpopulation critical for angiogenesis in tissue repair. Blood. 2012 Jul 19; 120(3):613-25. PMID: 22577176.
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    51. Milgrom-Hoffman M, Harrelson Z, Ferrara N, Zelzer E, Evans SM, Tzahor E. The heart endocardium is derived from vascular endothelial progenitors. Development. 2011 Nov; 138(21):4777-87. PMID: 21989917.
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    52. Chung AS, Ferrara N. Developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2011; 27:563-84. PMID: 21756109.
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    53. Yao J, Wu X, Zhuang G, Kasman IM, Vogt T, Phan V, Shibuya M, Ferrara N, Bais C. Expression of a functional VEGFR-1 in tumor cells is a major determinant of anti-PlGF antibodies efficacy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jul 12; 108(28):11590-5. PMID: 21709213.
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    54. Stefater JA, Lewkowich I, Rao S, Mariggi G, Carpenter AC, Burr AR, Fan J, Ajima R, Molkentin JD, Williams BO, Wills-Karp M, Pollard JW, Yamaguchi T, Ferrara N, Gerhardt H, Lang RA. Regulation of angiogenesis by a non-canonical Wnt-Flt1 pathway in myeloid cells. Nature. 2011 May 29; 474(7352):511-5. PMID: 21623369.
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    55. Lewis CE, Ferrara N. Multiple effects of angiopoietin-2 blockade on tumors. Cancer Cell. 2011 Apr 12; 19(4):431-3. PMID: 21481783.
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    56. Yu L, Liang XH, Ferrara N. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 May 06; 408(2):276-81. PMID: 21501594.
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    57. Ferrara N. From the discovery of vascular endothelial growth factor to the introduction of avastin in clinical trials - an interview with Napoleone Ferrara by Domenico Ribatti. Int J Dev Biol. 2011; 55(4-5):383-8. PMID: 21858763.
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    58. Kowanetz M, Wu X, Lee J, Tan M, Hagenbeek T, Qu X, Yu L, Ross J, Korsisaari N, Cao T, Bou-Reslan H, Kallop D, Weimer R, Ludlam MJ, Kaminker JS, Modrusan Z, van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Carano R, Meng YG, Ferrara N. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor promotes lung metastasis through mobilization of Ly6G+Ly6C+ granulocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 14; 107(50):21248-55. PMID: 21081700.
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    59. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor and age-related macular degeneration: from basic science to therapy. Nat Med. 2010 Oct; 16(10):1107-11. PMID: 20930754.
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    60. Scott A, Powner MB, Gandhi P, Clarkin C, Gutmann DH, Johnson RS, Ferrara N, Fruttiger M. Astrocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stabilizes vessels in the developing retinal vasculature. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 29; 5(7):e11863. PMID: 20686684.
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    61. Spadaro A, Lubrano E, Massimiani MP, Gaia P, Perrotta FM, Parsons W, Ferrara N, Valesini G. Validity, responsiveness and feasibility of an Italian version of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure for patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010 Mar-Apr; 28(2):215-22. PMID: 20483043.
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    62. Ferrara N. Role of myeloid cells in vascular endothelial growth factor-independent tumor angiogenesis. Curr Opin Hematol. 2010 May; 17(3):219-24. PMID: 20308892.
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    63. Bais C, Wu X, Yao J, Yang S, Crawford Y, McCutcheon K, Tan C, Kolumam G, Vernes JM, Eastham-Anderson J, Haughney P, Kowanetz M, Hagenbeek T, Kasman I, Reslan HB, Ross J, Van Bruggen N, Carano RA, Meng YJ, Hongo JA, Stephan JP, Shibuya M, Ferrara N. PlGF blockade does not inhibit angiogenesis during primary tumor growth. Cell. 2010 Apr 02; 141(1):166-77. PMID: 20371352.
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    64. Yeung YA, Wu X, Reyes AE, Vernes JM, Lien S, Lowe J, Maia M, Forrest WF, Meng YG, Damico LA, Ferrara N, Lowman HB. A therapeutic anti-VEGF antibody with increased potency independent of pharmacokinetic half-life. Cancer Res. 2010 Apr 15; 70(8):3269-77. PMID: 20354184.
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    65. Ferrara N. Binding to the extracellular matrix and proteolytic processing: two key mechanisms regulating vascular endothelial growth factor action. Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Mar 01; 21(5):687-90. PMID: 20185770.
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    66. Mura M, Binnie M, Han B, Li C, Andrade CF, Shiozaki A, Zhang Y, Ferrara N, Hwang D, Waddell TK, Keshavjee S, Liu M. Functions of type II pneumocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor in alveolar structure, acute inflammation, and vascular permeability. Am J Pathol. 2010 Apr; 176(4):1725-34. PMID: 20167862.
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    67. Coffelt SB, Lewis CE, Naldini L, Brown JM, Ferrara N, De Palma M. Elusive identities and overlapping phenotypes of proangiogenic myeloid cells in tumors. Am J Pathol. 2010 Apr; 176(4):1564-76. PMID: 20167863.
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    68. Ortega N, Wang K, Ferrara N, Werb Z, Vu TH. Complementary interplay between matrix metalloproteinase-9, vascular endothelial growth factor and osteoclast function drives endochondral bone formation. Dis Model Mech. 2010 Mar-Apr; 3(3-4):224-35. PMID: 20142327.
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    69. Chung AS, Ferrara N. Targeting the tumor microenvironment with SRC kinase inhibition. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Feb 01; 16(3):775-7. PMID: 20103657.
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    70. Lichtenberger BM, Tan PK, Niederleithner H, Ferrara N, Petzelbauer P, Sibilia M. Autocrine VEGF signaling synergizes with EGFR in tumor cells to promote epithelial cancer development. Cell. 2010 Jan 22; 140(2):268-79. PMID: 20141840.
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    71. Liu BY, Soloviev I, Chang P, Lee J, Huang X, Zhong C, Ferrara N, Polakis P, Sakanaka C. Stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 contributes to MMTV-Wnt1 tumor growth involving Gr1+CD11b+ cells. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 19; 5(1):e8611. PMID: 20087418.
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    72. Ferrara N. Pathways mediating VEGF-independent tumor angiogenesis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2010 Feb; 21(1):21-6. PMID: 20005148.
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    73. Ferrara N. VEGF-A: a critical regulator of blood vessel growth. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2009 Dec; 20(4):158-63. PMID: 20167554.
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    74. Crawford Y, Ferrara N. Tumor and stromal pathways mediating refractoriness/resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Dec; 30(12):624-30. PMID: 19836845.
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    75. O'Connor JP, Carano RA, Clamp AR, Ross J, Ho CC, Jackson A, Parker GJ, Rose CJ, Peale FV, Friesenhahn M, Mitchell CL, Watson Y, Roberts C, Hope L, Cheung S, Reslan HB, Go MA, Pacheco GJ, Wu X, Cao TC, Ross S, Buonaccorsi GA, Davies K, Hasan J, Thornton P, del Puerto O, Ferrara N, van Bruggen N, Jayson GC. Quantifying antivascular effects of monoclonal antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor: insights from imaging. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 01; 15(21):6674-82. PMID: 19861458.
