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    Jared Young

    TitleAssistant Adjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0804
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Dr. Young received his BSc. (Hons) in Psychology with Biology and his Ph.D. in Psychopharmacology in the Department of Neuroscience, at the University of Edinburgh, sponsored by the Fujisawa Institute for Neuroscience in Edinburgh. He worked for a year at Organon Laboratories in Scotland prior to his arrival at UCSD to conduct his Post-Doctoral training in 2006. This training was primarily with Profs. Mark Geyer and Dilip Jeste at the Consortium for Translational Research in Neuropsychopharmacology (www.ctrin.org), MIRECC San Diego VA (http://www.mirecc.va.gov/visn22), and the Stein Institute for Research on Aging (www.sira.ucsd.edu) respectively. Dr. Young became a Faculty member in 2009.

      Research Interests

      Dr. Young investigates the molecular biology and neural circuitry underlying behavioral abnormalities occurring in major neuropsychiatric disorders. Debilitating forms of mental illness are prevalent but treatment options for these disorders remain limited. For example, despite the fact that cognitive deficits are a major determinant of impaired function in these patients, there are no approved treatments. Despite molecular and genetic advances, treatment development has not kept pace. One major roadblock for treatment development has been the scarcity of effective cross-species models. Dr. Young uses cutting-edge neuroscience to develop novel and sophisticated cross-species models to identify targetable mechanisms to treat mental illnesses.

      Clinical Focus

      In order to examine the molecular biology and neural circuitry underlying behavioral abnormalities occurring in major neuropsychiatric disorders, we characterize such abnormalities using reverse-translated paradigms. For example, using the human 5-choice continuous performance task (originally developed for mice), we have characterized EEG and fMRI abnormalities that occur in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the impact smoking, and smoking cessation, has on attentive properties. By identifying neural mechanisms in patients and healthy subjects, these mechanisms can then be investigated in greater depth using the corresponding animal models.

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      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Cross-species studies of smoking effects on cognition and neuroinflammation in HIV
      NIH/NIDA R01DA044909Aug 1, 2017 - Jul 31, 2022
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Neurophysiological biomarkers of behavioral dimensions from cross-species paradigms
      NIH/NIMH UH2MH109168Apr 1, 2016 - Mar 31, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Oxytocin as a therapeutic target for Schizophrenia
      NIH/NIMH R01MH103421Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 31, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      A model organism of brain circuitry and behavioral switching for bipolar disorder
      NIH/NIMH R01MH104344Jul 1, 2014 - Jun 30, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Alpha 7 nicotinic receptor-mediated enhancement of reinforcement learning
      NIH/NIMH R21MH101579Apr 1, 2014 - Mar 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Visuospatial priming in rats: A novel animal model for Tourette Syndrome
      NIH/NIMH R21MH091571Jul 21, 2010 - Apr 30, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      The rodent continuous performance task: Filling the vigilance translational gap
      NIH/NIMH R21MH085221Jul 7, 2009 - Jun 30, 2012
      Role: Principal Investigator

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Young J, Cope ZA, Romoli B, Schrurs E. Mice with reduced DAT levels recreate seasonal-induced switching between states in bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Feb 27. PMID: 29520059.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Kwiatkowski MA, Hellemann G, Sugar CA, Cope ZA, Minassian A, Perry W, Geyer MA, Young J. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice in the behavioral pattern monitor: A robust, reproducible model for mania-relevant behaviors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2017 Dec 28. PMID: 29289701.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Milienne-Petiot M, Groenink L, Minassian A, Young J. Blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors attenuates the mania-like hyperactive, risk-preferring, and high motivation behavioral profile of mice with low dopamine transporter levels. J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Sep 01; 269881117731162. PMID: 28950781.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Cope ZA, Minassian A, Kreitner D, MacQueen DA, Milienne-Petiot M, Geyer MA, Perry W, Young J. Modafinil improves attentional performance in healthy, non-sleep deprived humans at doses not inducing hyperarousal across species. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Oct; 125:254-262. PMID: 28774856.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Bhakta SG, Young J. The 5 choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT): A novel tool to assess cognitive control across species. J Neurosci Methods. 2017 Jul 25. PMID: 28754432.