Gerald Morris

Title(s)Associate Professor, Pathology
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-1097-4453 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIBS12/1997Microbiology
    Wayne State University, Detroit, MIPhD12/2004Immunology
    Wayne State University, Detroit, MIMD06/2006Medicine
    Washington University, Saint Loius, MO06/2009Clinical Pathology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    My laboratory studies T lymphocyte function and development in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). T cells have multiple important roles in determining clinical outcomes in HSCT. Donor T cells transferred with the hematopoietic stem cells are required for anti-tumor immunity to prevent relapse of malignant disease as well as for mediating protective immunity against infection. However, donor T cells are capable of generating robust immune responses to recipient alloantigens which causes graft versus host disease (GVHD), a multi-organ inflammatory condition that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We are interested in understanding the molecular events that define the recognition of alloantigens by T cells, and how that results in T cell activation and generation of effector mechanisms ultimately responsible for GVHD. We utilize transgenic animal models, human T cell culture systems, gene expression analyses, and flow cytometry to examine T cells from patients with GVHD in an attempt to define the mechanisms driving disease.

    A related area of study in the laboratory is the examination of T cell development after HSCT. While donor-derived T cells are important contributors to protective immunity after HSCT, de novo development of T cells in the recipient thymus is essential for establishing maximally effective immunity to pathogens as well as preventing the development of autoimmune diseases in the post-transplant setting. T cell development occurs in the thymus, which has stromal components specialized to support T cell development. Thymic function is compromised in HSCT patients, owing to toxicity of pre-transplant regimens, GVHD affecting the thymic stroma, and age-related thymic degeneration. We are investigating how these stimuli affect T cell development in the thymus and subsequent immune system function.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Dual TCR Expression Effects on Alloreactivity and Transplantation
    NIH R01AI151293Mar 5, 2020 - Feb 28, 2025
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Dual TCR Expression Effects of Post-Transplant T Cell Repertoires
    NIH R56AI137150Aug 15, 2019 - Jul 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Investigation of the Molecular Basis of T Cell Alloreactivity
    NIH K08AI085039Sep 29, 2010 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Seventy-five years of service: an overview of the College of American Pathologists' proficiency testing program in histocompatibility and identity testing. Front Genet. 2023; 14:1331169. Sullivan HC, Gandhi MJ, Gaitonde S, Narasimhan R, Gendzekhadze K, Pandey S, Roby RK, Maha GC, Kaur H, Schiller JJ, McDowell J, Smith M, Liu C, Morris GP. PMID: 38169613; PMCID: PMC10758433.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Antibody Mediated Rejection is not Associated with Worse Survival in Adherent Heart Transplant Patients in the Contemporary Era. medRxiv. 2023 Dec 08. Kim PJ, Cusi V, Cardenas A, Tada Y, Vaida F, Wettersten N, Chak J, Bijlani P, Pretorius V, Urey MA, Morris GP, Lin G. PMID: 38106112; PMCID: PMC10723500.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    3. Subtle Changes in Tacrolimus Levels Have an Impact on Early Donor-Specific Antibodies in Kidney Transplantation. Prog Transplant. 2023 Dec; 33(4):335-340. Henderson M, Awdishu L, Morris GP, Fabbri K, Shah M, Khan A, Kerr J. PMID: 37941352.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Autoimmune alleles at the major histocompatibility locus modify melanoma susceptibility. Am J Hum Genet. 2023 07 06; 110(7):1138-1161. Talwar JV, Laub D, Pagadala MS, Castro A, Lewis M, Luebeck GE, Gorman BR, Pan C, Dong FN, Markianos K, Teerlink CC, Lynch J, Hauger R, Pyarajan S, Tsao PS, Morris GP, Salem RM, Thompson WK, Curtius K, Zanetti M, Carter H. PMID: 37339630; PMCID: PMC10357503.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    5. Autoimmune HLA Alleles and Neoepitope Presentation Predict Post-Allogenic Transplant Relapse. J Immunother Precis Oncol. 2023 Aug; 6(3):127-132. Castro A, Goodman AM, Rane Z, Talwar JV, Frampton GM, Morris GP, Lippman SM, Zhang X, Kurzrock R, Carter H. PMID: 37637234; PMCID: PMC10448732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    6. Germline modifiers of the tumor immune microenvironment implicate drivers of cancer risk and immunotherapy response. Nat Commun. 