Alan Simmons

TitleAssociate Adjunct Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
Address9500 Gilman Drive #9151-B
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Dr. Simmons received his B.A. degree in Psychology from the University of California at San Diego and his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology. After completing a predoctoral internship in clinical neuropsychology at Oak Forest Hospital in Illinois, he joined the laboratories of Professors Murray Stein and Martin Paulus as a postdoctoral fellow. Dr. Simmons is the Director of the fMRI Research Core, at the San Diego VA Healthcare System.

    Research Interests

    Dr. Simmons’s research focuses on neuroimaging of emotional systems such as anticipatory and affective appraisal. His main focus in is PTSD and TBI. He has conducted studies on posttraumatic stress disorders, head injury, trait anxiety, neuropsychopharmacology, and depression. Dr. Simmons is collaborating with other investigators on the study of pain processing, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, adult/adolescent depression, and eating disorders. In addition, he is working on novel computational models for imaging analysis. Dr. Simmons has received funding the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders (NARSAD) and from the U.S. Department of Defense. He has over a hundred peer-reviewed manuscripts and several book chapters.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Stout DM, Glenn DE, Acheson DT, Spadoni AD, Risbrough VB, Simmons A. Neural measures associated with configural threat acquisition. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2018 Apr; 150:99-106. PMID: 29544725.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Nguyen-Louie TT, Simmons A, Squeglia LM, Alejandra Infante M, Schacht JP, Tapert SF. Earlier alcohol use onset prospectively predicts changes in functional connectivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Apr; 235(4):1041-1054. PMID: 29306963.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Spadoni AD, Huang M, Simmons A. Emerging Approaches to Neurocircuits in PTSD and TBI: Imaging the Interplay of Neural and Emotional Trauma. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2017 Dec 29. PMID: 29285732.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Strigo IA, Spadoni AD, Inslicht SS, Simmons A. Repeated Exposure to Experimental Pain Differentiates Combat Traumatic Brain Injury with and without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. J Neurotrauma. 2018 Jan 15; 35(2):297-307. PMID: 28931334.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Bomyea J, Taylor CT, Spadoni AD, Simmons A. Neural mechanisms of interference control in working memory capacity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018 Feb; 39(2):772-782. PMID: 29139174.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Glenn DE, Risbrough VB, Simmons A, Acheson DT, Stout DM. The Future of Contextual Fear Learning for PTSD Research: A Methodological Review of Neuroimaging Studies. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2017 Oct 21. PMID: 29063483.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Strigo IA, Murray SB, Simmons A, Bernard RS, Huang JS, Kaye WH. The clinical application of fMRI data in a single-patient diagnostic conundrum: Classifying brain response to experimental pain to distinguish between gastrointestinal, depressive and eating disorder symptoms. J Clin Neurosci. 2017 Nov; 45:149-153. PMID: 28823587.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ho TC, Sacchet MD, Connolly CG, Margulies DS, Tymofiyeva O, Paulus MP, Simmons A, Gotlib IH, Yang TT. Inflexible Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Nov; 42(12):2434-2445. PMID: 28553837.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Paulus MP, Stein MB, Craske MG, Bookheimer S, Taylor CT, Simmons A, Sidhu N, Young KS, Fan B. Latent variable analysis of positive and negative valence processing focused on symptom and behavioral units of analysis in mood and anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord. 2017 07; 216:17-29. PMID: 28131628.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Huang JS, Terrones L, Simmons A, Kaye W, Strigo I. Pilot Study of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Responses to Somatic Pain Stimuli in Youth With Functional and Inflammatory Gastrointestinal Disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 11; 63(5):500-507. PMID: 27574880.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Connolly CG, Ho TC, Blom EH, LeWinn KZ, Sacchet MD, Tymofiyeva O, Simmons A, Yang TT. Resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and longitudinal changes in depression severity in adolescent depression. J Affect Disord. 2017 01 01; 207:86-94. PMID: 27716542.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Sacchet MD, Ho TC, Connolly CG, Tymofiyeva O, Lewinn KZ, Han LK, Blom EH, Tapert SF, Max JE, Frank GK, Paulus MP, Simmons A, Gotlib IH, Yang TT. Large-Scale Hypoconnectivity Between Resting-State Functional Networks in Unmedicated Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 11; 41(12):2951-2960. PMID: 27238621.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Kosheleva E, Spadoni AD, Strigo IA, Buchsbaum MS, Simmons A. Faking bad: The neural correlates of feigning memory impairment. Neuropsychology. 2016 Mar; 30(3):377-84. PMID: 26765340.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Aupperle RL, Stillman AN, Simmons A, Flagan T, Allard CB, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Intimate Partner Violence PTSD and Neural Correlates of Inhibition. J Trauma Stress. 2016 Feb; 29(1):33-40. PMID: 26748991.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Schuckit MA, Smith TL, Paulus MP, Tapert SF, Simmons A, Tolentino NJ, Shafir A. The Ability of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Predict Heavy Drinking and Alcohol Problems 5 Years Later. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016 Jan; 40(1):206-13. PMID: 26727535; PMCID: PMC4700546 [Available on 01/01/17].
