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George Koob

TitleAdjunct Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentSchool of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0109
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-784-7062
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Gene Network Perturbations in Alcohol Dependence - A Systems Biology Approach
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA021667Sep 5, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    The Role of Brain Stress Systems in the Prefrontal Cortex in Compulsive Drinking
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA020608Aug 1, 2011 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Compulsive Drug Intake
    NIH/NIDA R21DA029821Apr 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Central mechanisms of nicotine reinforcement and dependence
    NIH/NIDA R01DA023597Apr 5, 2008 - Jan 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism
    NIH/NIAAA U01AA013517Sep 27, 2001 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Dopamine Partial Agonists and Psychostimulant Dependence
    NIH/NIDA R01DA010072Aug 15, 1997 - Mar 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel methods to explore mechanisms of cocaine abuse
    NIH/NIDA R01DA008467Sep 1, 1993 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Neuropharmacology of Ethanol Reinforcement
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA008459Apr 1, 1990 - Apr 30, 2014
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    NEUROPHARMACOLOGY OF ETHANOL REINFORCEMENT
    NIH/NIAAA R37AA008459Apr 1, 1990 - Mar 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BRAIN DIALYSIS AND COCAINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION
    NIH/NIDA R03DA005843Sep 30, 1989 - Aug 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neuronal Substrates of Cocaine Reward
    NIH/NIDA R01DA004398Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Central Mechanisms of Opiate Reinforcement and Dependence
    NIH/NIDA R01DA004043May 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CNS Effects of Alcohol: Cellular Neurobiology
    NIH/NIAAA P60AA006420Dec 1, 1983 - Dec 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Neuropsychopharmacology: Multidisciplinary Training
    NIH/NIAAA T32AA007456Dec 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    CNS EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL--CELLULAR NEUROBIOLOGY
    NIH/NIAAA P50AA006420Dec 1, 1983 - Feb 28, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF VASOPRESSIN AND OXYTOCIN
    NIH/NINDS R01NS020912Dec 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Somkuwar SS, Quach LW, Quigley JA, Purohit DC, Fannon MJ, Koob GF, Mandyam CD. Ethanol Reinforcement Elicits Novel Response Inhibition Behavior in a Rat Model of Ethanol Dependence. Brain Sci. 2018 Jun 26; 8(7). PMID: 29949891.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Pelloux Y, Degoulet M, Tiran-Cappello A, Cohen C, Lardeux S, George O, Koob GF, Ahmed SH, Baunez C. Subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation prevents and reverses escalated cocaine use. Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 07. PMID: 29880881.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Kim SW, Wiers CE, Tyler R, Shokri-Kojori E, Jang YJ, Zehra A, Freeman C, Ramirez V, Lindgren E, Miller G, Cabrera EA, Stodden T, Guo M, Demiral SB, Diazgranados N, Park L, Liow JS, Pike V, Morse C, Vendruscolo LF, Innis RB, Koob GF, Tomasi D, Wang GJ, Volkow ND. Influence of alcoholism and cholesterol on TSPO binding in brain: PET [11C]PBR28 studies in humans and rodents. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 May 03. PMID: 29777199.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Jeste DV, Peschin S, Buckwalter K, Blazer DG, McGuire MH, Moutier C, Doederlein A, Niederehe G, Altman B, Borenstein J, Saks E, Norquist G, Koob GF, Compton WM, Sperling A, Bain L, Glorioso D, Paul IH, Reynolds CF. Promoting Wellness in Older Adults with Mental Illnesses and Substance Use Disorders: Call to Action to All Stakeholders. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018 Jun; 26(6):617-630. PMID: 29880118.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Schmeichel BE, Matzeu A, Koebel P, Vendruscolo LF, Sidhu H, Shahryari R, Kieffer BL, Koob GF, Martin-Fardon R, Contet C. Knockdown of hypocretin attenuates extended access of cocaine self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Apr 06. PMID: 29703996.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Logrip ML, Walker JR, Ayanwuyi LO, Sabino V, Ciccocioppo R, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Evaluation of Alcohol Preference and Drinking in msP Rats Bearing a Crhr1 Promoter Polymorphism. Front Psychiatry. 2018; 9:28. PMID: 29497387.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Tian YH, Ma SX, Lee KW, Wee S, Koob GF, Lee SY, Jang CG. Blockade of TRPV1 Inhibits Methamphetamine-induced Rewarding Effects. Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 17; 8(1):882. PMID: 29343767.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Tunstall BJ, Ho CP, Cao J, Vendruscolo JCM, Schmeichel BE, Slack RD, Tanda G, Gadiano AJ, Rais R, Slusher BS, Koob GF, Newman AH, Vendruscolo LF. Atypical dopamine transporter inhibitors attenuate compulsive-like methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2018 Mar 15; 131:96-103. PMID: 29217282.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Verheij MMM, Contet C, Karel P, Latour J, van der Doelen RHA, Geenen B, van Hulten JA, Meyer F, Kozicz T, George O, Koob GF, Homberg JR. Median and Dorsal Raphe Serotonergic Neurons Control Moderate Versus Compulsive Cocaine Intake. Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 15; 83(12):1024-1035. PMID: 29357981.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Francesconi W, Szücs A, Berton F, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF, Sanna PP. Opiate dependence induces cell type-specific plasticity of intrinsic membrane properties in the rat juxtacapsular bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST). Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Dec; 234(23-24):3485-3498. PMID: 28986608.
      View in: PubMed
    11. George O, Koob GF. Individual differences in the neuropsychopathology of addiction. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2017 09; 19(3):217-229. PMID: 29302219.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Moore CF, Sabino V, Koob GF, Cottone P. Neuroscience of Compulsive Eating Behavior. Front Neurosci. 2017; 11:469. PMID: 28883784.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Vendruscolo JCM, Tunstall BJ, Carmack SA, Schmeichel BE, Lowery-Gionta EG, Cole M, George O, Vandewater SA, Taffe MA, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF. Compulsive-Like Sufentanil Vapor Self-Administration in Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Mar; 43(4):801-809. PMID: 28812595.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Harris RA, Koob GF. The future is now: A 2020 view of alcoholism research. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Aug 01; 122:1-2. PMID: 28633760.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Koob GF. The Dark Side of Addiction: The Horsley Gantt to Joseph Brady Connection. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2017 Apr; 205(4):270-272. PMID: 27356121.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Kwako LE, Momenan R, Grodin EN, Litten RZ, Koob GF, Goldman D. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A reverse translational approach. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Aug 01; 122:254-264. PMID: 28283392.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Koob GF. Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 May; 234(9-10):1315-1332. PMID: 28050629.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Harris RA, Bajo M, Bell RL, Blednov YA, Varodayan FP, Truitt JM, de Guglielmo G, Lasek AW, Logrip ML, Vendruscolo LF, Roberts AJ, Roberts E, George O, Mayfield J, Billiar TR, Hackam DJ, Mayfield RD, Koob GF, Roberto M, Homanics GE. Genetic and Pharmacologic Manipulation of TLR4 Has Minimal Impact on Ethanol Consumption in Rodents. J Neurosci. 2017 Feb 01; 37(5):1139-1155. PMID: 27986929.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Moore CF, Sabino V, Koob GF, Cottone P. Pathological Overeating: Emerging Evidence for a Compulsivity Construct. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Jun; 42(7):1375-1389. PMID: 27922596.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Wade CL, Kallupi M, Hernandez DO, Breysse E, de Guglielmo G, Crawford E, Koob GF, Schweitzer P, Baunez C, George O. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Blocks Compulsive-Like Re-Escalation of Heroin Taking in Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Aug; 42(9):1850-1859. PMID: 27917870.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Tunstall BJ, Carmack SA, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF. Dysregulation of Brain Stress Systems Mediates Compulsive Alcohol Drinking. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2017 Feb; 13:85-90. PMID: 28603755.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Ryan ML, Falk DE, Fertig JB, Rendenbach-Mueller B, Katz DA, Tracy KA, Strain EC, Dunn KE, Kampman K, Mahoney E, Ciraulo DA, Sickles-Colaneri L, Ait-Daoud N, Johnson BA, Ransom J, Scott C, Koob GF, Litten RZ. A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial Assessing the Efficacy of ABT-436, a Novel V1b Receptor Antagonist, for Alcohol Dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Apr; 42(5):1012-1023. PMID: 27658483.
      View in: PubMed
    23. de Guglielmo G, Crawford E, Kim S, Vendruscolo LF, Hope BT, Brennan M, Cole M, Koob GF, George O. Recruitment of a Neuronal Ensemble in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Is Required for Alcohol Dependence. J Neurosci. 2016 09 07; 36(36):9446-53. PMID: 27605618; PMCID: PMC5013191 [Available on 03/07/17].