2023 05 12; 14(1):2744. Pagadala M, Sears TJ, Wu VH, Pérez-Guijarro E, Kim H, Castro A, Talwar JV, Gonzalez-Colin C, Cao S, Schmiedel BJ, Goudarzi S, Kirani D, Au J, Zhang T, Landi T, Salem RM, Morris GP, Harismendy O, Patel SP, Alexandrov LB, Mesirov JP, Zanetti M, Day CP, Fan CC, Thompson WK, Merlino G, Gutkind JS, Vijayanand P, Carter H. PMID: 37173324; PMCID: PMC10182072.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    7. Dual receptor T cells mediate effective antitumor immune responses via increased recognition of tumor antigens. J Immunother Cancer. 2023 05; 11(5). Jang HJ, Caron C, Lee CK, Wang L, Jama B, Bui JD, Morris GP. PMID: 37188395; PMCID: PMC10186424.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Comparison of two donor-derived cell-free DNA tests and a blood gene-expression profile test in heart transplantation. Clin Transplant. 2023 06; 37(6):e14984. Rodgers N, Gerding B, Cusi V, Vaida F, Tada Y, Morris GP, Adler ED, Stehlik J, Kim PJ. PMID: 37036133; PMCID: PMC10330254.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Accurate genome-wide genotyping from archival tissue to explore the contribution of common genetic variants to pre-cancer outcomes. J Transl Med. 2022 12 27; 20(1):623. Nachmanson D, Pagadala M, Steward J, Cheung C, Bruce LK, Lee NQ, O'Keefe TJ, Lin GY, Hasteh F, Morris GP, Carter H, Harismendy O. PMID: 36575447; PMCID: PMC9793518.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Modes of assay interference and the effectiveness of serum pretreatment approaches in detection of anti-HLA antibodies. J Clin Pathol. 2022 Dec 07. Abraha J, Rao P, Morris GP. PMID: 36600574.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    11. Human Leukocyte Antigens in Pregnancy and Preeclampsia. Front Genet. 2022; 13:884275. Aisagbonhi O, Morris GP. PMID: 35571013; PMCID: PMC9093604.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3  
    12. Rescue liver re-transplantation after graft loss due to severe rejection in the setting of pre-transplant nivolumab therapy. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2021 Dec; 14(6):1718-1724. Dehghan Y, Schnickel GT, Hosseini M, Burgoyne AM, Ajmera VH, Morris GP, Mendler MH, Parekh JR, Abushamat F, Vodkin I, Kono Y. PMID: 34643885; PMCID: PMC8557174.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. An Adapted Process and Organ Procurement Perspective on Heart Retransplantation for a Healthy Heart's Third Life. Prog Transplant. 2021 09; 31(3):267-270. Nethercot DC, Shah M, Stocks LM, Trageser JM, Pretorius V, Morris GP. PMID: 34114514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. High-resolution HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in several unrelated populations determined by next generation sequencing: 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop joint report. Hum Immunol. 2021 Jul; 82(7):505-522. Creary LE, Sacchi N, Mazzocco M, Morris GP, Montero-Martin G, Chong W, Brown CJ, Dinou A, Stavropoulos-Giokas C, Gorodezky C, Narayan S, Periathiruvadi S, Thomas R, De Santis D, Pepperall J, ElGhazali GE, Al Yafei Z, Askar M, Tyagi S, Kanga U, Marino SR, Planelles D, Chang CJ, Fernández-Viña MA. PMID: 34030896; PMCID: PMC8315142.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Impact of Previously Unrecognized HLA Mismatches Using Ultrahigh Resolution Typing in Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2021 07 20; 39(21):2397-2409. Mayor NP, Wang T, Lee SJ, Kuxhausen M, Vierra-Green C, Barker DJ, Auletta J, Bhatt VR, Gadalla SM, Gragert L, Inamoto Y, Morris GP, Paczesny S, Reshef R, Ringdén O, Shaw BE, Shaw P, Spellman SR, Marsh SGE. PMID: 33835855; PMCID: PMC8280068.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Incidence and impact of allele-specific anti-HLA antibodies and high-resolution HLA genotyping on assessing immunologic compatibility. Hum Immunol. 2021 Mar; 82(3):147-154. Zavyalova D, Abraha J, Rao P, Morris GP. PMID: 33478842.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. TCRα reporter mice reveal contribution of dual TCRα expression to T cell repertoire and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 12 22; 117(51):32574-32583. Yang L, Jama B, Wang H, Labarta-Bajo L, Zúñiga EI, Morris GP. PMID: 33288689; PMCID: PMC7768769.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Local immune cell infiltration in cutaneous acute graft versus host disease. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2020 Sep; 6(4):311-317. Sennett R, Jama BM, Hinds B, Tzachanis D, Morris GP, Marsch AF. PMID: 33015293; PMCID: PMC7522857.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    19. Factors influencing transfusion-associated HLA sensitization in patients bridged to heart transplantation using ventricular assist device. Clin Transplant. 2020 01; 34(1):e13772. Elkind J, Sobczyk J, Ostberg-Braun O, Silva Enciso J, Adler E, Morris GP. PMID: 31845395.