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    Martin Paulus

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0862
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Dr. Paulus studied Medicine at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz from 1979-1985. He received a postdoctoral fellowship from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) in 1986 to study the effects of calcium antagonists on animal models of mania at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). In 1993, Dr. Paulus left UCSD to resume his medical training and completed his internship at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center / Zucker Hillside Hospital on Long Island, NY. In 1994, he rejoined the Department of Psychiatry at UCSD as a psychiatric resident. Dr. Paulus completed his residency in psychiatry in 1997. At that time, he joined the Department of Psychiatry at UCSD as an Assistant Professor. He also became a staff psychiatrist at the Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System (VASDHS). Dr. Paulus is currently a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UCSD and Director of Telemental Health at the VASDHS, which focuses on delivering evidence based psychotherapy to Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In May 2014, Dr. Paulus joined the Laureate Institute For Brain Research (LIBR) in Tulsa, OK, as the Scientific Director and President.

      Research Interests

      Dr. Paulus’ research focuses on three main areas:
      (1) Understanding the neurobiology of anxiety disorders and addictive disorders using decision-making and interoception with brain imaging technology.
      (2) Developing tools using neuroscience to make clinically useful predictions for mood, anxiety, and addictive disorders.
      (3) Integrating subjective measurements with neurobiological approaches to understand how psychiatric symptoms emerge from brain dysfunction.

      Dr. Paulus has published over 250 scientific papers, has been funded continuously by federal grants since 1997, and is currently the Principal Investigator on a NIMH R01 aimed at determining the biological basis for positive and negative valence domains in anxiety and depression. He has served on numerous research panels, study sections, and advisory committees. Currently, Dr. Paulus is initiating a large-scale study in Tulsa, termed the T-1000, to determine whether biological measures can be developed to help a clinician predict patient outcomes.

      Clinical Focus

      At the San Diego Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dr. Paulus, in collaboration with Alby Quinlan, RN, MSN, developed a manualized, structured, multi-modal anger management manual. He regularly teaches an anger management class with Alby Quinlan and has given several clinical presentations on the physical and psychological consequences of anger.

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      The Center for Neuroscience-based Mental Health Assessment and Prediction (NEUROMAP)
      NIH/NIGMS P20GM121312Sep 15, 2017 - Jun 30, 2022
      Role: Principal Investigator
      ABCD-USA Consortium: Research Project
      NIH/NIDA U01DA041089Sep 30, 2015 - May 31, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Latent Constructs: Negative-Positive Valence Domains in Anxiety and Depression
      NIH/NIMH R01MH101453Sep 9, 2013 - May 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Does amphetamine use impair brain systems in OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD?
      VA I01CX000273Oct 1, 2011 - Sep 30, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Center on Interoceptive Dysregulation in Addiction (CIDIA)
      NIH/NIDA P20DA027843Mar 15, 2010 - Feb 28, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Negative reinforcement and interoceptive dysfunction in stimulant dependence.
      NIH/NIDA R01DA027797Sep 1, 2009 - Jul 31, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Time processing in stimulant users: Impulsivity and temporal discounting
      NIH/NIDA R03DA020687Jul 20, 2007 - Jun 30, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIDA R01DA018307Sep 30, 2004 - Jun 30, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Neurobiology Of Transition To Stimulant Dependence
      NIH/NIDA R01DA016663Jul 1, 2003 - Jul 31, 2012
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIDA R21DA013186Apr 10, 2001 - Mar 31, 2005
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MDMA &Amphetamine--Behavioral Organization in Mice
      NIH/NIDA R21DA014200Apr 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2005
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIMH R03MH058358May 1, 1998 - Apr 30, 2001
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIDA R01DA011277Sep 30, 1997 - Jul 31, 2001
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Fellowship on Biological Psychiatry and Neuroscience
      NIH/NIMH T32MH018399Jul 15, 1986 - Jun 30, 2022
      Role: Principal Investigator
      General Clinical Research Center
      NIH/NCRR M01RR000827Mar 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2010
      Role: Co-Investigator

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Harlé KM, Guo D, Zhang S, Paulus M, Yu AJ. Anhedonia and anxiety underlying depressive symptomatology have distinct effects on reward-based decision-making. PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0186473. PMID: 29059254.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Paulus M. The Effect of Acute Stress on the Calculus of Reward and Punishment. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 15; 82(8):544-546. PMID: 28935096.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Gowin JL, Sloan ME, Ramchandani VA, Paulus M, Lane SD. Differences in decision-making as a function of drug of choice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2017 Sep 18. PMID: 28927583.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Howlett JR, Huang H, Hysek CM, Paulus M. The effect of single-dose methylphenidate on the rate of error-driven learning in healthy males: a randomized controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Sep 01. PMID: 28864865.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Hassanpour MS, Simmons WK, Feinstein JS, Luo Q, Lapidus RC, Bodurka J, Paulus M, Khalsa SS. The Insular Cortex Dynamically Maps Changes in Cardiorespiratory Interoception. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Aug 09. PMID: 28726799.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Huang H, Thompson W, Paulus M. Computational Dysfunctions in Anxiety: Failure to Differentiate Signal From Noise. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Sep 15; 82(6):440-446. PMID: 28838468.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Ho TC, Sacchet MD, Connolly CG, Margulies DS, Tymofiyeva O, Paulus M, Simmons AN, Gotlib IH, Yang TT. Inflexible Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 May 29. PMID: 28553837.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Howlett JR, Paulus M. Individual Differences in Subjective Utility and Risk Preferences: The Influence of Hedonic Capacity and Trait Anxiety. Front Psychiatry. 2017; 8:88. PMID: 28588508.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Stewart JL, Butt M, May AC, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Insular and cingulate attenuation during decision making is associated with future transition to stimulant use disorder. Addiction. 2017 Sep; 112(9):1567-1577. PMID: 28387975.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Gowin JL, Ball TM, Wittmann M, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Corrigendum to "Individualized relapse prediction: Personality measures and striatal and insular activity during reward-processing robustly predict relapse" [Drug and Alcohol Dependence 152 (2015) 93-101]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 01; 175:255. PMID: 28431752.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Taylor CT, Knapp SE, Bomyea JA, Ramsawh HJ, Paulus M, Stein MB. What good are positive emotions for treatment? Trait positive emotionality predicts response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for anxiety. Behav Res Ther. 2017 Jun; 93:6-12. PMID: 28342947.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Paulus M, Stein MB, Craske MG, Bookheimer S, Taylor CT, Simmons AN, Sidhu N, Young KS, Fan B. Latent variable analysis of positive and negative valence processing focused on symptom and behavioral units of analysis in mood and anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord. 2017 Jul; 216:17-29. PMID: 28131628.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Gowin JL, May AC, Wittmann M, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Doubling down: increased risk-taking behavior following a loss by individuals with cocaine use disorder is associated with striatal and anterior cingulate dysfunction. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 Jan; 2(1):94-103. PMID: 28164168.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Huang H, Harlé K, Movellan J, Paulus M. Using Optimal Control to Disambiguate the Effect of Depression on Sensorimotor, Motivational and Goal-Setting Functions. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167960. PMID: 27973592.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Ball TM, Knapp SE, Paulus M, Stein MB. Brain activation during fear extinction predicts exposure success. Depress Anxiety. 2017 Mar; 34(3):257-266. PMID: 27921340.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Bischoff-Grethe A, Connolly CG, Jordan SJ, Brown GG, Paulus M, Tapert SF, Heaton RK, Woods SP, Grant I. Altered reward expectancy in individuals with recent methamphetamine dependence. J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Jan; 31(1):17-30. PMID: 27649775.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Paulus M, Huys QJ, Maia TV. A Roadmap for the Development of Applied Computational Psychiatry. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2016 Sep; 1(5):386-392. PMID: 28018986.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Harlé KM, Zhang S, Ma N, Yu AJ, Paulus M. Reduced Neural Recruitment for Bayesian Adjustment of Inhibitory Control in Methamphetamine Dependence. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2016 Sep; 1(5):448-459. PMID: 28966988.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Squeglia LM, Ball TM, Jacobus J, Brumback T, McKenna BS, Nguyen-Louie TT, Sorg SF, Paulus M, Tapert SF. Neural Predictors of Initiating Alcohol Use During Adolescence. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 01; 174(2):172-185. PMID: 27539487.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Krystal JH, Abi-Dargham A, Akbarian S, Arnsten AFT, Barch DM, Bearden CE, Braff DL, Brown ES, Bullmore ET, Carlezon WA, Carter CS, Cook EH, Daskalakis ZJ, DiLeone RJ, Duman RS, Grace AA, Hariri AR, Harrison PJ, Hiroi N, Kenny PJ, Kleinman JE, Krystal AD, Lewis DA, Lipska BK, Marder SR, Mason GF, Mathalon DH, McClung CA, McDougle CJ, McIntosh AM, McMahon FJ, Mirnics K, Monteggia LM, Narendran R, Nestler EJ, Neumeister A, O'Donovan MC, Öngür D, Pariante CM, Paulus M, Pearlson G, Phillips ML, Pine DS, Pizzagalli DA, Pletnikov MV, Ragland JD, Rapoport JL, Ressler KJ, Russo SJ, Sanacora G, Sawa A, Schatzberg AF, Shaham Y, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Sklar P, State MW, Stein MB, Strakowski SM, Taylor SF, Turecki G, Turetsky BI, Weissman MM, Zachariou V, Zarate CA, Zubieta JK. Constance E. Lieber, Theodore R. Stanley, and the Enduring Impact of Philanthropy on Psychiatry Research. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Jul 15; 80(2):84-86. PMID: 27346079.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Sacchet MD, Ho TC, Connolly CG, Tymofiyeva O, Lewinn KZ, Han LK, Blom EH, Tapert SF, Max JE, Frank GK, Paulus M, Simmons AN, Gotlib IH, Yang TT. Large-Scale Hypoconnectivity Between Resting-State Functional Networks in Unmedicated Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Nov; 41(12):2951-2960. PMID: 27238621.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Melrose AJ, Bailer U, Wierenga CE, Bischoff-Grethe A, Paulus M, Kaye WH. Amphetamine alters neural response to sucrose in healthy women. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Jun 30; 252:19-25. PMID: 27179312.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Aupperle RL, Stillman AN, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Allard CB, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus M, Stein MB. Intimate Partner Violence PTSD and Neural Correlates of Inhibition. J Trauma Stress. 2016 Feb; 29(1):33-40. PMID: 26748991.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Schuckit MA, Smith TL, Paulus M, Tapert SF, Simmons AN, Tolentino NJ, Shafir A. The Ability of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Predict Heavy Drinking and Alcohol Problems 5 Years Later. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016 Jan; 40(1):206-13. PMID: 26727535; PMCID: PMC4700546 [Available on 01/01/17].
      25. Harlé KM, Zhang S, Schiff M, Mackey S, Paulus M, Yu AJ. Altered Statistical Learning and Decision-Making in Methamphetamine Dependence: Evidence from a Two-Armed Bandit Task. Front Psychol. 2015; 6:1910. PMID: 26733906; PMCID: PMC4683191.
      26. Galli G, Santarnecchi E, Feurra M, Bonifazi M, Rossi S, Paulus M, Rossi A. Individual and sex-related differences in pain and relief responsiveness are associated with differences in resting-state functional networks in healthy volunteers. Eur J Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 43(4):486-93. PMID: 26547276.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Haase L, Stewart JL, Youssef B, May AC, Isakovic S, Simmons AN, Johnson DC, Potterat EG, Paulus M. When the brain does not adequately feel the body: Links between low resilience and interoception. Biol Psychol. 2016 Jan; 113:37-45. PMID: 26607442.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Huang H, Movellan J, Paulus M, Harlé KM. The Influence of Depression on Cognitive Control: Disambiguating Approach and Avoidance Tendencies. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0143714. PMID: 26605795; PMCID: PMC4659610.
      29. Ekhtiari H, Faghiri A, Oghabian MA, Paulus M. Functional neuroimaging for addiction medicine: From mechanisms to practical considerations. Prog Brain Res. 2016; 224:129-53. PMID: 26822357.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Wagner A, Simmons AN, Oberndorfer TA, Frank GK, McCurdy-McKinnon D, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Paulus M, Kaye WH. Altered sensitization patterns to sweet food stimuli in patients recovered from anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Dec 30; 234(3):305-13. PMID: 26596520.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Mackey S, Kan KJ, Chaarani B, Alia-Klein N, Batalla A, Brooks S, Cousijn J, Dagher A, de Ruiter M, Desrivieres S, Feldstein Ewing SW, Goldstein RZ, Goudriaan AE, Heitzeg MM, Hutchison K, Li CS, London ED, Lorenzetti V, Luijten M, Martin-Santos R, Morales AM, Paulus M, Paus T, Pearlson G, Schluter R, Momenan R, Schmaal L, Schumann G, Sinha R, Sjoerds Z, Stein DJ, Stein EA, Solowij N, Tapert S, Uhlmann A, Veltman D, van Holst R, Walter H, Wright MJ, Yucel M, Yurgelun-Todd D, Hibar DP, Jahanshad N, Thompson PM, Glahn DC, Garavan H, Conrod P. Genetic imaging consortium for addiction medicine: From neuroimaging to genes. Prog Brain Res. 2016; 224:203-23. PMID: 26822360; PMCID: PMC4820288 [Available on 01/01/17].
      32. Berk L, Stewart JL, May AC, Wiers RW, Davenport PW, Paulus M, Tapert SF. Under pressure: adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli. Addiction. 2015 Dec; 110(12):2025-36. PMID: 26234745; PMCID: PMC4644498 [Available on 12/01/16].
      33. McAllister TW, Zafonte R, Jain S, Flashman LA, George MS, Grant GA, He F, Lohr JB, Andaluz N, Summerall L, Paulus M, Raman R, Stein MB. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Methylphenidate or Galantamine for Persistent Emotional and Cognitive Symptoms Associated with PTSD and/or Traumatic Brain Injury. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Apr; 41(5):1191-8. PMID: 26361060; PMCID: PMC4793116 [Available on 04/01/17].
      34. Harlé KM, Stewart JL, Zhang S, Tapert SF, Yu AJ, Paulus M. Bayesian neural adjustment of inhibitory control predicts emergence of problem stimulant use. Brain. 2015 Nov; 138(Pt 11):3413-26. PMID: 26336910; PMCID: PMC4731415 [Available on 11/01/16].
      35. Haase L, May AC, Falahpour M, Isakovic S, Simmons AN, Hickman SD, Liu TT, Paulus M. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015; 9:229. PMID: 26379521; PMCID: PMC4550788.
      36. Stewart JL, May AC, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Hyperactivation to pleasant interoceptive stimuli characterizes the transition to stimulant addiction. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Sep 01; 154:264-70. PMID: 26228575; PMCID: PMC4537790.
      37. Bischoff-Grethe A, Buxton RB, Paulus M, Fleisher AS, Yang TT, Brown GG. Striatal and Pallidal Activation during Reward Modulated Movement Using a Translational Paradigm. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2015 Jul; 21(6):399-411. PMID: 26156687; PMCID: PMC4668805.
      38. Brown GG, Ostrowitzki S, Stein MB, von Kienlin M, Liu TT, Simmons A, Wierenga C, Stein OY, Bruns A, Bischoff-Grethe A, Paulus M. Temporal profile of brain response to alprazolam in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Sep 30; 233(3):394-401. PMID: 26211623.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Reske M, Stewart JL, Flagan TM, Paulus M. Attenuated Neural Processing of Risk in Young Adults at Risk for Stimulant Dependence. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0127010. PMID: 26076493; PMCID: PMC4468216.
