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Robert Heaton

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentPsychiatry
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0603
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-534-4044
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    Biography

    Dr. Heaton received his B.S. in International Affairs from the U.S. Air Force Academy and his Ph.D in Clinical Psychology from the University of Washington. He was an Assistant and then Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from 1973 to 1987, before joining our faculty. In 1987 he became the UCSD Director of the SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, which recently has been ranked the #1 Clinical Psychology program in the U.S. by The Chronicle of Higher Education. Since 2005 he has been the Vice Chair for Academic Affairs for the Department.

    Research Interests

    Dr. Heaton’s research focuses on three areas: effects of HIV and comorbid conditions (methamphetamine use disorders, Hepatitis C co-infection) on the brain and behavior; psychometric issues in neuropsychology (cross cultural neuropsychology, demographic influences on test performance, developing demographically corrected test norms for accurate detection and characterization of CNS disorders, longitudinal measurement of treatment outcome and disease progression); and schizophrenia (detection of prodromal phase, effects of cognitive impairment on everyday functioning, and measuring outcomes of treatments aimed at such effects.

    Clinical Focus


    Clinical Information


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Age related determinants of HAND: A 12 year follow-up of CHARTER participants
    NIH/NIMH R01MH107345Sep 24, 2015 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Training in Research on Addictions in Interdisciplinary NeuroAIDS (TRAIN)
    NIH/NIDA T32DA031098Jul 1, 2011 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC)
    NIH/NIDA P50DA026306Dec 1, 2008 - May 31, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Neurobehavioral Effects of HIV &Host Genetics in China
    NIH/NIMH R01MH073433May 13, 2005 - Apr 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center
    NIH/NIMH P30MH062512Apr 24, 2001 - Feb 28, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NEUROAIDS: EFFECTS OF METHAMPHETAMINE AND HCV
    NIH/NIDA P01DA012065Jul 1, 1999 - Apr 30, 2011
    Role: Co-Investigator
    FUNCTIONAL IMPACT OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HIV
    NIH/NIMH R01MH057226May 1, 1997 - Apr 30, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CRC ON PSYCHOSIS AND ANTIPSYCHOTICS IN LATE LIFE
    NIH/NIMH P30MH049671Sep 30, 1992 - Aug 31, 2002
    Role: Co-Investigator
    HIV NEUROBEHAVIORAL RESEARCH CENTER
    NIH/NIMH P50MH045294Jun 1, 1989 - Nov 30, 2000
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Medina LD, Hirshberg L, Taylor MJ, Gilbert PE, Heaton R. Rates of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Automated Clinical Rating Approach. J Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Jun 18. PMID: 29916966.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Marquine MJ, Flores I, Kamat R, Johnson N, Umlauf A, Letendre S, Jeste D, Grant I, Moore D, Heaton R. A composite of multisystem injury and neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection: association with everyday functioning. J Neurovirol. 2018 May 17. PMID: 29777462.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Paolillo EW, McKenna BS, Nowinski CJ, Thomas ML, Malcarne VL, Heaton R. NIH Toolbox® Emotion Batteries for Children: Factor-Based Composites and Norms. Assessment. 2018 Apr 01; 1073191118766396. PMID: 29618218.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Babakhanyan I, McKenna BS, Casaletto KB, Nowinski CJ, Heaton R. National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery for English- and Spanish-speaking adults: normative data and factor-based summary scores. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2018; 9:115-127. PMID: 29588623.
