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Ludmil Alexandrov

TitleAssistant Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentCellular and Molecular Medicine
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0651
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-246-2747
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NMPostdoctoral training08/2017Theoretical Biology and Biophysics
    Neumont University, Salt Lake City, UTBS03/2007Computer Science
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKMPhil09/2010Computational Biology
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKPhD09/2014Computational Biology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    The International Academy for Medical and Biological Engineering2018Early Career Award
    Genetics Society2018The Balfour Prize Lecture
    Alfred P. Sloan Foundation2018Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship in Computational & Evolutionary Molecular Biology
    Los Alamos National Lab2016Postdoctoral Distinguished Performance Award
    EACR and Oxford University Press2016Carcinogenesis Young Investigator Award
    SciLifeLab and Science magazine2015Prize for Young Scientists in Genomics and Proteomics
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center2015Harold M. Weintraub Award
    Los Alamos National Lab2015  - 2017J. Robert Oppenheimer Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow
    Forbes Magazine2014Forbes as 30 under 30

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am an enthusiastic early career scientist with an interdisciplinary training and a strong computational background. My interests lie in leveraging the information hidden in large-scale omics data for better understanding of the mutational processes causing human cancer, for identifying potential cancer prevention strategies, and for developing novel approaches for targeted cancer treatment.

    My research has been focused on understanding mutational processes in human cancer through the use of mutational signatures. In 2013, I developed the first comprehensive map of the signatures of the mutational processes that cause somatic mutations in human cancer. This work was published in several well-regarded scientific journals and highlighted by the American Society of Clinical Oncology as a milestone in the fight against cancer. More recently, I mapped the signatures of the clock-like mutational processes operative in normal somatic cells, demonstrated that mutational signatures have the potential to be used for targeted cancer therapy, and identified the mutational signatures associated with tobacco smoking. My interests, expertise, and interpersonal skills are backed up by more than 60 scientific publications, prestigious national and international awards, as well as work experience in government laboratories, renowned universities, and leading consulting companies.

    During the past few years, I have received multiple awards for my work on mutational signatures in human cancer. Most recently, I was awarded the 2016 Carcinogenesis Young Investigator Award by Oxford University Press and the European Association for Cancer Research. I am also one of six co-investigators leading the Mutographs of Cancer, a $25 million project that seeks to identify the unknown cancer-causing factors and reveal how they lead to cancer.


    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Dow M, Pyke RM, Tsui BY, Alexandrov LB, Nakagawa H, Taniguchi K, Seki E, Harismendy O, Shalapour S, Karin M, Carter H, Font-Burgada J. Integrative genomic analysis of mouse and human hepatocellular carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Oct 04. PMID: 30287485.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Inman GJ, Wang J, Nagano A, Alexandrov LB, Purdie KJ, Taylor RG, Sherwood V, Thomson J, Hogan S, Spender LC, South AP, Stratton M, Chelala C, Harwood CA, Proby CM, Leigh IM. The genomic landscape of cutaneous SCC reveals drivers and a novel azathioprine associated mutational signature. Nat Commun. 2018 Sep 10; 9(1):3667. PMID: 30202019.
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    3. Anderson ND, de Borja R, Young MD, Fuligni F, Rosic A, Roberts ND, Hajjar S, Layeghifard M, Novokmet A, Kowalski PE, Anaka M, Davidson S, Zarrei M, Id Said B, Schreiner LC, Marchand R, Sitter J, Gokgoz N, Brunga L, Graham GT, Fullam A, Pillay N, Toretsky JA, Yoshida A, Shibata T, Metzler M, Somers GR, Scherer SW, Flanagan AM, Campbell PJ, Schiffman JD, Shago M, Alexandrov LB, Wunder JS, Andrulis IL, Malkin D, Behjati S, Shlien A. Rearrangement bursts generate canonical gene fusions in bone and soft tissue tumors. Science. 2018 08 31; 361(6405). PMID: 30166462.
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    4. Bolli N, Maura F, Minvielle S, Gloznik D, Szalat R, Fullam A, Martincorena I, Dawson KJ, Samur MK, Zamora J, Tarpey P, Davies H, Fulciniti M, Shammas MA, Tai YT, Magrangeas F, Moreau P, Corradini P, Anderson K, Alexandrov L, Wedge DC, Avet-Loiseau H, Campbell P, Munshi N. Genomic patterns of progression in smoldering multiple myeloma. Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 22; 9(1):3363. PMID: 30135448.
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    5. Cho RJ, Alexandrov LB, den Breems NY, Atanasova VS, Farshchian M, Purdom E, Nguyen TN, Coarfa C, Rajapakshe K, Prisco M, Sahu J, Tassone P, Greenawalt EJ, Collisson EA, Wu W, Yao H, Su X, Guttmann-Gruber C, Hofbauer JP, Hashmi R, Fuentes I, Benz SC, Golovato J, Ehli EA, Davis CM, Davies GE, Covington KR, Murrell DF, Salas-Alanis JC, Palisson F, Bruckner AL, Robinson W, Has C, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Titeux M, Jonkman MF, Rashidghamat E, Lwin SM, Mellerio JE, McGrath JA, Bauer JW, Hovnanian A, Tsai KY, South AP. APOBEC mutation drives early-onset squamous cell carcinomas in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Sci Transl Med. 2018 Aug 22; 10(455). PMID: 30135250.
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    6. Wedge DC, Gundem G, Mitchell T, Woodcock DJ, Martincorena I, Ghori M, Zamora J, Butler A, Whitaker H, Kote-Jarai Z, Alexandrov LB, Van Loo P, Massie CE, Dentro S, Warren AY, Verrill C, Berney DM, Dennis N, Merson S, Hawkins S, Howat W, Lu YJ, Lambert A, Kay J, Kremeyer B, Karaszi K, Luxton H, Camacho N, Marsden L, Edwards S, Matthews L, Bo V, Leongamornlert D, McLaren S, Ng A, Yu Y, Zhang H, Dadaev T, Thomas S, Easton DF, Ahmed M, Bancroft E, Fisher C, Livni N, Nicol D, Tavaré S, Gill P, Greenman C, Khoo V, Van As N, Kumar P, Ogden C, Cahill D, Thompson A, Mayer E, Rowe E, Dudderidge T, Gnanapragasam V, Shah NC, Raine K, Jones D, Menzies A, Stebbings L, Teague J, Hazell S, Corbishley C. Sequencing of prostate cancers identifies new cancer genes, routes of progression and drug targets. Nat Genet. 2018 Apr 16. PMID: 29662167.