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Bismark AW, Thomas ML, Tarasenko M, Shiluk AL, Rackelmann SY, Young J, Light GA. Relationship between effortful motivation and neurocognition in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2017 Jun 30. PMID: 28673753.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Barnes SA, Der-Avakian A, Young J. Preclinical Models to Investigate Mechanisms of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2017 Jun 06. PMID: 28586462.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Pletnikov M, Young J, Hall FS, Kent S, Brigman JL. Introduction to the special issue from the 2015 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017 Mar 11. PMID: 28300550.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Milienne-Petiot M, Geyer MA, Arnt J, Young J. Brexpiprazole reduces hyperactivity, impulsivity, and risk-preference behavior in mice with dopamine transporter knockdown-a model of mania. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Mar; 234(6):1017-1028. PMID: 28160035.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Higa KK, Young J, Ji B, Nichols DE, Geyer MA, Zhou X. Striatal dopamine D1 receptor suppression impairs reward-associative learning. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Apr 14; 323:100-110. PMID: 28143767.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Cope ZA, Young J. The Five-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT): A Cross-Species Relevant Paradigm for Assessment of Vigilance and Response Inhibition in Rodents. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2017 Jan 03; 78:9.56.1-9.56.18. PMID: 28046200.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Young J, Bismark AW, Sun Y, Zhang W, McIlwain M, Grootendorst I, Light GA. Neurophysiological Characterization of Attentional Performance Dysfunction in Schizophrenia Patients in a Reverse-Translated Task. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 May; 42(6):1338-1348. PMID: 27917869.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Khan A, de Jong LA, Kamenski ME, Higa KK, Lucero JD, Young J, Behrens MM, Powell SB. Adolescent GBR12909 exposure induces oxidative stress, disrupts parvalbumin-positive interneurons, and leads to hyperactivity and impulsivity in adult mice. Neuroscience. 2017 Mar 14; 345:166-175. PMID: 27890827.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Young J, Winstanley CA, Brady AM, Hall FS. Research Domain Criteria versus DSM V: How does this debate affect attempts to model corticostriatal dysfunction in animals? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Nov 5. PMID: 27826070.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Milienne-Petiot M, Kesby JP, Graves M, van Enkhuizen J, Semenova S, Minassian A, Markou A, Geyer MA, Young J. The effects of reduced dopamine transporter function and chronic lithium on motivation, probabilistic learning, and neurochemistry in mice: Modeling bipolar mania. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Feb; 113(Pt A):260-270. PMID: 27732870.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Cope ZA, Halberstadt AL, van Enkhuizen J, Flynn AD, Breier M, Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA, Young J. Premature responses in the five-choice serial reaction time task reflect rodents' temporal strategies: evidence from no-light and pharmacological challenges. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 Oct; 233(19-20):3513-25. PMID: 27534540; PMCID: PMC5023490 [Available on 10/01/17].
      17. Pillidge K, Porter AJ, Young J, Stanford SC. Perseveration by NK1R-/- ('knockout') mice is blunted by doses of methylphenidate that affect neither other aspects of their cognitive performance nor the behaviour of wild-type mice in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test. J Psychopharmacol. 2016 Sep; 30(9):837-47. PMID: 27097734; PMCID: PMC4994704.
      18. Landgraf D, Joiner WJ, McCarthy MJ, Kiessling S, Barandas R, Young J, Cermakian N, Welsh DK. The mood stabilizer valproic acid opposes the effects of dopamine on circadian rhythms. Neuropharmacology. 2016 Aug; 107:262-270. PMID: 27033596.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Halberstadt AL, Sindhunata IS, Scheffers K, Flynn AD, Sharp RF, Geyer MA, Young J. Effect of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors on temporal discrimination by mice. Neuropharmacology. 2016 Aug; 107:364-375. PMID: 27020041.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Higa KK, Young J, Geyer MA. Wet or dry: translatable "water mazes" for mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2016 Feb; 126(2):477-9. PMID: 26784538; PMCID: PMC4731183 [Available on 02/01/17].
      21. Young J, Minassian A, Geyer MA. Locomotor Profiling from Rodents to the Clinic and Back Again. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2016; 28:287-303. PMID: 27418071.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Brigman JL, Young J, Pletnikov M, Kent S. Dispatches from the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society meeting 2014. Introduction. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Dec 15; 295:1-2. PMID: 26549148.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Amitai N, Powell S, Weber M, Swerdlow NR, Young J. Negative visuospatial priming in isolation-reared rats: Evidence of resistance to the disruptive effects of amphetamine. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2015 Dec; 15(4):901-14. PMID: 26220402; PMCID: PMC4641795 [Available on 12/01/16].