      View in: PubMed
    5. de Almeida SM, de Pereira AP, Pedroso MLA, Ribeiro CE, Rotta I, Tang B, Umlauf A, Franklin D, Saloner RG, Batista MGR, Letendre S, Heaton R, Ellis RJ, Cherner M. Neurocognitive impairment with hepatitis C and HIV co-infection in Southern Brazil. J Neurovirol. 2018 Mar 07. PMID: 29516346.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Kabuba N, Menon JA, Franklin DR, Lydersen S, Heaton R, Hestad KA. Effect of age and level of education on neurocognitive impairment in HIV positive Zambian adults. Neuropsychology. 2018 Mar 05. PMID: 29504779.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Letendre S, Bharti A, Perez-Valero I, Hanson B, Franklin D, Woods SP, Gianella S, de Oliveira MF, Heaton R, Grant I, Landay AL, Lurain N. Higher Anti-CMV IgG Concentrations are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Performance During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 01. PMID: 29506084.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Patt VM, Brown GG, Thomas ML, Roesch SC, Taylor MJ, Heaton R. Factor Analysis of an Expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Structure of Neurocognition. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2018 Feb 01; 33(1):79-101. PMID: 28505273.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Carlozzi NE, Goodnight S, Umlauf A, Heaton R, Heinemann AW, Schalet BD, Gershon RC, Tulsky DS. Motor-free composites from the National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) for people with disabilities. Rehabil Psychol. 2017 Nov; 62(4):464-473. PMID: 29265867.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Nitsch KP, Casaletto KB, Carlozzi NE, Tulsky DS, Heinemann AW, Heaton R. Uncorrected versus demographically-corrected scores on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in persons with traumatic brain injury and stroke. Rehabil Psychol. 2017 Nov; 62(4):485-495. PMID: 29265869.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Cohen ML, Tulsky DS, Holdnack JA, Carlozzi NE, Wong A, Magasi S, Heaton R, Heinemann AW. Cognition among community-dwelling individuals with spinal cord injury. Rehabil Psychol. 2017 Nov; 62(4):425-434. PMID: 29265863.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Carlozzi NE, Tulsky DS, Wolf TJ, Goodnight S, Heaton R, Casaletto KB, Wong AWK, Baum CM, Gershon RC, Heinemann AW. Construct validity of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in individuals with stroke. Rehabil Psychol. 2017 Nov; 62(4):443-454. PMID: 29265865.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Tulsky DS, Carlozzi NE, Holdnack J, Heaton R, Wong A, Goldsmith A, Heinemann AW. Using the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Rehabil Psychol. 2017 Nov; 62(4):413-424. PMID: 29265862.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Tulsky DS, Holdnack JA, Cohen ML, Heaton R, Carlozzi NE, Wong AWK, Boulton AJ, Heinemann AW. Factor structure of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in individuals with acquired brain injury. Rehabil Psychol. 2017 Nov; 62(4):435-442. PMID: 29265864.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Magasi S, Harniss M, Tulsky DS, Cohen ML, Heaton R, Heinemann AW. Test accommodations for individuals with neurological conditions completing the NIH Toolbox-Cognition Battery: An evaluation of frequency and appropriateness. Rehabil Psychol. 2017 Nov; 62(4):455-463. PMID: 29265866.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Casaletto KB, Heaton R. Neuropsychological Assessment: Past and Future. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2017 Oct; 23(9-10):778-790. PMID: 29198281.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Marquine MJ, Heaton A, Johnson N, Rivera-Mindt M, Cherner M, Bloss C, Hulgan T, Umlauf A, Moore DJ, Fazeli P, Morgello S, Franklin D, Letendre S, Ellis R, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor N, Simpson D, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Heaton R. Differences in Neurocognitive Impairment Among HIV-Infected Latinos in the United States. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2018 Feb; 24(2):163-175. PMID: 28874213.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Yuen T, Brouillette MJ, Fellows LK, Ellis RJ, Letendre S, Heaton R, Mayo N. Personalized Risk Index for Neurocognitive Decline Among People With Well-Controlled HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 09 01; 76(1):48-54. PMID: 28797021.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Twamley EW, Thomas KR, Burton CZ, Vella L, Jeste DV, Heaton R, McGurk SR. Compensatory cognitive training for people with severe mental illnesses in supported employment: A randomized controlled trial. Schizophr Res. 2017 Aug 17. PMID: 28823720.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Kamat R, McCutchan A, Kumarasamy N, Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, Selvamuthu P, Meyer R, Letendre S, Heaton R, Bharti AR. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV-positive adults in southern India. J Neurovirol. 2017 Oct; 23(5):750-755. PMID: 28681344.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Johnson NX, Marquine MJ, Flores I, Umlauf A, Baum CM, Wong AWK, Young AC, Manly JJ, Heinemann AW, Magasi S, Heaton R. Racial Differences in Neurocognitive Outcomes Post-Stroke: The Impact of Healthcare Variables. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2017 Sep; 23(8):640-652. PMID: 28660849.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Yu C, Seaton M, Letendre S, Heaton R, Al-Harthi L. Plasma dickkopf-related protein 1, an antagonist of the Wnt pathway, is associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. AIDS. 2017 Jun 19; 31(10):1379-1385. PMID: 28358733.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Kabuba N, Anitha Menon J, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Hestad KA. Use of Western Neuropsychological Test Battery in Detecting HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) in Zambia. AIDS Behav. 2017 Jun; 21(6):1717-1727. PMID: 27278547.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Jia P, Zhao Z, Hulgan T, Bush WS, Samuels DC, Bloss CS, Heaton R, Ellis RJ, Schork N, Marra CM, Collier AC, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor N, Morgello S, Simpson DM, McCutchan JA, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Franklin DR, Rosario D, Letendre SL, Grant I, Kallianpur AR. Genome-wide association study of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND): A CHARTER group study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2017 Jun; 174(4):413-426. PMID: 28447399.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Mehta SR, Pérez-Santiago J, Hulgan T, Day TR, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Gittleman H, Letendre S, Ellis R, Heaton R, Patton S, Suben JD, Franklin D, Rosario D, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Marra CM, Gelman BB, McArthur J, McCutchan A, Morgello S, Simpson D, Connor J, Grant I, Kallianpur A. Cerebrospinal fluid cell-free mitochondrial DNA is associated with HIV replication, iron transport, and mild HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Mar 31; 14(1):72. PMID: 28359324.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Minassian A, Henry BL, Iudicello JE, Morgan EE, Letendre SL, Heaton R, Perry W. Everyday functional ability in HIV and methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 06 01; 175:60-66. PMID: 28399475.
      View in: PubMed
    27. de Almeida SM, Kamat R, Cherner M, Umlauf A, Ribeiro CE, de Pereira AP, Franklin D, Heaton R, Ellis RJ. Improving Detection of HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale and a Brief Screening Battery. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 03 01; 74(3):332-338. PMID: 27828876.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Kanmogne GD, Qiu F, Ntone FE, Fonsah JY, Njamnshi DM, Kuate CT, Doh RF, Kengne AM, Tagny CT, Nchindap E, Kenmogne L, Mbanya D, Cherner M, Heaton R, Njamnshi AK. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171956. PMID: 28231258.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Fonsah JY, Njamnshi AK, Kouanfack C, Qiu F, Njamnshi DM, Tagny CT, Nchindap E, Kenmogne L, Mbanya D, Heaton R, Kanmogne GD. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Association with Opportunistic Infections, Depression, ART Regimen and Side Effects. PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0170893. PMID: 28141867.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Flores I, Casaletto KB, Marquine MJ, Umlauf A, Moore DJ, Mungas D, Gershon RC, Beaumont JL, Heaton R. Performance of Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: the roles of ethnicity and language backgrounds. Clin Neuropsychol. 2017 May; 31(4):783-797. PMID: 28080261.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Moore RC, Kaufmann CN, Rooney AS, Moore DJ, Eyler LT, Granholm E, Woods SP, Swendsen J, Heaton R, Scott JC, Depp CA. Feasibility and Acceptability of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Functioning Among Older Adults with HIV. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Aug; 25(8):829-840. PMID: 28065496.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Wagner GA, Chaillon A, Liu S, Franklin DR, Caballero G, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Vaida F, Heaton R, Letendre SL, Grant I, Richman DD, Smith DM. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is associated with HIV-1 dual infection. AIDS. 2016 Nov 13; 30(17):2591-2597. PMID: 27536983.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Bharti AR, McCutchan A, Deutsch R, Smith DM, Ellis RJ, Cherner M, Woods SP, Heaton R, Grant I, Letendre SL. Latent Toxoplasma Infection and Higher Toxoplasma gondii Immunoglobulin G Levels Are Associated With Worse Neurocognitive Functioning in HIV-Infected Adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 15; 63(12):1655-1660. PMID: 27794019.