    24. Priddy BM, Carmack SA, Thomas LC, Vendruscolo JC, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF. Sex, strain, and estrous cycle influences on alcohol drinking in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2017 Jan; 152:61-67. PMID: 27498303.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Verheij MM, Vendruscolo LF, Caffino L, Giannotti G, Cazorla M, Fumagalli F, Riva MA, Homberg JR, Koob GF, Contet C. Systemic Delivery of a Brain-Penetrant TrkB Antagonist Reduces Cocaine Self-Administration and Normalizes TrkB Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens and Prefrontal Cortex. J Neurosci. 2016 08 03; 36(31):8149-59. PMID: 27488635; PMCID: PMC4971362 [Available on 02/03/17].
    26. Schmeichel BE, Herman MA, Roberto M, Koob GF. Hypocretin Neurotransmission Within the Central Amygdala Mediates Escalated Cocaine Self-administration and Stress-Induced Reinstatement in Rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 04 01; 81(7):606-615. PMID: 27567312.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Chavkin C, Koob GF. Dynorphin, Dysphoria, and Dependence: the Stress of Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Jan; 41(1):373-4. PMID: 26657953; PMCID: PMC4677142 [Available on 01/01/17].
    28. Kwako LE, Momenan R, Litten RZ, Koob GF, Goldman D. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 08 01; 80(3):179-89. PMID: 26772405.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Koob GF, Mason BJ. Existing and Future Drugs for the Treatment of the Dark Side of Addiction. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016; 56:299-322. PMID: 26514207.
      View in: PubMed
    30. You IJ, Wright SR, Garcia-Garcia AL, Tapper AR, Gardner PD, Koob GF, David Leonardo E, Bohn LM, Wee S. 5-HT1A Autoreceptors in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Convey Vulnerability to Compulsive Cocaine Seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Apr; 41(5):1210-22. PMID: 26324408; PMCID: PMC4793105 [Available on 04/01/17].
    31. Saba LM, Flink SC, Vanderlinden LA, Israel Y, Tampier L, Colombo G, Kiianmaa K, Bell RL, Printz MP, Flodman P, Koob G, Richardson HN, Lombardo J, Hoffman PL, Tabakoff B. The sequenced rat brain transcriptome--its use in identifying networks predisposing alcohol consumption. FEBS J. 2015 Sep; 282(18):3556-78. PMID: 26183165; PMCID: PMC4573833.
    32. Vendruscolo LF, Estey D, Goodell V, Macshane LG, Logrip ML, Schlosburg JE, McGinn MA, Zamora-Martinez ER, Belanoff JK, Hunt HJ, Sanna PP, George O, Koob GF, Edwards S, Mason BJ. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism decreases alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent individuals. J Clin Invest. 2015 Aug 03; 125(8):3193-7. PMID: 26121746; PMCID: PMC4563748.
    33. Cui C, Noronha A, Warren KR, Koob GF, Sinha R, Thakkar M, Matochik J, Crews FT, Chandler LJ, Pfefferbaum A, Becker HC, Lovinger D, Everitt BJ, Egli M, Mandyam CD, Fein G, Potenza MN, Harris RA, Grant KA, Roberto M, Meyerhoff DJ, Sullivan EV. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence. Alcohol. 2015 Aug; 49(5):435-52. PMID: 26074423; PMCID: PMC4468789.
    34. Leão RM, Cruz FC, Vendruscolo LF, de Guglielmo G, Logrip ML, Planeta CS, Hope BT, Koob GF, George O. Chronic nicotine activates stress/reward-related brain regions and facilitates the transition to compulsive alcohol drinking. J Neurosci. 2015 Apr 15; 35(15):6241-53. PMID: 25878294; PMCID: PMC4397613.
    35. Schmeichel BE, Barbier E, Misra KK, Contet C, Schlosburg JE, Grigoriadis D, Williams JP, Karlsson C, Pitcairn C, Heilig M, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF. Hypocretin receptor 2 antagonism dose-dependently reduces escalated heroin self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Mar 13; 40(5):1123-9. PMID: 25367502; PMCID: PMC4367454.
    36. Whitfield TW, Schlosburg JE, Wee S, Gould A, George O, Grant Y, Zamora-Martinez ER, Edwards S, Crawford E, Vendruscolo LF, Koob GF. ? Opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell mediate escalation of methamphetamine intake. J Neurosci. 2015 Mar 11; 35(10):4296-305. PMID: 25762676; PMCID: PMC4355200.
    37. Koob GF, Griebel G. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior: the 2015 transition. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Apr; 131:iii. PMID: 25661528.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Repunte-Canonigo V, Shin W, Vendruscolo LF, Lefebvre C, van der Stap L, Kawamura T, Schlosburg JE, Alvarez M, Koob GF, Califano A, Sanna PP. Identifying candidate drivers of alcohol dependence-induced excessive drinking by assembly and interrogation of brain-specific regulatory networks. Genome Biol. 2015 Feb 02; 16:68. PMID: 25886852; PMCID: PMC4410476.
    39. Koob GF. The dark side of emotion: the addiction perspective. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 15; 753:73-87. PMID: 25583178.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Grieder TE, Herman MA, Contet C, Tan LA, Vargas-Perez H, Cohen A, Chwalek M, Maal-Bared G, Freiling J, Schlosburg JE, Clarke L, Crawford E, Koebel P, Repunte-Canonigo V, Sanna PP, Tapper AR, Roberto M, Kieffer BL, Sawchenko PE, Koob GF, van der Kooy D, George O. VTA CRF neurons mediate the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal and promote intake escalation. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):1751-8. PMID: 25402857; PMCID: PMC4241147.
    41. Cohen A, Soleiman MT, Talia R, Koob GF, George O, Mandyam CD. Extended access nicotine self-administration with periodic deprivation increases immature neurons in the hippocampus. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Jan; 232(2):453-63. PMID: 25059540; PMCID: PMC4297709.
    42. Wade CL, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Hernandez DO, Koob GF. Compulsive-like responding for opioid analgesics in rats with extended access. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jan; 40(2):421-8. PMID: 25060491; PMCID: PMC4443956.
    43. Repunte-Canonigo V, Lefebvre C, George O, Kawamura T, Morales M, Koob GF, Califano A, Masliah E, Sanna PP. Gene expression changes consistent with neuroAIDS and impaired working memory in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Mol Neurodegener. 2014 Jul 01; 9:26. PMID: 24980976; PMCID: PMC4107468.
    44. Vanderlinden LA, Saba LM, Printz MP, Flodman P, Koob G, Richardson HN, Hoffman PL, Tabakoff B. Is the alcohol deprivation effect genetically mediated? Studies with HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jul; 38(7):2148-57. PMID: 24961585; PMCID: PMC4142977.
    45. George O, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF. Negative reinforcement via motivational withdrawal is the driving force behind the transition to addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Oct; 231(19):3911-7. PMID: 24923982.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Buck CL, Malavar JC, George O, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Sep 01; 271:171-6. PMID: 24914463; PMCID: PMC4216724.
    47. Cohen A, Whitfield TW, Kreifeldt M, Koebel P, Kieffer BL, Contet C, George O, Koob GF. Virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of prodynorphin in the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates depression-like behavior and cocaine locomotor sensitization. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e97216. PMID: 24816773; PMCID: PMC4016270.
    48. Mazei-Robison MS, Appasani R, Edwards S, Wee S, Taylor SR, Picciotto MR, Koob GF, Nestler EJ. Self-administration of ethanol, cocaine, or nicotine does not decrease the soma size of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95962. PMID: 24755634; PMCID: PMC3995955.
    49. Logrip ML, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Phosphodiesterase 10A regulates alcohol and saccharin self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Jun; 39(7):1722-31. PMID: 24549104; PMCID: PMC4023146.
    50. Zorrilla EP, Logrip ML, Koob GF. Corticotropin releasing factor: a key role in the neurobiology of addiction. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2014 Apr; 35(2):234-44. PMID: 24456850; PMCID: PMC4213066.
    51. Koob GF. Neurocircuitry of alcohol addiction: synthesis from animal models. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014; 125:33-54. PMID: 25307567.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Park PE, Schlosburg JE, Vendruscolo LF, Schulteis G, Edwards S, Koob GF. Chronic CRF1 receptor blockade reduces heroin intake escalation and dependence-induced hyperalgesia. Addict Biol. 2015 Mar; 20(2):275-84. PMID: 24330252; PMCID: PMC4057367.