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    77. Chappell JC, Taylor SM, Ferrara N, Bautch VL. Local guidance of emerging vessel sprouts requires soluble Flt-1. Dev Cell. 2009 Sep; 17(3):377-86. PMID: 19758562.
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    79. Shojaei F, Wu X, Qu X, Kowanetz M, Yu L, Tan M, Meng YG, Ferrara N. G-CSF-initiated myeloid cell mobilization and angiogenesis mediate tumor refractoriness to anti-VEGF therapy in mouse models. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 21; 106(16):6742-7. PMID: 19346489.
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    80. Zhong C, Qu X, Tan M, Meng YG, Ferrara N. Characterization and regulation of bv8 in human blood cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 15; 15(8):2675-84. PMID: 19336519.
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    81. Eshkar-Oren I, Viukov SV, Salameh S, Krief S, Oh CD, Akiyama H, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Zelzer E. The forming limb skeleton serves as a signaling center for limb vasculature patterning via regulation of Vegf. Development. 2009 Apr; 136(8):1263-72. PMID: 19261698.
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    82. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Jun; 29(6):789-91. PMID: 19164810.
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    83. Crawford Y, Kasman I, Yu L, Zhong C, Wu X, Modrusan Z, Kaminker J, Ferrara N. PDGF-C mediates the angiogenic and tumorigenic properties of fibroblasts associated with tumors refractory to anti-VEGF treatment. Cancer Cell. 2009 Jan 06; 15(1):21-34. PMID: 19111878.
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    84. Shojaei F, Ferrara N. Role of the microenvironment in tumor growth and in refractoriness/resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies. Drug Resist Updat. 2008 Dec; 11(6):219-30. PMID: 18948057.
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    85. Jabs N, Franklin I, Brenner MB, Gromada J, Ferrara N, Wollheim CB, Lammert E. Reduced insulin secretion and content in VEGF-a deficient mouse pancreatic islets. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008 Sep; 116 Suppl 1:S46-9. PMID: 18777454.
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    86. Crawford Y, Ferrara N. VEGF inhibition: insights from preclinical and clinical studies. Cell Tissue Res. 2009 Jan; 335(1):261-9. PMID: 18766380.
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    87. Garcia CM, Shui YB, Kamath M, DeVillar J, Johnson RS, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Robinson ML, Beebe DC. The function of VEGF-A in lens development: formation of the hyaloid capillary network and protection against transient nuclear cataracts. Exp Eye Res. 2009 Feb; 88(2):270-6. PMID: 18782574.
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    88. Shojaei F, Ferrara N. Refractoriness to antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment: role of myeloid cells. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 15; 68(14):5501-4. PMID: 18632597.
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    89. Shojaei F, Zhong C, Wu X, Yu L, Ferrara N. Role of myeloid cells in tumor angiogenesis and growth. Trends Cell Biol. 2008 Aug; 18(8):372-8. PMID: 18614368.
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    90. Eremina V, Jefferson JA, Kowalewska J, Hochster H, Haas M, Weisstuch J, Richardson C, Kopp JB, Kabir MG, Backx PH, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Barisoni L, Alpers CE, Quaggin SE. VEGF inhibition and renal thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med. 2008 Mar 13; 358(11):1129-36. PMID: 18337603.
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    91. Campa C, Kasman I, Ye W, Lee WP, Fuh G, Ferrara N. Effects of an anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice: optimizing methods to quantify vascular changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Mar; 49(3):1178-83. PMID: 18326747.
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    92. Shojaei F, Singh M, Thompson JD, Ferrara N. Role of Bv8 in neutrophil-dependent angiogenesis in a transgenic model of cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 19; 105(7):2640-5. PMID: 18268320.
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    93. Yu L, Wu X, Cheng Z, Lee CV, LeCouter J, Campa C, Fuh G, Lowman H, Ferrara N. Interaction between bevacizumab and murine VEGF-A: a reassessment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Feb; 49(2):522-7. PMID: 18234994.
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    94. Korsisaari N, Ross J, Wu X, Kowanetz M, Pal N, Hall L, Eastham-Anderson J, Forrest WF, Van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Ferrara N. Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 01; 14(1):249-58. PMID: 18172277.
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    95. Crawford Y, Ferrara N. Chapter 6. Mouse models to investigate anti-cancer effects of VEGF inhibitors. Methods Enzymol. 2008; 445:125-39. PMID: 19022058.
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    96. Shojaei F, Wu X, Zhong C, Yu L, Liang XH, Yao J, Blanchard D, Bais C, Peale FV, van Bruggen N, Ho C, Ross J, Tan M, Carano RA, Meng YG, Ferrara N. Bv8 regulates myeloid-cell-dependent tumour angiogenesis. Nature. 2007 Dec 06; 450(7171):825-31. PMID: 18064003.
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    97. Shojaei F, Ferrara N. Antiangiogenic therapy for cancer: an update. Cancer J. 2007 Nov-Dec; 13(6):345-8. PMID: 18032969.
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    98. Lee S, Chen TT, Barber CL, Jordan MC, Murdock J, Desai S, Ferrara N, Nagy A, Roos KP, Iruela-Arispe ML. Autocrine VEGF signaling is required for vascular homeostasis. Cell. 2007 Aug 24; 130(4):691-703. PMID: 17719546.
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    99. Shojaei F, Wu X, Malik AK, Zhong C, Baldwin ME, Schanz S, Fuh G, Gerber HP, Ferrara N. Tumor refractoriness to anti-VEGF treatment is mediated by CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Aug; 25(8):911-20. PMID: 17664940.
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    100. Korsisaari N, Kasman IM, Forrest WF, Pal N, Bai W, Fuh G, Peale FV, Smits R, Ferrara N. Inhibition of VEGF-A prevents the angiogenic switch and results in increased survival of Apc+/min mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19; 104(25):10625-30. PMID: 17553957.
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    101. Yamamoto H, Yun EJ, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Whitsett JA, Vu TH. Epithelial-vascular cross talk mediated by VEGF-A and HGF signaling directs primary septae formation during distal lung morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007 Aug 01; 308(1):44-53. PMID: 17583691.
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    102. Gerber HP, Wu X, Yu L, Wiesmann C, Liang XH, Lee CV, Fuh G, Olsson C, Damico L, Xie D, Meng YG, Gutierrez J, Corpuz R, Li B, Hall L, Rangell L, Ferrando R, Lowman H, Peale F, Ferrara N. Mice expressing a humanized form of VEGF-A may provide insights into the safety and efficacy of anti-VEGF antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 27; 104(9):3478-83. PMID: 17360669.