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    7. Roerink SF, Sasaki N, Lee-Six H, Young MD, Alexandrov LB, Behjati S, Mitchell TJ, Grossmann S, Lightfoot H, Egan DA, Pronk A, Smakman N, van Gorp J, Anderson E, Gamble SJ, Alder C, van de Wetering M, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR, Clevers H. Intra-tumour diversification in colorectal cancer at the single-cell level. Nature. 2018 Apr 11. PMID: 29643510.
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    8. Stammnitz MR, Coorens THH, Gori KC, Hayes D, Fu B, Wang J, Martin-Herranz DE, Alexandrov LB, Baez-Ortega A, Barthorpe S, Beck A, Giordano F, Knowles GW, Kwon YM, Hall G, Price S, Pye RJ, Tubio JMC, Siddle HVT, Sohal SS, Woods GM, McDermott U, Yang F, Garnett MJ, Ning Z, Murchison EP. The Origins and Vulnerabilities of Two Transmissible Cancers in Tasmanian Devils. Cancer Cell. 2018 Apr 09; 33(4):607-619.e15. PMID: 29634948.
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    9. George J, Walter V, Peifer M, Alexandrov LB, Seidel D, Leenders F, Maas L, Müller C, Dahmen I, Delhomme TM, Ardin M, Leblay N, Byrnes G, Sun R, De Reynies A, McLeer-Florin A, Bosco G, Malchers F, Menon R, Altmüller J, Becker C, Nürnberg P, Achter V, Lang U, Schneider PM, Bogus M, Soloway MG, Wilkerson MD, Cun Y, McKay JD, Moro-Sibilot D, Brambilla CG, Lantuejoul S, Lemaitre N, Soltermann A, Weder W, Tischler V, Brustugun OT, Lund-Iversen M, Helland Å, Solberg S, Ansén S, Wright G, Solomon B, Roz L, Pastorino U, Petersen I, Clement JH, Sänger J, Wolf J, Vingron M, Zander T, Perner S, Travis WD, Haas SA, Olivier M, Foll M, Büttner R, Hayes DN, Brambilla E, Fernandez-Cuesta L, Thomas RK. Integrative genomic profiling of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas reveals distinct subtypes of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. Nat Commun. 2018 03 13; 9(1):1048. PMID: 29535388.
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    10. Ma X, Liu Y, Liu Y, Alexandrov LB, Edmonson MN, Gawad C, Zhou X, Li Y, Rusch MC, Easton J, Huether R, Gonzalez-Pena V, Wilkinson MR, Hermida LC, Davis S, Sioson E, Pounds S, Cao X, Ries RE, Wang Z, Chen X, Dong L, Diskin SJ, Smith MA, Guidry Auvil JM, Meltzer PS, Lau CC, Perlman EJ, Maris JM, Meshinchi S, Hunger SP, Gerhard DS, Zhang J. Pan-cancer genome and transcriptome analyses of 1,699 paediatric leukaemias and solid tumours. Nature. 2018 Mar 15; 555(7696):371-376. PMID: 29489755.
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    11. Maura F, Petljak M, Lionetti M, Cifola I, Liang W, Pinatel E, Alexandrov LB, Fullam A, Martincorena I, Dawson KJ, Angelopoulos N, Samur MK, Szalat R, Zamora J, Tarpey P, Davies H, Corradini P, Anderson KC, Minvielle S, Neri A, Avet-Loiseau H, Keats J, Campbell PJ, Munshi NC, Bolli N. Biological and prognostic impact of APOBEC-induced mutations in the spectrum of plasma cell dyscrasias and multiple myeloma cell lines. Leukemia. 2018 Apr; 32(4):1044-1048. PMID: 29209044.
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    12. Glodzik D, Morganella S, Davies H, Simpson PT, Li Y, Zou X, Diez-Perez J, Staaf J, Alexandrov LB, Smid M, Brinkman AB, Rye IH, Russnes H, Raine K, Purdie CA, Lakhani SR, Thompson AM, Birney E, Stunnenberg HG, van de Vijver MJ, Martens JWM, Børresen-Dale AL, Richardson AL, Kong G, Viari A, Easton D, Evan G, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR, Nik-Zainal S. Corrigendum: A somatic-mutational process recurrently duplicates germline susceptibility loci and tissue-specific super-enhancers in breast cancers. Nat Genet. 2017 Oct 27; 49(11):1661. PMID: 29074948.
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    13. Tarpey PS, Behjati S, Young MD, Martincorena I, Alexandrov LB, Farndon SJ, Guzzo C, Hardy C, Latimer C, Butler AP, Teague JW, Shlien A, Futreal PA, Shah S, Bashashati A, Jamshidi F, Nielsen TO, Huntsman D, Baumhoer D, Brandner S, Wunder J, Dickson B, Cogswell P, Sommer J, Phillips JJ, Amary MF, Tirabosco R, Pillay N, Yip S, Stratton MR, Flanagan AM, Campbell PJ. The driver landscape of sporadic chordoma. Nat Commun. 2017 10 12; 8(1):890. PMID: 29026114.
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    14. Alexandrov LB, Rasmussen KØ, Bishop AR, Alexandrov BS. Evaluating the role of coherent delocalized phonon-like modes in DNA cyclization. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29; 7(1):9731. PMID: 28851939.
