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    Vivian Hook

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0719
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Ph.D.University of California, San Francisco

      Collapse Overview 

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Biogenesis of Exosomes, Secretion, and Trafficking in Alzheimer's Disease
      NIH/NIA R56AG057469Sep 15, 2017 - Aug 31, 2018
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Role of Human-Specific Cathepsin V Protease in the Production of Opioid and Related Peptide Neurotransmitters
      NIH/NINDS R01NS094597Sep 30, 2015 - Jul 31, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Aminopeptidases for Neurotoxic Pyroglutamate Beta-Amyloid of Alzheimers Disease
      NIH/NIA R21AG042828Jul 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Huntington's Disease Natural Product Drug Discovery
      NIH/NIA R21AG038772Sep 1, 2011 - Aug 31, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Proteolytic Fragments of Mutant Huntingtin Protein in HD Brain Regions
      NIH/NINDS R21NS063064Jun 1, 2010 - May 31, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      POMC Processing and Beta-Endorphine-Related Opioid Peptides
      NIH/NIMH R01MH077305May 15, 2006 - Apr 30, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Proteomics/Genomics of Opiate Analgesia and Addiction
      NIH/NIDA R21DA015532Aug 1, 2003 - May 31, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Integrated DNA Sequencing System
      NIH/NCRR S10RR016614Jul 15, 2002 - Jul 14, 2005
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Training in Neuroscience Related to Drug Abuse
      NIH/NIDA T32DA007315Jul 1, 2000 - Jun 30, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Sympathetic Neuroeffector Junctions &Blood Pressure
      NIH P01HL058120Jun 1, 1999 - May 31, 2012
      Role: Co-Investigator
      NIH/NIDA R01DA008825Jun 1, 1996 - Dec 31, 2003
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIDA K02DA000228Apr 1, 1995 - Mar 31, 2000
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Serpin Protease Inhibitors &Opioid Neuropeptides
      NIH/NINDS R01NS024553Apr 1, 1987 - Jun 30, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Biosynthesis of Enkephalin Opioid Peptides
      NIH/NIDA R01DA004271Jan 1, 1987 - May 31, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Benyamin B, Maihofer AX, Schork AJ, Hamilton BA, Rao F, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Zhang K, Mahata M, Stridsberg M, Schork NJ, Biswas N, Hook V, Wei Z, Montgomery GW, Martin NG, Nievergelt CM, Whitfield JB, O'Connor DT. Identification of novel loci affecting circulating chromogranins and related peptides. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jan 01; 26(1):233-242. PMID: 28011710.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Petras D, Nothias LF, Quinn RA, Alexandrov T, Bandeira N, Bouslimani A, Castro-Falcón G, Chen L, Dang T, Floros DJ, Hook V, Garg N, Hoffner N, Jiang Y, Kapono CA, Koester I, Knight R, Leber CA, Ling TJ, Luzzatto-Knaan T, McCall LI, McGrath AP, Meehan MJ, Merritt JK, Mills RH, Morton J, Podvin S, Protsyuk I, Purdy T, Satterfield K, Searles S, Shah S, Shires S, Steffen D, White M, Todoric J, Tuttle R, Wojnicz A, Sapp V, Vargas F, Yang J, Zhang C, Dorrestein PC. Mass Spectrometry-Based Visualization of Molecules Associated with Human Habitats. Anal Chem. 2016 Nov 15; 88(22):10775-10784. PMID: 27732780.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Podvin S, Yaksh T, Hook V. The Emerging Role of Spinal Dynorphin in Chronic Pain: A Therapeutic Perspective. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016; 56:511-33. PMID: 26738478; PMCID: PMC4902163 [Available on 01/01/17].
      4. Hook V, Bandeira N. Neuropeptidomics Mass Spectrometry Reveals Signaling Networks Generated by Distinct Protease Pathways in Human Systems. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2015 Dec; 26(12):1970-80. PMID: 26483184; PMCID: PMC4749436 [Available on 12/01/16].
      5. Hook G, Jacobsen JS, Grabstein K, Kindy M, Hook V. Cathepsin B is a New Drug Target for Traumatic Brain Injury Therapeutics: Evidence for E64d as a Promising Lead Drug Candidate. Front Neurol. 2015; 6:178. PMID: 26388830; PMCID: PMC4557097.