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    103. Shojaei F, Ferrara N. Antiangiogenesis to treat cancer and intraocular neovascular disorders. Lab Invest. 2007 Mar; 87(3):227-30. PMID: 17259997.
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    104. Ferrara N, Mass RD, Campa C, Kim R. Targeting VEGF-A to treat cancer and age-related macular degeneration. Annu Rev Med. 2007; 58:491-504. PMID: 17052163.
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    105. Iwashita N, Uchida T, Choi JB, Azuma K, Ogihara T, Ferrara N, Gerber H, Kawamori R, Inoue M, Watada H. Impaired insulin secretion in vivo but enhanced insulin secretion from isolated islets in pancreatic beta cell-specific vascular endothelial growth factor-A knock-out mice. Diabetologia. 2007 Feb; 50(2):380-9. PMID: 17180351.
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    106. Liang WC, Dennis MS, Stawicki S, Chanthery Y, Pan Q, Chen Y, Eigenbrot C, Yin J, Koch AW, Wu X, Ferrara N, Bagri A, Tessier-Lavigne M, Watts RJ, Wu Y. Function blocking antibodies to neuropilin-1 generated from a designed human synthetic antibody phage library. J Mol Biol. 2007 Feb 23; 366(3):815-29. PMID: 17196977.
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    107. Hu L, Ferrara N, Jaffe RB. Paracrine VEGF/VE-cadherin action on ovarian cancer permeability. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Nov; 231(10):1646-52. PMID: 17060686.
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    108. Ambati BK, Nozaki M, Singh N, Takeda A, Jani PD, Suthar T, Albuquerque RJ, Richter E, Sakurai E, Newcomb MT, Kleinman ME, Caldwell RB, Lin Q, Ogura Y, Orecchia A, Samuelson DA, Agnew DW, St Leger J, Green WR, Mahasreshti PJ, Curiel DT, Kwan D, Marsh H, Ikeda S, Leiper LJ, Collinson JM, Bogdanovich S, Khurana TS, Shibuya M, Baldwin ME, Ferrara N, Gerber HP, De Falco S, Witta J, Baffi JZ, Raisler BJ, Ambati J. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1. Nature. 2006 Oct 26; 443(7114):993-7. PMID: 17051153.
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    109. Red-Horse K, Ferrara N. Imaging tumor angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2006 Oct; 116(10):2585-7. PMID: 17016553.
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    110. Ferrara N, Damico L, Shams N, Lowman H, Kim R. Development of ranibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antigen binding fragment, as therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Retina. 2006 Oct; 26(8):859-70. PMID: 17031284.
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    111. Kowanetz M, Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathways: therapeutic perspective. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Sep 01; 12(17):5018-22. PMID: 16951216.
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    112. Tejada ML, Yu L, Dong J, Jung K, Meng G, Peale FV, Frantz GD, Hall L, Liang X, Gerber HP, Ferrara N. Tumor-driven paracrine platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha signaling is a key determinant of stromal cell recruitment in a model of human lung carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 May 01; 12(9):2676-88. PMID: 16675559.
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    113. Nikolova G, Jabs N, Konstantinova I, Domogatskaya A, Tryggvason K, Sorokin L, Fässler R, Gu G, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Melton DA, Lammert E. The vascular basement membrane: a niche for insulin gene expression and Beta cell proliferation. Dev Cell. 2006 Mar; 10(3):397-405. PMID: 16516842.
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    114. Eremina V, Cui S, Gerber H, Ferrara N, Haigh J, Nagy A, Ema M, Rossant J, Jothy S, Miner JH, Quaggin SE. Vascular endothelial growth factor a signaling in the podocyte-endothelial compartment is required for mesangial cell migration and survival. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Mar; 17(3):724-35. PMID: 16436493.
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    115. Ferrara N, Kerbel RS. Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target. Nature. 2005 Dec 15; 438(7070):967-74. PMID: 16355214.
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    116. Ferrara N. VEGF as a therapeutic target in cancer. Oncology. 2005; 69 Suppl 3:11-6. PMID: 16301831.
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    117. Liang WC, Wu X, Peale FV, Lee CV, Meng YG, Gutierrez J, Fu L, Malik AK, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Fuh G. Cross-species vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-blocking antibodies completely inhibit the growth of human tumor xenografts and measure the contribution of stromal VEGF. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 13; 281(2):951-61. PMID: 16278208.
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    118. Gasparini G, Longo R, Toi M, Ferrara N. Angiogenic inhibitors: a new therapeutic strategy in oncology. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2005 Nov; 2(11):562-77. PMID: 16270097.
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    119. Marneros AG, Fan J, Yokoyama Y, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Crouch RK, Olsen BR. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the retinal pigment epithelium is essential for choriocapillaris development and visual function. Am J Pathol. 2005 Nov; 167(5):1451-9. PMID: 16251428.
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    120. Malik AK, Baldwin ME, Peale F, Fuh G, Liang WC, Lowman H, Meng G, Ferrara N, Gerber HP. Redundant roles of VEGF-B and PlGF during selective VEGF-A blockade in mice. Blood. 2006 Jan 15; 107(2):550-7. PMID: 16189273.
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    121. Ferrara N, Hillan KJ, Novotny W. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody for cancer therapy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jul 29; 333(2):328-35. PMID: 15961063.
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    122. Zhao L, Wang K, Ferrara N, Vu TH. Vascular endothelial growth factor co-ordinates proper development of lung epithelium and vasculature. Mech Dev. 2005 Jul; 122(7-8):877-86. PMID: 15927453.
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    123. Ferrara N. Napoleone Ferrara discusses Avastin and the future of anti-angiogenesis therapy. Interview by Ulrike Knies-Bamforth and Christopher Watson. Drug Discov Today. 2005 Apr 15; 10(8):539-41. PMID: 15837595.
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    124. Gerber HP, Ferrara N. Pharmacology and pharmacodynamics of bevacizumab as monotherapy or in combination with cytotoxic therapy in preclinical studies. Cancer Res. 2005 Feb 01; 65(3):671-80. PMID: 15705858.
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    125. Mukouyama YS, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Gu C, Anderson DJ. Peripheral nerve-derived VEGF promotes arterial differentiation via neuropilin 1-mediated positive feedback. Development. 2005 Mar; 132(5):941-52. PMID: 15673567.
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    126. Ferrara N. The role of VEGF in the regulation of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. EXS. 2005; (94):209-31. PMID: 15617481.
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    127. LeCouter J, Zlot C, Tejada M, Peale F, Ferrara N. Bv8 and endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stimulate hematopoiesis and hematopoietic cell mobilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 30; 101(48):16813-8. PMID: 15548611.
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    128. Tang N, Wang L, Esko J, Giordano FJ, Huang Y, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Johnson RS. Loss of HIF-1alpha in endothelial cells disrupts a hypoxia-driven VEGF autocrine loop necessary for tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2004 Nov; 6(5):485-95. PMID: 15542432.