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    15. Yates LR, Knappskog S, Wedge D, Farmery JHR, Gonzalez S, Martincorena I, Alexandrov LB, Van Loo P, Haugland HK, Lilleng PK, Gundem G, Gerstung M, Pappaemmanuil E, Gazinska P, Bhosle SG, Jones D, Raine K, Mudie L, Latimer C, Sawyer E, Desmedt C, Sotiriou C, Stratton MR, Sieuwerts AM, Lynch AG, Martens JW, Richardson AL, Tutt A, Lønning PE, Campbell PJ. Genomic Evolution of Breast Cancer Metastasis and Relapse. Cancer Cell. 2017 Aug 14; 32(2):169-184.e7. PMID: 28810143.
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    16. Alsøe L, Sarno A, Carracedo S, Domanska D, Dingler F, Lirussi L, SenGupta T, Tekin NB, Jobert L, Alexandrov LB, Galashevskaya A, Rada C, Sandve GK, Rognes T, Krokan HE, Nilsen H. Uracil Accumulation and Mutagenesis Dominated by Cytosine Deamination in CpG Dinucleotides in Mice Lacking UNG and SMUG1. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 03; 7(1):7199. PMID: 28775312.
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    17. Jusakul A, Cutcutache I, Yong CH, Lim JQ, Huang MN, Padmanabhan N, Nellore V, Kongpetch S, Ng AWT, Ng LM, Choo SP, Myint SS, Thanan R, Nagarajan S, Lim WK, Ng CCY, Boot A, Liu M, Ong CK, Rajasegaran V, Lie S, Lim AST, Lim TH, Tan J, Loh JL, McPherson JR, Khuntikeo N, Bhudhisawasdi V, Yongvanit P, Wongkham S, Totoki Y, Nakamura H, Arai Y, Yamasaki S, Chow PK, Chung AYF, Ooi LLPJ, Lim KH, Dima S, Duda DG, Popescu I, Broet P, Hsieh SY, Yu MC, Scarpa A, Lai J, Luo DX, Carvalho AL, Vettore AL, Rhee H, Park YN, Alexandrov LB, Gordân R, Rozen SG, Shibata T, Pairojkul C, Teh BT, Tan P. Whole-Genome and Epigenomic Landscapes of Etiologically Distinct Subtypes of Cholangiocarcinoma. Cancer Discov. 2017 10; 7(10):1116-1135. PMID: 28667006.
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    18. Behjati S, Tarpey PS, Haase K, Ye H, Young MD, Alexandrov LB, Farndon SJ, Collord G, Wedge DC, Martincorena I, Cooke SL, Davies H, Mifsud W, Lidgren M, Martin S, Latimer C, Maddison M, Butler AP, Teague JW, Pillay N, Shlien A, McDermott U, Futreal PA, Baumhoer D, Zaikova O, Bjerkehagen B, Myklebost O, Amary MF, Tirabosco R, Van Loo P, Stratton MR, Flanagan AM, Campbell PJ. Recurrent mutation of IGF signalling genes and distinct patterns of genomic rearrangement in osteosarcoma. Nat Commun. 2017 Jun 23; 8:15936. PMID: 28643781.
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    19. Connor AA, Denroche RE, Jang GH, Timms L, Kalimuthu SN, Selander I, McPherson T, Wilson GW, Chan-Seng-Yue MA, Borozan I, Ferretti V, Grant RC, Lungu IM, Costello E, Greenhalf W, Palmer D, Ghaneh P, Neoptolemos JP, Buchler M, Petersen G, Thayer S, Hollingsworth MA, Sherker A, Durocher D, Dhani N, Hedley D, Serra S, Pollett A, Roehrl MHA, Bavi P, Bartlett JMS, Cleary S, Wilson JM, Alexandrov LB, Moore M, Wouters BG, McPherson JD, Notta F, Stein LD, Gallinger S. Association of Distinct Mutational Signatures With Correlates of Increased Immune Activity in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. JAMA Oncol. 2017 Jun 01; 3(6):774-783. PMID: 27768182.
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    20. Hayward NK, Wilmott JS, Waddell N, Johansson PA, Field MA, Nones K, Patch AM, Kakavand H, Alexandrov LB, Burke H, Jakrot V, Kazakoff S, Holmes O, Leonard C, Sabarinathan R, Mularoni L, Wood S, Xu Q, Waddell N, Tembe V, Pupo GM, De Paoli-Iseppi R, Vilain RE, Shang P, Lau LMS, Dagg RA, Schramm SJ, Pritchard A, Dutton-Regester K, Newell F, Fitzgerald A, Shang CA, Grimmond SM, Pickett HA, Yang JY, Stretch JR, Behren A, Kefford RF, Hersey P, Long GV, Cebon J, Shackleton M, Spillane AJ, Saw RPM, López-Bigas N, Pearson JV, Thompson JF, Scolyer RA, Mann GJ. Whole-genome landscapes of major melanoma subtypes. Nature. 2017 05 11; 545(7653):175-180. PMID: 28467829.
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    21. Viel A, Bruselles A, Meccia E, Fornasarig M, Quaia M, Canzonieri V, Policicchio E, Urso ED, Agostini M, Genuardi M, Lucci-Cordisco E, Venesio T, Martayan A, Diodoro MG, Sanchez-Mete L, Stigliano V, Mazzei F, Grasso F, Giuliani A, Baiocchi M, Maestro R, Giannini G, Tartaglia M, Alexandrov LB, Bignami M. A Specific Mutational Signature Associated with DNA 8-Oxoguanine Persistence in MUTYH-defective Colorectal Cancer. EBioMedicine. 2017 Jun; 20:39-49. PMID: 28551381.
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    22. Spira A, Yurgelun MB, Alexandrov L, Rao A, Bejar R, Polyak K, Giannakis M, Shilatifard A, Finn OJ, Dhodapkar M, Kay NE, Braggio E, Vilar E, Mazzilli SA, Rebbeck TR, Garber JE, Velculescu VE, Disis ML, Wallace DC, Lippman SM. Precancer Atlas to Drive Precision Prevention Trials. Cancer Res. 2017 04 01; 77(7):1510-1541. PMID: 28373404.