      40. Howlett JR, Paulus M. The neural basis of testable and non-testable beliefs. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0124596. PMID: 25942019; PMCID: PMC4420500.
      41. Gowin JL, Ball TM, Wittmann M, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Individualized relapse prediction: Personality measures and striatal and insular activity during reward-processing robustly predict relapse. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Jul 01; 152:93-101. PMID: 25977206; PMCID: PMC4458160.
      42. Henje Blom E, Connolly CG, Ho TC, LeWinn KZ, Mobayed N, Han L, Paulus M, Wu J, Simmons AN, Yang TT. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jun 01; 178:215-23. PMID: 25827506; PMCID: PMC4412607.
      43. Oosterwijk S, Mackey S, Wilson-Mendenhall C, Winkielman P, Paulus M. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems. Soc Neurosci. 2015; 10(3):294-307. PMID: 25748274; PMCID: PMC4405466.
      44. Fonzo GA, Ramsawh HJ, Flagan TM, Sullivan SG, Letamendi A, Simmons AN, Paulus M, Stein MB. Common and disorder-specific neural responses to emotional faces in generalised anxiety, social anxiety and panic disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Mar; 206(3):206-15. PMID: 25573399; PMCID: PMC4345308.
      45. Ball TM, Stein MB, Paulus M. Toward the application of functional neuroimaging to individualized treatment for anxiety and depression. Depress Anxiety. 2014 Nov; 31(11):920-33. PMID: 25407582.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Connolly CG, Bischoff-Grethe A, Jordan SJ, Woods SP, Ellis RJ, Paulus M, Grant I. Altered functional response to risky choice in HIV infection. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e111583. PMID: 25347679; PMCID: PMC4210250.
      47. Ho TC, Connolly CG, Henje Blom E, LeWinn KZ, Strigo IA, Paulus M, Frank G, Max JE, Wu J, Chan M, Tapert SF, Simmons AN, Yang TT. Emotion-Dependent Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Adolescent Depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 01; 78(9):635-46. PMID: 25483399; PMCID: PMC4362932 [Available on 11/01/16].
      48. Aupperle RL, Melrose AJ, Francisco A, Paulus M, Stein MB. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015 Feb; 36(2):449-62. PMID: 25224633; PMCID: PMC4300249.
      49. Stewart JL, Juavinett AL, May AC, Davenport PW, Paulus M. Do you feel alright? Attenuated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli in current stimulant users. Psychophysiology. 2015 Feb; 52(2):249-62. PMID: 25183168.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Fonzo GA, Ramsawh HJ, Flagan TM, Sullivan SG, Simmons AN, Paulus M, Stein MB. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder is associated with attenuation of limbic activation to threat-related facial emotions. J Affect Disord. 2014 Dec; 169:76-85. PMID: 25171782; PMCID: PMC4172549.
      51. Johnson DC, Thom NJ, Stanley EA, Haase L, Simmons AN, Shih PA, Thompson WK, Potterat EG, Minor TR, Paulus M. Modifying resilience mechanisms in at-risk individuals: a controlled study of mindfulness training in Marines preparing for deployment. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Aug; 171(8):844-53. PMID: 24832476; PMCID: PMC4458258.
      52. Stewart JL, May AC, Poppa T, Davenport PW, Tapert SF, Paulus M. You are the danger: attenuated insula response in methamphetamine users during aversive interoceptive decision-making. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Sep 01; 142:110-9. PMID: 24993186; PMCID: PMC4127120.
      53. Stewart JL, Connolly CG, May AC, Tapert SF, Wittmann M, Paulus M. Cocaine dependent individuals with attenuated striatal activation during reinforcement learning are more susceptible to relapse. Psychiatry Res. 2014 Aug 30; 223(2):129-39. PMID: 24862388; PMCID: PMC4096111.
      54. Haase L, Thom NJ, Shukla A, Davenport PW, Simmons AN, Stanley EA, Paulus M, Johnson DC. Mindfulness-based training attenuates insula response to an aversive interoceptive challenge. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016 Jan; 11(1):182-90. PMID: 24714209; PMCID: PMC4692309 [Available on 01/01/17].
      55. Harlé KM, Shenoy P, Stewart JL, Tapert SF, Yu AJ, Paulus M. Altered neural processing of the need to stop in young adults at risk for stimulant dependence. J Neurosci. 2014 Mar 26; 34(13):4567-80. PMID: 24672002; PMCID: PMC3965782.
      56. May AC, Stewart JL, Tapert SF, Paulus M. The effect of age on neural processing of pleasant soft touch stimuli. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014; 8:52. PMID: 24600366; PMCID: PMC3930859.
      57. Galli G, Shukla A, Simmons AN, Davenport PW, Paulus M. Sex differences in the neural processing of aversive interoceptive events: the benefit of relief. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e84044. PMID: 24386327; PMCID: PMC3875519.
      58. Stewart JL, Connolly CG, May AC, Tapert SF, Wittmann M, Paulus M. Striatum and insula dysfunction during reinforcement learning differentiates abstinent and relapsed methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Addiction. 2014 Mar; 109(3):460-71. PMID: 24329936; PMCID: PMC3945155.
      59. Gowin JL, Harlé KM, Stewart JL, Wittmann M, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Attenuated insular processing during risk predicts relapse in early abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 May; 39(6):1379-87. PMID: 24317375; PMCID: PMC3988541.
      60. Mackey S, Stewart JL, Connolly CG, Tapert SF, Paulus M. A voxel-based morphometry study of young occasional users of amphetamine-type stimulants and cocaine. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Feb 01; 135:104-11. PMID: 24342420; PMCID: PMC3943469.
      61. Ball TM, Stein MB, Ramsawh HJ, Campbell-Sills L, Paulus M. Single-subject anxiety treatment outcome prediction using functional neuroimaging. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Apr; 39(5):1254-61. PMID: 24270731; PMCID: PMC3957121.
      62. Stewart JL, Parnass JM, May AC, Davenport PW, Paulus M. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use. Front Syst Neurosci. 2013; 7:89. PMID: 24298242; PMCID: PMC3828508.
      63. Howlett JR, Paulus M. Decision-Making Dysfunctions of Counterfactuals in Depression: Who Might I have Been? Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4:143. PMID: 24265620; PMCID: PMC3820979.
      64. Ho TC, Yang G, Wu J, Cassey P, Brown SD, Hoang N, Chan M, Connolly CG, Henje-Blom E, Duncan LG, Chesney MA, Paulus M, Max JE, Patel R, Simmons AN, Yang TT. Functional connectivity of negative emotional processing in adolescent depression. J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb; 155:65-74. PMID: 24268546; PMCID: PMC4961511.
      65. Gowin JL, Stewart JL, May AC, Ball TM, Wittmann M, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Altered cingulate and insular cortex activation during risk-taking in methamphetamine dependence: losses lose impact. Addiction. 2014 Feb; 109(2):237-47. PMID: 24033715; PMCID: PMC3947108.
      66. Paulus M, Stewart JL, Haase L. Treatment approaches for interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Oct 18; 4:137. PMID: 24151471; PMCID: PMC3798869.
      67. Oberndorfer TA, Frank GK, Simmons AN, Wagner A, McCurdy D, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Paulus M, Kaye WH. Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Oct; 170(10):1143-51. PMID: 23732817; PMCID: PMC3971875.
      68. Harlé KM, Shenoy P, Paulus M. The influence of emotions on cognitive control: feelings and beliefs-where do they meet? Front Hum Neurosci. 2013 Sep 19; 7:508. PMID: 24065901; PMCID: PMC3776943.
      69. Aupperle RL, Connolly CG, Stillman AN, May AC, Paulus M. Deployment and post-deployment experiences in OEF/OIF veterans: relationship to gray matter volume. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75880. PMID: 24058706; PMCID: PMC3776771.
      70. Migliorini R, Stewart JL, May AC, Tapert SF, Paulus M. What do you feel? Adolescent drug and alcohol users show altered brain response to pleasant interoceptive stimuli. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Dec 01; 133(2):661-8. PMID: 24071571; PMCID: PMC3880189.