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Anderson AM, Muñoz-Moreno JA, McClernon DR, Ellis RJ, Cookson D, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Gelman BB, Marra CM, McArthur JC, McCutchan JA, Morgello S, Sacktor N, Simpson DM, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Grant I, Letendre SL. Prevalence and Correlates of Persistent HIV-1 RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid During Antiretroviral Therapy. J Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 01; 215(1):105-113. PMID: 27789723.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Bischoff-Grethe A, Connolly CG, Jordan SJ, Brown GG, Paulus MP, Tapert SF, Heaton R, Woods SP, Grant I. Altered reward expectancy in individuals with recent methamphetamine dependence. J Psychopharmacol. 2017 01; 31(1):17-30. PMID: 27649775.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Obermeit LC, Beltran J, Casaletto KB, Franklin DR, Letendre S, Ellis R, Fennema-Notestine C, Vaida F, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford D, Gelman B, Sacktor N, Morgello S, Simpson D, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Heaton R. Evaluating the accuracy of self-report for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND): defining "symptomatic" versus "asymptomatic" HAND. J Neurovirol. 2017 02; 23(1):67-78. PMID: 27557777.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Kabuba N, Menon JA, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Hestad KA. HIV- and AIDS-associated neurocognitive functioning in Zambia - a perspective based on differences between the genders. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016; 12:2021-8. PMID: 27570456; PMCID: PMC4986908.
    38. Edén A, Marcotte TD, Heaton R, Nilsson S, Zetterberg H, Fuchs D, Franklin D, Price RW, Grant I, Letendre SL, Gisslén M. Increased Intrathecal Immune Activation in Virally Suppressed HIV-1 Infected Patients with Neurocognitive Impairment. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0157160. PMID: 27295036; PMCID: PMC4905676.
    39. Marquine MJ, Montoya JL, Umlauf A, Fazeli PL, Gouaux B, Heaton R, Ellis RJ, Letendre SL, Grant I, Moore DJ. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and Neurocognitive Change: A Longitudinal Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 01; 63(5):694-702. PMID: 27199461; PMCID: PMC4981756 [Available on 09/01/17].
    40. Brouillette MJ, Yuen T, Fellows LK, Cysique LA, Heaton R, Mayo NE. Identifying Neurocognitive Decline at 36 Months among HIV-Positive Participants in the CHARTER Cohort Using Group-Based Trajectory Analysis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155766. PMID: 27191850; PMCID: PMC4871455.
    41. Bharti AR, Woods SP, Ellis RJ, Cherner M, Rosario D, Potter M, Heaton R, Everall IP, Masliah E, Grant I, Letendre SL. Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with HIV disease, methamphetamine use, and neurocognitive functioning. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2016; 8:93-9. PMID: 27199571; PMCID: PMC4857802.
    42. Casaletto KB, Umlauf A, Marquine M, Beaumont JL, Mungas D, Gershon R, Slotkin J, Akshoomoff N, Heaton R. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the Spanish Language Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2016 Mar; 22(3):364-74. PMID: 26817924.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Casaletto KB, Moore DJ, Woods SP, Umlauf A, Scott JC, Heaton R. Abbreviated Goal Management Training Shows Preliminary Evidence as a Neurorehabilitation Tool for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders among Substance Users. Clin Neuropsychol. 2016; 30(1):107-30. PMID: 26753986; PMCID: PMC4801659.
    44. Fazeli PL, Moore DJ, Franklin DR, Umlauf A, Heaton R, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor NC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Letendre SL. Lower CSF Aß is Associated with HAND in HIV-Infected Adults with a Family History of Dementia. Curr HIV Res. 2016; 14(4):324-30. PMID: 26673902.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Casaletto KB, Kwan S, Montoya JL, Obermeit LC, Gouaux B, Poquette A, Heaton R, Atkinson JH, Moore DJ. Predictors of psychotropic medication adherence among HIV+ individuals living with bipolar disorder. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2016; 51(1):69-83. PMID: 26681237.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Kallianpur AR, Wang Q, Jia P, Hulgan T, Zhao Z, Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Heaton R, Franklin DR, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, McCutchan JA, Grant I. Anemia and Red Blood Cell Indices Predict HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era. J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 01; 213(7):1065-73. PMID: 26690344; PMCID: PMC4779306 [Available on 04/01/17].