    16. Haase L, Stewart JL, Youssef B, May AC, Isakovic S, Simmons A, Johnson DC, Potterat EG, Paulus MP. When the brain does not adequately feel the body: Links between low resilience and interoception. Biol Psychol. 2016 Jan; 113:37-45. PMID: 26607442.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Wagner A, Simmons A, Oberndorfer TA, Frank GK, McCurdy-McKinnon D, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Paulus MP, Kaye WH. Altered sensitization patterns to sweet food stimuli in patients recovered from anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Dec 30; 234(3):305-13. PMID: 26596520.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Buchsbaum MS, Simmons A, DeCastro A, Farid N, Matthews SC. Clusters of Low (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Voxels in Combat Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Nov 15; 32(22):1736-50. PMID: 25915799.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Haase L, May AC, Falahpour M, Isakovic S, Simmons A, Hickman SD, Liu TT, Paulus MP. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015; 9:229. PMID: 26379521.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Rabinovich MI, Simmons A, Varona P. Dynamical bridge between brain and mind. Trends Cogn Sci. 2015 Aug; 19(8):453-61. PMID: 26149511.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Brown GG, Ostrowitzki S, Stein MB, von Kienlin M, Liu TT, Simmons A, Wierenga C, Stein OY, Bruns A, Bischoff-Grethe A, Paulus M. Temporal profile of brain response to alprazolam in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Sep 30; 233(3):394-401. PMID: 26211623.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Spadoni AD, Kosheleva E, Buchsbaum MS, Simmons A. Neural correlates of malingering in mild traumatic brain injury: A positron emission tomography study. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Sep 30; 233(3):367-72. PMID: 26184458.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Henje Blom E, Connolly CG, Ho TC, LeWinn KZ, Mobayed N, Han L, Paulus MP, Wu J, Simmons A, Yang TT. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jun 01; 178:215-23. PMID: 25827506; PMCID: PMC4412607.
    24. Schiehser DM, Delano-Wood L, Jak AJ, Matthews SC, Simmons A, Jacobson MW, Filoteo JV, Bondi MW, Orff HJ, Liu L. Validation of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Mar-Apr; 30(2):116-21. PMID: 24413076.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Fonzo GA, Ramsawh HJ, Flagan TM, Sullivan SG, Letamendi A, Simmons A, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Common and disorder-specific neural responses to emotional faces in generalised anxiety, social anxiety and panic disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Mar; 206(3):206-15. PMID: 25573399; PMCID: PMC4345308.
    26. Wierenga CE, Ely A, Bischoff-Grethe A, Bailer UF, Simmons A, Kaye WH. Are Extremes of Consumption in Eating Disorders Related to an Altered Balance between Reward and Inhibition? Front Behav Neurosci. 2014; 8:410. PMID: 25538579; PMCID: PMC4260511.
    27. Wierenga CE, Bischoff-Grethe A, Melrose AJ, Irvine Z, Torres L, Bailer UF, Simmons A, Fudge JL, McClure SM, Ely A, Kaye WH. Hunger does not motivate reward in women remitted from anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr 01; 77(7):642-52. PMID: 25481622; PMCID: PMC4359668.
    28. Ho TC, Connolly CG, Henje Blom E, LeWinn KZ, Strigo IA, Paulus MP, Frank G, Max JE, Wu J, Chan M, Tapert SF, Simmons A, Yang TT. Emotion-Dependent Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Adolescent Depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 01; 78(9):635-46. PMID: 25483399; PMCID: PMC4362932 [Available on 11/01/16].
    29. Camacho Á, González P, Castañeda SF, Simmons A, Buelna C, Lemus H, Talavera GA. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Among Hispanic/Latinos Receiving a Culturally Tailored IMPACT and Problem-Solving Intervention in a Community Health Center. Community Ment Health J. 2015 May; 51(4):385-92. PMID: 25107309; PMCID: PMC4321971.