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    23. Pilati C, Shinde J, Alexandrov LB, Assié G, André T, Hélias-Rodzewicz Z, Ducoudray R, Le Corre D, Zucman-Rossi J, Emile JF, Bertherat J, Letouzé E, Laurent-Puig P. Mutational signature analysis identifies MUTYH deficiency in colorectal cancers and adrenocortical carcinomas. J Pathol. 2017 May; 242(1):10-15. PMID: 28127763.
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    24. Ju YS, Martincorena I, Gerstung M, Petljak M, Alexandrov LB, Rahbari R, Wedge DC, Davies HR, Ramakrishna M, Fullam A, Martin S, Alder C, Patel N, Gamble S, O'Meara S, Giri DD, Sauer T, Pinder SE, Purdie CA, Borg Å, Stunnenberg H, van de Vijver M, Tan BK, Caldas C, Tutt A, Ueno NT, van 't Veer LJ, Martens JW, Sotiriou C, Knappskog S, Span PN, Lakhani SR, Eyfjörd JE, Børresen-Dale AL, Richardson A, Thompson AM, Viari A, Hurles ME, Nik-Zainal S, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR. Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo. Nature. 2017 03 30; 543(7647):714-718. PMID: 28329761.
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    25. Gudmundsson S, Wilbe M, Ekvall S, Ameur A, Cahill N, Alexandrov LB, Virtanen M, Hellström Pigg M, Vahlquist A, Törmä H, Bondeson ML. Revertant mosaicism repairs skin lesions in a patient with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome by second-site mutations in connexin 26. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 03 15; 26(6):1070-1077. PMID: 28158657.
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    26. Glodzik D, Morganella S, Davies H, Simpson PT, Li Y, Zou X, Diez-Perez J, Staaf J, Alexandrov LB, Smid M, Brinkman AB, Rye IH, Russnes H, Raine K, Purdie CA, Lakhani SR, Thompson AM, Birney E, Stunnenberg HG, van de Vijver MJ, Martens JW, Børresen-Dale AL, Richardson AL, Kong G, Viari A, Easton D, Evan G, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR, Nik-Zainal S. A somatic-mutational process recurrently duplicates germline susceptibility loci and tissue-specific super-enhancers in breast cancers. Nat Genet. 2017 Mar; 49(3):341-348. PMID: 28112740.
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    27. Alexandrov LB, Ju YS, Haase K, Van Loo P, Martincorena I, Nik-Zainal S, Totoki Y, Fujimoto A, Nakagawa H, Shibata T, Campbell PJ, Vineis P, Phillips DH, Stratton MR. Mutational signatures associated with tobacco smoking in human cancer. Science. 2016 11 04; 354(6312):618-622. PMID: 27811275.
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    28. Notta F, Chan-Seng-Yue M, Lemire M, Li Y, Wilson GW, Connor AA, Denroche RE, Liang SB, Brown AM, Kim JC, Wang T, Simpson JT, Beck T, Borgida A, Buchner N, Chadwick D, Hafezi-Bakhtiari S, Dick JE, Heisler L, Hollingsworth MA, Ibrahimov E, Jang GH, Johns J, Jorgensen LG, Law C, Ludkovski O, Lungu I, Ng K, Pasternack D, Petersen GM, Shlush LI, Timms L, Tsao MS, Wilson JM, Yung CK, Zogopoulos G, Bartlett JM, Alexandrov LB, Real FX, Cleary SP, Roehrl MH, McPherson JD, Stein LD, Hudson TJ, Campbell PJ, Gallinger S. A renewed model of pancreatic cancer evolution based on genomic rearrangement patterns. Nature. 2016 Oct 20; 538(7625):378-382. PMID: 27732578.
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    29. Behjati S, Gundem G, Wedge DC, Roberts ND, Tarpey PS, Cooke SL, Van Loo P, Alexandrov LB, Ramakrishna M, Davies H, Nik-Zainal S, Hardy C, Latimer C, Raine KM, Stebbings L, Menzies A, Jones D, Shepherd R, Butler AP, Teague JW, Jorgensen M, Khatri B, Pillay N, Shlien A, Futreal PA, Badie C. Mutational signatures of ionizing radiation in second malignancies. Nat Commun. 2016 Sep 12; 7:12605. PMID: 27615322.
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    30. Robles-Espinoza CD, Roberts ND, Chen S, Leacy FP, Alexandrov LB, Pornputtapong N, Halaban R, Krauthammer M, Cui R, Timothy Bishop D, Adams DJ. Germline MC1R status influences somatic mutation burden in melanoma. Nat Commun. 2016 Jul 12; 7:12064. PMID: 27403562; PMCID: PMC4945874.
    31. Hollstein M, Alexandrov LB, Wild CP, Ardin M, Zavadil J. Base changes in tumour DNA have the power to reveal the causes and evolution of cancer. Oncogene. 2017 Jan 12; 36(2):158-167. PMID: 27270430.
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    32. Petljak M, Alexandrov LB. Understanding mutagenesis through delineation of mutational signatures in human cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2016 06; 37(6):531-40. PMID: 27207657.
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    33. Morganella S, Alexandrov LB, Glodzik D, Zou X, Davies H, Staaf J, Sieuwerts AM, Brinkman AB, Martin S, Ramakrishna M, Butler A, Kim HY, Borg Å, Sotiriou C, Futreal PA, Campbell PJ, Span PN, Van Laere S, Lakhani SR, Eyfjord JE, Thompson AM, Stunnenberg HG, van de Vijver MJ, Martens JW, Børresen-Dale AL, Richardson AL, Kong G, Thomas G, Sale J, Rada C, Stratton MR, Birney E, Nik-Zainal S. The topography of mutational processes in breast cancer genomes. Nat Commun. 2016 May 02; 7:11383. PMID: 27136393; PMCID: PMC5001788.