      71. Taylor CT, Aupperle RL, Flagan T, Simmons AN, Amir N, Stein MB, Paulus M. Neural correlates of a computerized attention modification program in anxious subjects. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Sep; 9(9):1379-87. PMID: 23934417; PMCID: PMC4158378.
      72. Aupperle RL, Allard CB, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus M, Stein MB. Neural responses during emotional processing before and after cognitive trauma therapy for battered women. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Oct 30; 214(1):48-55. PMID: 23916537.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Connolly CG, Wu J, Ho TC, Hoeft F, Wolkowitz O, Eisendrath S, Frank G, Hendren R, Max JE, Paulus M, Tapert SF, Banerjee D, Simmons AN, Yang TT. Resting-state functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in depressed adolescents. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Dec 15; 74(12):898-907. PMID: 23910949; PMCID: PMC4103629.
      74. Ho TC, Wu J, Shin DD, Liu TT, Tapert SF, Yang G, Connolly CG, Frank GK, Max JE, Wolkowitz O, Eisendrath S, Hoeft F, Banerjee D, Hood K, Hendren RL, Paulus M, Simmons AN, Yang TT. Altered cerebral perfusion in executive, affective, and motor networks during adolescent depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Oct; 52(10):1076-1091.e2. PMID: 24074474; PMCID: PMC3825460.
      75. Paulus M, Stewart JL. Interoception and drug addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan; 76 Pt B:342-50. PMID: 23855999; PMCID: PMC3858461.
      76. May AC, Stewart JL, Migliorini R, Tapert SF, Paulus M. Methamphetamine dependent individuals show attenuated brain response to pleasant interoceptive stimuli. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Aug 01; 131(3):238-46. PMID: 23806873; PMCID: PMC3760794.
      77. Gowin JL, Mackey S, Paulus M. Altered risk-related processing in substance users: imbalance of pain and gain. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Sep 01; 132(1-2):13-21. PMID: 23623507; PMCID: PMC3748224.
      78. Mednick SC, McDevitt EA, Walsh JK, Wamsley E, Paulus M, Kanady JC, Drummond SP. The critical role of sleep spindles in hippocampal-dependent memory: a pharmacology study. J Neurosci. 2013 Mar 06; 33(10):4494-504. PMID: 23467365; PMCID: PMC3744388.
      79. Paulus M. The breathing conundrum-interoceptive sensitivity and anxiety. Depress Anxiety. 2013 Apr; 30(4):315-20. PMID: 23468141; PMCID: PMC3805119.
      80. Schreiber D, Fonzo G, Simmons AN, Dawes CT, Flagan T, Fowler JH, Paulus M. Red brain, blue brain: evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e52970. PMID: 23418419; PMCID: PMC3572122.
      81. Mackey S, Paulus M. Are there volumetric brain differences associated with the use of cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Mar; 37(3):300-16. PMID: 23253945; PMCID: PMC3604030.
      82. Thom NJ, Johnson DC, Flagan T, Simmons AN, Kotturi SA, Van Orden KF, Potterat EG, Swain JL, Paulus M. Detecting emotion in others: increased insula and decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during emotion processing in elite adventure racers. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Feb; 9(2):225-31. PMID: 23171614; PMCID: PMC3907930.
      83. Fonzo GA, Flagan TM, Sullivan S, Allard CB, Grimes EM, Simmons AN, Paulus M, Stein MB. Neural functional and structural correlates of childhood maltreatment in women with intimate-partner violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Feb 28; 211(2):93-103. PMID: 23154098; PMCID: PMC3570713.
      84. O'Brien JW, Norman AL, Fryer SL, Tapert SF, Paulus M, Jones KL, Riley EP, Mattson SN. Effect of predictive cuing on response inhibition in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Apr; 37(4):644-54. PMID: 23094678; PMCID: PMC3771541.
      85. Stewart JL, Flagan TM, May AC, Reske M, Simmons AN, Paulus M. Young adults at risk for stimulant dependence show reward dysfunction during reinforcement-based decision making. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 01; 73(3):235-41. PMID: 23021534; PMCID: PMC3674030.
      86. Mano QR, Brown GG, Bolden K, Aupperle R, Sullivan S, Paulus M, Stein MB. Curvilinear relationship between phonological working memory load and social-emotional modulation. Cogn Emot. 2013; 27(2):283-304. PMID: 22928750; PMCID: PMC4549278.
      87. Simmons AN, Flagan TM, Wittmann M, Strigo IA, Matthews SC, Donovan H, Lohr JB, Paulus M. The effects of temporal unpredictability in anticipation of negative events in combat veterans with PTSD. J Affect Disord. 2013 Apr 25; 146(3):426-32. PMID: 22910447.
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      88. Paulus M, Yu AJ. Emotion and decision-making: affect-driven belief systems in anxiety and depression. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012 Sep; 16(9):476-83. PMID: 22898207; PMCID: PMC3446252.
      89. Acheson DT, Stein MB, Paulus M, Ravindran L, Simmons AN, Lohr JB, Risbrough VB. Effects of anxiolytic treatment on potentiated startle during aversive image anticipation. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2012 Jul; 27(4):419-27. PMID: 22782542.
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      90. Paulus M, Schuckit MA, Tapert SF, Tolentino NJ, Matthews SC, Smith TL, Trim RS, Hall SA, Simmons AN. High versus low level of response to alcohol: evidence of differential reactivity to emotional stimuli. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 15; 72(10):848-55. PMID: 22608014; PMCID: PMC3433640.
      91. Acheson DT, Stein MB, Paulus M, Geyer MA, Risbrough VB. The effect of pregabalin on sensorimotor gating in 'low' gating humans and mice. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Sep; 63(3):480-5. PMID: 22575075; PMCID: PMC3572212.
      92. Dawes CT, Loewen PJ, Schreiber D, Simmons AN, Flagan T, McElreath R, Bokemper SE, Fowler JH, Paulus M. Neural basis of egalitarian behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 24; 109(17):6479-83. PMID: 22493264; PMCID: PMC3340020.
      93. Aupperle RL, Allard CB, Grimes EM, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Behrooznia M, Cissell SH, Twamley EW, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus M, Stein MB. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during emotional anticipation and neuropsychological performance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 69(4):360-71. PMID: 22474105.
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      94. Aupperle RL, Tankersley D, Ravindran LN, Flagan T, Stein NR, Stein MB, Paulus M. Pregabalin effects on neural response to emotional faces. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012; 6:42. PMID: 22470326; PMCID: PMC3313548.
      95. Perlman G, Simmons AN, Wu J, Hahn KS, Tapert SF, Max JE, Paulus M, Brown GG, Frank GK, Campbell-Sills L, Yang TT. Amygdala response and functional connectivity during emotion regulation: a study of 14 depressed adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2012 Jun; 139(1):75-84. PMID: 22401827; PMCID: PMC3340443.
      96. Simmons AN, Fitzpatrick S, Strigo IA, Potterat EG, Johnson DC, Matthews SC, Orden KF, Swain JL, Paulus M. Altered insula activation in anticipation of changing emotional states: neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in Special Operations Forces personnel. Neuroreport. 2012 Mar 07; 23(4):234-9. PMID: 22222502.
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      97. Paulus M, Flagan T, Simmons AN, Gillis K, Kotturi S, Thom N, Johnson DC, Van Orden KF, Davenport PW, Swain JL. Subjecting elite athletes to inspiratory breathing load reveals behavioral and neural signatures of optimal performers in extreme environments. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29394. PMID: 22276111; PMCID: PMC3261851.
      98. Schuckit MA, Tapert S, Matthews SC, Paulus M, Tolentino NJ, Smith TL, Trim RS, Hall S, Simmons A. fMRI differences between subjects with low and high responses to alcohol during a stop signal task. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Jan; 36(1):130-40. PMID: 22003983; PMCID: PMC3253183.