    30. Shu IW, Onton JA, O'Connell RM, Simmons A, Matthews SC. Combat veterans with comorbid PTSD and mild TBI exhibit a greater inhibitory processing ERP from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Psychiatry Res. 2014 Oct 30; 224(1):58-66. PMID: 25150386.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Fonzo GA, Ramsawh HJ, Flagan TM, Sullivan SG, Simmons A, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder is associated with attenuation of limbic activation to threat-related facial emotions. J Affect Disord. 2014 Dec; 169:76-85. PMID: 25171782; PMCID: PMC4172549.
    32. Johnson DC, Thom NJ, Stanley EA, Haase L, Simmons A, Shih PA, Thompson WK, Potterat EG, Minor TR, Paulus MP. Modifying resilience mechanisms in at-risk individuals: a controlled study of mindfulness training in Marines preparing for deployment. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Aug; 171(8):844-53. PMID: 24832476.
      View in: PubMed
    33. McCarthy MJ, Liang S, Spadoni AD, Kelsoe JR, Simmons A. Whole brain expression of bipolar disorder associated genes: structural and genetic analyses. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100204. PMID: 24941232; PMCID: PMC4062532.
    34. LeWinn KZ, Connolly CG, Wu J, Drahos M, Hoeft F, Ho TC, Simmons A, Yang TT. White matter correlates of adolescent depression: structural evidence for frontolimbic disconnectivity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Aug; 53(8):899-909, 909.e1-7. PMID: 25062597; PMCID: PMC4112055.
    35. Moeller-Bertram T, Strigo IA, Simmons A, Schilling JM, Patel P, Baker DG. Evidence for acute central sensitization to prolonged experimental pain in posttraumatic stress disorder. Pain Med. 2014 May; 15(5):762-71. PMID: 24738563.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Haase L, Thom NJ, Shukla A, Davenport PW, Simmons A, Stanley EA, Paulus MP, Johnson DC. Mindfulness-based training attenuates insula response to an aversive interoceptive challenge. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016 Jan; 11(1):182-90. PMID: 24714209; PMCID: PMC4692309 [Available on 01/01/17].
    37. Wierenga C, Bischoff-Grethe A, Melrose AJ, Grenesko-Stevens E, Irvine Z, Wagner A, Simmons A, Matthews S, Yau WY, Fennema-Notestine C, Kaye WH. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92017. PMID: 24651705; PMCID: PMC3961291.
    38. Galli G, Shukla A, Simmons A, Davenport PW, Paulus MP. Sex differences in the neural processing of aversive interoceptive events: the benefit of relief. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e84044. PMID: 24386327; PMCID: PMC3875519.
    39. Ushinsky A, Reinhardt LE, Simmons A, Strigo IA. Further evidence of emotional allodynia in unmedicated young adults with major depressive disorder. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80507. PMID: 24312229; PMCID: PMC3842925.
    40. Shu IW, Onton JA, Prabhakar N, O'Connell RM, Simmons A, Matthews SC. Combat veterans with PTSD after mild TBI exhibit greater ERPs from posterior-medial cortical areas while appraising facial features. J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb; 155:234-40. PMID: 24342149.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Spadoni AD, Simmons A, Yang TT, Tapert SF. Family history of alcohol use disorders and neuromaturation: a functional connectivity study with adolescents. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2013 Nov; 39(6):356-64. PMID: 24200205; PMCID: PMC3959877.
    42. Ho TC, Yang G, Wu J, Cassey P, Brown SD, Hoang N, Chan M, Connolly CG, Henje-Blom E, Duncan LG, Chesney MA, Paulus MP, Max JE, Patel R, Simmons A, Yang TT. Functional connectivity of negative emotional processing in adolescent depression. J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb; 155:65-74. PMID: 24268546; PMCID: PMC4961511.
    43. Oberndorfer TA, Frank GK, Simmons A, Wagner A, McCurdy D, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Paulus MP, Kaye WH. Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Oct; 170(10):1143-51. PMID: 23732817; PMCID: PMC3971875.
    44. Simmons A, Norman SB, Spadoni AD, Strigo IA. Neurosubstrates of remission following prolonged exposure therapy in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychother Psychosom. 2013; 82(6):382-9. PMID: 24061484.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Oberndorfer T, Simmons A, McCurdy D, Strigo I, Matthews S, Yang T, Irvine Z, Kaye W. Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Nov 30; 214(2):132-41. PMID: 23993362; PMCID: PMC3880160.