    53. Schlosburg JE, Whitfield TW, Park PE, Crawford EF, George O, Vendruscolo LF, Koob GF. Long-term antagonism of ? opioid receptors prevents escalation of and increased motivation for heroin intake. J Neurosci. 2013 Dec 04; 33(49):19384-92. PMID: 24305833; PMCID: PMC3850049.
    54. Buck CL, Vendruscolo LF, Koob GF, George O. Dopamine D1 and µ-opioid receptor antagonism blocks anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations induced by palatable food cues in Wistar rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Mar; 231(5):929-37. PMID: 24221826; PMCID: PMC3945412.
    55. Gilpin NW, Roberto M, Koob GF, Schweitzer P. Kappa opioid receptor activation decreases inhibitory transmission and antagonizes alcohol effects in rat central amygdala. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Feb; 77:294-302. PMID: 24157490; PMCID: PMC3873141.
    56. Wise RA, Koob GF. The development and maintenance of drug addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Jan; 39(2):254-62. PMID: 24121188; PMCID: PMC3870778.
    57. Cai X, Whitfield T, Moreno AY, Grant Y, Hixon MS, Koob GF, Janda KD. Probing the effects of hapten stability on cocaine vaccine immunogenicity. Mol Pharm. 2013 Nov 04; 10(11):4176-84. PMID: 23927436; PMCID: PMC3946501.
    58. Apkarian AV, Neugebauer V, Koob G, Edwards S, Levine JD, Ferrari L, Egli M, Regunathan S. Neural mechanisms of pain and alcohol dependence. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Nov; 112:34-41. PMID: 24095683; PMCID: PMC4887744.
    59. Edwards S, Koob GF. Escalation of drug self-administration as a hallmark of persistent addiction liability. Behav Pharmacol. 2013 Sep; 24(5-6):356-62. PMID: 23839030; PMCID: PMC3866817.
    60. Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ, Rivier JE, Koob GF. Anxiolytic-like effects of antisauvagine-30 in mice are not mediated by CRF2 receptors. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e63942. PMID: 24015170; PMCID: PMC3756045.
    61. Koob GF. Addiction is a Reward Deficit and Stress Surfeit Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4:72. PMID: 23914176; PMCID: PMC3730086.
    62. Cohen A, Treweek J, Edwards S, Leão RM, Schulteis G, Koob GF, George O. Extended access to nicotine leads to a CRF1 receptor dependent increase in anxiety-like behavior and hyperalgesia in rats. Addict Biol. 2015 Jan; 20(1):56-68. PMID: 23869743; PMCID: PMC3859819.
    63. Kallupi M, Wee S, Edwards S, Whitfield TW, Oleata CS, Luu G, Schmeichel BE, Koob GF, Roberto M. Kappa opioid receptor-mediated dysregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic transmission in the central amygdala in cocaine addiction. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Oct 01; 74(7):520-8. PMID: 23751206; PMCID: PMC3773286.
    64. Koob GF, Buck CL, Cohen A, Edwards S, Park PE, Schlosburg JE, Schmeichel B, Vendruscolo LF, Wade CL, Whitfield TW, George O. Addiction as a stress surfeit disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan; 76 Pt B:370-82. PMID: 23747571; PMCID: PMC3830720.
    65. Maoz A, Hicks MJ, Vallabhjosula S, Synan M, Kothari PJ, Dyke JP, Ballon DJ, Kaminsky SM, De BP, Rosenberg JB, Martinez D, Koob GF, Janda KD, Crystal RG. Adenovirus capsid-based anti-cocaine vaccine prevents cocaine from binding to the nonhuman primate CNS dopamine transporter. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Oct; 38(11):2170-8. PMID: 23660705; PMCID: PMC3773666.
    66. Schlosburg JE, Vendruscolo LF, Bremer PT, Lockner JW, Wade CL, Nunes AA, Stowe GN, Edwards S, Janda KD, Koob GF. Dynamic vaccine blocks relapse to compulsive intake of heroin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 28; 110(22):9036-41. PMID: 23650354; PMCID: PMC3670323.
    67. Kallupi M, Vendruscolo LF, Carmichael CY, George O, Koob GF, Gilpin NW. Neuropeptide YY(2)R blockade in the central amygdala reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats. Addict Biol. 2014 Sep; 19(5):755-7. PMID: 23639035; PMCID: PMC3872251.
    68. Cai X, Whitfield T, Hixon MS, Grant Y, Koob GF, Janda KD. Probing active cocaine vaccination performance through catalytic and noncatalytic hapten design. J Med Chem. 2013 May 09; 56(9):3701-9. PMID: 23627877; PMCID: PMC3691275.
    69. Koob GF. Negative reinforcement in drug addiction: the darkness within. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Aug; 23(4):559-63. PMID: 23628232.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Park PE, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Edwards S, Schulteis G, Koob GF. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and a 2 adrenergic receptors mediate heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle in rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Sep; 16(8):1867-75. PMID: 23590881; PMCID: PMC3880138.
    71. Robison AJ, Vialou V, Mazei-Robison M, Feng J, Kourrich S, Collins M, Wee S, Koob G, Turecki G, Neve R, Thomas M, Nestler EJ. Behavioral and structural responses to chronic cocaine require a feedforward loop involving ?FosB and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens shell. J Neurosci. 2013 Mar 06; 33(10):4295-307. PMID: 23467346; PMCID: PMC3658178.
    72. George O, Koob GF. Control of craving by the prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 12; 110(11):4165-6. PMID: 23483010; PMCID: PMC3600441.
    73. Koob GF. Theoretical frameworks and mechanistic aspects of alcohol addiction: alcohol addiction as a reward deficit disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2013; 13:3-30. PMID: 21744309; PMCID: PMC3448980.
    74. Chen J, Repunte-Canonigo V, Kawamura T, Lefebvre C, Shin W, Howell LL, Hemby SE, Harvey BK, Califano A, Morales M, Koob GF, Sanna PP. Hypothalamic proteoglycan syndecan-3 is a novel cocaine addiction resilience factor. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1955. PMID: 23736082; PMCID: PMC3709481.
    75. Deschaux O, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Diaz-Aguilar L, Yuan CJ, Sobieraj JC, George O, Koob GF, Mandyam CD. Hippocampal neurogenesis protects against cocaine-primed relapse. Addict Biol. 2014 Jul; 19(4):562-74. PMID: 23278919; PMCID: PMC3620729.
    76. Barbier E, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Edwards S, Juergens N, Park PE, Misra KK, Cheng K, Rice KC, Schank J, Schulteis G, Koob GF, Heilig M. The NK1 receptor antagonist L822429 reduces heroin reinforcement. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 May; 38(6):976-84. PMID: 23303056; PMCID: PMC3629386.
    77. Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Amygdalostriatal projections in the neurocircuitry for motivation: a neuroanatomical thread through the career of Ann Kelley. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Nov; 37(9 Pt A):1932-45. PMID: 23220696; PMCID: PMC3838492.
    78. Herman MA, Kallupi M, Luu G, Oleata CS, Heilig M, Koob GF, Ciccocioppo R, Roberto M. Enhanced GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala of genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian rats: alcohol and CRF effects. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Apr; 67:337-48. PMID: 23220399; PMCID: PMC3562384.
    79. George O, Sanders C, Freiling J, Grigoryan E, Vu S, Allen CD, Crawford E, Mandyam CD, Koob GF. Recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex neurons during alcohol withdrawal predicts cognitive impairment and excessive alcohol drinking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 30; 109(44):18156-61. PMID: 23071333; PMCID: PMC3497825.
    80. Jang CG, Whitfield T, Schulteis G, Koob GF, Wee S. A dysphoric-like state during early withdrawal from extended access to methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Feb; 225(3):753-63. PMID: 23007601; PMCID: PMC3547144.
    81. Egli M, Koob GF, Edwards S. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012 Nov; 36(10):2179-92. PMID: 22975446.
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    82. Wee S, Vendruscolo LF, Misra KK, Schlosburg JE, Koob GF. A combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone blocks compulsive cocaine intake in rodents without producing dependence. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Aug 08; 4(146):146ra110. PMID: 22875830; PMCID: PMC3448552.
    83. Vendruscolo LF, Barbier E, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Whitfield TW, Logrip ML, Rivier C, Repunte-Canonigo V, Zorrilla EP, Sanna PP, Heilig M, Koob GF. Corticosteroid-dependent plasticity mediates compulsive alcohol drinking in rats. J Neurosci. 2012 May 30; 32(22):7563-71. PMID: 22649234; PMCID: PMC3375621.