      6. Podvin S, Bundey R, Toneff T, Ziegler M, Hook V. Profiles of secreted neuropeptides and catecholamines illustrate similarities and differences in response to stimulation by distinct secretagogues. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 68:177-85. PMID: 26092702; PMCID: PMC4593749.
      7. Hook V, Brennand KJ, Kim Y, Toneff T, Funkelstein L, Lee KC, Ziegler M, Gage FH. Human iPSC neurons display activity-dependent neurotransmitter secretion: aberrant catecholamine levels in schizophrenia neurons. Stem Cell Reports. 2014 Oct 14; 3(4):531-8. PMID: 25358781; PMCID: PMC4223699.
      8. Cynis H, Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Mosier C, Ziegler M, Koch B, Demuth HU, Hook V. Pyroglutamate-amyloid-ß and glutaminyl cyclase are colocalized with amyloid-ß in secretory vesicles and undergo activity-dependent, regulated secretion. Neurodegener Dis. 2014; 14(2):85-97. PMID: 24943989; PMCID: PMC4141002.
      9. Hook GR, Yu J, Sipes N, Pierschbacher MD, Hook V, Kindy MS. The cysteine protease cathepsin B is a key drug target and cysteine protease inhibitors are potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Mar 01; 31(5):515-29. PMID: 24083575; PMCID: PMC3934599.
      10. Suhy A, Hartmann K, Newman L, Papp A, Toneff T, Hook V, Sadee W. Genetic variants affecting alternative splicing of human cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Jan 24; 443(4):1270-4. PMID: 24393849; PMCID: PMC3929938.
      11. Hook G, Yu J, Toneff T, Kindy M, Hook V. Brain pyroglutamate amyloid-ß is produced by cathepsin B and is reduced by the cysteine protease inhibitor E64d, representing a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014; 41(1):129-49. PMID: 24595198; PMCID: PMC4059604.
      12. Miller B, Friedman AJ, Choi H, Hogan J, McCammon JA, Hook V, Gerwick WH. The marine cyanobacterial metabolite gallinamide A is a potent and selective inhibitor of human cathepsin L. J Nat Prod. 2014 Jan 24; 77(1):92-9. PMID: 24364476; PMCID: PMC3932306.
      13. Zhang K, Biswas N, Gayen JR, Miramontes-Gonzalez JP, Hightower CM, Mustapic M, Mahata M, Huang CT, Hook V, Mahata SK, Vaingankar S, O'Connor DT. Chromogranin B: intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms to regulate catecholamine storage and release, in catecholaminergic cells and organisms. J Neurochem. 2014 Apr; 129(1):48-59. PMID: 24266713; PMCID: PMC3992281.
      14. Toneff T, Funkelstein L, Mosier C, Abagyan A, Ziegler M, Hook V. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. Peptides. 2013 Aug; 46:126-35. PMID: 23747840; PMCID: PMC3842158.
      15. Mbewe-Campbell N, Wei Z, Zhang K, Friese RS, Mahata M, Schork AJ, Rao F, Chiron S, Biswas N, Kim HS, Mahata SK, Waalen J, Nievergelt CM, Hook V, O'Connor DT. Genes and environment: novel, functional polymorphism in the human cathepsin L (CTSL1) promoter disrupts a xenobiotic response element (XRE) to alter transcription and blood pressure. J Hypertens. 2012 Oct; 30(10):1961-9. PMID: 22871890; PMCID: PMC3478326.
      16. Bark SJ, Wegrzyn J, Taupenot L, Ziegler M, O'Connor DT, Ma Q, Smoot M, Ideker T, Hook V. The protein architecture of human secretory vesicles reveals differential regulation of signaling molecule secretion by protein kinases. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e41134. PMID: 22916103; PMCID: PMC3420874.
      17. Lu WD, Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hook V. Cathepsin H functions as an aminopeptidase in secretory vesicles for production of enkephalin and galanin peptide neurotransmitters. J Neurochem. 2012 Aug; 122(3):512-22. PMID: 22582844; PMCID: PMC3417130.
      18. Funkelstein L, Lu WD, Koch B, Mosier C, Toneff T, Taupenot L, O'Connor DT, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hook V. Human cathepsin V protease participates in production of enkephalin and NPY neuropeptide neurotransmitters. J Biol Chem. 2012 May 04; 287(19):15232-41. PMID: 22393040; PMCID: PMC3346103.