    46. Taylor CT, Aupperle RL, Flagan T, Simmons A, Amir N, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Neural correlates of a computerized attention modification program in anxious subjects. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Sep; 9(9):1379-87. PMID: 23934417; PMCID: PMC4158378.
    47. Aupperle RL, Allard CB, Simmons A, Flagan T, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Neural responses during emotional processing before and after cognitive trauma therapy for battered women. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Oct 30; 214(1):48-55. PMID: 23916537.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Connolly CG, Wu J, Ho TC, Hoeft F, Wolkowitz O, Eisendrath S, Frank G, Hendren R, Max JE, Paulus MP, Tapert SF, Banerjee D, Simmons A, Yang TT. Resting-state functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in depressed adolescents. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Dec 15; 74(12):898-907. PMID: 23910949; PMCID: PMC4103629.
    49. Ho TC, Wu J, Shin DD, Liu TT, Tapert SF, Yang G, Connolly CG, Frank GK, Max JE, Wolkowitz O, Eisendrath S, Hoeft F, Banerjee D, Hood K, Hendren RL, Paulus MP, Simmons A, Yang TT. Altered cerebral perfusion in executive, affective, and motor networks during adolescent depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Oct; 52(10):1076-1091.e2. PMID: 24074474; PMCID: PMC3825460.
    50. Schreiber D, Fonzo G, Simmons A, Dawes CT, Flagan T, Fowler JH, Paulus MP. Red brain, blue brain: evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e52970. PMID: 23418419; PMCID: PMC3572122.
    51. Kaye WH, Wierenga CE, Bailer UF, Simmons A, Wagner A, Bischoff-Grethe A. Does a shared neurobiology for foods and drugs of abuse contribute to extremes of food ingestion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa? Biol Psychiatry. 2013 May 01; 73(9):836-42. PMID: 23380716; PMCID: PMC3755487.
    52. Kaye WH, Wierenga CE, Bailer UF, Simmons A, Bischoff-Grethe A. Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels: the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa. Trends Neurosci. 2013 Feb; 36(2):110-20. PMID: 23333342; PMCID: PMC3880159.
    53. Thom NJ, Johnson DC, Flagan T, Simmons A, Kotturi SA, Van Orden KF, Potterat EG, Swain JL, Paulus MP. Detecting emotion in others: increased insula and decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during emotion processing in elite adventure racers. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Feb; 9(2):225-31. PMID: 23171614; PMCID: PMC3907930.
    54. Fonzo GA, Flagan TM, Sullivan S, Allard CB, Grimes EM, Simmons A, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Neural functional and structural correlates of childhood maltreatment in women with intimate-partner violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Feb 28; 211(2):93-103. PMID: 23154098; PMCID: PMC3570713.
    55. Matthews SC, Spadoni AD, Lohr JB, Strigo IA, Simmons A. Diffusion tensor imaging evidence of white matter disruption associated with loss versus alteration of consciousness in warfighters exposed to combat in Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom. Psychiatry Res. 2012 Nov 30; 204(2-3):149-54. PMID: 23149025; PMCID: PMC3866101.
    56. Stewart JL, Flagan TM, May AC, Reske M, Simmons A, Paulus MP. Young adults at risk for stimulant dependence show reward dysfunction during reinforcement-based decision making. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 01; 73(3):235-41. PMID: 23021534; PMCID: PMC3674030.
    57. Simmons A, Flagan TM, Wittmann M, Strigo IA, Matthews SC, Donovan H, Lohr JB, Paulus MP. The effects of temporal unpredictability in anticipation of negative events in combat veterans with PTSD. J Affect Disord. 2013 Apr 25; 146(3):426-32. PMID: 22910447.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Strigo IA, Matthews SC, Simmons A, Oberndorfer T, Klabunde M, Reinhardt LE, Kaye WH. Altered insula activation during pain anticipation in individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa: evidence of interoceptive dysregulation. Int J Eat Disord. 2013 Jan; 46(1):23-33. PMID: 22836447; PMCID: PMC3507323.
    59. Acheson DT, Stein MB, Paulus MP, Ravindran L, Simmons A, Lohr JB, Risbrough VB. Effects of anxiolytic treatment on potentiated startle during aversive image anticipation. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2012 Jul; 27(4):419-27. PMID: 22782542.