    84. Cohen A, Koob GF, George O. Robust escalation of nicotine intake with extended access to nicotine self-administration and intermittent periods of abstinence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Aug; 37(9):2153-60. PMID: 22549121; PMCID: PMC3398720.
    85. Rosenberg JB, Hicks MJ, De BP, Pagovich O, Frenk E, Janda KD, Wee S, Koob GF, Hackett NR, Kaminsky SM, Worgall S, Tignor N, Mezey JG, Crystal RG. AAVrh.10-mediated expression of an anti-cocaine antibody mediates persistent passive immunization that suppresses cocaine-induced behavior. Hum Gene Ther. 2012 May; 23(5):451-9. PMID: 22486244; PMCID: PMC3360503.
    86. Goeders NE, Cohen A, Fox BS, Azar MR, George O, Koob GF. Effects of the combination of metyrapone and oxazepam on intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Sep; 223(1):17-25. PMID: 22418732; PMCID: PMC3464482.
    87. Mandyam CD, Koob GF. The addicted brain craves new neurons: putative role for adult-born progenitors in promoting recovery. Trends Neurosci. 2012 Apr; 35(4):250-60. PMID: 22265158; PMCID: PMC3321119.
    88. Koob GF. Animal models of psychiatric disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2012; 106:137-66. PMID: 22608620.
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    89. Edwards S, Koob GF. Experimental psychiatric illness and drug abuse models: from human to animal, an overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 829:31-48. PMID: 22231805; PMCID: PMC3285446.
    90. Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Update on corticotropin-releasing factor pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders: a revisionist view. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Jan; 37(1):308-9. PMID: 22157874; PMCID: PMC3238086.
    91. Higley AE, Koob GF, Mason BJ. Treatment of alcohol dependence with drug antagonists of the stress response. Alcohol Res. 2012; 34(4):516-21. PMID: 23584117; PMCID: PMC3860394.
    92. Recinto P, Samant AR, Chavez G, Kim A, Yuan CJ, Soleiman M, Grant Y, Edwards S, Wee S, Koob GF, George O, Mandyam CD. Levels of neural progenitors in the hippocampus predict memory impairment and relapse to drug seeking as a function of excessive methamphetamine self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Apr; 37(5):1275-87. PMID: 22205547; PMCID: PMC3306889.
    93. Stowe GN, Schlosburg JE, Vendruscolo LF, Edwards S, Misra KK, Schulteis G, Zakhari JS, Koob GF, Janda KD. Developing a vaccine against multiple psychoactive targets: a case study of heroin. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Dec; 10(8):865-75. PMID: 22229311; PMCID: PMC3327724.
    94. Koob G, Hicks MJ, Wee S, Rosenberg JB, De BP, Kaminsky SM, Moreno A, Janda KD, Crystal RG. Anti-cocaine vaccine based on coupling a cocaine analog to a disrupted adenovirus. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Dec; 10(8):899-904. PMID: 22229312; PMCID: PMC3369545.
    95. Edwards S, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Wee S, Park PE, Schulteis G, Koob GF. Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF1 receptor antagonism. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):1142-51. PMID: 22119954; PMCID: PMC3262951.
    96. George O, Le Moal M, Koob GF. Allostasis and addiction: role of the dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor systems. Physiol Behav. 2012 Apr 12; 106(1):58-64. PMID: 22108506; PMCID: PMC3288230.
    97. Lenoir M, Guillem K, Koob GF, Ahmed SH. Drug specificity in extended access cocaine and heroin self-administration. Addict Biol. 2012 Nov; 17(6):964-76. PMID: 21995515.
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    98. Wee S, Hicks MJ, De BP, Rosenberg JB, Moreno AY, Kaminsky SM, Janda KD, Crystal RG, Koob GF. Novel cocaine vaccine linked to a disrupted adenovirus gene transfer vector blocks cocaine psychostimulant and reinforcing effects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Apr; 37(5):1083-91. PMID: 21918504; PMCID: PMC3306868.
    99. Logrip ML, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Stress modulation of drug self-administration: implications for addiction comorbidity with post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):552-64. PMID: 21782834; PMCID: PMC3206986.
    100. Zorrilla EP, Wee S, Zhao Y, Specio S, Boutrel B, Koob GF, Weiss F. Extended access cocaine self-administration differentially activates dorsal raphe and amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor systems in rats. Addict Biol. 2012 Mar; 17(2):300-8. PMID: 21762287; PMCID: PMC3304464.
    101. Stowe GN, Vendruscolo LF, Edwards S, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Schulteis G, Mayorov AV, Zakhari JS, Koob GF, Janda KD. A vaccine strategy that induces protective immunity against heroin. J Med Chem. 2011 Jul 28; 54(14):5195-204. PMID: 21692508; PMCID: PMC3142939.
    102. Mihindou C, Vouillac C, Koob GF, Ahmed SH. Preclinical validation of a novel cocaine exposure therapy for relapse prevention. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Sep 15; 70(6):593-8. PMID: 21571256; PMCID: PMC3157564.
    103. Parylak SL, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. The dark side of food addiction. Physiol Behav. 2011 Jul 25; 104(1):149-56. PMID: 21557958; PMCID: PMC3304465.
    104. Gilpin NW, Misra K, Herman MA, Cruz MT, Koob GF, Roberto M. Neuropeptide Y opposes alcohol effects on gamma-aminobutyric acid release in amygdala and blocks the transition to alcohol dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 01; 69(11):1091-9. PMID: 21459365; PMCID: PMC3090491.
    105. Logrip ML, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Role of corticotropin-releasing factor in drug addiction: potential for pharmacological intervention. CNS Drugs. 2011 Apr; 25(4):271-87. PMID: 21425881; PMCID: PMC3273042.
    106. George O, Koob GF. Craving, context and the cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2011 Apr; 14(4):409-10. PMID: 21445066; PMCID: PMC3829767.
    107. Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Chen SA, Greenwell TN, Koob GF. Escalation patterns of varying periods of heroin access. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011 Jun; 98(4):570-4. PMID: 21406200; PMCID: PMC3081940.
    108. Sabino V, Cottone P, Blasio A, Iyer MR, Steardo L, Rice KC, Conti B, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Activation of s-receptors induces binge-like drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 May; 36(6):1207-18. PMID: 21346735; PMCID: PMC3079320.
    109. Allen CD, Lee S, Koob GF, Rivier C. Immediate and prolonged effects of alcohol exposure on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult and adolescent rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jun; 25 Suppl 1:S50-60. PMID: 21300146; PMCID: PMC3098294.
    110. Edwards S, Guerrero M, Ghoneim OM, Roberts E, Koob GF. Evidence that vasopressin V1b receptors mediate the transition to excessive drinking in ethanol-dependent rats. Addict Biol. 2012 Jan; 17(1):76-85. PMID: 21309953; PMCID: PMC3178679.
    111. Blednov YA, Ponomarev I, Geil C, Bergeson S, Koob GF, Harris RA. Neuroimmune regulation of alcohol consumption: behavioral validation of genes obtained from genomic studies. Addict Biol. 2012 Jan; 17(1):108-20. PMID: 21309947; PMCID: PMC3117922.
    112. Hicks MJ, De BP, Rosenberg JB, Davidson JT, Moreno AY, Janda KD, Wee S, Koob GF, Hackett NR, Kaminsky SM, Worgall S, Toth M, Mezey JG, Crystal RG. Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus: a vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. Mol Ther. 2011 Mar; 19(3):612-9. PMID: 21206484; PMCID: PMC3048190.
    113. Walker BM, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Systemic ?-opioid receptor antagonism by nor-binaltorphimine reduces dependence-induced excessive alcohol self-administration in rats. Addict Biol. 2011 Jan; 16(1):116-9. PMID: 20579007; PMCID: PMC2988980.
    114. George O, Lloyd A, Carroll FI, Damaj MI, Koob GF. Varenicline blocks nicotine intake in rats with extended access to nicotine self-administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Feb; 213(4):715-22. PMID: 20924754; PMCID: PMC3033995.
    115. Gilpin NW, Koob GF. Effects of ß-adrenoceptor antagonists on alcohol drinking by alcohol-dependent rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Oct; 212(3):431-9. PMID: 20676608; PMCID: PMC2966867.
    116. Shurman J, Koob GF, Gutstein HB. Opioids, pain, the brain, and hyperkatifeia: a framework for the rational use of opioids for pain. Pain Med. 2010 Jul; 11(7):1092-8. PMID: 20545871; PMCID: PMC2907890.