      24. Porter AJ, Pillidge K, Stanford SC, Young J. Differences in the performance of NK1R-/- ('knockout') and wildtype mice in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test. Behav Brain Res. 2016 Feb 01; 298(Pt B):268-77. PMID: 26522842; PMCID: PMC4683099.
      25. Young J, Hall FS, Pletnikov M, Kent S. Introduction to the special issue from the 2014 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Nov; 58:1-3. PMID: 26672720.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Minassian A, Young J, Cope ZA, Henry BL, Geyer MA, Perry W. Amphetamine increases activity but not exploration in humans and mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 Jan; 233(2):225-33. PMID: 26449721; PMCID: PMC4703551 [Available on 01/01/17].
      27. van Enkhuizen J, Geyer MA, Minassian A, Perry W, Henry BL, Young J. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models: Rodent and human studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Nov; 58:4-18. PMID: 26297513; PMCID: PMC4684462 [Available on 11/01/16].
      28. Horan WP, Reddy LF, Barch DM, Buchanan RW, Dunayevich E, Gold JM, Marder SR, Wynn JK, Young J, Green MF. Effort-Based Decision-Making Paradigms for Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia: Part 2—External Validity and Correlates. Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep; 41(5):1055-65. PMID: 26209546; PMCID: PMC4535650.
      29. Young J, Markou A. Translational Rodent Paradigms to Investigate Neuromechanisms Underlying Behaviors Relevant to Amotivation and Altered Reward Processing in Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep; 41(5):1024-34. PMID: 26194891; PMCID: PMC4535652.
      30. van Enkhuizen J, Milienne-Petiot M, Geyer MA, Young J. Modeling bipolar disorder in mice by increasing acetylcholine or dopamine: chronic lithium treats most, but not all features. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Sep; 232(18):3455-67. PMID: 26141192; PMCID: PMC4537820.
      31. Reddy LF, Horan WP, Barch DM, Buchanan RW, Dunayevich E, Gold JM, Lyons N, Marder SR, Treadway MT, Wynn JK, Young J, Green MF. Effort-Based Decision-Making Paradigms for Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia: Part 1—Psychometric Characteristics of 5 Paradigms. Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep; 41(5):1045-54. PMID: 26142081; PMCID: PMC4535649.
      32. Orsini CA, Moorman DE, Young J, Setlow B, Floresco SB. Neural mechanisms regulating different forms of risk-related decision-making: Insights from animal models. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Nov; 58:147-67. PMID: 26072028.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Hall FS, Der-Avakian A, Gould TJ, Markou A, Shoaib M, Young J. Negative affective states and cognitive impairments in nicotine dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Nov; 58:168-85. PMID: 26054790.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Higa KK, Ji B, Buell MR, Risbrough VB, Powell SB, Young J, Geyer MA, Zhou X. Restoration of Sp4 in Forebrain GABAergic Neurons Rescues Hypersensitivity to Ketamine in Sp4 Hypomorphic Mice. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Jun 02; 18(11):pyv063. PMID: 26037489; PMCID: PMC4756721.
      35. Powell SB, Khan A, Young J, Scott CN, Buell MR, Caldwell S, Tsan E, de Jong LA, Acheson DT, Lucero J, Geyer MA, Behrens MM. Early Adolescent Emergence of Reversal Learning Impairments in Isolation-Reared Rats. Dev Neurosci. 2015; 37(3):253-62. PMID: 26022788; PMCID: PMC4644772.
      36. Young J, Kamenski ME, Higa KK, Light GA, Geyer MA, Zhou X. GlyT-1 Inhibition Attenuates Attentional But Not Learning or Motivational Deficits of the Sp4 Hypomorphic Mouse Model Relevant to Psychiatric Disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Nov; 40(12):2715-26. PMID: 25907107; PMCID: PMC4864647 [Available on 11/01/16].
      37. Young J, Dulcis D. Investigating the mechanism(s) underlying switching between states in bipolar disorder. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Jul 15; 759:151-62. PMID: 25814263; PMCID: PMC4437855.