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    60. Paulus MP, Schuckit MA, Tapert SF, Tolentino NJ, Matthews SC, Smith TL, Trim RS, Hall SA, Simmons A. High versus low level of response to alcohol: evidence of differential reactivity to emotional stimuli. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 15; 72(10):848-55. PMID: 22608014; PMCID: PMC3433640.
    61. Matthews S, Spadoni A, Knox K, Strigo I, Simmons A. Combat-exposed war veterans at risk for suicide show hyperactivation of prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during error processing. Psychosom Med. 2012 Jun; 74(5):471-5. PMID: 22511726; PMCID: PMC4018224.
    62. Dawes CT, Loewen PJ, Schreiber D, Simmons A, Flagan T, McElreath R, Bokemper SE, Fowler JH, Paulus MP. Neural basis of egalitarian behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 24; 109(17):6479-83. PMID: 22493264; PMCID: PMC3340020.
    63. Aupperle RL, Allard CB, Grimes EM, Simmons A, Flagan T, Behrooznia M, Cissell SH, Twamley EW, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during emotional anticipation and neuropsychological performance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 69(4):360-71. PMID: 22474105.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Simmons A, Fitzpatrick S, Strigo IA, Potterat EG, Johnson DC, Matthews SC, Orden KF, Swain JL, Paulus MP. Altered insula activation in anticipation of changing emotional states: neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in Special Operations Forces personnel. Neuroreport. 2012 Mar 07; 23(4):234-9. PMID: 22222502.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Perlman G, Simmons A, Wu J, Hahn KS, Tapert SF, Max JE, Paulus MP, Brown GG, Frank GK, Campbell-Sills L, Yang TT. Amygdala response and functional connectivity during emotion regulation: a study of 14 depressed adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2012 Jun; 139(1):75-84. PMID: 22401827; PMCID: PMC3340443.
    66. Simmons A, Thayer RE, Spadoni AD, Matthews SC, Strigo IA, Tapert SF. The parametric, psychological, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical properties of self and world evaluation. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e31509. PMID: 22348093; PMCID: PMC3278451.
    67. Paulus MP, Flagan T, Simmons A, Gillis K, Kotturi S, Thom N, Johnson DC, Van Orden KF, Davenport PW, Swain JL. Subjecting elite athletes to inspiratory breathing load reveals behavioral and neural signatures of optimal performers in extreme environments. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29394. PMID: 22276111; PMCID: PMC3261851.
    68. Schuckit MA, Tapert S, Matthews SC, Paulus MP, Tolentino NJ, Smith TL, Trim RS, Hall S, Simmons A. fMRI differences between subjects with low and high responses to alcohol during a stop signal task. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 01; 36(1):130-40. PMID: 22003983; PMCID: PMC3253183.
    69. Simmons A, Matthews SC, Strigo IA, Baker DG, Donovan HK, Motezadi A, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Altered amygdala activation during face processing in Iraqi and Afghanistani war veterans. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2011 Oct 12; 1(1):6. PMID: 22738183; PMCID: PMC3384263.
    70. Kruschwitz JD, Simmons A, Flagan T, Paulus MP. Nothing to lose: processing blindness to potential losses drives thrill and adventure seekers. Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 01; 59(3):2850-9. PMID: 21982930; PMCID: PMC3256346.
    71. Ball TM, Sullivan S, Flagan T, Hitchcock CA, Simmons A, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Selective effects of social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity on the neural bases of emotional face processing. Neuroimage. 2012 Jan 16; 59(2):1879-87. PMID: 21920442.
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    72. Wittmann M, Simmons A, Flagan T, Lane SD, Wackermann J, Paulus MP. Neural substrates of time perception and impulsivity. Brain Res. 2011 Aug 11; 1406:43-58. PMID: 21763642; PMCID: PMC3145046.
    73. Padula CB, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Robinson SK, Tapert SF, Schuckit MA, Paulus MP. Alcohol attenuates activation in the bilateral anterior insula during an emotional processing task: a pilot study. Alcohol Alcohol. 2011 Sep-Oct; 46(5):547-52. PMID: 21665869; PMCID: PMC3201697.
    74. Aupperle RL, Ravindran L, Tankersley D, Flagan T, Stein NR, Simmons A, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Pregabalin influences insula and amygdala activation during anticipation of emotional images. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jun; 36(7):1466-77. PMID: 21430645.
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    75. Simmons A, Matthews SC. Neural circuitry of PTSD with or without mild traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):598-606. PMID: 21420986.