    117. George O, Koob GF. Individual differences in prefrontal cortex function and the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010 Nov; 35(2):232-47. PMID: 20493211; PMCID: PMC2955797.
    118. Edwards S, Koob GF. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction. Future Neurol. 2010 May 01; 5(3):393-401. PMID: 20563312.
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    119. Orio L, Wee S, Newman AH, Pulvirenti L, Koob GF. The dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist CJB090 and antagonist PG01037 decrease progressive ratio responding for methamphetamine in rats with extended-access. Addict Biol. 2010 Jul; 15(3):312-23. PMID: 20456290; PMCID: PMC2903631.
    120. George O, Grieder TE, Cole M, Koob GF. Exposure to chronic intermittent nicotine vapor induces nicotine dependence. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Jul; 96(1):104-7. PMID: 20420848; PMCID: PMC2878929.
    121. Wee S, Koob GF. The role of the dynorphin-kappa opioid system in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Jun; 210(2):121-35. PMID: 20352414; PMCID: PMC2879894.
    122. Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Progress in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 antagonist development. Drug Discov Today. 2010 May; 15(9-10):371-83. PMID: 20206287; PMCID: PMC2864802.
    123. Roberto M, Cruz MT, Gilpin NW, Sabino V, Schweitzer P, Bajo M, Cottone P, Madamba SG, Stouffer DG, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF, Siggins GR, Parsons LH. Corticotropin releasing factor-induced amygdala gamma-aminobutyric Acid release plays a key role in alcohol dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 May 01; 67(9):831-9. PMID: 20060104; PMCID: PMC2883449.
    124. Koob GF. Focus on: Neuroscience and treatment: the potential of neuroscience to inform treatment. Alcohol Res Health. 2010; 33(1-2):144-51. PMID: 23579944; PMCID: PMC3887491.
    125. Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Neurobiological mechanisms of addiction: focus on corticotropin-releasing factor. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jan; 11(1):63-71. PMID: 20047160; PMCID: PMC2812895.
    126. Koob GF, Volkow ND. Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Jan; 35(1):217-38. PMID: 19710631; PMCID: PMC2805560.
    127. Koob GF. The role of CRF and CRF-related peptides in the dark side of addiction. Brain Res. 2010 Feb 16; 1314:3-14. PMID: 19912996; PMCID: PMC2819562.
    128. Cottone P, Sabino V, Roberto M, Bajo M, Pockros L, Frihauf JB, Fekete EM, Steardo L, Rice KC, Grigoriadis DE, Conti B, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. CRF system recruitment mediates dark side of compulsive eating. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24; 106(47):20016-20. PMID: 19901333; PMCID: PMC2785284.
    129. Tabakoff B, Saba L, Printz M, Flodman P, Hodgkinson C, Goldman D, Koob G, Richardson HN, Kechris K, Bell RL, Hübner N, Heinig M, Pravenec M, Mangion J, Legault L, Dongier M, Conigrave KM, Whitfield JB, Saunders J, Grant B, Hoffman PL. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans. BMC Biol. 2009 Oct 27; 7:70. PMID: 19874574; PMCID: PMC2777866.
    130. Gilpin NW, Smith AD, Cole M, Weiss F, Koob GF, Richardson HN. Operant behavior and alcohol levels in blood and brain of alcohol-dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Dec; 33(12):2113-23. PMID: 19740131; PMCID: PMC2789881.
    131. Francesconi W, Berton F, Koob GF, Sanna PP. Intrinsic neuronal plasticity in the juxtacapsular nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (jcBNST). Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Nov 13; 33(8):1347-55. PMID: 19683025; PMCID: PMC2935256.
    132. Richardson HN, Chan SH, Crawford EF, Lee YK, Funk CK, Koob GF, Mandyam CD. Permanent impairment of birth and survival of cortical and hippocampal proliferating cells following excessive drinking during alcohol dependence. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Oct; 36(1):1-10. PMID: 19501165; PMCID: PMC2742572.
    133. Wee S, Orio L, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Koob GF. Inhibition of kappa opioid receptors attenuated increased cocaine intake in rats with extended access to cocaine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Sep; 205(4):565-75. PMID: 19484223; PMCID: PMC2739447.
    134. Sabino V, Cottone P, Zhao Y, Steardo L, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Selective reduction of alcohol drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats by a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Aug; 205(2):327-35. PMID: 19440699; PMCID: PMC2748837.
    135. Francesconi W, Berton F, Repunte-Canonigo V, Hagihara K, Thurbon D, Lekic D, Specio SE, Greenwell TN, Chen SA, Rice KC, Richardson HN, O'Dell LE, Zorrilla EP, Morales M, Koob GF, Sanna PP. Protracted withdrawal from alcohol and drugs of abuse impairs long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability in the juxtacapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurosci. 2009 Apr 29; 29(17):5389-401. PMID: 19403807; PMCID: PMC2938175.
    136. Orio L, Edwards S, George O, Parsons LH, Koob GF. A role for the endocannabinoid system in the increased motivation for cocaine in extended-access conditions. J Neurosci. 2009 Apr 15; 29(15):4846-57. PMID: 19369553; PMCID: PMC2688678.
    137. Greenwell TN, Funk CK, Cottone P, Richardson HN, Chen SA, Rice KC, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonists decrease heroin self-administration in long- but not short-access rats. Addict Biol. 2009 Apr; 14(2):130-43. PMID: 19291009; PMCID: PMC2748834.
    138. Koob GF. New dimensions in human laboratory models of addiction. Addict Biol. 2009 Jan; 14(1):1-8. PMID: 19133879.
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    139. Sabino V, Cottone P, Zhao Y, Iyer MR, Steardo L, Steardo L, Rice KC, Conti B, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 May; 34(6):1482-93. PMID: 18946467; PMCID: PMC2669694.
    140. Richardson HN, Lee SY, O'Dell LE, Koob GF, Rivier CL. Alcohol self-administration acutely stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but alcohol dependence leads to a dampened neuroendocrine state. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Oct; 28(8):1641-53. PMID: 18979677; PMCID: PMC2748838.
    141. Du X, Schwander M, Moresco EM, Viviani P, Haller C, Hildebrand MS, Pak K, Tarantino L, Roberts A, Richardson H, Koob G, Najmabadi H, Ryan AF, Smith RJ, Müller U, Beutler B. A catechol-O-methyltransferase that is essential for auditory function in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23; 105(38):14609-14. PMID: 18794526; PMCID: PMC2567147.
    142. Koob GF. Neurobiological substrates for the dark side of compulsivity in addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2009; 56 Suppl 1:18-31. PMID: 18725236; PMCID: PMC2637927.
    143. Greenwell TN, Walker BM, Cottone P, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. The alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin reduces heroin self-administration in rats with extended access to heroin administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Jan; 91(3):295-302. PMID: 18703080; PMCID: PMC2637926.
    144. Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Koob GF. Effects of CRF1-receptor and opioid-receptor antagonists on dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Sep; 32(9):1535-42. PMID: 18631323; PMCID: PMC2583093.
    145. Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Cole M, Koob GF. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2008 Jul; Chapter 9:Unit 9.29. PMID: 18634001; PMCID: PMC2583102.
    146. Koob GF. Corticotropin-releasing factor, neuroplasticity (sensitization), and alcoholism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 01; 105(26):8809-10. PMID: 18583480; PMCID: PMC2449322.
    147. Roberto M, Gilpin NW, O'Dell LE, Cruz MT, Morse AC, Siggins GR, Koob GF. Cellular and behavioral interactions of gabapentin with alcohol dependence. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5762-71. PMID: 18509038; PMCID: PMC2493536.
    148. Mandyam CD, Wee S, Crawford EF, Eisch AJ, Richardson HN, Koob GF. Varied access to intravenous methamphetamine self-administration differentially alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Dec 01; 64(11):958-65. PMID: 18490002; PMCID: PMC2587157.
    149. Gilpin NW, Misra K, Koob GF. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of the amygdala suppresses dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Sep; 90(3):475-80. PMID: 18501411; PMCID: PMC2480495.
    150. Walker BM, Rasmussen DD, Raskind MA, Koob GF. alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonism blocks dependence-induced increases in responding for ethanol. Alcohol. 2008 Mar; 42(2):91-7. PMID: 18358987; PMCID: PMC2587143.
    151. Papaleo F, Ghozland S, Ingallinesi M, Roberts AJ, Koob GF, Contarino A. Disruption of the CRF(2) receptor pathway decreases the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Nov; 33(12):2878-87. PMID: 18288089; PMCID: PMC2760329.