    47. Grant I, Heaton R. Ralph M. Reitan: A Founding Father of Neuropsychology. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2015 Dec; 30(8):760-1. PMID: 26590078; PMCID: PMC4675827 [Available on 12/01/16].
    48. Shi C, Kang L, Yao S, Ma Y, Li T, Liang Y, Cheng Z, Xu Y, Shi J, Xu X, Zhang C, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Jin H, Yu X. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB): Co-norming and standardization in China. Schizophr Res. 2015 Dec; 169(1-3):109-115. PMID: 26441005; PMCID: PMC4916953 [Available on 12/01/16].
    49. Ma Q, Vaida F, Wong J, Sanders CA, Kao YT, Croteau D, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Gelman BB, Marra CM, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Heaton R, Grant I, Letendre SL. Long-term efavirenz use is associated with worse neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected patients. J Neurovirol. 2016 Apr; 22(2):170-8. PMID: 26407716; PMCID: PMC4783211 [Available on 04/01/17].
    50. Day TR, Smith DM, Heaton R, Franklin D, Tilghman MW, Letendre S, Jin H, Wu Z, Shi C, Yu X, Pérez-Santiago J. Subtype associations with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in China. J Neurovirol. 2016 Apr; 22(2):246-50. PMID: 26306690; PMCID: PMC4769127 [Available on 04/01/17].
    51. Rosewall T, Bayley A, Catton C, Chung P, Currie G, Heaton R, Wheat J, Milosevic M. Delineating the inner bladder surface using uniform contractions from the outer surface under variable bladder filling conditions. Br J Radiol. 2015 Sep; 88(1053):20140818. PMID: 26206519; PMCID: PMC4743562.
    52. Hestad KA, Menon JA, Serpell R, Kalungwana L, Mwaba SO, Kabuba N, Franklin DR, Umlauf A, Letendre S, Heaton R. Do neuropsychological test norms from African Americans in the United States generalize to a Zambian population? Psychol Assess. 2016 Jan; 28(1):18-38. PMID: 26146950; PMCID: PMC4703578 [Available on 01/01/17].
    53. Hulgan T, Samuels DC, Bush W, Ellis RJ, Letendre SL, Heaton R, Franklin DR, Straub P, Murdock DG, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Gelman BB, Marra CM, McArthur JC, McCutchan JA, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Grant I, Kallianpur AR. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Neurocognitive Impairment During HIV Infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 01; 61(9):1476-84. PMID: 26129753; PMCID: PMC4599391 [Available on 11/01/16].
    54. Casaletto KB, Umlauf A, Beaumont J, Gershon R, Slotkin J, Akshoomoff N, Heaton R. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the English Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2015 May; 21(5):378-91. PMID: 26030001; PMCID: PMC4490030.
    55. Ipser JC, Brown GG, Bischoff-Grethe A, Connolly CG, Ellis RJ, Heaton R, Grant I. HIV infection is associated with attenuated frontostriatal intrinsic connectivity: a preliminary study. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2015 Mar; 21(3):203-13. PMID: 25824201; PMCID: PMC4400233.
    56. Ghate M, Mehendale S, Meyer R, Umlauf A, Deutsch R, Kamat R, Thakar M, Risbud A, Kulkarni S, Sakamoto M, Alexander T, Franklin D, Letendre S, Heaton R, Grant I, Marcotte TD. The effects of antiretroviral treatment initiation on cognition in HIV-infected individuals with advanced disease in Pune, India. J Neurovirol. 2015 Aug; 21(4):391-8. PMID: 25750072; PMCID: PMC4512904.
    57. Sattler FR, He J, Letendre S, Wilson C, Sanders C, Heaton R, Ellis R, Franklin D, Aldrovandi G, Marra CM, Clifford D, Morgello S, Grant I, McCutchan JA. Abdominal obesity contributes to neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients with increased inflammation and immune activation. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Mar 01; 68(3):281-8. PMID: 25469522.