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Next-generation HLA typing of 382 International Histocompatibility Working Group reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines: Report from the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop. Hum Immunol. 2019 Jul; 80(7):449-460. Creary LE, Guerra SG, Chong W, Brown CJ, Turner TR, Robinson J, Bultitude WP, Mayor NP, Marsh SGE, Saito K, Lam K, Duke JL, Mosbruger TL, Ferriola D, Monos D, Willis A, Askar M, Fischer G, Saw CL, Ragoussis J, Petrek M, Serra-Pagés C, Juan M, Stavropoulos-Giokas C, Dinou A, Ameen R, Al Shemmari S, Spierings E, Gendzekhadze K, Morris GP, Zhang Q, Kashi Z, Hsu S, Gangavarapu S, Mallempati KC, Yamamoto F, Osoegawa K, Vayntrub T, Chang CJ, Hansen JA, Fernández-Vina MA. PMID: 30844424; PMCID: PMC6599558.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    21. Quality control project of NGS HLA genotyping for the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop. Hum Immunol. 2019 Apr; 80(4):228-236. Osoegawa K, Vayntrub TA, Wenda S, De Santis D, Barsakis K, Ivanova M, Hsu S, Barone J, Holdsworth R, Diviney M, Askar M, Willis A, Railton D, Laflin S, Gendzekhadze K, Oki A, Sacchi N, Mazzocco M, Andreani M, Ameen R, Stavropoulos-Giokas C, Dinou A, Torres M, Dos Santos Francisco R, Serra-Pages C, Goodridge D, Balladares S, Bettinotti MP, Iglehart B, Kashi Z, Martin R, Saw CL, Ragoussis J, Downing J, Navarrete C, Chong W, Saito K, Petrek M, Tokic S, Padros K, Beatriz Rodriguez M, Zakharova V, Shragina O, Marino SR, Brown NK, Shiina T, Suzuki S, Spierings E, Zhang Q, Yin Y, Morris GP, Hernandez A, Ruiz P, Khor SS, Tokunaga K, Geretz A, Thomas R, Yamamoto F, Mallempati KC, Gangavarapu S, Kanga U, Tyagi S, Marsh SGE, Bultitude WP, Liu X, Cao D, Penning M, Hurley CK, Cesbron A, Mueller C, Mytilineos J, Weimer ET, Bengtsson M, Fischer G, Hansen JA, Chang CJ, Mack SJ, Creary LE, Fernandez-Viña MA. PMID: 30738112; PMCID: PMC6446570.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Relationship of post-transplant thymopoiesis with CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cell recovery associated with freedom from chronic graft versus host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2019 06; 54(6):917-920. Trovillion EM, Gloude NJ, Anderson EJ, Morris GP. PMID: 30413809; PMCID: PMC6509012.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    23. Improved accuracy of clinical HLA genotyping by next-generation DNA sequencing affects unrelated donor search results for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hum Immunol. 2018 Dec; 79(12):848-854. Allen ES, Yang B, Garrett J, Ball ED, Maiers M, Morris GP. PMID: 30316972.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Endogenous co-expression of two T cell receptors promotes lymphopenia-induced proliferation via increased affinity for self-antigen. J Leukoc Biol. 2018 12; 104(6):1097-1104. Balakrishnan A, Jama B, Morris GP. PMID: 30168881.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Proinflammatory Dual Receptor T Cells in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017 Nov; 23(11):1852-1860. Balakrishnan A, Gloude N, Sasik R, Ball ED, Morris GP. PMID: 28750779; PMCID: PMC5682197.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. A rheostat tuning thymic selection. Nat Immunol. 2017 06 20; 18(7):713-714. Morris GP, Hedrick SM. PMID: 28632719.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    27. Root cause analysis of limitations of virtual crossmatch for kidney allocation to highly-sensitized patients. Hum Immunol. 2017 Feb; 78(2):72-79. Jani V, Ingulli E, Mekeel K, Morris GP. PMID: 27864154.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    28. The highly alloreactive nature of dual TCR T cells. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2016 Feb; 21(1):22-8. Balakrishnan A, Morris GP. PMID: 26555233; PMCID: PMC4701647.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Effect of cell density and HLA-DR incompatibility on T-cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 expression in human mixed lymphocyte reaction. Transplant Proc. 2015 Apr; 47(3):763-9. Song EY, Han S, Yang B, Morris GP, Bui JD. PMID: 25891727.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. Generation of human alloantigen-specific T cells from peripheral blood. J Vis Exp. 2014 Nov 21; (93):e52257. Jama BP, Morris GP. PMID: 25490283; PMCID: PMC4354165.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    31. The ability to rearrange dual TCRs enhances positive selection, leading to increased Allo- and Autoreactive T cell repertoires. J Immunol. 2014 Aug 15; 193(4):1778-86. Ni PP, Solomon B, Hsieh CS, Allen PM, Morris GP. PMID: 25015825; PMCID: PMC4119549.