    152. Ji D, Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Rivier CL, Koob GF. Effects of naltrexone, duloxetine, and a corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor antagonist on binge-like alcohol drinking in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Feb; 19(1):1-12. PMID: 18195589; PMCID: PMC2586833.
    153. Koob GF. Alcoholism, corticotropin-releasing factor, and molecular genetic allostasis. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 15; 63(2):137-8. PMID: 18164903; PMCID: PMC2386996.
    154. Koob GF. Hedonic Homeostatic Dysregulation as a Driver of Drug-Seeking Behavior. Drug Discov Today Dis Models. 2008; 5(4):207-215. PMID: 20054425.
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    155. Koob GF, Le Moal M. Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annu Rev Psychol. 2008; 59:29-53. PMID: 18154498.
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    156. Gilpin NW, Koob GF. Neurobiology of alcohol dependence: focus on motivational mechanisms. Alcohol Res Health. 2008; 31(3):185-95. PMID: 19881886.
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    157. Caine SB, Thomsen M, Gabriel KI, Berkowitz JS, Gold LH, Koob GF, Tonegawa S, Zhang J, Xu M. Lack of self-administration of cocaine in dopamine D1 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2007 Nov 28; 27(48):13140-50. PMID: 18045908; PMCID: PMC2747091.
    158. George O, Mandyam CD, Wee S, Koob GF. Extended access to cocaine self-administration produces long-lasting prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory impairments. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Sep; 33(10):2474-82. PMID: 18033234; PMCID: PMC2760333.
    159. Specio SE, Wee S, O'Dell LE, Boutrel B, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. CRF(1) receptor antagonists attenuate escalated cocaine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Feb; 196(3):473-82. PMID: 17965976; PMCID: PMC2769571.
    160. Wee S, Mandyam CD, Lekic DM, Koob GF. Alpha 1-noradrenergic system role in increased motivation for cocaine intake in rats with prolonged access. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Apr; 18(4):303-11. PMID: 17920248; PMCID: PMC2376122.
    161. Richardson HN, Zhao Y, Fekete EM, Funk CK, Wirsching P, Janda KD, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. MPZP: a novel small molecule corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Feb; 88(4):497-510. PMID: 18031798; PMCID: PMC3319109.
    162. Mandyam CD, Wee S, Eisch AJ, Richardson HN, Koob GF. Methamphetamine self-administration and voluntary exercise have opposing effects on medial prefrontal cortex gliogenesis. J Neurosci. 2007 Oct 17; 27(42):11442-50. PMID: 17942739; PMCID: PMC2741502.
    163. George O, Ghozland S, Azar MR, Cottone P, Zorrilla EP, Parsons LH, O'Dell LE, Richardson HN, Koob GF. CRF-CRF1 system activation mediates withdrawal-induced increases in nicotine self-administration in nicotine-dependent rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 23; 104(43):17198-203. PMID: 17921249; PMCID: PMC2040467.
    164. Zhang Z, Morse AC, Koob GF, Schulteis G. Dose- and time-dependent expression of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze during withdrawal from acute and repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Nov; 31(11):1811-9. PMID: 17877783; PMCID: PMC2367334.
    165. Koob G, Kreek MJ. Stress, dysregulation of drug reward pathways, and the transition to drug dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Aug; 164(8):1149-59. PMID: 17671276; PMCID: PMC2837343.
    166. Heilig M, Koob GF. A key role for corticotropin-releasing factor in alcohol dependence. Trends Neurosci. 2007 Aug; 30(8):399-406. PMID: 17629579; PMCID: PMC2747092.
    167. Treweek J, Wee S, Koob GF, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. Self-vaccination by methamphetamine glycation products chemically links chronic drug abuse and cardiovascular disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 10; 104(28):11580-4. PMID: 17592122; PMCID: PMC1913859.
    168. Walker BM, Koob GF. Pharmacological evidence for a motivational role of kappa-opioid systems in ethanol dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Feb; 33(3):643-52. PMID: 17473837; PMCID: PMC2739278.
    169. Funk CK, Koob GF. A CRF(2) agonist administered into the central nucleus of the amygdala decreases ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats. Brain Res. 2007 Jun 25; 1155:172-8. PMID: 17512918; PMCID: PMC2741495.
    170. Chu K, Koob GF, Cole M, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ. Dependence-induced increases in ethanol self-administration in mice are blocked by the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and by CRF1 receptor knockout. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 Apr; 86(4):813-21. PMID: 17482248; PMCID: PMC2170886.
    171. Thorsell A, Repunte-Canonigo V, O'Dell LE, Chen SA, King AR, Lekic D, Koob GF, Sanna PP. Viral vector-induced amygdala NPY overexpression reverses increased alcohol intake caused by repeated deprivations in Wistar rats. Brain. 2007 May; 130(Pt 5):1330-7. PMID: 17405766; PMCID: PMC2749684.
    172. Brogan AP, Eubanks LM, Koob GF, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. Antibody-catalyzed oxidation of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Mar 28; 129(12):3698-702. PMID: 17335216.
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    173. Koob GF, Miller SC, Wunsch MJ. Inaugural issue of the journal of addiction medicine. J Addict Med. 2007 Mar; 1(1):1. PMID: 21768924.
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    174. Wee S, Wang Z, Woolverton WL, Pulvirenti L, Koob GF. Effect of aripiprazole, a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on increased rate of methamphetamine self-administration in rats with prolonged session duration. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Oct; 32(10):2238-47. PMID: 17327886; PMCID: PMC2747088.
    175. O'Dell LE, Koob GF. 'Nicotine deprivation effect' in rats with intermittent 23-hour access to intravenous nicotine self-administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 Feb; 86(2):346-53. PMID: 17292952; PMCID: PMC2386418.
    176. Wee S, Specio SE, Koob GF. Effects of dose and session duration on cocaine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Mar; 320(3):1134-43. PMID: 17202405.
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    177. Walker BM, Koob GF. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptor agonist baclofen attenuates responding for ethanol in ethanol-dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Jan; 31(1):11-8. PMID: 17207096; PMCID: PMC2768469.
    178. Guillem K, Vouillac C, Azar MR, Parsons LH, Koob GF, Cador M, Stinus L. Monoamine oxidase A rather than monoamine oxidase B inhibition increases nicotine reinforcement in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Dec; 24(12):3532-40. PMID: 17229101.
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    179. Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE, Koob GF, Olson AJ, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Mol Pharm. 2006 Nov-Dec; 3(6):773-7. PMID: 17140265; PMCID: PMC2562334.
    180. Funk CK, O'Dell LE, Crawford EF, Koob GF. Corticotropin-releasing factor within the central nucleus of the amygdala mediates enhanced ethanol self-administration in withdrawn, ethanol-dependent rats. J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 01; 26(44):11324-32. PMID: 17079660.
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    181. Solbrig MV, Adrian R, Wechsler SL, Koob GF. Activators of potassium M currents have anticonvulsant actions in two rat models of encephalitis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan 19; 555(1):23-9. PMID: 17126318; PMCID: PMC2981072.
    182. Sabino V, Cottone P, Koob GF, Steardo L, Lee MJ, Rice KC, Zorrilla EP. Dissociation between opioid and CRF1 antagonist sensitive drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Dec; 189(2):175-86. PMID: 17047935.
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    183. O'Dell LE, Chen SA, Smith RT, Specio SE, Balster RL, Paterson NE, Markou A, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Extended access to nicotine self-administration leads to dependence: Circadian measures, withdrawal measures, and extinction behavior in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jan; 320(1):180-93. PMID: 17050784.
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    184. Fekete EM, Inoue K, Zhao Y, Rivier JE, Vale WW, Szücs A, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Delayed satiety-like actions and altered feeding microstructure by a selective type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor agonist in rats: intra-hypothalamic urocortin 3 administration reduces food intake by prolonging the post-meal interval. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 May; 32(5):1052-68. PMID: 17019404; PMCID: PMC2748839.
    185. Koob GF. The neurobiology of addiction: a neuroadaptational view relevant for diagnosis. Addiction. 2006 Sep; 101 Suppl 1:23-30. PMID: 16930158.
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    186. Funk CK, Zorrilla EP, Lee MJ, Rice KC, Koob GF. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 antagonists selectively reduce ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 01; 61(1):78-86. PMID: 16876134; PMCID: PMC2741496.