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    58. Kesby JP, Heaton R, Young JW, Umlauf A, Woods SP, Letendre SL, Markou A, Grant I, Semenova S. Methamphetamine Exposure Combined with HIV-1 Disease or gp120 Expression: Comparison of Learning and Executive Functions in Humans and Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jul; 40(8):1899-909. PMID: 25652249; PMCID: PMC4839513.
    59. Heaton R, Franklin DR, Deutsch R, Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Casaletto K, Marquine MJ, Woods SP, Vaida F, Atkinson JH, Marcotte TD, McCutchan JA, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor N, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Abramson I, Gamst A, Fennema-Notestine C, Smith DM, Grant I. Reply to Haddow et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 May 01; 60(9):1442-3. PMID: 25645217; PMCID: PMC4415055.
    60. Kamat R, Cattie JE, Marcotte TD, Woods SP, Franklin DR, Corkran SH, Ellis RJ, Grant I, Heaton R. Incident major depressive episodes increase the severity and risk of apathy in HIV infection. J Affect Disord. 2015 Apr 01; 175:475-80. PMID: 25679203; PMCID: PMC4386921.
    61. Clifford DB, Vaida F, Kao YT, Franklin DR, Letendre SL, Collier AC, Marra CM, Gelman BB, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Grant I, Heaton R. Absence of neurocognitive effect of hepatitis C infection in HIV-coinfected people. Neurology. 2015 Jan 20; 84(3):241-50. PMID: 25503616; PMCID: PMC4335996.
    62. Hobkirk AL, Starosta AJ, De Leo JA, Marra CM, Heaton R, Earleywine M. Psychometric validation of the BDI-II among HIV-positive CHARTER study participants. Psychol Assess. 2015 Jun; 27(2):457-66. PMID: 25419643; PMCID: PMC4442079.
    63. Heaton R, Franklin DR, Deutsch R, Letendre S, Ellis RJ, Casaletto K, Marquine MJ, Woods SP, Vaida F, Atkinson JH, Marcotte TD, McCutchan JA, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor N, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Abramson I, Gamst AC, Fennema-Notestine C, Smith DM, Grant I. Neurocognitive change in the era of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy: the longitudinal CHARTER study. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 01; 60(3):473-80. PMID: 25362201; PMCID: PMC4303775.
    64. Cattie JE, Letendre SL, Woods SP, Barakat F, Perry W, Cherner M, Umlauf A, Franklin D, Heaton R, Hassanein T, Grant I. Persistent neurocognitive decline in a clinic sample of hepatitis C virus-infected persons receiving interferon and ribavirin treatment. J Neurovirol. 2014 Dec; 20(6):561-70. PMID: 25326107; PMCID: PMC4367960.
    65. Casaletto KB, Cattie J, Franklin DR, Moore DJ, Woods SP, Grant I, Heaton R. The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest "holds" in HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2014; 36(9):992-1001. PMID: 25283135; PMCID: PMC4241141.
    66. Kamat R, Brown GG, Bolden K, Fennema-Notestein C, Archibald S, Marcotte TD, Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Woods SP, Grant I, Heaton R. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2014; 36(8):854-66. PMID: 25275424; PMCID: PMC4303236.
    67. Dikmen SS, Bauer PJ, Weintraub S, Mungas D, Slotkin J, Beaumont JL, Gershon R, Temkin NR, Heaton R. Measuring episodic memory across the lifespan: NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Jul; 20(6):611-9. PMID: 24960230; PMCID: PMC4254833.
    68. Heaton R, Akshoomoff N, Tulsky D, Mungas D, Weintraub S, Dikmen S, Beaumont J, Casaletto KB, Conway K, Slotkin J, Gershon R. Reliability and validity of composite scores from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Jul; 20(6):588-98. PMID: 24960398; PMCID: PMC4103963.
    69. Weintraub S, Dikmen SS, Heaton R, Tulsky DS, Zelazo PD, Slotkin J, Carlozzi NE, Bauer PJ, Wallner-Allen K, Fox N, Havlik R, Beaumont JL, Mungas D, Manly JJ, Moy C, Conway K, Edwards E, Nowinski CJ, Gershon R. The cognition battery of the NIH toolbox for assessment of neurological and behavioral function: validation in an adult sample. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Jul; 20(6):567-78. PMID: 24959840; PMCID: PMC4103959.
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