      99. Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Strigo IA, Baker DG, Donovan HK, Motezadi A, Stein MB, Paulus M. Altered amygdala activation during face processing in Iraqi and Afghanistani war veterans. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2011 Oct 12; 1(1):6. PMID: 22738183; PMCID: PMC3384263.
      100. Kruschwitz JD, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Paulus M. Nothing to lose: processing blindness to potential losses drives thrill and adventure seekers. Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 01; 59(3):2850-9. PMID: 21982930; PMCID: PMC3256346.
      101. Ball TM, Sullivan S, Flagan T, Hitchcock CA, Simmons A, Paulus M, Stein MB. Selective effects of social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity on the neural bases of emotional face processing. Neuroimage. 2012 Jan 16; 59(2):1879-87. PMID: 21920442.
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      102. Aupperle RL, Sullivan S, Melrose AJ, Paulus M, Stein MB. A reverse translational approach to quantify approach-avoidance conflict in humans. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Dec 01; 225(2):455-63. PMID: 21843556; PMCID: PMC3381365.
      103. Norman AL, Pulido C, Squeglia LM, Spadoni AD, Paulus M, Tapert SF. Neural activation during inhibition predicts initiation of substance use in adolescence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Dec 15; 119(3):216-23. PMID: 21782354; PMCID: PMC3208054.
      104. Wittmann M, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Lane SD, Wackermann J, Paulus M. Neural substrates of time perception and impulsivity. Brain Res. 2011 Aug 11; 1406:43-58. PMID: 21763642; PMCID: PMC3145046.
      105. Padula CB, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Robinson SK, Tapert SF, Schuckit MA, Paulus M. Alcohol attenuates activation in the bilateral anterior insula during an emotional processing task: a pilot study. Alcohol Alcohol. 2011 Sep-Oct; 46(5):547-52. PMID: 21665869; PMCID: PMC3201697.
      106. van Wassenhove V, Wittmann M, Craig AD, Paulus M. Psychological and neural mechanisms of subjective time dilation. Front Neurosci. 2011; 5:56. PMID: 21559346; PMCID: PMC3085178.
      107. Aupperle RL, Ravindran L, Tankersley D, Flagan T, Stein NR, Simmons AN, Stein MB, Paulus M. Pregabalin influences insula and amygdala activation during anticipation of emotional images. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jun; 36(7):1466-77. PMID: 21430645; PMCID: PMC3096815.
      108. Aupperle RL, Melrose AJ, Stein MB, Paulus M. Executive function and PTSD: disengaging from trauma. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):686-94. PMID: 21349277; PMCID: PMC4719148.
      109. Tolentino NJ, Wierenga CE, Hall S, Tapert SF, Paulus M, Liu TT, Smith TL, Schuckit MA. Alcohol effects on cerebral blood flow in subjects with low and high responses to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jun; 35(6):1034-40. PMID: 21332525; PMCID: PMC3097275.
      110. Paulus M. Imaging the anxious brain--promise or hubris? Depress Anxiety. 2011 Mar; 28(3):183-5. PMID: 21394850; PMCID: PMC3957362.
      111. Han E, Paulus M, Wittmann M, Chung H, Song JM. Hair analysis and self-report of methamphetamine use by methamphetamine dependent individuals. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011 Mar 01; 879(7-8):541-7. PMID: 21296038.
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      112. Kaye WH, Wagner A, Fudge JL, Paulus M. Neurocircuity of eating disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2011; 6:37-57. PMID: 21243469.
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      113. Simmons AN, Stein MB, Strigo IA, Arce E, Hitchcock C, Paulus M. Anxiety positive subjects show altered processing in the anterior insula during anticipation of negative stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011 Nov; 32(11):1836-46. PMID: 21181800; PMCID: PMC3215249.
      114. Reske M, Delis DC, Paulus M. Evidence for subtle verbal fluency deficits in occasional stimulant users: quick to play loose with verbal rules. J Psychiatr Res. 2011 Mar; 45(3):361-8. PMID: 20673916; PMCID: PMC3424267.
      115. Campbell-Sills L, Simmons AN, Lovero KL, Rochlin AA, Paulus M, Stein MB. Functioning of neural systems supporting emotion regulation in anxiety-prone individuals. Neuroimage. 2011 Jan 01; 54(1):689-96. PMID: 20673804; PMCID: PMC2962684.
      116. Fonzo GA, Simmons AN, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus M, Stein MB. Exaggerated and disconnected insular-amygdalar blood oxygenation level-dependent response to threat-related emotional faces in women with intimate-partner violence posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Sep 01; 68(5):433-41. PMID: 20573339; PMCID: PMC2921473.
      117. Wittmann M, Simmons AN, Aron JL, Paulus M. Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time. Neuropsychologia. 2010 Aug; 48(10):3110-20. PMID: 20600186; PMCID: PMC2933788.
      118. Reske M, Eidt CA, Delis DC, Paulus M. Nondependent stimulant users of cocaine and prescription amphetamines show verbal learning and memory deficits. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Oct 15; 68(8):762-9. PMID: 20605137; PMCID: PMC2949490.
      119. Strigo IA, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Grimes EM, Allard CB, Reinhardt LE, Paulus M, Stein MB. Neural correlates of altered pain response in women with posttraumatic stress disorder from intimate partner violence. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Sep 01; 68(5):442-50. PMID: 20553750.
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      120. Paulus M, Stein MB. Interoception in anxiety and depression. Brain Struct Funct. 2010 Jun; 214(5-6):451-63. PMID: 20490545; PMCID: PMC2886901.
      121. Trim RS, Simmons AN, Tolentino NJ, Hall SA, Matthews SC, Robinson SK, Smith TL, Padula CB, Paulus M, Tapert SF, Schuckit MA. Acute ethanol effects on brain activation in low- and high-level responders to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010 Jul; 34(7):1162-70. PMID: 20477775; PMCID: PMC3774836.
      122. Wittmann M, Lovero KL, Lane SD, Paulus M. Now or later? Striatum and insula activation to immediate versus delayed rewards. J Neurosci Psychol Econ. 2010 May 01; 3(1):15-26. PMID: 20657814.
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      123. Matthews SC, Simmons AN, Strigo IA, Arce E, Stein MB, Paulus M. Escitalopram attenuates posterior cingulate activity during self-evaluation in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Res. 2010 May 30; 182(2):81-7. PMID: 20418072; PMCID: PMC2882791.
      124. Paulus M, Simmons AN, Fitzpatrick SN, Potterat EG, Van Orden KF, Bauman J, Swain JL. Differential brain activation to angry faces by elite warfighters: neural processing evidence for enhanced threat detection. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 14; 5(4):e10096. PMID: 20418943; PMCID: PMC2854680.
      125. Henry BL, Minassian A, Young JW, Paulus M, Geyer MA, Perry W. Cross-species assessments of motor and exploratory behavior related to bipolar disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010 Jul; 34(8):1296-306. PMID: 20398694; PMCID: PMC2900445.
      126. Young JW, Goey AK, Minassian A, Perry W, Paulus M, Geyer MA. The mania-like exploratory profile in genetic dopamine transporter mouse models is diminished in a familiar environment and reinstated by subthreshold psychostimulant administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Jul; 96(1):7-15. PMID: 20363246; PMCID: PMC2878916.
      127. Wittmann M, van Wassenhove V, Craig AD, Paulus M. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation. Front Hum Neurosci. 2010; 4:2. PMID: 20161994; PMCID: PMC2820380.
      128. Yang TT, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Frank GK, Max JE, Bischoff-Grethe A, Lansing AE, Brown G, Strigo IA, Wu J, Paulus M. Adolescents with major depression demonstrate increased amygdala activation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 49(1):42-51. PMID: 20215925; PMCID: PMC2935523.
      129. Wittmann M, Paulus M, Roenneberg T. Decreased psychological well-being in late 'chronotypes' is mediated by smoking and alcohol consumption. Subst Use Misuse. 2010; 45(1-2):15-30. PMID: 20025436.