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    129. Khurana R, Zhuang Z, Bhardwaj S, Murakami M, De Muinck E, Yla-Herttuala S, Ferrara N, Martin JF, Zachary I, Simons M. Angiogenesis-dependent and independent phases of intimal hyperplasia. Circulation. 2004 Oct 19; 110(16):2436-43. PMID: 15477408.
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    130. Samson M, Peale FV, Frantz G, Rioux-Leclercq N, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Ferrara N. Human endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor: expression early in development and in Leydig cell tumors suggests roles in normal and pathological testis angiogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 89(8):4078-88. PMID: 15292351.
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    131. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor: basic science and clinical progress. Endocr Rev. 2004 Aug; 25(4):581-611. PMID: 15294883.
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    132. Dong J, Grunstein J, Tejada M, Peale F, Frantz G, Liang WC, Bai W, Yu L, Kowalski J, Liang X, Fuh G, Gerber HP, Ferrara N. VEGF-null cells require PDGFR alpha signaling-mediated stromal fibroblast recruitment for tumorigenesis. EMBO J. 2004 Jul 21; 23(14):2800-10. PMID: 15229650.
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    133. Daldrup-Link HE, Okuhata Y, Wolfe A, Srivastav S, Øie S, Ferrara N, Cohen RL, Shames DM, Brasch RC. Decrease in tumor apparent permeability-surface area product to a MRI macromolecular contrast medium following angiogenesis inhibition with correlations to cytotoxic drug accumulation. Microcirculation. 2004 Jul-Aug; 11(5):387-96. PMID: 15280064.
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    134. Tang K, Breen EC, Gerber HP, Ferrara NM, Wagner PD. Capillary regression in vascular endothelial growth factor-deficient skeletal muscle. Physiol Genomics. 2004 Jun 17; 18(1):63-9. PMID: 15084712.
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    135. Hurwitz H, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny W, Cartwright T, Hainsworth J, Heim W, Berlin J, Baron A, Griffing S, Holmgren E, Ferrara N, Fyfe G, Rogers B, Ross R, Kabbinavar F. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jun 03; 350(23):2335-42. PMID: 15175435.
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    136. Ferrara N, Hillan KJ, Gerber HP, Novotny W. Discovery and development of bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody for treating cancer. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004 May; 3(5):391-400. PMID: 15136787.
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    137. Zelzer E, Mamluk R, Ferrara N, Johnson RS, Schipani E, Olsen BR. VEGFA is necessary for chondrocyte survival during bone development. Development. 2004 May; 131(9):2161-71. PMID: 15073147.
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    138. Hesser BA, Liang XH, Camenisch G, Yang S, Lewin DA, Scheller R, Ferrara N, Gerber HP. Down syndrome critical region protein 1 (DSCR1), a novel VEGF target gene that regulates expression of inflammatory markers on activated endothelial cells. Blood. 2004 Jul 01; 104(1):149-58. PMID: 15016650.
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    139. Ferrara N, LeCouter J, Lin R, Peale F. EG-VEGF and Bv8: a novel family of tissue-restricted angiogenic factors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Mar 04; 1654(1):69-78. PMID: 14984768.
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    140. Raab S, Beck H, Gaumann A, Yüce A, Gerber HP, Plate K, Hammes HP, Ferrara N, Breier G. Impaired brain angiogenesis and neuronal apoptosis induced by conditional homozygous inactivation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Thromb Haemost. 2004 Mar; 91(3):595-605. PMID: 14983237.
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    141. Lissbrant IF, Hammarsten P, Lissbrant E, Ferrara N, Rudolfsson SH, Bergh A. Neutralizing VEGF bioactivity with a soluble chimeric VEGF-receptor protein flt(1-3)IgG inhibits testosterone-stimulated prostate growth in castrated mice. Prostate. 2004 Jan 01; 58(1):57-65. PMID: 14673953.
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    142. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor as a target for anticancer therapy. Oncologist. 2004; 9 Suppl 1:2-10. PMID: 15178810.
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    143. Haigh JJ, Morelli PI, Gerhardt H, Haigh K, Tsien J, Damert A, Miquerol L, Muhlner U, Klein R, Ferrara N, Wagner EF, Betsholtz C, Nagy A. Cortical and retinal defects caused by dosage-dependent reductions in VEGF-A paracrine signaling. Dev Biol. 2003 Oct 15; 262(2):225-41. PMID: 14550787.
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    144. LeCouter J, Ferrara N. EG-VEGF and Bv8. a novel family of tissue-selective mediators of angiogenesis, endothelial phenotype, and function. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2003 Oct; 13(7):276-82. PMID: 14522467.
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    145. Blouw B, Song H, Tihan T, Bosze J, Ferrara N, Gerber HP, Johnson RS, Bergers G. The hypoxic response of tumors is dependent on their microenvironment. Cancer Cell. 2003 Aug; 4(2):133-46. PMID: 12957288.
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    146. Lammert E, Gu G, McLaughlin M, Brown D, Brekken R, Murtaugh LC, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Melton DA. Role of VEGF-A in vascularization of pancreatic islets. Curr Biol. 2003 Jun 17; 13(12):1070-4. PMID: 12814555.
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    147. Ferrara N, Frantz G, LeCouter J, Dillard-Telm L, Pham T, Draksharapu A, Giordano T, Peale F. Differential expression of the angiogenic factor genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endocrine gland-derived VEGF in normal and polycystic human ovaries. Am J Pathol. 2003 Jun; 162(6):1881-93. PMID: 12759245.
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    148. Ferrara N, Gerber HP, LeCouter J. The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nat Med. 2003 Jun; 9(6):669-76. PMID: 12778165.
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    149. LeCouter J, Lin R, Frantz G, Zhang Z, Hillan K, Ferrara N. Mouse endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor: a distinct expression pattern from its human ortholog suggests different roles as a regulator of organ-specific angiogenesis. Endocrinology. 2003 Jun; 144(6):2606-16. PMID: 12746324.
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    150. Nicoletti VG, Nicoletti R, Ferrara N, Meli G, Reibaldi M, Reibaldi A. Diabetic patients and retinal proliferation: an evaluation of the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2003 Jun; 111(4):209-14. PMID: 12845559.
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    151. Tille JC, Wang X, Lipson KE, McMahon G, Ferrara N, Zhu Z, Hicklin DJ, Sleeman JP, Eriksson U, Alitalo K, Pepper MS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 signaling mediates VEGF-C(deltaNdeltaC)- and VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis in vitro. Exp Cell Res. 2003 May 01; 285(2):286-98. PMID: 12706123.
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    152. Cramer T, Yamanishi Y, Clausen BE, Förster I, Pawlinski R, Mackman N, Haase VH, Jaenisch R, Corr M, Nizet V, Firestein GS, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Johnson RS. HIF-1alpha is essential for myeloid cell-mediated inflammation. Cell. 2003 Mar 07; 112(5):645-57. PMID: 12628185.