      38. Young J, Potter WZ, Riley S, Groeneveld GJ, Kinon BJ, Egan MF, Feltner DE. Translational and Early Phase Strategies for Treatment Development: Report of ISCTM Autumn 2013 Symposium. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2015 Mar-Apr; 12(3-4):5S-10S. PMID: 25977839; PMCID: PMC4571292.
      39. Kesby JP, Heaton RK, Young J, Umlauf A, Woods SP, Letendre SL, Markou A, Grant I, Semenova S. Methamphetamine Exposure Combined with HIV-1 Disease or gp120 Expression: Comparison of Learning and Executive Functions in Humans and Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jul; 40(8):1899-909. PMID: 25652249; PMCID: PMC4839513.
      40. Young J, Geyer MA. Developing treatments for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: the challenge of translation. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 Feb; 29(2):178-96. PMID: 25516372; PMCID: PMC4670265.
      41. van Enkhuizen J, Janowsky DS, Olivier B, Minassian A, Perry W, Young J, Geyer MA. The catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis of bipolar disorder revisited. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 15; 753:114-26. PMID: 25107282; PMCID: PMC4318788.
      42. van Enkhuizen J, Henry BL, Minassian A, Perry W, Milienne-Petiot M, Higa KK, Geyer MA, Young J. Reduced dopamine transporter functioning induces high-reward risk-preference consistent with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Dec; 39(13):3112-22. PMID: 25005251; PMCID: PMC4229584.
      43. Ji B, Higa KK, Kim M, Zhou L, Young J, Geyer MA, Zhou X. Inhibition of protein translation by the DISC1-Boymaw fusion gene from a Scottish family with major psychiatric disorders. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Nov 01; 23(21):5683-705. PMID: 24908665; PMCID: PMC4189903.
      44. Young J, Ratty A, Dawe GS, Geyer MA. Altered exploration and sensorimotor gating of the chakragati mouse model of schizophrenia. Behav Neurosci. 2014 Aug; 128(4):460-7. PMID: 24708299; PMCID: PMC4107138.
      45. Amitai N, Young J, Higa K, Sharp RF, Geyer MA, Powell SB. Isolation rearing effects on probabilistic learning and cognitive flexibility in rats. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2014 Mar; 14(1):388-406. PMID: 23943516; PMCID: PMC3923850.
      46. Henry BL, Geyer MA, Buell MR, Perry W, Young J, Minassian A. Prepulse inhibition in HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice after withdrawal from chronic methamphetamine. Behav Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 25(1):12-22. PMID: 24281153; PMCID: PMC3926694.
      47. van Enkhuizen J, Acheson D, Risbrough V, Drummond S, Geyer MA, Young J. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test: similarities between humans and mice. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Mar 15; 261:40-8. PMID: 24333377; PMCID: PMC3937379.
      48. van Enkhuizen J, Geyer MA, Halberstadt AL, Zhuang X, Young J. Dopamine depletion attenuates some behavioral abnormalities in a hyperdopaminergic mouse model of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb; 155:247-54. PMID: 24287168; PMCID: PMC3924859.
      49. Young J, Geyer MA. Evaluating the role of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 Oct 15; 86(8):1122-32. PMID: 23856289; PMCID: PMC3797190.
      50. Acheson DT, Twamley EW, Young J. Reward learning as a potential target for pharmacological augmentation of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: a roadmap for preclinical development. Front Neurosci. 2013; 7:103. PMID: 23785309; PMCID: PMC3684768.
      51. Ji B, Wang X, Pinto-Duarte A, Kim M, Caldwell S, Young J, Behrens MM, Sejnowski TJ, Geyer MA, Zhou X. Prolonged Ketamine Effects in Sp4 Hypomorphic Mice: Mimicking Phenotypes of Schizophrenia. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e66327. PMID: 23823008; PMCID: PMC3688895.
      52. Henry BL, Minassian A, Patt VM, Hua J, Young J, Geyer MA, Perry W. Inhibitory deficits in euthymic bipolar disorder patients assessed in the human behavioral pattern monitor. J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 25; 150(3):948-54. PMID: 23759280; PMCID: PMC3759601.
      53. van Enkhuizen J, Minassian A, Young J. Further evidence for Clock?19 mice as a model for bipolar disorder mania using cross-species tests of exploration and sensorimotor gating. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Jul 15; 249:44-54. PMID: 23623885; PMCID: PMC3672322.