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      130. Aupperle RL, Paulus M. Neural systems underlying approach and avoidance in anxiety disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2010; 12(4):517-31. PMID: 21319496; PMCID: PMC3181993.
      131. Minassian A, Henry BL, Geyer MA, Paulus M, Young JW, Perry W. The quantitative assessment of motor activity in mania and schizophrenia. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jan; 120(1-3):200-6. PMID: 19435640; PMCID: PMC2795051.
      132. Young JW, Goey AK, Minassian A, Perry W, Paulus M, Geyer MA. GBR 12909 administration as a mouse model of bipolar disorder mania: mimicking quantitative assessment of manic behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Feb; 208(3):443-54. PMID: 20020109; PMCID: PMC2806531.
      133. Stein MB, Paulus M. Imbalance of approach and avoidance: the yin and yang of anxiety disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Dec 15; 66(12):1072-4. PMID: 19944792; PMCID: PMC2825567.
      134. Perry W, Minassian A, Paulus M, Young JW, Kincaid MJ, Ferguson EJ, Henry BL, Zhuang X, Masten VL, Sharp RF, Geyer MA. A reverse-translational study of dysfunctional exploration in psychiatric disorders: from mice to men. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 66(10):1072-80. PMID: 19805697; PMCID: PMC2897252.
      135. Pulido C, Brown SA, Cummins K, Paulus M, Tapert SF. Alcohol cue reactivity task development. Addict Behav. 2010 Feb; 35(2):84-90. PMID: 19800172; PMCID: PMC2783802.
      136. Goldstein RZ, Craig AD, Bechara A, Garavan H, Childress AR, Paulus M, Volkow ND. The neurocircuitry of impaired insight in drug addiction. Trends Cogn Sci. 2009 Sep; 13(9):372-80. PMID: 19716751; PMCID: PMC2844118.
      137. Henry BL, Minassian A, Paulus M, Geyer MA, Perry W. Heart rate variability in bipolar mania and schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res. 2010 Feb; 44(3):168-76. PMID: 19700172; PMCID: PMC2822123.
      138. Paulus M, Tapert SF, Schulteis G. The role of interoception and alliesthesia in addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Nov; 94(1):1-7. PMID: 19698739; PMCID: PMC2753707.
      139. Simmons AN, Arce E, Lovero KL, Stein MB, Paulus M. Subchronic SSRI administration reduces insula response during affective anticipation in healthy volunteers. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 Sep; 12(8):1009-20. PMID: 19545475; PMCID: PMC2846821.
      140. Paulus M, Potterat EG, Taylor MK, Van Orden KF, Bauman J, Momen N, Padilla GA, Swain JL. A neuroscience approach to optimizing brain resources for human performance in extreme environments. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009 Jul; 33(7):1080-8. PMID: 19447132; PMCID: PMC2729466.
      141. Simmons A, Strigo IA, Matthews SC, Paulus M, Stein MB. Initial evidence of a failure to activate right anterior insula during affective set shifting in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychosom Med. 2009 May; 71(4):373-7. PMID: 19398499; PMCID: PMC2888032.
      142. Lovero KL, Simmons AN, Aron JL, Paulus M. Anterior insular cortex anticipates impending stimulus significance. Neuroimage. 2009 Apr 15; 45(3):976-83. PMID: 19280711; PMCID: PMC3758834.
      143. Yang TT, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Frank GK, Bischoff-Grethe A, Lansing AE, Wu J, Brown GG, Paulus M. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity. Neuroreport. 2009 Mar 04; 20(4):440-4. PMID: 19218875; PMCID: PMC2672880.
      144. Matthews S, Simmons A, Strigo I, Gianaros P, Yang T, Paulus M. Inhibition-related activity in subgenual cingulate is associated with symptom severity in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2009 Apr 30; 172(1):1-6. PMID: 19239982.
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      145. Yang TT, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Frank GK, Bischoff-Grethe A, Lansing AE, Wu J, Paulus M. Adolescent subgenual anterior cingulate activity is related to harm avoidance. Neuroreport. 2009 Jan 07; 20(1):19-23. PMID: 19034055; PMCID: PMC2852645.
      146. Strigo IA, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Craig AD, Paulus M. Association of major depressive disorder with altered functional brain response during anticipation and processing of heat pain. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Nov; 65(11):1275-84. PMID: 18981339; PMCID: PMC2702160.
      147. Arce E, Simmons AN, Stein MB, Winkielman P, Hitchcock C, Paulus M. Association between individual differences in self-reported emotional resilience and the affective perception of neutral faces. J Affect Disord. 2009 Apr; 114(1-3):286-93. PMID: 18957273; PMCID: PMC2691748.
      148. Reske M, Paulus M. Predicting treatment outcome in stimulant dependence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Oct; 1141:270-83. PMID: 18991963; PMCID: PMC2757631.
      149. Simmons AN, Paulus M, Thorp SR, Matthews SC, Norman SB, Stein MB. Functional activation and neural networks in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to intimate partner violence. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Oct 15; 64(8):681-90. PMID: 18639236; PMCID: PMC2634744.
      150. Matthews SC, Strigo IA, Simmons AN, Yang TT, Paulus M. Decreased functional coupling of the amygdala and supragenual cingulate is related to increased depression in unmedicated individuals with current major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008 Nov; 111(1):13-20. PMID: 18603301.
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      151. Simmons A, Matthews SC, Feinstein JS, Hitchcock C, Paulus M, Stein MB. Anxiety vulnerability is associated with altered anterior cingulate response to an affective appraisal task. Neuroreport. 2008 Jul 02; 19(10):1033-7. PMID: 18580574.
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      152. Strigo IA, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Craig AD, Paulus M. Increased affective bias revealed using experimental graded heat stimuli in young depressed adults: evidence of "emotional allodynia". Psychosom Med. 2008 Apr; 70(3):338-44. PMID: 18378870; PMCID: PMC2742693.
      153. Smoller JW, Paulus M, Fagerness JA, Purcell S, Yamaki LH, Hirshfeld-Becker D, Biederman J, Rosenbaum JF, Gelernter J, Stein MB. Influence of RGS2 on anxiety-related temperament, personality, and brain function. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Mar; 65(3):298-308. PMID: 18316676.
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      154. Cattapan-Ludewig K, Ludewig S, Messerli N, Vollenweider FX, Seitz A, Feldon J, Paulus M. Decision-making dysregulation in first-episode schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008 Feb; 196(2):157-60. PMID: 18277225.
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      155. Paulus M. The role of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2008; 25(4):348-56. PMID: 18412061; PMCID: PMC4429203.
      156. Arce E, Simmons AN, Lovero KL, Stein MB, Paulus M. Escitalopram effects on insula and amygdala BOLD activation during emotional processing. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Mar; 196(4):661-72. PMID: 18058090; PMCID: PMC2839135.
      157. Yang TT, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Bischoff-Grethe A, Frank GK, Arce E, Paulus M. Increased amygdala activation is related to heart rate during emotion processing in adolescent subjects. Neurosci Lett. 2007 Nov 27; 428(2-3):109-14. PMID: 18029095; PMCID: PMC2171034.
      158. Wittmann M, Paulus M. Decision making, impulsivity and time perception. Trends Cogn Sci. 2008 Jan; 12(1):7-12. PMID: 18042423.
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      159. Frank GK, Oberndorfer TA, Simmons AN, Paulus M, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Kaye WH. Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener. Neuroimage. 2008 Feb 15; 39(4):1559-69. PMID: 18096409.
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      160. Simmons A, Matthews SC, Paulus M, Stein MB. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jan 10; 430(2):92-7. PMID: 18079060; PMCID: PMC2692473.
      161. Paulus M. Decision-making dysfunctions in psychiatry--altered homeostatic processing? Science. 2007 Oct 26; 318(5850):602-6. PMID: 17962553.