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    76. Oberndorfer TA, Kaye WH, Simmons A, Strigo IA, Matthews SC. Demand-specific alteration of medial prefrontal cortex response during an inhibition task in recovered anorexic women. Int J Eat Disord. 2011 Jan; 44(1):1-8. PMID: 20127942.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Simmons A, Stein MB, Strigo IA, Arce E, Hitchcock C, Paulus MP. Anxiety positive subjects show altered processing in the anterior insula during anticipation of negative stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011 Nov; 32(11):1836-46. PMID: 21181800; PMCID: PMC3215249.
    78. Wierenga CE, Stricker NH, McCauley A, Simmons A, Jak AJ, Chang YL, Nation DA, Bangen KJ, Salmon DP, Bondi MW. Altered brain response for semantic knowledge in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia. 2011 Feb; 49(3):392-404. PMID: 21163275; PMCID: PMC3058793.
    79. Matthews S, Simmons A, Strigo I. The effects of loss versus alteration of consciousness on inhibition-related brain activity among individuals with a history of blast-related concussion. Psychiatry Res. 2011 Jan 30; 191(1):76-9. PMID: 21144713.
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    80. Strigo IA, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Craig AD. The relationship between amygdala activation and passive exposure time to an aversive cue during a continuous performance task. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 29; 5(11):e15093. PMID: 21124739; PMCID: PMC2993966.
    81. Camacho A, Ng B, Bejarano A, Simmons A, Chavira D. Crisis visits and psychiatric hospitalizations among patients attending a community clinic in rural Southern California. Community Ment Health J. 2012 Apr; 48(2):133-7. PMID: 20924788; PMCID: PMC3157591.
    82. Campbell-Sills L, Simmons A, Lovero KL, Rochlin AA, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Functioning of neural systems supporting emotion regulation in anxiety-prone individuals. Neuroimage. 2011 Jan 01; 54(1):689-96. PMID: 20673804; PMCID: PMC2962684.
    83. Fonzo GA, Simmons A, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Exaggerated and disconnected insular-amygdalar blood oxygenation level-dependent response to threat-related emotional faces in women with intimate-partner violence posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Sep 01; 68(5):433-41. PMID: 20573339; PMCID: PMC2921473.
    84. Wittmann M, Simmons A, Aron JL, Paulus MP. Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time. Neuropsychologia. 2010 Aug; 48(10):3110-20. PMID: 20600186; PMCID: PMC2933788.
    85. Strigo IA, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Grimes EM, Allard CB, Reinhardt LE, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Neural correlates of altered pain response in women with posttraumatic stress disorder from intimate partner violence. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Sep 01; 68(5):442-50. PMID: 20553750.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Trim RS, Simmons A, Tolentino NJ, Hall SA, Matthews SC, Robinson SK, Smith TL, Padula CB, Paulus MP, Tapert SF, Schuckit MA. Acute ethanol effects on brain activation in low- and high-level responders to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010 Jul; 34(7):1162-70. PMID: 20477775; PMCID: PMC3774836.
    87. Matthews SC, Strigo IA, Simmons A, O'Connell RM, Reinhardt LE, Moseley SA. A multimodal imaging study in U.S. veterans of Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom with and without major depression after blast-related concussion. Neuroimage. 2011 Jan; 54 Suppl 1:S69-75. PMID: 20451622.
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    88. Matthews SC, Simmons A, Strigo IA, Arce E, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Escitalopram attenuates posterior cingulate activity during self-evaluation in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Res. 2010 May 30; 182(2):81-7. PMID: 20418072; PMCID: PMC2882791.
    89. Paulus MP, Simmons A, Fitzpatrick SN, Potterat EG, Van Orden KF, Bauman J, Swain JL. Differential brain activation to angry faces by elite warfighters: neural processing evidence for enhanced threat detection. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 14; 5(4):e10096. PMID: 20418943; PMCID: PMC2854680.
    90. Camacho A, Simmons A, Ng B, Matthews SC, Akiskal HS. A factor analysis of different temperament domains in a border region in rural Southern California. J Affect Disord. 2010 Oct; 126(1-2):46-8. PMID: 20392499; PMCID: PMC3782388.
    91. Wierenga CE, Stricker NH, McCauley A, Simmons A, Jak AJ, Chang YL, Delano-Wood L, Bangen KJ, Salmon DP, Bondi MW. Increased functional brain response during word retrieval in cognitively intact older adults at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage. 2010 Jul 01; 51(3):1222-33. PMID: 20298792; PMCID: PMC2862794.