      19. Lu WD, Liu T, Li S, Woods VL, Hook V. The prohormone proenkephalin possesses differential conformational features of subdomains revealed by rapid H-D exchange mass spectrometry. Protein Sci. 2012 Feb; 21(2):178-87. PMID: 22102294; PMCID: PMC3324762.
      20. Kindy MS, Yu J, Zhu H, El-Amouri SS, Hook V, Hook GR. Deletion of the cathepsin B gene improves memory deficits in a transgenic ALZHeimer's disease mouse model expressing AßPP containing the wild-type ß-secretase site sequence. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012; 29(4):827-40. PMID: 22337825; PMCID: PMC4309289.
      21. Hook V, Funkelstein L, Wegrzyn J, Bark S, Kindy M, Hook G. Cysteine Cathepsins in the secretory vesicle produce active peptides: Cathepsin L generates peptide neurotransmitters and cathepsin B produces beta-amyloid of Alzheimer's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Jan; 1824(1):89-104. PMID: 21925292; PMCID: PMC3232284.
      22. Kim Y, Bark S, Hook V, Bandeira N. NeuroPedia: neuropeptide database and spectral library. Bioinformatics. 2011 Oct 01; 27(19):2772-3. PMID: 21821666; PMCID: PMC3179654.
      23. Zhang L, Yun H, Murray F, Lu R, Wang L, Hook V, Insel PA. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha induces apoptosis of murine T-lymphoma cells and cardiac fibroblasts and is regulated by cAMP/PKA. Cell Signal. 2011 Oct; 23(10):1611-6. PMID: 21620962; PMCID: PMC3148345.
      24. Funkelstein L, Hook V. The novel role of cathepsin L for neuropeptide production illustrated by research strategies in chemical biology with protease gene knockout and expression. Methods Mol Biol. 2011; 768:107-25. PMID: 21805239.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Hook G, Hook V, Kindy M. The cysteine protease inhibitor, E64d, reduces brain amyloid-ß and improves memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease animal models by inhibiting cathepsin B, but not BACE1, ß-secretase activity. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011; 26(2):387-408. PMID: 21613740; PMCID: PMC4317342.
      26. Funkelstein L, Beinfeld M, Minokadeh A, Zadina J, Hook V. Unique biological function of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for biosynthesis of neuropeptides. Neuropeptides. 2010 Dec; 44(6):457-66. PMID: 21047684; PMCID: PMC3058267.
      27. Chen Y, Rao F, Wen G, Gayen JR, Zhang K, Vaingankar SM, Biswas N, Mahata M, Friese RS, Fung MM, Salem RM, Nievergelt C, Bhatnagar V, Hook V, Ziegler MG, Mahata SK, Hamilton BA, O'Connor DT. Naturally occurring genetic variants in human chromogranin A (CHGA) associated with hypertension as well as hypertensive renal disease. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010 Nov; 30(8):1395-400. PMID: 21061160; PMCID: PMC3008929.
      28. Wegrzyn JL, Bark SJ, Funkelstein L, Mosier C, Yap A, Kazemi-Esfarjani P, La Spada AR, Sigurdson C, O'Connor DT, Hook V. Proteomics of dense core secretory vesicles reveal distinct protein categories for secretion of neuroeffectors for cell-cell communication. J Proteome Res. 2010 Oct 01; 9(10):5002-24. PMID: 20695487; PMCID: PMC2996463.
      29. Gupta N, Bark SJ, Lu WD, Taupenot L, O'Connor DT, Pevzner P, Hook V. Mass spectrometry-based neuropeptidomics of secretory vesicles from human adrenal medullary pheochromocytoma reveals novel peptide products of prohormone processing. J Proteome Res. 2010 Oct 01; 9(10):5065-75. PMID: 20704348; PMCID: PMC3000314.
      30. Hook V, Bark S, Gupta N, Lortie M, Lu WD, Bandeira N, Funkelstein L, Wegrzyn J, O'Connor DT, Pevzner P. Neuropeptidomic components generated by proteomic functions in secretory vesicles for cell-cell communication. AAPS J. 2010 Dec; 12(4):635-45. PMID: 20734175; PMCID: PMC2976990.