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      162. Paulus M, Lovero KL, Wittmann M, Leland DS. Reduced behavioral and neural activation in stimulant users to different error rates during decision making. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jun 01; 63(11):1054-60. PMID: 17949691; PMCID: PMC4286246.
      163. Leland DS, Arce E, Miller DA, Paulus M. Anterior cingulate cortex and benefit of predictive cueing on response inhibition in stimulant dependent individuals. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 15; 63(2):184-90. PMID: 17707348.
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      164. Matthews SC, Simmons AN, Strigo I, Jang K, Stein MB, Paulus M. Heritability of anterior cingulate response to conflict: an fMRI study in female twins. Neuroimage. 2007 Oct 15; 38(1):223-7. PMID: 17707125.
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      165. Tapert SF, Schweinsburg AD, Drummond SP, Paulus M, Brown SA, Yang TT, Frank LR. Functional MRI of inhibitory processing in abstinent adolescent marijuana users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Oct; 194(2):173-83. PMID: 17558500; PMCID: PMC2269705.
      166. Fryer SL, Tapert SF, Mattson SN, Paulus M, Spadoni AD, Riley EP. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects frontal-striatal BOLD response during inhibitory control. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Aug; 31(8):1415-24. PMID: 17559542.
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      167. Young JW, Minassian A, Paulus M, Geyer MA, Perry W. A reverse-translational approach to bipolar disorder: rodent and human studies in the Behavioral Pattern Monitor. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2007; 31(6):882-96. PMID: 17706782; PMCID: PMC2025688.
      168. Wittmann M, Leland DS, Churan J, Paulus M. Impaired time perception and motor timing in stimulant-dependent subjects. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Oct 08; 90(2-3):183-92. PMID: 17434690; PMCID: PMC1997301.
      169. Paulus M, Stein MB. Role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in drug discovery. Neuropsychol Rev. 2007 Jun; 17(2):179-88. PMID: 17436113; PMCID: PMC2841045.
      170. Aron JL, Paulus M. Location, location: using functional magnetic resonance imaging to pinpoint brain differences relevant to stimulant use. Addiction. 2007 Apr; 102 Suppl 1:33-43. PMID: 17493051.
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      171. Stein MB, Simmons AN, Feinstein JS, Paulus M. Increased amygdala and insula activation during emotion processing in anxiety-prone subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Feb; 164(2):318-27. PMID: 17267796.
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      172. Wittmann M, Leland DS, Paulus M. Time and decision making: differential contribution of the posterior insular cortex and the striatum during a delay discounting task. Exp Brain Res. 2007 Jun; 179(4):643-53. PMID: 17216152.
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      173. Paulus M. Neural basis of reward and craving--a homeostatic point of view. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2007; 9(4):379-87. PMID: 18286798; PMCID: PMC3202500.
      174. Campbell DW, Sareen J, Paulus M, Goldin PR, Stein MB, Reiss JP. Time-varying amygdala response to emotional faces in generalized social phobia. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep 01; 62(5):455-63. PMID: 17188251.
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      175. Sareen J, Campbell DW, Leslie WD, Malisza KL, Stein MB, Paulus M, Kravetsky LB, Kjernisted KD, Walker JR, Reiss JP. Striatal function in generalized social phobia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Feb 01; 61(3):396-404. PMID: 17097072.
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      176. Minassian A, Paulus M, Lincoln A, Perry W. Adults with autism show increased sensitivity to outcomes at low error rates during decision-making. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Aug; 37(7):1279-88. PMID: 17080271.
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      177. Arce E, Miller DA, Feinstein JS, Stein MB, Paulus M. Lorazepam dose-dependently decreases risk-taking related activation in limbic areas. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Nov; 189(1):105-16. PMID: 17016713; PMCID: PMC2839080.
      178. Leland DS, Arce E, Feinstein JS, Paulus M. Young adult stimulant users' increased striatal activation during uncertainty is related to impulsivity. Neuroimage. 2006 Nov 01; 33(2):725-31. PMID: 16959497; PMCID: PMC1668709.
      179. Drummond SP, Paulus M, Tapert SF. Effects of two nights sleep deprivation and two nights recovery sleep on response inhibition. J Sleep Res. 2006 Sep; 15(3):261-5. PMID: 16911028.
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      180. Feinstein JS, Stein MB, Paulus M. Anterior insula reactivity during certain decisions is associated with neuroticism. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2006 Sep; 1(2):136-42. PMID: 18985124.
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      181. Simmons A, Strigo I, Matthews SC, Paulus M, Stein MB. Anticipation of aversive visual stimuli is associated with increased insula activation in anxiety-prone subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Aug 15; 60(4):402-9. PMID: 16919527.
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      182. Arce E, Leland DS, Miller DA, Simmons AN, Winternheimer KC, Paulus M. Individuals with schizophrenia present hypo- and hyperactivation during implicit cueing in an inhibitory task. Neuroimage. 2006 Aug 15; 32(2):704-13. PMID: 16766210.
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      183. Paulus M, Tapert SF, Pulido C, Schuckit MA. Alcohol attenuates load-related activation during a working memory task: relation to level of response to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Aug; 30(8):1363-71. PMID: 16899039; PMCID: PMC2276979.
      184. Risbrough VB, Masten VL, Caldwell S, Paulus M, Low MJ, Geyer MA. Differential contributions of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors to MDMA-induced effects on locomotor behavior patterns in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Nov; 31(11):2349-58. PMID: 16855533.
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      185. Reiss JP, Campbell DW, Leslie WD, Paulus M, Ryner LN, Polimeni JO, Foot BJ, Sareen J. Deficit in schizophrenia to recruit the striatum in implicit learning: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Schizophr Res. 2006 Oct; 87(1-3):127-37. PMID: 16814986.
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      186. Paulus M, Stein MB. An insular view of anxiety. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Aug 15; 60(4):383-7. PMID: 16780813.
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      187. Sareen J, Chartier M, Paulus M, Stein MB. Illicit drug use and anxiety disorders: findings from two community surveys. Psychiatry Res. 2006 May 30; 142(1):11-7. PMID: 16712953.
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      188. Paulus M, Frank LR. Anterior cingulate activity modulates nonlinear decision weight function of uncertain prospects. Neuroimage. 2006 Apr 01; 30(2):668-77. PMID: 16321546.
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      189. Simmons A, Stein MB, Matthews SC, Feinstein JS, Paulus M. Affective ambiguity for a group recruits ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Neuroimage. 2006 Jan 15; 29(2):655-61. PMID: 16125977.
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      190. Reiss JP, Campbell DW, Leslie WD, Paulus M, Stroman PW, Polimeni JO, Malcolmson KA, Sareen J. The role of the striatum in implicit learning: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 22; 16(12):1291-5. PMID: 16056127.
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      191. Ernst M, Paulus M. Neurobiology of decision making: a selective review from a neurocognitive and clinical perspective. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Oct 15; 58(8):597-604. PMID: 16095567.
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      192. Simmons A, Miller D, Feinstein JS, Goldberg TE, Paulus M. Left inferior prefrontal cortex activation during a semantic decision-making task predicts the degree of semantic organization. Neuroimage. 2005 Oct 15; 28(1):30-8. PMID: 16009569.
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      193. Vollenweider FX, Liechti ME, Paulus M. MDMA affects both error-rate dependent and independent aspects of decision-making in a two-choice prediction task. J Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jul; 19(4):366-74. PMID: 15982991.
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      194. Paulus M, Tapert SF, Schuckit MA. Neural activation patterns of methamphetamine-dependent subjects during decision making predict relapse. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Jul; 62(7):761-8. PMID: 15997017.
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      195. Matthews SC, Simmons AN, Arce E, Paulus M. Dissociation of inhibition from error processing using a parametric inhibitory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroreport. 2005 May 12; 16(7):755-60. PMID: 15858420.
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      196. Anderson KG, Schweinsburg A, Paulus M, Brown SA, Tapert S. Examining personality and alcohol expectancies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with adolescents. J Stud Alcohol. 2005 May; 66(3):323-31. PMID: 16047521; PMCID: PMC2270701.