    187. Steffensen SC, Stobbs SH, Colago EE, Lee RS, Koob GF, Gallegos RA, Henriksen SJ. Contingent and non-contingent effects of heroin on mu-opioid receptor-containing ventral tegmental area GABA neurons. Exp Neurol. 2006 Nov; 202(1):139-51. PMID: 16814775.
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    188. Kenny PJ, Chen SA, Kitamura O, Markou A, Koob GF. Conditioned withdrawal drives heroin consumption and decreases reward sensitivity. J Neurosci. 2006 May 31; 26(22):5894-900. PMID: 16738231.
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    189. Hoefer ME, Voskanian SJ, Koob GF, Pulvirenti L. Effects of terguride, ropinirole, and acetyl-L-carnitine on methamphetamine withdrawal in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Mar; 83(3):403-9. PMID: 16647107.
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    190. Mulligan MK, Ponomarev I, Hitzemann RJ, Belknap JK, Tabakoff B, Harris RA, Crabbe JC, Blednov YA, Grahame NJ, Phillips TJ, Finn DA, Hoffman PL, Iyer VR, Koob GF, Bergeson SE. Toward understanding the genetics of alcohol drinking through transcriptome meta-analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18; 103(16):6368-73. PMID: 16618939; PMCID: PMC1458884.
    191. O'Dell LE, Bruijnzeel AW, Smith RT, Parsons LH, Merves ML, Goldberger BA, Richardson HN, Koob GF, Markou A. Diminished nicotine withdrawal in adolescent rats: implications for vulnerability to addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jul; 186(4):612-9. PMID: 16598454.
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    192. Kitamura O, Wee S, Specio SE, Koob GF, Pulvirenti L. Escalation of methamphetamine self-administration in rats: a dose-effect function. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 May; 186(1):48-53. PMID: 16552556.
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    193. Kranzler HR, Koob G, Gastfriend DR, Swift RM, Willenbring ML. Advances in the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism: challenging misconceptions. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Feb; 30(2):272-81. PMID: 16441276.
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    194. Chen SA, O'Dell LE, Hoefer ME, Greenwell TN, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Unlimited access to heroin self-administration: independent motivational markers of opiate dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Dec; 31(12):2692-707. PMID: 16452993.
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    195. Koob GF. A role for GABA in alcohol dependence. Adv Pharmacol. 2006; 54:205-29. PMID: 17175816.
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    196. Boutrel B, Kenny PJ, Specio SE, Martin-Fardon R, Markou A, Koob GF, de Lecea L. Role for hypocretin in mediating stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 27; 102(52):19168-73. PMID: 16357203; PMCID: PMC1323172.
    197. Tabarin A, Diz-Chaves Y, Chaves YD, Carmona Mdel C, Catargi B, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ, Coscina DV, Rousset S, Redonnet A, Parker GC, Inoue K, Ricquier D, Pénicaud L, Kieffer BL, Koob GF. Resistance to diet-induced obesity in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice: evidence for a "thrifty gene". Diabetes. 2005 Dec; 54(12):3510-6. PMID: 16306369.
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    198. Qi L, Yamamoto N, Meijler MM, Altobell LJ, Koob GF, Wirsching P, Janda KD. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol immunochemical studies: haptens, monoclonal antibodies, and a convenient synthesis of radiolabeled delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Med Chem. 2005 Nov 17; 48(23):7389-99. PMID: 16279798.
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    199. Koob GF, Le Moal M. Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the 'dark side' of drug addiction. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Nov; 8(11):1442-4. PMID: 16251985.
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    200. Guillem K, Vouillac C, Azar MR, Parsons LH, Koob GF, Cador M, Stinus L. Monoamine oxidase inhibition dramatically increases the motivation to self-administer nicotine in rats. J Neurosci. 2005 Sep 21; 25(38):8593-600. PMID: 16177026.
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    201. Ahmed SH, Lutjens R, van der Stap LD, Lekic D, Romano-Spica V, Morales M, Koob GF, Repunte-Canonigo V, Sanna PP. Gene expression evidence for remodeling of lateral hypothalamic circuitry in cocaine addiction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 09; 102(32):11533-8. PMID: 16076954; PMCID: PMC1183574.
    202. Izzo E, Sanna PP, Koob GF. Impairment of dopaminergic system function after chronic treatment with corticotropin-releasing factor. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Aug; 81(4):701-8. PMID: 16005056.
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    203. Sanchis-Segura C, Grisel JE, Olive MF, Ghozland S, Koob GF, Roberts AJ, Cowen MS. Role of the endogenous opioid system on the neuropsychopharmacological effects of ethanol: new insights about an old question. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Aug; 29(8):1522-7. PMID: 16156049.
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    204. Ahmed SH, Koob GF. Transition to drug addiction: a negative reinforcement model based on an allostatic decrease in reward function. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Jul; 180(3):473-90. PMID: 15731896.
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    205. Breese GR, Chu K, Dayas CV, Funk D, Knapp DJ, Koob GF, Lê DA, O'Dell LE, Overstreet DH, Roberts AJ, Sinha R, Valdez GR, Weiss F. Stress enhancement of craving during sobriety: a risk for relapse. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Feb; 29(2):185-95. PMID: 15714042; PMCID: PMC2868509.
    206. Zorrilla EP, Inoue K, Fekete EM, Tabarin A, Valdez GR, Koob GF. Measuring meals: structure of prandial food and water intake of rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Jun; 288(6):R1450-67. PMID: 15637168.
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    207. Stinus L, Cador M, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Buprenorphine and a CRF1 antagonist block the acquisition of opiate withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Jan; 30(1):90-8. PMID: 15138444.
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    208. Kenny PJ, Boutrel B, Gasparini F, Koob GF, Markou A. Metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor blockade may attenuate cocaine self-administration by decreasing brain reward function in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Apr; 179(1):247-54. PMID: 15602687.
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    209. Valdez GR, Koob GF. Allostasis and dysregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y systems: implications for the development of alcoholism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Dec; 79(4):671-89. PMID: 15582675.
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    210. O'Dell LE, Roberts AJ, Smith RT, Koob GF. Enhanced alcohol self-administration after intermittent versus continuous alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Nov; 28(11):1676-82. PMID: 15547454.
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    211. Koob GF. A role for GABA mechanisms in the motivational effects of alcohol. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 15; 68(8):1515-25. PMID: 15451394.
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    212. Navarro M, Carrera MR, Del Arco I, Trigo JM, Koob GF, Rodríguez de Fonseca F. Cannabinoid receptor antagonist reduces heroin self-administration only in dependent rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 06; 501(1-3):235-7. PMID: 15464083.
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    213. Koob GF, Greenwell TN. Neuropeptide S: a novel activating anxiolytic? Neuron. 2004 Aug 19; 43(4):441-2. PMID: 15312642.
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    214. Heinrichs SC, Koob GF. Corticotropin-releasing factor in brain: a role in activation, arousal, and affect regulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Nov; 311(2):427-40. PMID: 15297468.
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    215. Zorrilla EP, Inoue K, Valdez GR, Tabarin A, Koob GF. Leptin and post-prandial satiety: acute central leptin more potently reduces meal frequency than meal size in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Jan; 177(3):324-35. PMID: 15609069.
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    216. Martin G, Guadaño-Ferraz A, Morte B, Ahmed S, Koob GF, De Lecea L, Siggins GR. Chronic morphine treatment alters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in freshly isolated neurons from nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct; 311(1):265-73. PMID: 15263066.
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    217. Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. The therapeutic potential of CRF1 antagonists for anxiety. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Jul; 13(7):799-828. PMID: 15212620.
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    218. Carrera MR, Kaufmann GF, Mee JM, Meijler MM, Koob GF, Janda KD. Treating cocaine addiction with viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13; 101(28):10416-21. PMID: 15226496; PMCID: PMC478586.
    219. Valdez GR, Sabino V, Koob GF. Increased anxiety-like behavior and ethanol self-administration in dependent rats: reversal via corticotropin-releasing factor-2 receptor activation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Jun; 28(6):865-72. PMID: 15201629.
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    220. Inoue K, Zorrilla EP, Tabarin A, Valdez GR, Iwasaki S, Kiriike N, Koob GF. Reduction of anxiety after restricted feeding in the rat: implication for eating disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jun 01; 55(11):1075-81. PMID: 15158426.
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    221. O'Dell LE, Bruijnzeel AW, Ghozland S, Markou A, Koob GF. Nicotine withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun; 1021:167-74. PMID: 15251887.
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    222. Zorrilla EP, Reinhardt LE, Valdez GR, Inoue K, Rivier JE, Vale WW, Koob GF. Human urocortin 2, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)2 agonist, and ovine CRF, a CRF1 agonist, differentially alter feeding and motor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep; 310(3):1027-34. PMID: 15115804.