      31. Hook V, Hook G, Kindy M. Pharmacogenetic features of cathepsin B inhibitors that improve memory deficit and reduce beta-amyloid related to Alzheimer's disease. Biol Chem. 2010 Aug; 391(8):861-72. PMID: 20536395; PMCID: PMC4309269.
      32. Chakrabarti L, Zahra R, Jackson SM, Kazemi-Esfarjani P, Sopher BL, Mason AG, Toneff T, Ryu S, Shaffer S, Kansy JW, Eng J, Merrihew G, MacCoss MJ, Murphy A, Goodlett DR, Hook V, Bennett CL, Pallanck LJ, La Spada AR. Mitochondrial dysfunction in NnaD mutant flies and Purkinje cell degeneration mice reveals a role for Nna proteins in neuronal bioenergetics. Neuron. 2010 Jun 24; 66(6):835-47. PMID: 20620870; PMCID: PMC3101252.
      33. Watrous J, Burns K, Liu WT, Patel A, Hook V, Bafna V, Barry CE, Bark S, Dorrestein PC. Expansion of the mycobacterial "PUPylome". Mol Biosyst. 2010 Feb; 6(2):376-85. PMID: 20094657; PMCID: PMC2846642.
      34. Minokadeh A, Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Hwang SR, Beinfeld M, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Zadina J, Hook V. Cathepsin L participates in dynorphin production in brain cortex, illustrated by protease gene knockout and expression. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010 Jan; 43(1):98-107. PMID: 19837164.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Lortie M, Bark S, Blantz R, Hook V. Detecting low-abundance vasoactive peptides in plasma: progress toward absolute quantitation using nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2009 Nov 15; 394(2):164-70. PMID: 19615967; PMCID: PMC2745394.
      36. Beinfeld MC, Funkelstein L, Foulon T, Cadel S, Kitagawa K, Toneff T, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hook V. Cathepsin L plays a major role in cholecystokinin production in mouse brain cortex and in pituitary AtT-20 cells: protease gene knockout and inhibitor studies. Peptides. 2009 Oct; 30(10):1882-91. PMID: 19589362; PMCID: PMC2755599.
      37. Lee JC, Hook V. Proteolytic fragments of chromogranins A and B represent major soluble components of chromaffin granules, illustrated by two-dimensional proteomics with NH(2)-terminal Edman peptide sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. Biochemistry. 2009 Jun 16; 48(23):5254-62. PMID: 19405523; PMCID: PMC2731693.
      38. Hook V, Kindy M, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hook G. Genetic cathepsin B deficiency reduces beta-amyloid in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Aug 21; 386(2):284-8. PMID: 19501042; PMCID: PMC2753505.
      39. Hook V, Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Mosier C, Hwang SR. Human pituitary contains dual cathepsin L and prohormone convertase processing pathway components involved in converting POMC into the peptide hormones ACTH, alpha-MSH, and beta-endorphin. Endocrine. 2009 Jun; 35(3):429-37. PMID: 19343278; PMCID: PMC2731682.
      40. Bark SJ, Lu WD, Hook V. Linear and accurate quantitation of proenkephalin-derived peptides by isotopic labeling with internal standards and mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2009 Jun 01; 389(1):18-26. PMID: 19289094; PMCID: PMC2731681.
      41. Lu WD, Asmus K, Hwang SR, Li S, Woods VL, Hook V. Differential accessibilities of dibasic prohormone processing sites of proenkephalin to the aqueous environment revealed by H-D exchange mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2009 Feb 24; 48(7):1604-12. PMID: 19173595; PMCID: PMC2752437.
      42. Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Mosier C, Hwang SR, Beuschlein F, Lichtenauer UD, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hook V. Major role of cathepsin L for producing the peptide hormones ACTH, beta-endorphin, and alpha-MSH, illustrated by protease gene knockout and expression. J Biol Chem. 2008 Dec 19; 283(51):35652-9. PMID: 18849346; PMCID: PMC2602888.
      43. Hwang SR, Bundey R, Toneff T, Hook V. Endopin serpin protease inhibitors localize with neuropeptides in secretory vesicles and neuroendocrine tissues. Neuroendocrinology. 2009; 89(2):210-6. PMID: 18840998; PMCID: PMC2731708.