      197. Paulus M, Feinstein JS, Leland D, Simmons AN. Superior temporal gyrus and insula provide response and outcome-dependent information during assessment and action selection in a decision-making situation. Neuroimage. 2005 Apr 01; 25(2):607-15. PMID: 15784440.
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      198. Paulus M. Neurobiology of decision-making: quo vadis? Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005 Apr; 23(1):2-10. PMID: 15795129.
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      199. Paulus M, Feinstein JS, Castillo G, Simmons AN, Stein MB. Dose-dependent decrease of activation in bilateral amygdala and insula by lorazepam during emotion processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Mar; 62(3):282-8. PMID: 15753241.
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      200. Filoteo JV, Maddox WT, Simmons AN, Ing AD, Cagigas XE, Matthews S, Paulus M. Cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in rule-based category learning. Neuroreport. 2005 Feb 08; 16(2):111-5. PMID: 15671857.
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      201. Leland DS, Paulus M. Increased risk-taking decision-making but not altered response to punishment in stimulant-using young adults. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Apr 04; 78(1):83-90. PMID: 15769561.
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      202. Tapert SF, Pulido C, Paulus M, Schuckit MA, Burke C. Level of response to alcohol and brain response during visual working memory. J Stud Alcohol. 2004 Nov; 65(6):692-700. PMID: 15700505.
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      203. Minassian A, Paulus M, Perry W. Increased sensitivity to error during decision-making in bipolar disorder patients with acute mania. J Affect Disord. 2004 Oct 15; 82(2):203-8. PMID: 15488248.
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      204. Simmons A, Matthews SC, Stein MB, Paulus M. Anticipation of emotionally aversive visual stimuli activates right insula. Neuroreport. 2004 Oct 05; 15(14):2261-5. PMID: 15371746.
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      205. Matthews SC, Simmons AN, Lane SD, Paulus M. Selective activation of the nucleus accumbens during risk-taking decision making. Neuroreport. 2004 Sep 15; 15(13):2123-7. PMID: 15486494.
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      206. Powell SB, Geyer MA, Gallagher D, Paulus M. The balance between approach and avoidance behaviors in a novel object exploration paradigm in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2004 Jul 09; 152(2):341-9. PMID: 15196802.
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      207. Matthews SC, Paulus M, Simmons AN, Nelesen RA, Dimsdale JE. Functional subdivisions within anterior cingulate cortex and their relationship to autonomic nervous system function. Neuroimage. 2004 Jul; 22(3):1151-6. PMID: 15219587.
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      208. Matthews SC, Paulus M, Dimsdale JE. Contribution of functional neuroimaging to understanding neuropsychiatric side effects of interferon in hepatitis C. Psychosomatics. 2004 Jul-Aug; 45(4):281-6. PMID: 15232040.
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      209. Paulus M, Feinstein JS, Simmons A, Stein MB. Anterior cingulate activation in high trait anxious subjects is related to altered error processing during decision making. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jun 15; 55(12):1179-87. PMID: 15184037.
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      210. Feinstein JS, Stein MB, Castillo GN, Paulus M. From sensory processes to conscious perception. Conscious Cogn. 2004 Jun; 13(2):323-35. PMID: 15134763.
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      211. Schweinsburg AD, Paulus M, Barlett VC, Killeen LA, Caldwell LC, Pulido C, Brown SA, Tapert SF. An FMRI study of response inhibition in youths with a family history of alcoholism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun; 1021:391-4. PMID: 15251915.
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      212. Paulus M, Feinstein JS, Tapert SF, Liu TT. Trend detection via temporal difference model predicts inferior prefrontal cortex activation during acquisition of advantageous action selection. Neuroimage. 2004 Feb; 21(2):733-43. PMID: 14980576.
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      213. Powell SB, Lehmann-Masten VD, Paulus M, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG, Geyer MA. MDMA "ecstasy" alters hyperactive and perseverative behaviors in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 May; 173(3-4):310-7. PMID: 14747902.
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      214. Ludewig S, Paulus M, Ludewig K, Vollenweider FX. Decision-making strategies by panic disorder subjects are more sensitive to errors. J Affect Disord. 2003 Sep; 76(1-3):183-9. PMID: 12943948.
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      215. Paulus M, Rogalsky C, Simmons A, Feinstein JS, Stein MB. Increased activation in the right insula during risk-taking decision making is related to harm avoidance and neuroticism. Neuroimage. 2003 Aug; 19(4):1439-48. PMID: 12948701.
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      216. Ludewig K, Paulus M, Vollenweider FX. Behavioural dysregulation of decision-making in deficit but not nondeficit schizophrenia patients. Psychiatry Res. 2003 Aug 01; 119(3):293-306. PMID: 12914900.
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      217. Paulus M, Frank LR. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation is critical for preference judgments. Neuroreport. 2003 Jul 18; 14(10):1311-5. PMID: 12876463.
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      218. Tapert SF, Cheung EH, Brown GG, Frank LR, Paulus M, Schweinsburg AD, Meloy MJ, Brown SA. Neural response to alcohol stimuli in adolescents with alcohol use disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Jul; 60(7):727-35. PMID: 12860777.
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      219. Verney SP, Brown GG, Frank L, Paulus M. Error-rate-related caudate and parietal cortex activation during decision making. Neuroreport. 2003 May 23; 14(7):923-8. PMID: 12802176.
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      220. Powell SB, Paulus M, Hartman DS, Godel T, Geyer MA. RO-10-5824 is a selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist that increases novel object exploration in C57 mice. Neuropharmacology. 2003 Mar; 44(4):473-81. PMID: 12646284.
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      221. Ralph-Williams RJ, Paulus M, Zhuang X, Hen R, Geyer MA. Valproate attenuates hyperactive and perseverative behaviors in mutant mice with a dysregulated dopamine system. Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Feb 15; 53(4):352-9. PMID: 12586455.
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      222. Eyler Zorrilla LT, Jeste DV, Paulus M, Brown GG. Functional abnormalities of medial temporal cortex during novel picture learning among patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2003 Feb 01; 59(2-3):187-98. PMID: 12414075.
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      223. Paulus M, Braff DL. Chaos and schizophrenia: does the method fit the madness? Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Jan 01; 53(1):3-11. PMID: 12513940.
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      224. Paulus M, Hozack N, Frank L, Brown GG, Schuckit MA. Decision making by methamphetamine-dependent subjects is associated with error-rate-independent decrease in prefrontal and parietal activation. Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Jan 01; 53(1):65-74. PMID: 12513946.
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      225. Paulus M, Frank L, Brown GG, Braff DL. Schizophrenia subjects show intact success-related neural activation but impaired uncertainty processing during decision-making. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Apr; 28(4):795-806. PMID: 12655327.
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      226. Feinstein JS, Goldin PR, Stein MB, Brown GG, Paulus M. Habituation of attentional networks during emotion processing. Neuroreport. 2002 Jul 19; 13(10):1255-8. PMID: 12151781.
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      227. Paulus M, Hozack NE, Zauscher BE, Frank L, Brown GG, McDowell J, Braff DL. Parietal dysfunction is associated with increased outcome-related decision-making in schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jun 15; 51(12):995-1004. PMID: 12062884.
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      228. Paulus M, Hozack N, Frank L, Brown GG. Error rate and outcome predictability affect neural activation in prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during decision-making. Neuroimage. 2002 Apr; 15(4):836-46. PMID: 11906224.
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      229. McDowell JE, Brown GG, Paulus M, Martinez A, Stewart SE, Dubowitz DJ, Braff DL. Neural correlates of refixation saccades and antisaccades in normal and schizophrenia subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Feb 01; 51(3):216-23. PMID: 11839364.
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      230. Paulus M, Hozack NE, Zauscher BE, Frank L, Brown GG, Braff DL, Schuckit MA. Behavioral and functional neuroimaging evidence for prefrontal dysfunction in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Jan; 26(1):53-63. PMID: 11751032.
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