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    Rany Salem

    TitleAssistant Professor In Residence
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentFamily Medicine and Public Health
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0725
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-246-0433
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Bibliographic 
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Guo MH, Nandakumar SK, Ulirsch JC, Zekavat SM, Buenrostro JD, Natarajan P, Salem R, Chiarle R, Mitt M, Kals M, Pärn K, Fischer K, Milani L, Mägi R, Palta P, Gabriel SB, Metspalu A, Lander ES, Kathiresan S, Hirschhorn JN, Esko T, Sankaran VG. Comprehensive population-based genome sequencing provides insight into hematopoietic regulatory mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jan 17; 114(3):E327-E336. PMID: 28031487.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Guo MH, Dauber A, Lippincott MF, Chan YM, Salem R, Hirschhorn JN. Determinants of Power in Gene-Based Burden Testing for Monogenic Disorders. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 01; 99(3):527-539. PMID: 27545677; PMCID: PMC5011058 [Available on 03/01/17].
      3. Boettger LM, Salem R, Handsaker RE, Peloso GM, Kathiresan S, Hirschhorn JN, McCarroll SA. Recurring exon deletions in the HP (haptoglobin) gene contribute to lower blood cholesterol levels. Nat Genet. 2016 Apr; 48(4):359-66. PMID: 26901066; PMCID: PMC4811681.
      4. Todd JN, Dahlström EH, Salem R, Sandholm N, Forsblom C, McKnight AJ, Maxwell AP, Brennan E, Sadlier D, Godson C, Groop PH, Hirschhorn JN, Florez JC. Genetic Evidence for a Causal Role of Obesity in Diabetic Kidney Disease. Diabetes. 2015 Dec; 64(12):4238-46. PMID: 26307587; PMCID: PMC4657582 [Available on 12/01/16].
      5. Joshi PK, Esko T, Mattsson H, Eklund N, Gandin I, Nutile T, Jackson AU, Schurmann C, Smith AV, Zhang W, Okada Y, Stancáková A, Faul JD, Zhao W, Bartz TM, Concas MP, Franceschini N, Enroth S, Vitart V, Trompet S, Guo X, Chasman DI, O'Connel JR, Corre T, Nongmaithem SS, Chen Y, Mangino M, Ruggiero D, Traglia M, Farmaki AE, Kacprowski T, Bjonnes A, van der Spek A, Wu Y, Giri AK, Yanek LR, Wang L, Hofer E, Rietveld CA, McLeod O, Cornelis MC, Pattaro C, Verweij N, Baumbach C, Abdellaoui A, Warren HR, Vuckovic D, Mei H, Bouchard C, Perry JRB, Cappellani S, Mirza SS, Benton MC, Broeckel U, Medland SE, Lind PA, Malerba G, Drong A, Yengo L, Bielak LF, Zhi D, van der Most PJ, Shriner D, Mägi R, Hemani G, Karaderi T, Wang Z, Liu T, Demuth I, Zhao JH, Meng W, Lataniotis L, van der Laan SW, Bradfield JP, Wood AR, Bonnefond A, Ahluwalia TS, Hall LM, Salvi E, Yazar S, Carstensen L, de Haan HG, Abney M, Afzal U, Allison MA, Amin N, Asselbergs FW, Bakker SJL, Barr RG, Baumeister SE, Benjamin DJ, Bergmann S, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP, Campbell A, Chakravarti A, Chan Y, Chanock SJ, Chen C, Chen YI, Collins FS, Connell J, Correa A, Cupples LA, Smith GD, Davies G, Dörr M, Ehret G, Ellis