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    223. Carrera MR, Ashley JA, Hoffman TZ, Isomura S, Wirsching P, Koob GF, Janda KD. Investigations using immunization to attenuate the psychoactive effects of nicotine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Feb 01; 12(3):563-70. PMID: 14738965.
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    224. O'Dell LE, Alomary AA, Vallée M, Koob GF, Fitzgerald RL, Purdy RH. Ethanol-induced increases in neuroactive steroids in the rat brain and plasma are absent in adrenalectomized and gonadectomized rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 26; 484(2-3):241-7. PMID: 14744609.
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    225. Ben-Shahar O, Ahmed SH, Koob GF, Ettenberg A. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use is associated with a loss of sensitization. Brain Res. 2004 Jan 02; 995(1):46-54. PMID: 14644470.
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    226. Koob GF, Ahmed SH, Boutrel B, Chen SA, Kenny PJ, Markou A, O'Dell LE, Parsons LH, Sanna PP. Neurobiological mechanisms in the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2004 Jan; 27(8):739-49. PMID: 15019424.
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    227. Weed MR, Gold LH, Polis I, Koob GF, Fox HS, Taffe MA. Impaired performance on a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery following simian immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Jan; 20(1):77-89. PMID: 15000701.
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    228. Koob GF. Neuroadaptive mechanisms of addiction: studies on the extended amygdala. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Dec; 13(6):442-52. PMID: 14636960.
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    229. Ahmed SH, Koob GF. Changes in response to a dopamine receptor antagonist in rats with escalating cocaine intake. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Apr; 172(4):450-4. PMID: 14647962.
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    230. Kenny PJ, Koob GF, Markou A. Conditioned facilitation of brain reward function after repeated cocaine administration. Behav Neurosci. 2003 Oct; 117(5):1103-7. PMID: 14570559.
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    231. Valdez GR, Zorrilla EP, Rivier J, Vale WW, Koob GF. Locomotor suppressive and anxiolytic-like effects of urocortin 3, a highly selective type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor agonist. Brain Res. 2003 Aug 08; 980(2):206-12. PMID: 12867260.
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    232. Zorrilla EP, Taché Y, Koob GF. Nibbling at CRF receptor control of feeding and gastrocolonic motility. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Aug; 24(8):421-7. PMID: 12915052.
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    233. Ahmed SH, Lin D, Koob GF, Parsons LH. Escalation of cocaine self-administration does not depend on altered cocaine-induced nucleus accumbens dopamine levels. J Neurochem. 2003 Jul; 86(1):102-13. PMID: 12807430.
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    234. Walker JR, Chen SA, Moffitt H, Inturrisi CE, Koob GF. Chronic opioid exposure produces increased heroin self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 May; 75(2):349-54. PMID: 12873626.
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    235. Heyser CJ, Moc K, Koob GF. Effects of naltrexone alone and in combination with acamprosate on the alcohol deprivation effect in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Aug; 28(8):1463-71. PMID: 12700689.
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    236. Inoue K, Valdez GR, Reyes TM, Reinhardt LE, Tabarin A, Rivier J, Vale WW, Sawchenko PE, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Human urocortin II, a selective agonist for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor, decreases feeding and drinking in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr; 305(1):385-93. PMID: 12649393.
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    237. Koob GF. Alcoholism: allostasis and beyond. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Feb; 27(2):232-43. PMID: 12605072.
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    238. Valdez GR, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ, Koob GF. Antagonism of corticotropin-releasing factor attenuates the enhanced responsiveness to stress observed during protracted ethanol abstinence. Alcohol. 2003 Feb; 29(2):55-60. PMID: 12782246.
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    239. Koob GF, Roberts AJ, Kieffer BL, Heyser CJ, Katner SN, Ciccocioppo R, Weiss F. Animal models of motivation for drinking in rodents with a focus on opioid receptor neuropharmacology. Recent Dev Alcohol. 2003; 16:263-81. PMID: 12638642.
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    240. Kenny PJ, Polis I, Koob GF, Markou A. Low dose cocaine self-administration transiently increases but high dose cocaine persistently decreases brain reward function in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Jan; 17(1):191-5. PMID: 12534985.
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    241. Alomary AA, Vallée M, O'Dell LE, Koob GF, Purdy RH, Fitzgerald RL. Acutely administered ethanol participates in testosterone synthesis and increases testosterone in rat brain. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Jan; 27(1):38-43. PMID: 12544003.
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    242. Izzo E, Martin-Fardon R, Koob GF, Weiss F, Sanna PP. Neural plasticity and addiction: PI3-kinase and cocaine behavioral sensitization. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Dec; 5(12):1263-4. PMID: 12436114.
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    243. Zorrilla EP, Valdez GR, Nozulak J, Koob GF, Markou A. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF type 1 receptor antagonist, on anxiety-like behavior and motor activation in the rat. Brain Res. 2002 Oct 18; 952(2):188-99. PMID: 12376179.
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    244. Zorrilla EP, Schulteis G, Ormsby A, Klaassen A, Ling N, McCarthy JR, Koob GF, De Souza EB. Urocortin shares the memory modulating effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF): mediation by CRF1 receptors. Brain Res. 2002 Oct 18; 952(2):200-10. PMID: 12376180.
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    245. Valdez GR, Roberts AJ, Chan K, Davis H, Brennan M, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Increased ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior during acute ethanol withdrawal and protracted abstinence: regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 Oct; 26(10):1494-501. PMID: 12394282.
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    246. Sanna PP, Simpson C, Lutjens R, Koob G. ERK regulation in chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal. Brain Res. 2002 Sep 06; 948(1-2):186-91. PMID: 12383974.
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    247. Walker JR, Terenius L, Koob GF. Conditioned opioid withdrawal decreases nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels in the frontal cortex and olfactory tubercle. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Aug; 27(2):203-11. PMID: 12093594.
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    248. Caillé S, Stinus L, Espejo EF, De Deurwaerdère P, Spampinato U, Koob GF. Inhibition of 5-HT neurotransmission increases clonidine protective effects on naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion in morphine-dependent rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb; 28(2):276-83. PMID: 12589380.
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    249. Valdez GR, Inoue K, Koob GF, Rivier J, Vale W, Zorrilla EP. Human urocortin II: mild locomotor suppressive and delayed anxiolytic-like effects of a novel corticotropin-releasing factor related peptide. Brain Res. 2002 Jul 05; 943(1):142-50. PMID: 12088848.
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    250. Ahmed SH, Kenny PJ, Koob GF, Markou A. Neurobiological evidence for hedonic allostasis associated with escalating cocaine use. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Jul; 5(7):625-6. PMID: 12055635.
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    251. Vetter DE, Li C, Zhao L, Contarino A, Liberman MC, Smith GW, Marchuk Y, Koob GF, Heinemann SF, Vale W, Lee KF. Urocortin-deficient mice show hearing impairment and increased anxiety-like behavior. Nat Genet. 2002 Aug; 31(4):363-9. PMID: 12091910.
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    252. Contarino A, Picetti R, Matthes HW, Koob GF, Kieffer BL, Gold LH. Lack of reward and locomotor stimulation induced by heroin in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Jun 20; 446(1-3):103-9. PMID: 12098591.
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    253. Ryabinin AE, Bachtell RK, Heinrichs SC, Lee S, Rivier C, Olive MF, Mehmert KK, Camarini R, Kim JA, Koenig HN, Nannini MA, Hodge CW, Roberts AJ, Koob GF. The corticotropin-releasing factor/urocortin system and alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 May; 26(5):714-22. PMID: 12045481.
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    254. Pulvirenti L, Koob GF. Being partial to psychostimulant addiction therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002 Apr; 23(4):151-3. PMID: 11931978.
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    255. Koob GF, Mason BJ, De Witte P, Littleton J, Siggins GR. Potential neuroprotective effects of acamprosate. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 Apr; 26(4):586-92. PMID: 11981137.
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    256. Orsini C, Izzo E, Koob GF, Pulvirenti L. Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis reduces responding for cocaine self-administration during extinction and reinstatement. Brain Res. 2002 Jan 25; 925(2):133-40. PMID: 11792361.
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    257. Bale TL, Picetti R, Contarino A, Koob GF, Vale WW, Lee KF. Mice deficient for both corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) and CRFR2 have an impaired stress response and display sexually dichotomous anxiety-like behavior. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 01; 22(1):193-9. PMID: 11756502.
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