    92. Strigo IA, Matthews SC, Simmons A. Right anterior insula hypoactivity during anticipation of homeostatic shifts in major depressive disorder. Psychosom Med. 2010 Apr; 72(3):316-23. PMID: 20100882; PMCID: PMC2884370.
    93. Yang TT, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Frank GK, Max JE, Bischoff-Grethe A, Lansing AE, Brown G, Strigo IA, Wu J, Paulus MP. Adolescents with major depression demonstrate increased amygdala activation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 49(1):42-51. PMID: 20215925; PMCID: PMC2935523.
    94. Baker DG, Heppner P, Afari N, Nunnink S, Kilmer M, Simmons A, Harder L, Bosse B. Trauma exposure, branch of service, and physical injury in relation to mental health among U.S. veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Mil Med. 2009 Aug; 174(8):773-8. PMID: 19743729.
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    95. Simmons A, Arce E, Lovero KL, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Subchronic SSRI administration reduces insula response during affective anticipation in healthy volunteers. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 Sep; 12(8):1009-20. PMID: 19545475; PMCID: PMC2846821.
    96. Simmons A, Strigo IA, Matthews SC, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Initial evidence of a failure to activate right anterior insula during affective set shifting in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychosom Med. 2009 May; 71(4):373-7. PMID: 19398499; PMCID: PMC2888032.
    97. Lovero KL, Simmons A, Aron JL, Paulus MP. Anterior insular cortex anticipates impending stimulus significance. Neuroimage. 2009 Apr 15; 45(3):976-83. PMID: 19280711; PMCID: PMC3758834.
    98. Yang TT, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Frank GK, Bischoff-Grethe A, Lansing AE, Wu J, Brown GG, Paulus MP. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity. Neuroreport. 2009 Mar 04; 20(4):440-4. PMID: 19218875; PMCID: PMC2672880.
    99. Matthews S, Simmons A, Strigo I, Gianaros P, Yang T, Paulus M. Inhibition-related activity in subgenual cingulate is associated with symptom severity in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2009 Apr 30; 172(1):1-6. PMID: 19239982.
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    100. Yang TT, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Frank GK, Bischoff-Grethe A, Lansing AE, Wu J, Paulus MP. Adolescent subgenual anterior cingulate activity is related to harm avoidance. Neuroreport. 2009 Jan 07; 20(1):19-23. PMID: 19034055; PMCID: PMC2852645.
    101. Strigo IA, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Craig AD, Paulus MP. Association of major depressive disorder with altered functional brain response during anticipation and processing of heat pain. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Nov; 65(11):1275-84. PMID: 18981339; PMCID: PMC2702160.
    102. Arce E, Simmons A, Stein MB, Winkielman P, Hitchcock C, Paulus MP. Association between individual differences in self-reported emotional resilience and the affective perception of neutral faces. J Affect Disord. 2009 Apr; 114(1-3):286-93. PMID: 18957273; PMCID: PMC2691748.
    103. Simmons A, Paulus MP, Thorp SR, Matthews SC, Norman SB, Stein MB. Functional activation and neural networks in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to intimate partner violence. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Oct 15; 64(8):681-90. PMID: 18639236; PMCID: PMC2634744.
    104. Matthews SC, Strigo IA, Simmons A, Yang TT, Paulus MP. Decreased functional coupling of the amygdala and supragenual cingulate is related to increased depression in unmedicated individuals with current major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008 Nov; 111(1):13-20. PMID: 18603301.
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    105. Simmons A, Matthews SC, Feinstein JS, Hitchcock C, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Anxiety vulnerability is associated with altered anterior cingulate response to an affective appraisal task. Neuroreport. 2008 Jul 02; 19(10):1033-7. PMID: 18580574.
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    106. Strigo IA, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Craig AD, Paulus MP. Increased affective bias revealed using experimental graded heat stimuli in young depressed adults: evidence of "emotional allodynia". Psychosom Med. 2008 Apr; 70(3):338-44. PMID: 18378870; PMCID: PMC2742693.
    107. Arce E, Simmons A, Lovero KL, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Escitalopram effects on insula and amygdala BOLD activation during emotional processing. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Mar; 196(4):661-72. PMID: 18058090; PMCID: PMC2839135.