SB, Feenstra B, Feitosa MF, Ford I, Fox CS, Frayling TM, Friedrich N, Geller F, Scotland G, Gillham-Nasenya I, Gottesman O, Graff M, Grodstein F, Gu C, Haley C, Hammond CJ, Harris SE, Harris TB, Hastie ND, Heard-Costa NL, Heikkilä K, Hocking LJ, Homuth G, Hottenga JJ, Huang J, Huffman JE, Hysi PG, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Joensuu A, Johansson Å, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Kähönen M, Kamatani Y, Kanoni S, Kerr SM, Khan NM, Koellinger P, Koistinen HA, Kooner MK, Kubo M, Kuusisto J, Lahti J, Launer LJ, Lea RA, Lehne B, Lehtimäki T, Liewald DCM, Lind L, Loh M, Lokki ML, London SJ, Loomis SJ, Loukola A, Lu Y, Lumley T, Lundqvist A, Männistö S, Marques-Vidal P, Masciullo C, Matchan A, Mathias RA, Matsuda K, Meigs JB, Meisinger C, Meitinger T, Menni C, Mentch FD, Mihailov E, Milani L, Montasser ME, Montgomery GW, Morrison A, Myers RH, Nadukuru R, Navarro P, Nelis M, Nieminen MS, Nolte IM, O'Connor GT, Ogunniyi A, Padmanabhan S, Palmas WR, Pankow JS, Patarcic I, Pavani F, Peyser PA, Pietilainen K, Poulter N, Prokopenko I, Ralhan S, Redmond P, Rich SS, Rissanen H, Robino A, Rose LM, Rose R, Sala C, Salako B, Salomaa V, Sarin AP, Saxena R, Schmidt H, Scott LJ, Scott WR, Sennblad B, Seshadri S, Sever P, Shrestha S, Smith BH, Smith JA, Soranzo N, Sotoodehnia N, Southam L, Stanton AV, Stathopoulou MG, Strauch K, Strawbridge RJ, Suderman MJ, Tandon N, Tang ST, Taylor KD, Tayo BO, Töglhofer AM, Tomaszewski M, Tšernikova N, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Vaidya D, van Hylckama Vlieg A, van Setten J, Vasankari T, Vedantam S, Vlachopoulou E, Vozzi D, Vuoksimaa E, Waldenberger M, Ware EB, Wentworth-Shields W, Whitfield JB, Wild S, Willemsen G, Yajnik CS, Yao J, Zaza G, Zhu X, Project TBJ, Salem R, Melbye M, Bisgaard H, Samani NJ, Cusi D, Mackey DA, Cooper RS, Froguel P, Pasterkamp G, Grant SFA, Hakonarson H, Ferrucci L, Scott RA, Morris AD, Palmer CNA, Dedoussis G, Deloukas P, Bertram L, Lindenberger U, Berndt SI, Lindgren CM, Timpson NJ, Tönjes A, Munroe PB, Sørensen TIA, Rotimi CN, Arnett DK, Oldehinkel AJ, Kardia SLR, Balkau B, Gambaro G, Morris AP, Eriksson JG, Wright MJ, Martin NG, Hunt SC, Starr JM, Deary IJ, Griffiths LR, Tiemeier H, Pirastu N, Kaprio J, Wareham NJ, Pérusse L, Wilson JG, Girotto G, Caulfield MJ, Raitakari O, Boomsma DI, Gieger C, van der Harst P, Hicks AA, Kraft P, Sinisalo J, Knekt P, Johannesson M, Magnusson PKE, Hamsten A, Schmidt R, Borecki IB, Vartiainen E, Becker DM, Bharadwaj D, Mohlke KL, Boehnke M, van Duijn CM, Sanghera DK, Teumer A, Zeggini E, Metspalu A, Gasparini P, Ulivi S, Ober C, Toniolo D, Rudan I, Porteous DJ, Ciullo M, Spector TD, Hayward C, Dupuis J, Loos RJF, Wright AF, Chandak GR, Vollenweider P, Shuldiner A, Ridker PM, Rotter JI, Sattar N, Gyllensten U, North KE, Pirastu M, Psaty BM, Weir DR, Laakso M, Gudnason V, Takahashi A, et al. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations. Nature. 2015 Jul 23; 523(7561):459-462. PMID: 26131930; PMCID: PMC4516141.