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Dual receptor T cells mediate pathologic alloreactivity in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Jun 05; 5(188):188ra74. Morris GP, Uy GL, Donermeyer D, Dipersio JF, Allen PM. PMID: 23740900; PMCID: PMC3859344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Measurement of donor-specific HLA antibodies following plasma exchange therapy predicts clinical outcome in pediatric heart and lung transplant recipients with antibody-mediated rejection. J Clin Apher. 2013 Aug; 28(4):301-8. Jackups R, Canter C, Sweet SC, Mohanakumar T, Morris GP. PMID: 23426730.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Cutoff values and data handling for solid-phase testing for antibodies to HLA: effects on listing unacceptable antigens for thoracic organ transplantation. Hum Immunol. 2012 Jun; 73(6):597-604. Liu C, Wetter L, Pang S, Phelan DL, Mohanakumar T, Morris GP. PMID: 22537756.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. How the TCR balances sensitivity and specificity for the recognition of self and pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2012 Jan 19; 13(2):121-8. Morris GP, Allen PM. PMID: 22261968.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 107     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Efficacy of HLA-DRB1∗03:01 and H2E transgenic mouse strains to correlate pathogenic thyroglobulin epitopes for autoimmune thyroiditis. J Autoimmun. 2011 Sep; 37(2):63-70. Kong YC, Brown NK, Flynn JC, McCormick DJ, Brusic V, Morris GP, David CS. PMID: 21683551; PMCID: PMC3173590.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    37. Alloreactivity is limited by the endogenous peptide repertoire. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 01; 108(9):3695-700. Morris GP, Ni PP, Allen PM. PMID: 21321209; PMCID: PMC3048116.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. CD4+ lymphocyte adenosine triphosphate determination in sepsis: a cohort study. Crit Care. 2010; 14(3):R110. Lawrence KL, White PH, Morris GP, Jennemann J, Phelan DL, Hotchkiss RS, Kollef MH. PMID: 20540723; PMCID: PMC2911756.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    39. Virtual crossmatch by identification of donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies by solid-phase immunoassay: a 30-month analysis in living donor kidney transplantation. Hum Immunol. 2010 Mar; 71(3):268-73. Morris GP, Phelan DL, Jendrisak MD, Mohanakumar T. PMID: 20074605.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. Autoimmune thyroiditis: a model uniquely suited to probe regulatory T cell function. J Autoimmun. 2009 Nov-Dec; 33(3-4):239-46. Kong YC, Morris GP, Brown NK, Yan Y, Flynn JC, David CS. PMID: 19822405; PMCID: PMC2783453.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Cutting edge: Highly alloreactive dual TCR T cells play a dominant role in graft-versus-host disease. J Immunol. 2009 Jun 01; 182(11):6639-43. Morris GP, Allen PM. PMID: 19454656; PMCID: PMC3196624.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Naturally-existing CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are required for tolerance to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis induced by either exogenous or endogenous autoantigen. J Autoimmun. 2009 Aug; 33(1):68-76. Morris GP, Brown NK, Kong YC. PMID: 19375891; PMCID: PMC2706097.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    43. Tolerance to autoimmune thyroiditis: (CD4+)CD25+ regulatory T cells influence susceptibility but do not supersede MHC class II restriction. Front Biosci. 2006 May 01; 11:1234-43. Morris GP, Kong YC. PMID: 16368509.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Interference with CD4+CD25+ T-cell-mediated tolerance to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis by glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor monoclonal antibody. J Autoimmun. 2006 Feb; 26(1):24-31. Morris GP, Kong YC. PMID: 16253477.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. H2A- and H2E-derived CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: a potential role in reciprocal inhibition by class II genes in autoimmune thyroiditis. J Immunol. 2005 Mar 01; 174(5):3111-6. Morris GP, Yan Y, David CS, Kong YC. PMID: 15728527.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Anti-tumor immunity and autoimmunity: a balancing act of regulatory T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2004 Feb; 53(2):73-8. Wei WZ, Morris GP, Kong YC. PMID: 14610619.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. CD137 signaling interferes with activation and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in induced tolerance to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Cell Immunol. 2003 Nov; 226(1):20-9. Morris GP, Chen L, Kong YC. PMID: 14746804.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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