    34. Nik-Zainal S, Davies H, Staaf J, Ramakrishna M, Glodzik D, Zou X, Martincorena I, Alexandrov LB, Martin S, Wedge DC, Van Loo P, Ju YS, Smid M, Brinkman AB, Morganella S, Aure MR, Lingjærde OC, Langerød A, Ringnér M, Ahn SM, Boyault S, Brock JE, Broeks A, Butler A, Desmedt C, Dirix L, Dronov S, Fatima A, Foekens JA, Gerstung M, Hooijer GK, Jang SJ, Jones DR, Kim HY, King TA, Krishnamurthy S, Lee HJ, Lee JY, Li Y, McLaren S, Menzies A, Mustonen V, O'Meara S, Pauporté I, Pivot X, Purdie CA, Raine K, Ramakrishnan K, Rodríguez-González FG, Romieu G, Sieuwerts AM, Simpson PT, Shepherd R, Stebbings L, Stefansson OA, Teague J, Tommasi S, Treilleux I, Van den Eynden GG, Vermeulen P, Vincent-Salomon A, Yates L, Caldas C, van't Veer L, Tutt A, Knappskog S, Tan BK, Jonkers J, Borg Å, Ueno NT, Sotiriou C, Viari A, Futreal PA, Campbell PJ, Span PN, Van Laere S, Lakhani SR, Eyfjord JE, Thompson AM, Birney E, Stunnenberg HG, van de Vijver MJ, Martens JW, Børresen-Dale AL, Richardson AL, Kong G, Thomas G, Stratton MR. Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences. Nature. 2016 06 02; 534(7605):47-54. PMID: 27135926.
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    35. Merlevede J, Droin N, Qin T, Meldi K, Yoshida K, Morabito M, Chautard E, Auboeuf D, Fenaux P, Braun T, Itzykson R, de Botton S, Quesnel B, Commes T, Jourdan E, Vainchenker W, Bernard O, Pata-Merci N, Solier S, Gayevskiy V, Dinger ME, Cowley MJ, Selimoglu-Buet D, Meyer V, Artiguenave F, Deleuze JF, Preudhomme C, Stratton MR, Alexandrov LB, Padron E, Ogawa S, Koscielny S, Figueroa M, Solary E. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 24; 7:10767. PMID: 26908133; PMCID: PMC4770084.
    36. Alexandrov LB, Bishop AR, Rasmussen KØ, Alexandrov BS. The role of structural parameters in DNA cyclization. BMC Bioinformatics. 2016 Feb 04; 17:68. PMID: 26846597; PMCID: PMC4743258.
    37. Rahbari R, Wuster A, Lindsay SJ, Hardwick RJ, Alexandrov LB, Turki SA, Dominiczak A, Morris A, Porteous D, Smith B, Stratton MR. Timing, rates and spectra of human germline mutation. Nat Genet. 2016 Feb; 48(2):126-133. PMID: 26656846.
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    38. Alexandrov LB. Understanding the origins of human cancer. Science. 2015 Dec 04; 350(6265):1175. PMID: 26785464.
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    39. Alexandrov LB, Jones PH, Wedge DC, Sale JE, Campbell PJ, Nik-Zainal S, Stratton MR. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells. Nat Genet. 2015 Dec; 47(12):1402-7. PMID: 26551669.
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    40. Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Siu HC, Leung SY, Stratton MR. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies. Nat Commun. 2015 Oct 29; 6:8683. PMID: 26511885; PMCID: PMC4918743.
    41. Nik-Zainal S, Kucab JE, Morganella S, Glodzik D, Alexandrov LB, Arlt VM, Weninger A, Hollstein M, Stratton MR, Phillips DH. The genome as a record of environmental exposure. Mutagenesis. 2015 Nov; 30(6):763-70. PMID: 26443852; PMCID: PMC4637815.
    42. Yates LR, Gerstung M, Knappskog S, Desmedt C, Gundem G, Van Loo P, Aas T, Alexandrov LB, Larsimont D, Davies H, Li Y, Ju YS, Ramakrishna M, Haugland HK, Lilleng PK, Nik-Zainal S, McLaren S, Butler A, Martin S, Glodzik D, Menzies A, Raine K, Hinton J, Jones D, Mudie LJ, Jiang B, Vincent D, Greene-Colozzi A, Adnet PY, Fatima A, Maetens M, Ignatiadis M, Stratton MR, Sotiriou C, Richardson AL, Lønning PE, Wedge DC, Campbell PJ. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing. Nat Med. 2015 Jul; 21(7):751-9. PMID: 26099045.
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    43. Cooper CS, Eeles R, Wedge DC, Van Loo P, Gundem G, Alexandrov LB, Kremeyer B, Butler A, Lynch AG, Camacho N, Massie CE, Kay J, Luxton HJ, Edwards S, Kote-Jarai Z, Dennis N, Merson S, Leongamornlert D, Zamora J, Corbishley C, Thomas S, Nik-Zainal S, Ramakrishna M, O'Meara S, Matthews L, Clark J, Hurst R, Mithen R, Bristow RG, Boutros PC, Fraser M, Cooke S, Raine K, Jones D, Menzies A, Stebbings L, Hinton J, Teague J, McLaren S, Mudie L, Hardy C, Anderson E, Joseph O, Goody V, Robinson B, Maddison M, Gamble S, Greenman C, Berney D, Hazell S, Livni N. Corrigendum: analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue. Nat Genet. 2015 Jun; 47(6):689. PMID: 26018901.
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    44. Martincorena I, Roshan A, Gerstung M, Ellis P, Van Loo P, McLaren S, Wedge DC, Fullam A, Alexandrov LB, Tubio JM, Stebbings L, Menzies A, Widaa S, Stratton MR, Jones PH, Campbell PJ. Tumor evolution. High burden and pervasive positive selection of somatic mutations in normal human skin. Science. 2015 May 22; 348(6237):880-6. PMID: 25999502.
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    45. Gundem G, Van Loo P, Kremeyer B, Alexandrov LB, Tubio JMC, Papaemmanuil E, Brewer DS, Kallio HML, Högnäs G, Annala M, Kivinummi K, Goody V, Latimer C, O'Meara S, Dawson KJ, Isaacs W, Emmert-Buck MR, Nykter M, Foster C, Kote-Jarai Z, Easton D, Whitaker HC. The evolutionary history of lethal metastatic prostate cancer. Nature. 2015 Apr 16; 520(7547):353-357. PMID: 25830880.