      44. Hook V, Schechter I, Demuth HU, Hook G. Alternative pathways for production of beta-amyloid peptides of Alzheimer's disease. Biol Chem. 2008 Aug; 389(8):993-1006. PMID: 18979625; PMCID: PMC2654319.
      45. Hook V, Toneff T, Baylon S, Sei C. Differential activation of enkephalin, galanin, somatostatin, NPY, and VIP neuropeptide production by stimulators of protein kinases A and C in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. Neuropeptides. 2008 Oct-Dec; 42(5-6):503-11. PMID: 18619673; PMCID: PMC2745396.
      46. Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Hwang SR, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hook V. Cathepsin L participates in the production of neuropeptide Y in secretory vesicles, demonstrated by protease gene knockout and expression. J Neurochem. 2008 Jul; 106(1):384-91. PMID: 18410501; PMCID: PMC2661760.
      47. Hwang SR, Hook V. Zinc regulation of aminopeptidase B involved in neuropeptide production. FEBS Lett. 2008 Jul 23; 582(17):2527-31. PMID: 18571504; PMCID: PMC2764277.
      48. Wegrzyn JL, Drudge TM, Valafar F, Hook V. Bioinformatic analyses of mammalian 5'-UTR sequence properties of mRNAs predicts alternative translation initiation sites. BMC Bioinformatics. 2008 May 08; 9:232. PMID: 18466625; PMCID: PMC2396638.
      49. Courel M, Vasquez MS, Hook V, Mahata SK, Taupenot L. Sorting of the neuroendocrine secretory protein Secretogranin II into the regulated secretory pathway: role of N- and C-terminal alpha-helical domains. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 25; 283(17):11807-22. PMID: 18299326; PMCID: PMC2431052.
      50. Hook V, Kindy M, Hook G. Inhibitors of cathepsin B improve memory and reduce beta-amyloid in transgenic Alzheimer disease mice expressing the wild-type, but not the Swedish mutant, beta-secretase site of the amyloid precursor protein. J Biol Chem. 2008 Mar 21; 283(12):7745-53. PMID: 18184658.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Hook V, Funkelstein L, Lu D, Bark S, Wegrzyn J, Hwang SR. Proteases for processing proneuropeptides into peptide neurotransmitters and hormones. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008; 48:393-423. PMID: 18184105; PMCID: PMC2731677.
      52. Bark SJ, Hook V. Differential recovery of peptides from sample tubes and the reproducibility of quantitative proteomic data. J Proteome Res. 2007 Nov; 6(11):4511-6. PMID: 17850064.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Hook G, Hook V, Kindy M. Cysteine protease inhibitors reduce brain beta-amyloid and beta-secretase activity in vivo and are potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. Biol Chem. 2007 Sep; 388(9):979-83. PMID: 17696783.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Wegrzyn J, Lee J, Neveu JM, Lane WS, Hook V. Proteomics of neuroendocrine secretory vesicles reveal distinct functional systems for biosynthesis and exocytosis of peptide hormones and neurotransmitters. J Proteome Res. 2007 May; 6(5):1652-65. PMID: 17408250.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Hwang SR, Hook V. Multiple domains of endopin 2A for serpin cross-class inhibition of papain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 May 15; 461(2):219-24. PMID: 17451636; PMCID: PMC2745395.
      56. Hook V, Kindy M, Hook G. Cysteine protease inhibitors effectively reduce in vivo levels of brain beta-amyloid related to Alzheimer's disease. Biol Chem. 2007 Feb; 388(2):247-52. PMID: 17261088.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Hwang SR, Garza C, Mosier C, Toneff T, Wunderlich E, Goldsmith P, Hook V. Cathepsin L expression is directed to secretory vesicles for enkephalin neuropeptide biosynthesis and secretion. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 30; 282(13):9556-63. PMID: 17244622.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Hwang SR, O'Neill A, Bark S, Foulon T, Hook V. Secretory vesicle aminopeptidase B related to neuropeptide processing: molecular identification and subcellular localization to enkephalin- and NPY-containing chromaffin granules. J Neurochem. 2007 Mar; 100(5):1340-50. PMID: 17241125.