      54. McKenna BS, Young J, Dawes SE, Asgaard GL, Eyler LT. Bridging the bench to bedside gap: validation of a reverse-translated rodent continuous performance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Jun 30; 212(3):183-91. PMID: 23570915.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Rissling AJ, Park SH, Young J, Rissling MB, Sugar CA, Sprock J, Mathias DJ, Pela M, Sharp RF, Braff DL, Light GA. Demand and modality of directed attention modulate "pre-attentive" sensory processes in schizophrenia patients and nonpsychiatric controls. Schizophr Res. 2013 May; 146(1-3):326-35. PMID: 23490760; PMCID: PMC3622836.
      56. Young J, Meves JM, Geyer MA. Nicotinic agonist-induced improvement of vigilance in mice in the 5-choice continuous performance test. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Mar 01; 240:119-33. PMID: 23201359; PMCID: PMC3538919.
      57. van Enkhuizen J, Geyer MA, Kooistra K, Young J. Chronic valproate attenuates some, but not all, facets of mania-like behaviour in mice. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Jun; 16(5):1021-31. PMID: 23164454; PMCID: PMC3920978.
      58. Young J, Jentsch JD, Bussey TJ, Wallace TL, Hutcheson DM. Consideration of species differences in developing novel molecules as cognition enhancers. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Nov; 37(9 Pt B):2181-93. PMID: 23064177; PMCID: PMC3594426.
      59. Amitai N, Weber M, Swerdlow NR, Sharp RF, Breier MR, Halberstadt AL, Young J. A novel visuospatial priming task for rats with relevance to Tourette syndrome and modulation of dopamine levels. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Jul; 37(6):1139-49. PMID: 23010529; PMCID: PMC3556379.
      60. van Enkhuizen J, Geyer MA, Young J. Differential effects of dopamine transporter inhibitors in the rodent Iowa gambling task: relevance to mania. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Feb; 225(3):661-74. PMID: 22945515; PMCID: PMC3537839.
      61. Henry BL, Geyer MA, Buell M, Perry W, Young J, Minassian A. Behavioral effects of chronic methamphetamine treatment in HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Jan 01; 236(1):210-20. PMID: 22960458; PMCID: PMC3482284.
      62. Abbs B, Achalia RM, Adelufosi AO, Aktener AY, Beveridge NJ, Bhakta SG, Blackman RK, Bora E, Byun MS, Cabanis M, Carrion R, Castellani CA, Chow TJ, Dmitrzak-Weglarz M, Gayer-Anderson C, Gomes FV, Haut K, Hori H, Kantrowitz JT, Kishimoto T, Lee FH, Lin A, Palaniyappan L, Quan M, Rubio MD, Ruiz de Azúa S, Sahoo S, Strauss GP, Szczepankiewicz A, Thompson AD, Trotta A, Tully LM, Uchida H, Velthorst E, Young J, O'Shea A, Delisi LE. The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, 14-18 April 2012, Florence, Italy: summaries of oral sessions. Schizophr Res. 2012 Oct; 141(1):e1-e24. PMID: 22910407; PMCID: PMC3877922.
      63. Tanaka S, Young J, Halberstadt AL, Masten VL, Geyer MA. Four factors underlying mouse behavior in an open field. Behav Brain Res. 2012 Jul 15; 233(1):55-61. PMID: 22569582; PMCID: PMC3866095.
      64. Harms LR, Turner KM, Eyles DW, Young J, McGrath JJ, Burne TH. Attentional processing in C57BL/6J mice exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35896. PMID: 22563415; PMCID: PMC3338544.
      65. Gilmour G, Arguello A, Bari A, Brown VJ, Carter C, Floresco SB, Jentsch DJ, Tait DS, Young J, Robbins TW. Measuring the construct of executive control in schizophrenia: defining and validating translational animal paradigms for discovery research. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Nov; 37(9 Pt B):2125-40. PMID: 22548905.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young J, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim CL. Hippocampal calbindin-1 immunoreactivity correlate of recognition memory performance in aged mice. Neurosci Lett. 2012 May 10; 516(1):161-5. PMID: 22503902; PMCID: PMC3338865.
      67. Brigman JL, Powell EM, Mittleman G, Young J. Examining the genetic and neural components of cognitive flexibility using mice. Physiol Behav. 2012 Dec 05; 107(5):666-9. PMID: 22234243; PMCID: PMC3337351.