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    46. Hong MK, Macintyre G, Wedge DC, Van Loo P, Patel K, Lunke S, Alexandrov LB, Sloggett C, Cmero M, Marass F, Tsui D, Mangiola S, Lonie A, Naeem H, Sapre N, Phal PM, Kurganovs N, Chin X, Kerger M, Warren AY, Neal D, Gnanapragasam V, Rosenfeld N, Pedersen JS, Ryan A, Haviv I, Costello AJ, Corcoran NM, Hovens CM. Tracking the origins and drivers of subclonal metastatic expansion in prostate cancer. Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 01; 6:6605. PMID: 25827447.
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    47. Schulze K, Imbeaud S, Letouzé E, Alexandrov LB, Calderaro J, Rebouissou S, Couchy G, Meiller C, Shinde J, Soysouvanh F, Calatayud AL, Pinyol R, Pelletier L, Balabaud C, Laurent A, Blanc JF, Mazzaferro V, Calvo F, Villanueva A, Nault JC, Bioulac-Sage P, Stratton MR, Llovet JM, Zucman-Rossi J. Exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies new mutational signatures and potential therapeutic targets. Nat Genet. 2015 May; 47(5):505-511. PMID: 25822088.
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    48. Kanu N, Grönroos E, Martinez P, Burrell RA, Yi Goh X, Bartkova J, Maya-Mendoza A, Mistrík M, Rowan AJ, Patel H, Rabinowitz A, East P, Wilson G, Santos CR, McGranahan N, Gulati S, Gerlinger M, Birkbak NJ, Joshi T, Alexandrov LB, Stratton MR, Powles T, Matthews N, Bates PA, Stewart A, Szallasi Z, Larkin J, Bartek J, Swanton C. SETD2 loss-of-function promotes renal cancer branched evolution through replication stress and impaired DNA repair. Oncogene. 2015 Nov 12; 34(46):5699-708. PMID: 25728682.
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    49. Cooper CS, Eeles R, Wedge DC, Van Loo P, Gundem G, Alexandrov LB, Kremeyer B, Butler A, Lynch AG, Camacho N, Massie CE, Kay J, Luxton HJ, Edwards S, Kote-Jarai Z, Dennis N, Merson S, Leongamornlert D, Zamora J, Corbishley C, Thomas S, Nik-Zainal S, O'Meara S, Matthews L, Clark J, Hurst R, Mithen R, Bristow RG, Boutros PC, Fraser M, Cooke S, Raine K, Jones D, Menzies A, Stebbings L, Hinton J, Teague J, McLaren S, Mudie L, Hardy C, Anderson E, Joseph O, Goody V, Robinson B, Maddison M, Gamble S, Greenman C, Berney D, Hazell S, Livni N. Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue. Nat Genet. 2015 Apr; 47(4):367-372. PMID: 25730763; PMCID: PMC4380509.
    50. Wagener R, Alexandrov LB, Montesinos-Rongen M, Schlesner M, Haake A, Drexler HG, Richter J, Bignell GR, McDermott U, Siebert R. Analysis of mutational signatures in exomes from B-cell lymphoma cell lines suggest APOBEC3 family members to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary effusion lymphoma. Leukemia. 2015 Jul; 29(7):1612-5. PMID: 25650088.
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    51. Shlien A, Campbell BB, de Borja R, Alexandrov LB, Merico D, Wedge D, Van Loo P, Tarpey PS, Coupland P, Behjati S, Pollett A, Lipman T, Heidari A, Deshmukh S, Avitzur N, Meier B, Gerstung M, Hong Y, Merino DM, Ramakrishna M, Remke M, Arnold R, Panigrahi GB, Thakkar NP, Hodel KP, Henninger EE, Göksenin AY, Bakry D, Charames GS, Druker H, Lerner-Ellis J, Mistry M, Dvir R, Grant R, Elhasid R, Farah R, Taylor GP, Nathan PC, Alexander S, Ben-Shachar S, Ling SC, Gallinger S, Constantini S, Dirks P, Huang A, Scherer SW, Grundy RG, Durno C, Aronson M, Gartner A, Meyn MS, Taylor MD, Pursell ZF, Pearson CE, Malkin D, Futreal PA, Stratton MR, Bouffet E, Hawkins C, Campbell PJ, Tabori U. Combined hereditary and somatic mutations of replication error repair genes result in rapid onset of ultra-hypermutated cancers. Nat Genet. 2015 Mar; 47(3):257-62. PMID: 25642631.
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    52. Ju YS, Alexandrov LB, Gerstung M, Martincorena I, Nik-Zainal S, Ramakrishna M, Davies HR, Papaemmanuil E, Gundem G, Shlien A, Bolli N, Behjati S, Tarpey PS, Nangalia J, Massie CE, Butler AP, Teague JW, Vassiliou GS, Green AR, Du MQ, Unnikrishnan A, Pimanda JE, Teh BT, Munshi N, Greaves M, Vyas P, El-Naggar AK, Santarius T, Collins VP, Grundy R, Taylor JA, Hayes DN, Malkin D. Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer. Elife. 2014 Oct 01; 3. PMID: 25271376.
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    53. Gobbi A, Iorio F, Dawson KJ, Wedge DC, Tamborero D, Alexandrov LB, Lopez-Bigas N, Garnett MJ, Jurman G, Saez-Rodriguez J. Fast randomization of large genomic datasets while preserving alteration counts. Bioinformatics. 2014 Sep 01; 30(17):i617-23. PMID: 25161255; PMCID: PMC4147926.