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    153. Eremina V, Sood M, Haigh J, Nagy A, Lajoie G, Ferrara N, Gerber HP, Kikkawa Y, Miner JH, Quaggin SE. Glomerular-specific alterations of VEGF-A expression lead to distinct congenital and acquired renal diseases. J Clin Invest. 2003 Mar; 111(5):707-16. PMID: 12618525.
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    154. LeCouter J, Lin R, Tejada M, Frantz G, Peale F, Hillan KJ, Ferrara N. The endocrine-gland-derived VEGF homologue Bv8 promotes angiogenesis in the testis: Localization of Bv8 receptors to endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 04; 100(5):2685-90. PMID: 12604792.
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    155. LeCouter J, Moritz DR, Li B, Phillips GL, Liang XH, Gerber HP, Hillan KJ, Ferrara N. Angiogenesis-independent endothelial protection of liver: role of VEGFR-1. Science. 2003 Feb 07; 299(5608):890-3. PMID: 12574630.
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    156. Gerber HP, Ferrara N. The role of VEGF in normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2003 Jan; 81(1):20-31. PMID: 12545246.
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    157. Ferrara N. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor in physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis: therapeutic implications. Semin Oncol. 2002 Dec; 29(6 Suppl 16):10-4. PMID: 12516033.
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    158. Ferrara N, LeCouter J, Lin R. Endocrine gland vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and the hypothesis of tissue-specific regulation of angiogenesis. Endocr Res. 2002 Nov; 28(4):763-4. PMID: 12530695.
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    159. Hu L, Hofmann J, Zaloudek C, Ferrara N, Hamilton T, Jaffe RB. Vascular endothelial growth factor immunoneutralization plus Paclitaxel markedly reduces tumor burden and ascites in athymic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Am J Pathol. 2002 Nov; 161(5):1917-24. PMID: 12414537.
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    160. Ferrara N. VEGF and the quest for tumour angiogenesis factors. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Oct; 2(10):795-803. PMID: 12360282.
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    161. LeCouter J, Lin R, Ferrara N. Endocrine gland-derived VEGF and the emerging hypothesis of organ-specific regulation of angiogenesis. Nat Med. 2002 Sep; 8(9):913-7. PMID: 12205443.
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    162. Street J, Bao M, deGuzman L, Bunting S, Peale FV, Ferrara N, Steinmetz H, Hoeffel J, Cleland JL, Daugherty A, van Bruggen N, Redmond HP, Carano RA, Filvaroff EH. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates bone repair by promoting angiogenesis and bone turnover. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):9656-61. PMID: 12118119.
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    163. Gerber HP, Malik AK, Solar GP, Sherman D, Liang XH, Meng G, Hong K, Marsters JC, Ferrara N. VEGF regulates haematopoietic stem cell survival by an internal autocrine loop mechanism. Nature. 2002 Jun 27; 417(6892):954-8. PMID: 12087404.
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    164. Inoue M, Hager JH, Ferrara N, Gerber HP, Hanahan D. VEGF-A has a critical, nonredundant role in angiogenic switching and pancreatic beta cell carcinogenesis. Cancer Cell. 2002 Mar; 1(2):193-202. PMID: 12086877.
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    165. Camenisch G, Pisabarro MT, Sherman D, Kowalski J, Nagel M, Hass P, Xie MH, Gurney A, Bodary S, Liang XH, Clark K, Beresini M, Ferrara N, Gerber HP. ANGPTL3 stimulates endothelial cell adhesion and migration via integrin alpha vbeta 3 and induces blood vessel formation in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10; 277(19):17281-90. PMID: 11877390.
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    166. LeCouter J, Ferrara N. EG-VEGF and the concept of tissue-specific angiogenic growth factors. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2002 Feb; 13(1):3-8. PMID: 11969366.
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    167. Clyman RI, Seidner SR, Kajino H, Roman C, Koch CJ, Ferrara N, Waleh N, Mauray F, Chen YQ, Perkett EA, Quinn T. VEGF regulates remodeling during permanent anatomic closure of the ductus arteriosus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002 Jan; 282(1):R199-206. PMID: 11742839.
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    168. LeCouter J, Lin R, Ferrara N. The role of EG-VEGF in the regulation of angiogenesis in endocrine glands. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2002; 67:217-21. PMID: 12858543.
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    170. Williams SP, Gerber HP, Giordano FJ, Peale FV, Bernstein LJ, Bunting S, Chien KR, Ferrara N, van Bruggen N. Dobutamine stress cine-MRI of cardiac function in the hearts of adult cardiomyocyte-specific VEGF knockout mice. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001 Oct; 14(4):374-82. PMID: 11599061.
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    172. LeCouter J, Kowalski J, Foster J, Hass P, Zhang Z, Dillard-Telm L, Frantz G, Rangell L, DeGuzman L, Keller GA, Peale F, Gurney A, Hillan KJ, Ferrara N. Identification of an angiogenic mitogen selective for endocrine gland endothelium. Nature. 2001 Aug 30; 412(6850):877-84. PMID: 11528470.
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    174. Hu YL, Tee MK, Goetzl EJ, Auersperg N, Mills GB, Ferrara N, Jaffe RB. Lysophosphatidic acid induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human ovarian cancer cells. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 16; 93(10):762-8. PMID: 11353786.
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    175. Giordano FJ, Gerber HP, Williams SP, VanBruggen N, Bunting S, Ruiz-Lozano P, Gu Y, Nath AK, Huang Y, Hickey R, Dalton N, Peterson KL, Ross J, Chien KR, Ferrara N. A cardiac myocyte vascular endothelial growth factor paracrine pathway is required to maintain cardiac function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 08; 98(10):5780-5. PMID: 11331753.
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    176. Xin X, Yang S, Ingle G, Zlot C, Rangell L, Kowalski J, Schwall R, Ferrara N, Gerritsen ME. Hepatocyte growth factor enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2001 Mar; 158(3):1111-20. PMID: 11238059.
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    177. Ferrara N, Gerber HP. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in angiogenesis. Acta Haematol. 2001; 106(4):148-56. PMID: 11815711.
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    179. Gerber HP, Kowalski J, Sherman D, Eberhard DA, Ferrara N. Complete inhibition of rhabdomyosarcoma xenograft growth and neovascularization requires blockade of both tumor and host vascular endothelial growth factor. Cancer Res. 2000 Nov 15; 60(22):6253-8. PMID: 11103779.
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    180. Gille H, Kowalski J, Li B, LeCouter J, Moffat B, Zioncheck TF, Pelletier N, Ferrara N. Analysis of biological effects and signaling properties of Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2). A reassessment using novel receptor-specific vascular endothelial growth factor mutants. J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 02; 276(5):3222-30. PMID: 11058584.
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    181. Gossmann A, Helbich TH, Mesiano S, Shames DM, Wendland MF, Roberts TP, Ferrara N, Jaffe RB, Brasch RC. Magnetic resonance imaging in an experimental model of human ovarian cancer demonstrating altered microvascular permeability after inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Oct; 183(4):956-63. PMID: 11035346.