      68. Young J, Amitai N, Geyer MA. Behavioral animal models to assess pro-cognitive treatments for schizophrenia. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012; (213):39-79. PMID: 23027412.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Young J, Henry BL, Geyer MA. Predictive animal models of mania: hits, misses and future directions. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Oct; 164(4):1263-84. PMID: 21410454; PMCID: PMC3229761.
      70. Minassian A, Henry BL, Young J, Masten V, Geyer MA, Perry W. Repeated assessment of exploration and novelty seeking in the human behavioral pattern monitor in bipolar disorder patients and healthy individuals. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e24185. PMID: 21912623; PMCID: PMC3166173.
      71. Tanaka S, Young J, Gresack JE, Geyer MA, Risbrough VB. Factor analysis of attentional set-shifting performance in young and aged mice. Behav Brain Funct. 2011 Aug 12; 7:33. PMID: 21838910; PMCID: PMC3174878.
      72. Young J, Meves JM, Tarantino IS, Caldwell S, Geyer MA. Delayed procedural learning in a7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2011 Oct; 10(7):720-33. PMID: 21679297; PMCID: PMC3918170.
      73. Young J, Powell SB, Geyer MA. Mouse pharmacological models of cognitive disruption relevant to schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Mar; 62(3):1381-90. PMID: 21726569; PMCID: PMC3217063.
      74. Young J, Powell SB, Scott CN, Zhou X, Geyer MA. The effect of reduced dopamine D4 receptor expression in the 5-choice continuous performance task: Separating response inhibition from premature responding. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 12; 222(1):183-92. PMID: 21458500; PMCID: PMC3531561.
      75. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young J, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim CL. Increased hippocampal accumulation of autophagosomes predicts short-term recognition memory impairment in aged mice. Age (Dordr). 2012 Apr; 34(2):305-16. PMID: 21431350; PMCID: PMC3312638.
      76. Young J, van Enkhuizen J, Winstanley CA, Geyer MA. Increased risk-taking behavior in dopamine transporter knockdown mice: further support for a mouse model of mania. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul; 25(7):934-43. PMID: 21421642; PMCID: PMC3568506.
      77. Young J, Kooistra K, Geyer MA. Dopamine receptor mediation of the exploratory/hyperactivity effects of modafinil. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jun; 36(7):1385-96. PMID: 21412225; PMCID: PMC3096808.
      78. Henry BL, Minassian A, van Rhenen M, Young J, Geyer MA, Perry W. Effect of methamphetamine dependence on inhibitory deficits in a novel human open-field paradigm. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Jun; 215(4):697-707. PMID: 21279333; PMCID: PMC3102201.
      79. Tarantino IS, Sharp RF, Geyer MA, Meves JM, Young J. Working memory span capacity improved by a D2 but not D1 receptor family agonist. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Jun 01; 219(2):181-8. PMID: 21232557; PMCID: PMC3073724.
      80. Ali SS, Young J, Wallace CK, Gresack J, Jeste DV, Geyer MA, Dugan LL, Risbrough VB. Initial evidence linking synaptic superoxide production with poor short-term memory in aged mice. Brain Res. 2011 Jan 12; 1368:65-70. PMID: 21075081; PMCID: PMC3018762.
      81. Minassian A, Young J. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of asenapine in schizophrenia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Aug; 11(12):2107-15. PMID: 20642375; PMCID: PMC2924192.
      82. Perry W, Minassian A, Henry B, Kincaid M, Young J, Geyer MA. Quantifying over-activity in bipolar and schizophrenia patients in a human open field paradigm. Psychiatry Res. 2010 Jun 30; 178(1):84-91. PMID: 20471103; PMCID: PMC2914139.
      83. Young J, Powell SB, Geyer MA, Jeste DV, Risbrough VB. The mouse attentional-set-shifting task: a method for assaying successful cognitive aging? Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2010 May; 10(2):243-51. PMID: 20498348; PMCID: PMC2877277.
      84. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young J, Wallace CK, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim CL. Short-term recognition memory impairment is associated with decreased expression of FK506 binding protein 51 in the aged mouse brain. Age (Dordr). 2010 Sep; 32(3):309-22. PMID: 20422297; PMCID: PMC2926850.
      85. Henry BL, Minassian A, Young J, Paulus MP, Geyer MA, Perry W. Cross-species assessments of motor and exploratory behavior related to bipolar disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010 Jul; 34(8):1296-306. PMID: 20398694; PMCID: PMC2900445.