    108. Yang TT, Simmons A, Matthews SC, Tapert SF, Bischoff-Grethe A, Frank GK, Arce E, Paulus MP. Increased amygdala activation is related to heart rate during emotion processing in adolescent subjects. Neurosci Lett. 2007 Nov 27; 428(2-3):109-14. PMID: 18029095; PMCID: PMC2171034.
    109. Frank GK, Oberndorfer TA, Simmons A, Paulus MP, Fudge JL, Yang TT, Kaye WH. Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener. Neuroimage. 2008 Feb 15; 39(4):1559-69. PMID: 18096409.
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    110. Simmons A, Matthews SC, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jan 10; 430(2):92-7. PMID: 18079060; PMCID: PMC2692473.
    111. Matthews SC, Simmons A, Strigo I, Jang K, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Heritability of anterior cingulate response to conflict: an fMRI study in female twins. Neuroimage. 2007 Oct 15; 38(1):223-7. PMID: 17707125.
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    112. Stein MB, Simmons A, Feinstein JS, Paulus MP. Increased amygdala and insula activation during emotion processing in anxiety-prone subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Feb; 164(2):318-27. PMID: 17267796.
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    113. Ng B, Camacho A, Simmons A, Matthews SC. Ethnicity and use of alternative products in psychiatric patients. Psychosomatics. 2006 Sep-Oct; 47(5):408-13. PMID: 16959929.
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    114. Simmons A, Strigo I, Matthews SC, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Anticipation of aversive visual stimuli is associated with increased insula activation in anxiety-prone subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Aug 15; 60(4):402-9. PMID: 16919527.
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    115. Arce E, Leland DS, Miller DA, Simmons A, Winternheimer KC, Paulus MP. Individuals with schizophrenia present hypo- and hyperactivation during implicit cueing in an inhibitory task. Neuroimage. 2006 Aug 15; 32(2):704-13. PMID: 16766210.
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    116. Simmons A, Stein MB, Matthews SC, Feinstein JS, Paulus MP. Affective ambiguity for a group recruits ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Neuroimage. 2006 Jan 15; 29(2):655-61. PMID: 16125977.
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    117. Simmons A, Miller D, Feinstein JS, Goldberg TE, Paulus MP. Left inferior prefrontal cortex activation during a semantic decision-making task predicts the degree of semantic organization. Neuroimage. 2005 Oct 15; 28(1):30-8. PMID: 16009569.
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    118. Matthews SC, Simmons A, Arce E, Paulus MP. Dissociation of inhibition from error processing using a parametric inhibitory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroreport. 2005 May 12; 16(7):755-60. PMID: 15858420.
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    119. Paulus MP, Feinstein JS, Leland D, Simmons A. Superior temporal gyrus and insula provide response and outcome-dependent information during assessment and action selection in a decision-making situation. Neuroimage. 2005 Apr 01; 25(2):607-15. PMID: 15784440.
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    120. Paulus MP, Feinstein JS, Castillo G, Simmons A, Stein MB. Dose-dependent decrease of activation in bilateral amygdala and insula by lorazepam during emotion processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Mar; 62(3):282-8. PMID: 15753241.
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    121. Filoteo JV, Maddox WT, Simmons A, Ing AD, Cagigas XE, Matthews S, Paulus MP. Cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in rule-based category learning. Neuroreport. 2005 Feb 08; 16(2):111-5. PMID: 15671857.
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    122. Simmons A, Matthews SC, Stein MB, Paulus MP. Anticipation of emotionally aversive visual stimuli activates right insula. Neuroreport. 2004 Oct 05; 15(14):2261-5. PMID: 15371746.
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    123. Matthews SC, Simmons A, Lane SD, Paulus MP. Selective activation of the nucleus accumbens during risk-taking decision making. Neuroreport. 2004 Sep 15; 15(13):2123-7. PMID: 15486494.
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    124. Matthews SC, Paulus MP, Simmons A, Nelesen RA, Dimsdale JE. Functional subdivisions within anterior cingulate cortex and their relationship to autonomic nervous system function. Neuroimage. 2004 Jul; 22(3):1151-6. PMID: 15219587.
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    125. Paulus MP, Feinstein JS, Simmons A, Stein MB. Anterior cingulate activation in high trait anxious subjects is related to altered error processing during decision making. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jun 15; 55(12):1179-87. PMID: 15184037.
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    126. Paulus MP, Rogalsky C, Simmons A, Feinstein JS, Stein MB. Increased activation in the right insula during risk-taking decision making is related to harm avoidance and neuroticism. Neuroimage. 2003 Aug; 19(4):1439-48. PMID: 12948701.
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