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    182. Lee CG, Heijn M, di Tomaso E, Griffon-Etienne G, Ancukiewicz M, Koike C, Park KR, Ferrara N, Jain RK, Suit HD, Boucher Y. Anti-Vascular endothelial growth factor treatment augments tumor radiation response under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Cancer Res. 2000 Oct 01; 60(19):5565-70. PMID: 11034104.
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    183. Drake CJ, LaRue A, Ferrara N, Little CD. VEGF regulates cell behavior during vasculogenesis. Dev Biol. 2000 Aug 15; 224(2):178-88. PMID: 10926758.
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    184. Gille H, Kowalski J, Yu L, Chen H, Pisabarro MT, Davis-Smyth T, Ferrara N. A repressor sequence in the juxtamembrane domain of Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) constitutively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activation and endothelial cell migration. EMBO J. 2000 Aug 01; 19(15):4064-73. PMID: 10921887.
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    185. Gerber HP, Ferrara N. Angiogenesis and bone growth. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2000 Jul; 10(5):223-8. PMID: 11282299.
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    186. Helmlinger G, Endo M, Ferrara N, Hlatky L, Jain RK. Formation of endothelial cell networks. Nature. 2000 May 11; 405(6783):139-41. PMID: 10821260.
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    187. Haigh JJ, Gerber HP, Ferrara N, Wagner EF. Conditional inactivation of VEGF-A in areas of collagen2a1 expression results in embryonic lethality in the heterozygous state. Development. 2000 Apr; 127(7):1445-53. PMID: 10704390.
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    188. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor and the regulation of angiogenesis. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2000; 55:15-35; discussion 35-6. PMID: 11036931.
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    189. Ferrara N, Alitalo K. Clinical applications of angiogenic growth factors and their inhibitors. Nat Med. 1999 Dec; 5(12):1359-64. PMID: 10581076.
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    190. van Bruggen N, Thibodeaux H, Palmer JT, Lee WP, Fu L, Cairns B, Tumas D, Gerlai R, Williams SP, van Lookeren Campagne M, Ferrara N. VEGF antagonism reduces edema formation and tissue damage after ischemia/reperfusion injury in the mouse brain. J Clin Invest. 1999 Dec; 104(11):1613-20. PMID: 10587525.
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    191. Borgström P, Gold DP, Hillan KJ, Ferrara N. Importance of VEGF for breast cancer angiogenesis in vivo: implications from intravital microscopy of combination treatments with an anti-VEGF neutralizing monoclonal antibody and doxorubicin. Anticancer Res. 1999 Sep-Oct; 19(5B):4203-14. PMID: 10628376.
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    192. Ferrara N. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the regulation of angiogenesis. Kidney Int. 1999 Sep; 56(3):794-814. PMID: 10469350.
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    193. Mordenti J, Cuthbertson RA, Ferrara N, Thomsen K, Berleau L, Licko V, Allen PC, Valverde CR, Meng YG, Fei DT, Fourre KM, Ryan AM. Comparisons of the intraocular tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and safety of 125I-labeled full-length and Fab antibodies in rhesus monkeys following intravitreal administration. Toxicol Pathol. 1999 Sep-Oct; 27(5):536-44. PMID: 10528633.
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    194. Ferrara N. Molecular and biological properties of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Mol Med (Berl). 1999 Jul; 77(7):527-43. PMID: 10494799.
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    195. Gerber HP, Vu TH, Ryan AM, Kowalski J, Werb Z, Ferrara N. VEGF couples hypertrophic cartilage remodeling, ossification and angiogenesis during endochondral bone formation. Nat Med. 1999 Jun; 5(6):623-8. PMID: 10371499.
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    196. Gerber HP, Hillan KJ, Ryan AM, Kowalski J, Keller GA, Rangell L, Wright BD, Radtke F, Aguet M, Ferrara N. VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. Development. 1999 Mar; 126(6):1149-59. PMID: 10021335.
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    197. Shi YP, Ferrara N. Oncogenic ras fails to restore an in vivo tumorigenic phenotype in embryonic stem cells lacking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jan 19; 254(2):480-3. PMID: 9918864.
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    198. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor: molecular and biological aspects. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1999; 237:1-30. PMID: 9893343.
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    199. Mordenti J, Thomsen K, Licko V, Chen H, Meng YG, Ferrara N. Efficacy and concentration-response of murine anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody in tumor-bearing mice and extrapolation to humans. Toxicol Pathol. 1999 Jan-Feb; 27(1):14-21. PMID: 10367667.
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    200. Gerber HP, McMurtrey A, Kowalski J, Yan M, Keyt BA, Dixit V, Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates endothelial cell survival through the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signal transduction pathway. Requirement for Flk-1/KDR activation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 13; 273(46):30336-43. PMID: 9804796.
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    201. Shen BQ, Lee DY, Gerber HP, Keyt BA, Ferrara N, Zioncheck TF. Homologous up-regulation of KDR/Flk-1 receptor expression by vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 06; 273(45):29979-85. PMID: 9792718.
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    202. Mesiano S, Ferrara N, Jaffe RB. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor in ovarian cancer: inhibition of ascites formation by immunoneutralization. Am J Pathol. 1998 Oct; 153(4):1249-56. PMID: 9777956.
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    203. Giraudo E, Primo L, Audero E, Gerber HP, Koolwijk P, Soker S, Klagsbrun M, Ferrara N, Bussolino F. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and of its co-receptor neuropilin-1 in human vascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 21; 273(34):22128-35. PMID: 9705358.
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    204. Gerber HP, Dixit V, Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and A1 in vascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1998 May 22; 273(21):13313-6. PMID: 9582377.
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    205. Borgström P, Bourdon MA, Hillan KJ, Sriramarao P, Ferrara N. Neutralizing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody completely inhibits angiogenesis and growth of human prostate carcinoma micro tumors in vivo. Prostate. 1998 Apr 01; 35(1):1-10. PMID: 9537593.
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    206. Shifren JL, Mesiano S, Taylor RN, Ferrara N, Jaffe RB. Corticotropin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human fetal adrenal cortical cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Apr; 83(4):1342-7. PMID: 9543165.
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    207. Ferrara N, Chen H, Davis-Smyth T, Gerber HP, Nguyen TN, Peers D, Chisholm V, Hillan KJ, Schwall RH. Vascular endothelial growth factor is essential for corpus luteum angiogenesis. Nat Med. 1998 Mar; 4(3):336-40. PMID: 9500609.
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    208. Davis-Smyth T, Presta LG, Ferrara N. Mapping the charged residues in the second immunoglobulin-like domain of the vascular endothelial growth factor/placenta growth factor receptor Flt-1 required for binding and structural stability. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 06; 273(6):3216-22. PMID: 9452434.