      86. Young J, Goey AK, Minassian A, Perry W, Paulus MP, Geyer MA. The mania-like exploratory profile in genetic dopamine transporter mouse models is diminished in a familiar environment and reinstated by subthreshold psychostimulant administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Jul; 96(1):7-15. PMID: 20363246; PMCID: PMC2878916.
      87. Young J, Geyer MA. Action of modafinil--increased motivation via the dopamine transporter inhibition and D1 receptors? Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Apr 15; 67(8):784-7. PMID: 20132929; PMCID: PMC2849918.
      88. Young J, Wallace CK, Geyer MA, Risbrough VB. Age-associated improvements in cross-modal prepulse inhibition in mice. Behav Neurosci. 2010 Feb; 124(1):133-140. PMID: 20141288; PMCID: PMC3088993.
      89. Young J, Zhou X, Geyer MA. Animal models of schizophrenia. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010; 4:391-433. PMID: 21312408.
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      90. Minassian A, Henry BL, Geyer MA, Paulus MP, Young J, Perry W. The quantitative assessment of motor activity in mania and schizophrenia. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jan; 120(1-3):200-6. PMID: 19435640; PMCID: PMC2795051.
      91. Young J, Goey AK, Minassian A, Perry W, Paulus MP, Geyer MA. GBR 12909 administration as a mouse model of bipolar disorder mania: mimicking quantitative assessment of manic behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Feb; 208(3):443-54. PMID: 20020109; PMCID: PMC2806531.
      92. Perry W, Minassian A, Paulus MP, Young J, Kincaid MJ, Ferguson EJ, Henry BL, Zhuang X, Masten VL, Sharp RF, Geyer MA. A reverse-translational study of dysfunctional exploration in psychiatric disorders: from mice to men. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 66(10):1072-80. PMID: 19805697; PMCID: PMC2897252.
      93. Marston HM, Young J, Martin FD, Serpa KA, Moore CL, Wong EH, Gold L, Meltzer LT, Azar MR, Geyer MA, Shahid M. Asenapine effects in animal models of psychosis and cognitive function. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Nov; 206(4):699-714. PMID: 19462162; PMCID: PMC2755103.
      94. Young J, Powell SB, Risbrough V, Marston HM, Geyer MA. Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia. Pharmacol Ther. 2009 May; 122(2):150-202. PMID: 19269307; PMCID: PMC2688712.
      95. Young J. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor family contributions to modafinil-induced wakefulness. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 04; 29(9):2663-5. PMID: 19261860; PMCID: PMC2697968.
      96. Young J, Light GA, Marston HM, Sharp R, Geyer MA. The 5-choice continuous performance test: evidence for a translational test of vigilance for mice. PLoS One. 2009; 4(1):e4227. PMID: 19156216; PMCID: PMC2626630.
      97. Powell SB, Young J, Ong JC, Caron MG, Geyer MA. Atypical antipsychotics clozapine and quetiapine attenuate prepulse inhibition deficits in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Sep; 19(5-6):562-5. PMID: 18690110; PMCID: PMC2693185.
      98. Young J, Sharkey J, Finlayson K. Progressive impairment in olfactory working memory in a mouse model of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 2009 Sep; 30(9):1430-43. PMID: 18242780.
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      99. Young J, Minassian A, Paulus MP, Geyer MA, Perry W. A reverse-translational approach to bipolar disorder: rodent and human studies in the Behavioral Pattern Monitor. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2007; 31(6):882-96. PMID: 17706782; PMCID: PMC2025688.
      100. Young J, Kerr LE, Kelly JS, Marston HM, Spratt C, Finlayson K, Sharkey J. The odour span task: a novel paradigm for assessing working memory in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Feb; 52(2):634-45. PMID: 17097694.
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      101. Young J, Crawford N, Kelly JS, Kerr LE, Marston HM, Spratt C, Finlayson K, Sharkey J. Impaired attention is central to the cognitive deficits observed in alpha 7 deficient mice. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Jan 15; 17(2):145-55. PMID: 16650968.
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      102. Young J, Finlayson K, Spratt C, Marston HM, Crawford N, Kelly JS, Sharkey J. Nicotine improves sustained attention in mice: evidence for involvement of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 May; 29(5):891-900. PMID: 14970827.
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