        View in: PubMed
      59. O'Connor DT, Mahata SK, Mahata M, Jiang Q, Hook V, Taupenot L. Primary culture of bovine chromaffin cells. Nat Protoc. 2007; 2(5):1248-53. PMID: 17546020; PMCID: PMC2715561.
      60. Bark SJ, Hook V. The future of proteomic analysis in biological systems and molecular medicine. Mol Biosyst. 2007 Jan; 3(1):14-7. PMID: 17216050.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Zhang K, Rao F, Wen G, Salem RM, Vaingankar S, Mahata M, Mahapatra NR, Lillie EO, Cadman PE, Friese RS, Hamilton BA, Hook V, Mahata SK, Taupenot L, O'Connor DT. Catecholamine storage vesicles and the metabolic syndrome: The role of the chromogranin A fragment pancreastatin. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006 Nov; 8(6):621-33. PMID: 17026486.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Hook V. Unique neuronal functions of cathepsin L and cathepsin B in secretory vesicles: biosynthesis of peptides in neurotransmission and neurodegenerative disease. Biol Chem. 2006 Oct-Nov; 387(10-11):1429-39. PMID: 17081116.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Hook V. Protease pathways in peptide neurotransmission and neurodegenerative diseases. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26(4-6):449-69. PMID: 16724274.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Hwang SR, Stoka V, Turk V, Hook V. Resistance of cathepsin L compared to elastase to proteolysis when complexed with the serpin endopin 2C, and recovery of cathepsin L activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Feb 24; 340(4):1238-43. PMID: 16414353.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Hook V. Neuroproteases in peptide neurotransmission and neurodegenerative diseases: applications to drug discovery research. BioDrugs. 2006; 20(2):105-19. PMID: 16626168.
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      66. Hook V, Toneff T, Bogyo M, Greenbaum D, Medzihradszky KF, Neveu J, Lane W, Hook G, Reisine T. Inhibition of cathepsin B reduces beta-amyloid production in regulated secretory vesicles of neuronal chromaffin cells: evidence for cathepsin B as a candidate beta-secretase of Alzheimer's disease. Biol Chem. 2005 Sep; 386(9):931-40. PMID: 16164418.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Hwang SR, Stoka V, Turk V, Hook V. The novel bovine serpin endopin 2C demonstrates selective inhibition of the cysteine protease cathepsin L compared to the serine protease elastase, in cross-class inhibition. Biochemistry. 2005 May 31; 44(21):7757-67. PMID: 15909990.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Hwang SR, Garza CZ, Wegrzyn JL, Hook V. Demonstration of GTG as an alternative initiation codon for the serpin endopin 2B-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Feb 18; 327(3):837-44. PMID: 15649421.
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      69. Hwang SR, Garza CZ, Wegrzyn J, Hook V. Demonstration of GTG as an endogenous initiation codon for a human mRNA transcript revealed by molecular cloning of the serpin endopin 2B. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 16. PMID: 15316004.
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      70. Hook V, Yasothornsrikul S, Greenbaum D, Medzihradszky KF, Troutner K, Toneff T, Bundey R, Logrinova A, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Bogyo M. Cathepsin L and Arg/Lys aminopeptidase: a distinct prohormone processing pathway for the biosynthesis of peptide neurotransmitters and hormones. Biol Chem. 2004 Jun; 385(6):473-80. PMID: 15255178.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Hook V, Reisine TD. Cysteine proteases are the major beta-secretase in the regulated secretory pathway that provides most of the beta-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease: role of BACE 1 in the constitutive secretory pathway. J Neurosci Res. 2003 Nov 01; 74(3):393-405. PMID: 14598316.
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      72. Miller R, Aaron W, Toneff T, Vishnuvardhan D, Beinfeld MC, Hook V. Obliteration of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone derived from POMC in pituitary and brains of PC2-deficient mice. J Neurochem. 2003 Aug; 86(3):556-63. PMID: 12859669.
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      73. Yasothornsrikul S, Greenbaum D, Medzihradszky KF, Toneff T, Bundey R, Miller R, Schilling B, Petermann I, Dehnert J, Logvinova A, Goldsmith P, Neveu JM, Lane WS, Gibson B, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Bogyo M, Hook V. Cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a prohormone-processing enzyme for production of the enkephalin peptide neurotransmitter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 05; 100(16):9590-5. PMID: 12869695; PMCID: PMC170962.