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    209. Yang R, Bunting S, Ko A, Keyt BA, Modi NB, Zioncheck TF, Ferrara N, Jin H. Substantially attenuated hemodynamic responses to Escherichia coli-derived vascular endothelial growth factor given by intravenous infusion compared with bolus injection. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jan; 284(1):103-10. PMID: 9435167.
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    210. Pham CD, Roberts TP, van Bruggen N, Melnyk O, Mann J, Ferrara N, Cohen RL, Brasch RC. Magnetic resonance imaging detects suppression of tumor vascular permeability after administration of antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor. Cancer Invest. 1998; 16(4):225-30. PMID: 9589031.
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    211. Bayko L, Rak J, Man S, Bicknell R, Ferrara N, Kerbel RS. The dormant in vivo phenotype of early stage primary human melanoma: termination by overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Angiogenesis. 1998; 2(3):203-17. PMID: 14517461.
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    212. Van Belle E, Rivard A, Chen D, Silver M, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Bauters C, Isner JM. Hypercholesterolemia attenuates angiogenesis but does not preclude augmentation by angiogenic cytokines. Circulation. 1997 Oct 21; 96(8):2667-74. PMID: 9355908.
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    213. Presta LG, Chen H, O'Connor SJ, Chisholm V, Meng YG, Krummen L, Winkler M, Ferrara N. Humanization of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody for the therapy of solid tumors and other disorders. Cancer Res. 1997 Oct 15; 57(20):4593-9. PMID: 9377574.
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    214. Luo Z, Diaco M, Murohara T, Ferrara N, Isner JM, Symes JF. Vascular endothelial growth factor attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Oct; 64(4):993-8. PMID: 9354516.
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    215. Gerber HP, Condorelli F, Park J, Ferrara N. Differential transcriptional regulation of the two vascular endothelial growth factor receptor genes. Flt-1, but not Flk-1/KDR, is up-regulated by hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 19; 272(38):23659-67. PMID: 9295307.
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    216. Ferrara N, Davis-Smyth T. The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor. Endocr Rev. 1997 Feb; 18(1):4-25. PMID: 9034784.
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    217. Kirschenbaum A, Wang JP, Ren M, Schiff JD, Aaronson SA, Droller MJ, Ferrara N, Holland JF, Levine AC. Inhibition of vascular endothelial cell growth factor suppresses the in vivo growth of human prostate tumors. Urol Oncol. 1997 Jan-Feb; 3(1):3-10. PMID: 21227046.
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    218. Ferrara N, Keyt B. Vascular endothelial growth factor: basic biology and clinical implications. EXS. 1997; 79:209-32. PMID: 9002234.
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    219. Yuan F, Chen Y, Dellian M, Safabakhsh N, Ferrara N, Jain RK. Time-dependent vascular regression and permeability changes in established human tumor xenografts induced by an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Dec 10; 93(25):14765-70. PMID: 8962129.
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    220. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor. Eur J Cancer. 1996 Dec; 32A(14):2413-22. PMID: 9059329.
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    221. Warren RS, Yuan H, Matli MR, Ferrara N, Donner DB. Induction of vascular endothelial growth factor by insulin-like growth factor 1 in colorectal carcinoma. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 15; 271(46):29483-8. PMID: 8910616.
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    222. Christinger HW, Muller YA, Berleau LT, Keyt BA, Cunningham BC, Ferrara N, de Vos AM. Crystallization of the receptor binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor. Proteins. 1996 Nov; 26(3):353-7. PMID: 8953654.
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    223. Tolentino MJ, Miller JW, Gragoudas ES, Jakobiec FA, Flynn E, Chatzistefanou K, Ferrara N, Adamis AP. Intravitreous injections of vascular endothelial growth factor produce retinal ischemia and microangiopathy in an adult primate. Ophthalmology. 1996 Nov; 103(11):1820-8. PMID: 8942877.
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    224. Takeshita S, Weir L, Chen D, Zheng LP, Riessen R, Bauters C, Symes JF, Ferrara N, Isner JM. Therapeutic angiogenesis following arterial gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Oct 14; 227(2):628-35. PMID: 8878563.
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    225. Takagi H, King GL, Robinson GS, Ferrara N, Aiello LP. Adenosine mediates hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal pericytes and endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Oct; 37(11):2165-76. PMID: 8843903.
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    226. Takeshita S, Tsurumi Y, Couffinahl T, Asahara T, Bauters C, Symes J, Ferrara N, Isner JM. Gene transfer of naked DNA encoding for three isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates collateral development in vivo. Lab Invest. 1996 Oct; 75(4):487-501. PMID: 8874381.
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    227. Davis-Smyth T, Chen H, Park J, Presta LG, Ferrara N. The second immunoglobulin-like domain of the VEGF tyrosine kinase receptor Flt-1 determines ligand binding and may initiate a signal transduction cascade. EMBO J. 1996 Sep 16; 15(18):4919-27. PMID: 8890165.
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    228. Ferrara N. Natural killer cells, adhesion and tumor angiogenesis. Nat Med. 1996 Sep; 2(9):971-2. PMID: 8782449.
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    229. Borgström P, Hillan KJ, Sriramarao P, Ferrara N. Complete inhibition of angiogenesis and growth of microtumors by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing antibody: novel concepts of angiostatic therapy from intravital videomicroscopy. Cancer Res. 1996 Sep 01; 56(17):4032-9. PMID: 8752175.
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    230. Shifren JL, Tseng JF, Zaloudek CJ, Ryan IP, Meng YG, Ferrara N, Jaffe RB, Taylor RN. Ovarian steroid regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the human endometrium: implications for angiogenesis during the menstrual cycle and in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Aug; 81(8):3112-8. PMID: 8768883.
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    231. Tolentino MJ, Miller JW, Gragoudas ES, Chatzistefanou K, Ferrara N, Adamis AP. Vascular endothelial growth factor is sufficient to produce iris neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma in a nonhuman primate. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug; 114(8):964-70. PMID: 8694732.
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    232. Yang R, Thomas GR, Bunting S, Ko A, Ferrara N, Keyt B, Ross J, Jin H. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on hemodynamics and cardiac performance. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1996 Jun; 27(6):838-44. PMID: 8761851.
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    233. Takagi H, King GL, Ferrara N, Aiello LP. Hypoxia regulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR/Flk gene expression through adenosine A2 receptors in retinal capillary endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Jun; 37(7):1311-21. PMID: 8641834.
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    235. Keyt BA, Berleau LT, Nguyen HV, Chen H, Heinsohn H, Vandlen R, Ferrara N. The carboxyl-terminal domain (111-165) of vascular endothelial growth factor is critical for its mitogenic potency. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 29; 271(13):7788-95. PMID: 8631822.
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    236. Keyt BA, Nguyen HV, Berleau LT, Duarte CM, Park J, Chen H, Ferrara N. Identification of vascular endothelial growth factor determinants for binding KDR and FLT-1 receptors. Generation of receptor-selective VEGF variants by site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 08; 271(10):5638-46. PMID: 8621427.