    54. Tubio JMC, Li Y, Ju YS, Martincorena I, Cooke SL, Tojo M, Gundem G, Pipinikas CP, Zamora J, Raine K, Menzies A, Roman-Garcia P, Fullam A, Gerstung M, Shlien A, Tarpey PS, Papaemmanuil E, Knappskog S, Van Loo P, Ramakrishna M, Davies HR, Marshall J, Wedge DC, Teague JW, Butler AP, Nik-Zainal S, Alexandrov L, Behjati S, Yates LR, Bolli N, Mudie L, Hardy C, Martin S, McLaren S, O'Meara S, Anderson E, Maddison M, Gamble S, Foster C, Warren AY, Whitaker H, Brewer D, Eeles R, Cooper C, Neal D, Lynch AG, Visakorpi T, Isaacs WB, Veer LV, Caldas C, Desmedt C, Sotiriou C, Aparicio S, Foekens JA, Eyfjörd JE, Lakhani SR, Thomas G, Myklebost O, Span PN, Børresen-Dale AL, Richardson AL, Van de Vijver M, Vincent-Salomon A, Van den Eynden GG, Flanagan AM, Futreal PA, Janes SM, Bova GS, Stratton MR, McDermott U, Campbell PJ. Mobile DNA in cancer. Extensive transduction of nonrepetitive DNA mediated by L1 retrotransposition in cancer genomes. Science. 2014 Aug 01; 345(6196):1251343. PMID: 25082706.
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    55. Meier B, Cooke SL, Weiss J, Bailly AP, Alexandrov LB, Marshall J, Raine K, Maddison M, Anderson E, Stratton MR, Gartner A, Campbell PJ. C. elegans whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational signatures related to carcinogens and DNA repair deficiency. Genome Res. 2014 Oct; 24(10):1624-36. PMID: 25030888.
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    56. Behjati S, Huch M, van Boxtel R, Karthaus W, Wedge DC, Tamuri AU, Martincorena I, Petljak M, Alexandrov LB, Gundem G, Tarpey PS, Roerink S, Blokker J, Maddison M, Mudie L, Robinson B, Nik-Zainal S, Campbell P, Goldman N, van de Wetering M, Cuppen E, Clevers H, Stratton MR. Genome sequencing of normal cells reveals developmental lineages and mutational processes. Nature. 2014 Sep 18; 513(7518):422-425. PMID: 25043003.
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    57. Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Alexandrov LB, Petljak M, Butler AP, Bolli N, Davies HR, Knappskog S, Martin S, Papaemmanuil E, Ramakrishna M, Shlien A, Simonic I, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR. Association of a germline copy number polymorphism of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B with burden of putative APOBEC-dependent mutations in breast cancer. Nat Genet. 2014 May; 46(5):487-91. PMID: 24728294.
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    58. Murchison EP, Wedge DC, Alexandrov LB, Fu B, Martincorena I, Ning Z, Tubio JMC, Werner EI, Allen J, De Nardi AB, Donelan EM, Marino G, Fassati A, Campbell PJ, Yang F, Burt A, Weiss RA, Stratton MR. Transmissible [corrected] dog cancer genome reveals the origin and history of an ancient cell lineage. Science. 2014 Jan 24; 343(6169):437-440. PMID: 24458646.
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    59. Papaemmanuil E, Rapado I, Li Y, Potter NE, Wedge DC, Tubio J, Alexandrov LB, Van Loo P, Cooke SL, Marshall J, Martincorena I, Hinton J, Gundem G, van Delft FW, Nik-Zainal S, Jones DR, Ramakrishna M, Titley I, Stebbings L, Leroy C, Menzies A, Gamble J, Robinson B, Mudie L, Raine K, O'Meara S, Teague JW, Butler AP, Cazzaniga G, Biondi A, Zuna J, Kempski H, Muschen M, Ford AM, Stratton MR, Greaves M, Campbell PJ. RAG-mediated recombination is the predominant driver of oncogenic rearrangement in ETV6-RUNX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat Genet. 2014 Feb; 46(2):116-25. PMID: 24413735.
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    60. Bolli N, Avet-Loiseau H, Wedge DC, Van Loo P, Alexandrov LB, Martincorena I, Dawson KJ, Iorio F, Nik-Zainal S, Bignell GR, Hinton JW, Li Y, Tubio JM, McLaren S, O' Meara S, Butler AP, Teague JW, Mudie L, Anderson E, Rashid N, Tai YT, Shammas MA, Sperling AS, Fulciniti M, Richardson PG, Parmigiani G, Magrangeas F, Minvielle S, Moreau P, Attal M, Facon T, Futreal PA, Anderson KC, Campbell PJ, Munshi NC. Heterogeneity of genomic evolution and mutational profiles in multiple myeloma. Nat Commun. 2014; 5:2997. PMID: 24429703.
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    61. Alexandrov LB, Stratton MR. Mutational signatures: the patterns of somatic mutations hidden in cancer genomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2014 Feb; 24:52-60. PMID: 24657537.
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    62. Wong CC, Martincorena I, Rust AG, Rashid M, Alifrangis C, Alexandrov LB, Tiffen JC, Kober C. Inactivating CUX1 mutations promote tumorigenesis. Nat Genet. 2014 Jan; 46(1):33-8. PMID: 24316979.
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    63. Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SA, Behjati S, Biankin AV, Bignell GR, Bolli N, Borg A, Børresen-Dale AL, Boyault S, Burkhardt B, Butler AP, Caldas C, Davies HR, Desmedt C, Eils R, Eyfjörd JE, Foekens JA, Greaves M, Hosoda F, Hutter B, Ilicic T, Imbeaud S, Imielinski M, Imielinsk M, Jäger N, Jones DT, Jones D, Knappskog S, Kool M, Lakhani SR, López-Otín C, Martin S, Munshi NC, Nakamura H, Northcott PA, Pajic M, Papaemmanuil E, Paradiso A, Pearson JV, Puente XS, Raine K, Ramakrishna M, Richardson AL, Richter J, Rosenstiel P, Schlesner M, Schumacher TN, Span PN, Teague JW, Totoki Y, Tutt AN, Valdés-Mas R, van Buuren MM, van 't Veer L, Vincent-Salomon A, Waddell N, Yates LR. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer. Nature. 2013 Aug 22; 500(7463):415-21. PMID: 23945592.
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    64. Alexandrov BS, Phipps ML, Alexandrov LB, Booshehri LG, Erat A, Zabolotny J, Mielke CH, Chen HT, Rodriguez G, Rasmussen KØ, Martinez JS, Bishop AR, Usheva A. Specificity and heterogeneity of terahertz radiation effect on gene expression in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. Sci Rep. 2013; 3:1184. PMID: 23378916; PMCID: PMC3560359.