      74. Lee JC, Taylor CV, Gaucher SP, Toneff T, Taupenot L, Yasothornsrikul S, Mahata SK, Sei C, Parmer RJ, Neveu JM, Lane WS, Gibson BW, O'Connor DT, Hook V. Primary sequence characterization of catestatin intermediates and peptides defines proteolytic cleavage sites utilized for converting chromogranin a into active catestatin secreted from neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. Biochemistry. 2003 Jun 17; 42(23):6938-46. PMID: 12795588.
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      75. Miller R, Toneff T, Vishnuvardhan D, Beinfeld M, Hook V. Selective roles for the PC2 processing enzyme in the regulation of peptide neurotransmitter levels in brain and peripheral neuroendocrine tissues of PC2 deficient mice. Neuropeptides. 2003 Jun; 37(3):140-8. PMID: 12860111.
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      76. Sei C, Toneff T, Aaron W, Hook V. Regulation of ACTH levels in anterior pituitary cells during stimulated secretion: evidence for aspartyl and cysteine proteases in the cellular metabolism of ACTH. Peptides. 2003 May; 24(5):717-25. PMID: 12895658.
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      77. Hook V, Metz-Boutigue MH. Protein trafficking to chromaffin granules and proteolytic processing within regulated secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Oct; 971:397-405. PMID: 12438158.
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      78. Hook V, Yasothornsrikul S, Hwang SR. Novel chromaffin granule serpins, endopin 1 and endopin 2: endogenous protease inhibitors with distinct target protease specificities. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Oct; 971:426-44. PMID: 12438161.
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      79. Hwang SR, Steineckert B, Toneff T, Bundey R, Logvinova AV, Goldsmith P, Hook V. The novel serpin endopin 2 demonstrates cross-class inhibition of papain and elastase: localization of endopin 2 to regulated secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. Biochemistry. 2002 Aug 20; 41(33):10397-405. PMID: 12173926.
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      80. Sei C, Toneff T, Aaron W, Hook V. Regulation of cellular alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin during stimulated secretion from intermediate pituitary cells: involvement of aspartyl and cysteine proteases in the control of cellular levels of alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin. Peptides. 2002 Aug; 23(8):1409-18. PMID: 12182941.
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      81. Hook V, Hwang SR. Novel secretory vesicle serpins, endopin 1 and endopin 2: endogenous protease inhibitors with distinct target protease specificities. Biol Chem. 2002 Jul-Aug; 383(7-8):1067-74. PMID: 12437089.
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      82. Toneff T, Mende-Mueller L, Wu Y, Hwang SR, Bundey R, Thompson LM, Chesselet MF, Hook V. Comparison of huntingtin proteolytic fragments in human lymphoblast cell lines and human brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Jul; 82(1):84-92. PMID: 12091468.
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      83. Hook V, Toneff T, Aaron W, Yasothornsrikul S, Bundey R, Reisine T. Beta-amyloid peptide in regulated secretory vesicles of chromaffin cells: evidence for multiple cysteine proteolytic activities in distinct pathways for beta-secretase activity in chromaffin vesicles. J Neurochem. 2002 Apr; 81(2):237-56. PMID: 12064471.
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      84. Hook V, Noctor S, Sei CA, Toneff T, Yasothornsrikul S, Kang YH. Evidence for functional localization of the proenkephalin-processing enzyme, prohormone thiol protease, to secretory vesicles of chromaffin cells. Endocrinology. 1999 Aug; 140(8):3744-54. PMID: 10433235.
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      85. Hook V, Sei C, Yasothornsrikul S, Toneff T, Kang YH, Efthimiopoulos S, Robakis NK, Van Nostrand W. The kunitz protease inhibitor form of the amyloid precursor protein (KPI/APP) inhibits the proneuropeptide processing enzyme prohormone thiol protease (PTP). Colocalization of KPI/APP and PTP in secretory vesicles. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 29; 274(5):3165-72. PMID: 9915856.
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      86. Hook V, Moran K, Kannan R, Kohn A, Lively MO, Azaryan A, Schiller M, Miller K. High-level expression of the prohormones proenkephalin, pro-neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, and beta-protachykinin for in vitro prohormone processing. Protein Expr Purif. 1997 Jun; 10(1):80-8. PMID: 9179294.
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