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    237. Walter DH, Hink U, Asahara T, Van Belle E, Horowitz J, Tsurumi Y, Vandlen R, Heinsohn H, Keyt B, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. The in vivo bioactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor is independent of N-linked glycosylation. Lab Invest. 1996 Feb; 74(2):546-56. PMID: 8780172.
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    239. Walder CE, Errett CJ, Bunting S, Lindquist P, Ogez JR, Heinsohn HG, Ferrara N, Thomas GR. Vascular endothelial growth factor augments muscle blood flow and function in a rabbit model of chronic hindlimb ischemia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1996 Jan; 27(1):91-8. PMID: 8656665.
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    240. Adamis AP, Shima DT, Tolentino MJ, Gragoudas ES, Ferrara N, Folkman J, D'Amore PA, Miller JW. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor prevents retinal ischemia-associated iris neovascularization in a nonhuman primate. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Jan; 114(1):66-71. PMID: 8540853.
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    241. Takeshita S, Rossow ST, Kearney M, Zheng LP, Bauters C, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. Time course of increased cellular proliferation in collateral arteries after administration of vascular endothelial growth factor in a rabbit model of lower limb vascular insufficiency. Am J Pathol. 1995 Dec; 147(6):1649-60. PMID: 7495290.
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    242. Aiello LP, Pierce EA, Foley ED, Takagi H, Chen H, Riddle L, Ferrara N, King GL, Smith LE. Suppression of retinal neovascularization in vivo by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using soluble VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 07; 92(23):10457-61. PMID: 7479819.
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    243. Asahara T, Bauters C, Zheng LP, Takeshita S, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. Synergistic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on angiogenesis in vivo. Circulation. 1995 Nov 01; 92(9 Suppl):II365-71. PMID: 7586439.
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    245. Bauters C, Asahara T, Zheng LP, Takeshita S, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. Recovery of disturbed endothelium-dependent flow in the collateral-perfused rabbit ischemic hindlimb after administration of vascular endothelial growth factor. Circulation. 1995 Jun 01; 91(11):2802-9. PMID: 7758187.
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    246. Asahara T, Bauters C, Pastore C, Kearney M, Rossow S, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. Local delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor accelerates reendothelialization and attenuates intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery. Circulation. 1995 Jun 01; 91(11):2793-801. PMID: 7758186.
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    247. Mandriota SJ, Seghezzi G, Vassalli JD, Ferrara N, Wasi S, Mazzieri R, Mignatti P, Pepper MS. Vascular endothelial growth factor increases urokinase receptor expression in vascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1995 Apr 28; 270(17):9709-16. PMID: 7730348.
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    248. Warren RS, Yuan H, Matli MR, Gillett NA, Ferrara N. Regulation by vascular endothelial growth factor of human colon cancer tumorigenesis in a mouse model of experimental liver metastasis. J Clin Invest. 1995 Apr; 95(4):1789-97. PMID: 7535799.
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    249. Ferrara N, Heinsohn H, Walder CE, Bunting S, Thomas GR. The regulation of blood vessel growth by vascular endothelial growth factor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Mar 27; 752:246-56. PMID: 7538737.
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    250. Bauters C, Asahara T, Zheng LP, Takeshita S, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. Site-specific therapeutic angiogenesis after systemic administration of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Vasc Surg. 1995 Feb; 21(2):314-24; discussion 324-5. PMID: 7531786.
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    251. Shima DT, Adamis AP, Ferrara N, Yeo KT, Yeo TK, Allende R, Folkman J, D'Amore PA. Hypoxic induction of endothelial cell growth factors in retinal cells: identification and characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as the mitogen. Mol Med. 1995 Jan; 1(2):182-93. PMID: 8529097.
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    252. Ferrara N. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in pathological angiogenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1995; 36(2):127-37. PMID: 8534862.
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    253. Pepper MS, Ferrara N, Orci L, Montesano R. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) inhibits angiogenesis in vitro. J Cell Sci. 1995 Jan; 108 ( Pt 1):73-83. PMID: 7537748.
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    254. Thieme H, Aiello LP, Takagi H, Ferrara N, King GL. Comparative analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on retinal and aortic vascular endothelial cells. Diabetes. 1995 Jan; 44(1):98-103. PMID: 7529203.
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    255. Takeshita S, Pu LQ, Stein LA, Sniderman AD, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Isner JM, Symes JF. Intramuscular administration of vascular endothelial growth factor induces dose-dependent collateral artery augmentation in a rabbit model of chronic limb ischemia. Circulation. 1994 Nov; 90(5 Pt 2):II228-34. PMID: 7525111.
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    256. Park JE, Chen HH, Winer J, Houck KA, Ferrara N. Placenta growth factor. Potentiation of vascular endothelial growth factor bioactivity, in vitro and in vivo, and high affinity binding to Flt-1 but not to Flk-1/KDR. J Biol Chem. 1994 Oct 14; 269(41):25646-54. PMID: 7929268.
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    258. Charnock-Jones DS, Sharkey AM, Boocock CA, Ahmed A, Plevin R, Ferrara N, Smith SK. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor localization and activation in human trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. Biol Reprod. 1994 Sep; 51(3):524-30. PMID: 7803624.
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    259. Shifren JL, Doldi N, Ferrara N, Mesiano S, Jaffe RB. In the human fetus, vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in epithelial cells and myocytes, but not vascular endothelium: implications for mode of action. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Jul; 79(1):316-22. PMID: 8027247.
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    260. Koch AE, Harlow LA, Haines GK, Amento EP, Unemori EN, Wong WL, Pope RM, Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor. A cytokine modulating endothelial function in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 1994 Apr 15; 152(8):4149-56. PMID: 7511670.
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    261. Pertovaara L, Kaipainen A, Mustonen T, Orpana A, Ferrara N, Saksela O, Alitalo K. Vascular endothelial growth factor is induced in response to transforming growth factor-beta in fibroblastic and epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 04; 269(9):6271-4. PMID: 8119973.
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    262. Takeshita S, Zheng LP, Brogi E, Kearney M, Pu LQ, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. Therapeutic angiogenesis. A single intraarterial bolus of vascular endothelial growth factor augments revascularization in a rabbit ischemic hind limb model. J Clin Invest. 1994 Feb; 93(2):662-70. PMID: 7509344.
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    263. Pepper MS, Wasi S, Ferrara N, Orci L, Montesano R. In vitro angiogenic and proteolytic properties of bovine lymphatic endothelial cells. Exp Cell Res. 1994 Feb; 210(2):298-305. PMID: 7507853.
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    264. Park JE, Keller GA, Ferrara N. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms: differential deposition into the subepithelial extracellular matrix and bioactivity of extracellular matrix-bound VEGF. Mol Biol Cell. 1993 Dec; 4(12):1317-26. PMID: 8167412.
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    265. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1993 Nov-Dec; 3(6):244-50. PMID: 21244915.
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