    65. Nowak-Lovato K, Alexandrov LB, Banisadr A, Bauer AL, Bishop AR, Usheva A, Mu F, Hong-Geller E, Rasmussen KØ, Hlavacek WS, Alexandrov BS. Binding of nucleoid-associated protein fis to DNA is regulated by DNA breathing dynamics. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013; 9(1):e1002881. PMID: 23341768; PMCID: PMC3547798.
    66. Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR. Deciphering signatures of mutational processes operative in human cancer. Cell Rep. 2013 Jan 31; 3(1):246-59. PMID: 23318258.
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    67. Nik-Zainal S, Alexandrov LB, Wedge DC, Van Loo P, Greenman CD, Raine K, Jones D, Hinton J, Marshall J, Stebbings LA, Menzies A, Martin S, Leung K, Chen L, Leroy C, Ramakrishna M, Rance R, Lau KW, Mudie LJ, Varela I, McBride DJ, Bignell GR, Cooke SL, Shlien A, Gamble J, Whitmore I, Maddison M, Tarpey PS, Davies HR, Papaemmanuil E, Stephens PJ, McLaren S, Butler AP, Teague JW, Jönsson G, Garber JE, Silver D, Miron P, Fatima A, Boyault S, Langerød A, Tutt A, Martens JW, Aparicio SA, Borg Å, Salomon AV, Thomas G, Børresen-Dale AL, Richardson AL, Neuberger MS, Futreal PA, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR. Mutational processes molding the genomes of 21 breast cancers. Cell. 2012 May 25; 149(5):979-93. PMID: 22608084.
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    68. Nik-Zainal S, Van Loo P, Wedge DC, Alexandrov LB, Greenman CD, Lau KW, Raine K, Jones D, Marshall J, Ramakrishna M, Shlien A, Cooke SL, Hinton J, Menzies A, Stebbings LA, Leroy C, Jia M, Rance R, Mudie LJ, Gamble SJ, Stephens PJ, McLaren S, Tarpey PS, Papaemmanuil E, Davies HR, Varela I, McBride DJ, Bignell GR, Leung K, Butler AP, Teague JW, Martin S, Jönsson G, Mariani O, Boyault S, Miron P, Fatima A, Langerød A, Aparicio SA, Tutt A, Sieuwerts AM, Borg Å, Thomas G, Salomon AV, Richardson AL, Børresen-Dale AL, Futreal PA, Stratton MR, Campbell PJ. The life history of 21 breast cancers. Cell. 2012 May 25; 149(5):994-1007. PMID: 22608083.
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    69. Murchison EP, Schulz-Trieglaff OB, Ning Z, Alexandrov LB, Bauer MJ, Fu B, Hims M, Ding Z, Ivakhno S, Stewart C, Ng BL, Wong W, Aken B, White S, Alsop A, Becq J, Bignell GR, Cheetham RK, Cheng W, Connor TR, Cox AJ, Feng ZP, Gu Y, Grocock RJ, Harris SR, Khrebtukova I, Kingsbury Z, Kowarsky M, Kreiss A, Luo S, Marshall J, McBride DJ, Murray L, Pearse AM, Raine K, Rasolonjatovo I, Shaw R, Tedder P, Tregidgo C, Vilella AJ, Wedge DC, Woods GM, Gormley N, Humphray S, Schroth G, Smith G, Hall K, Searle SM, Carter NP, Papenfuss AT, Futreal PA, Campbell PJ, Yang F, Bentley DR, Evers DJ, Stratton MR. Genome sequencing and analysis of the Tasmanian devil and its transmissible cancer. Cell. 2012 Feb 17; 148(4):780-91. PMID: 22341448.
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    70. Alexandrov BS, Rasmussen KØ, Bishop AR, Usheva A, Alexandrov LB, Chong S, Dagon Y, Booshehri LG, Mielke CH, Phipps ML, Martinez JS, Chen HT, Rodriguez G. Non-thermal effects of terahertz radiation on gene expression in mouse stem cells. Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Sep 01; 2(9):2679-89. PMID: 21991556; PMCID: PMC3184876.
    71. Alexandrov BS, Valtchinov VI, Alexandrov LB, Gelev V, Dagon Y, Bock J, Kohane IS, Rasmussen KØ, Bishop AR, Usheva A. DNA dynamics is likely to be a factor in the genomic nucleotide repeats expansions related to diseases. PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e19800. PMID: 21625483; PMCID: PMC3098838.
    72. Bock J, Fukuyo Y, Kang S, Phipps ML, Alexandrov LB, Rasmussen KØ, Bishop AR, Rosen ED, Martinez JS, Chen HT, Rodriguez G, Alexandrov BS, Usheva A. Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 31; 5(12):e15806. PMID: 21209821; PMCID: PMC3013123.
    73. Alexandrov BS, Gelev V, Yoo SW, Alexandrov LB, Fukuyo Y, Bishop AR, Rasmussen KØ, Usheva A. DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Apr; 38(6):1790-5. PMID: 20019064; PMCID: PMC2847213.
    74. Alexandrov LB, Alexandrova S, Usheva A. Computer modeling describes gravity-related adaptation in cell cultures. PLoS One. 2009 Dec 16; 4(12):e8332. PMID: 20016778.
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    75. Alexandrov BS, Gelev V, Monisova Y, Alexandrov LB, Bishop AR, Rasmussen KØ, Usheva A. A nonlinear dynamic model of DNA with a sequence-dependent stacking term. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Apr; 37(7):2405-10. PMID: 19264801; PMCID: PMC2673413.
    76. Blagoev KB, Mihaila B, Travis BJ, Alexandrov LB, Bishop AR, Ranken D, Posse S, Gasparovic C, Mayer A, Aine CJ, Ulbert I, Morita M, Müller W, Connor J, Halgren E. Modelling the magnetic signature of neuronal tissue. Neuroimage. 2007 Aug 01; 37(1):137-48. PMID: 17544300.
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