      6. Swan EJ, Salem R, Sandholm N, Tarnow L, Rossing P, Lajer M, Groop PH, Maxwell AP, McKnight AJ. Genetic risk factors affecting mitochondrial function are associated with kidney disease in people with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2015 Aug; 32(8):1104-9. PMID: 25819010; PMCID: PMC4504747.
      7. Chan Y, Salem R, Hsu YH, McMahon G, Pers TH, Vedantam S, Esko T, Guo MH, Lim ET, Franke L, Smith GD, Strachan DP, Hirschhorn JN. Genome-wide Analysis of Body Proportion Classifies Height-Associated Variants by Mechanism of Action and Implicates Genes Important for Skeletal Development. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 May 07; 96(5):695-708. PMID: 25865494; PMCID: PMC4570286.
      8. Shungin D, Winkler TW, Croteau-Chonka DC, Ferreira T, Locke AE, Mägi R, Strawbridge RJ, Pers TH, Fischer K, Justice AE, Workalemahu T, Wu JMW, Buchkovich ML, Heard-Costa NL, Roman TS, Drong AW, Song C, Gustafsson S, Day FR, Esko T, Fall T, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Randall JC, Scherag A, Vedantam S, Wood AR, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Karjalainen J, Kahali B, Liu CT, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bragg-Gresham JL, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Ehret GB, Feitosa MF, Goel A, Jackson AU, Johnson T, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Mangino M, Leach IM, Medina-Gomez C, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivanis S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Stancáková A, Sung YJ, Tanaka T, Teumer A, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Yengo L, Zhang W, Albrecht E, Ärnlöv J, Arscott GM, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blüher M, Böhringer S, Bonnet F, Böttcher Y, Bruinenberg M, Carba DB, Caspersen IH, Clarke R, Daw EW, Deelen J, Deelman E, Delgado G, Doney AS, Eklund N, Erdos MR, Estrada K, Eury E, Friedrich N, Garcia ME, Giedraitis V, Gigante B, Go AS, Golay A, Grallert H, Grammer TB, Gräßler J, Grewal J, Groves CJ, Haller T, Hallmans G, Hartman CA, Hassinen M, Hayward C, Heikkilä K, Herzig KH, Helmer Q, Hillege HL, Holmen O, Hunt SC, Isaacs A, Ittermann T, James AL, Johansson I, Juliusdottir T, Kalafati IP, Kinnunen L, Koenig W, Kooner IK, Kratzer W, Lamina C, Leander K, Lee NR, Lichtner P, Lind L, Lindström J, Lobbens S, Lorentzon M, Mach F, Magnusson PK, Mahajan A, McArdle WL, Menni C, Merger S, Mihailov E, Milani L, Mills R, Moayyeri A, Monda KL, Mooijaart SP, Mühleisen TW, Mulas A, Müller G, Müller-Nurasyid M, Nagaraja R, Nalls MA, Narisu N, Glorioso N, Nolte IM, Olden M, Rayner NW, Renstrom F, Ried JS, Robertson NR, Rose LM, Sanna S, Scharnagl H, Scholtens S, Sennblad B, Seufferlein T, Sitlani CM, Smith AV, Stirrups K, Stringham HM, Sundström J, Swertz MA, Swift AJ, Syvänen AC, Tayo BO, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Tomaschitz A, Troffa C, van Oort FV, Verweij N, Vonk JM, Waite LL, Wennauer R, Wilsgaard T, Wojczynski MK, Wong A, Zhang Q, Zhao JH, Brennan EP, Choi M, Eriksson P, Folkersen L, Franco-Cereceda A, Gharavi AG, Hedman ÅK, Hivert MF, Huang J, Kanoni S, Karpe F, Keildson S, Kiryluk K, Liang L, Lifton RP, Ma B, McKnight AJ, McPherson R, Metspalu A, Min JL, Moffatt MF, Montgomery GW, Murabito JM, Nicholson G, Nyholt DR, Olsson C, Perry JR, Reinmaa E, Salem R, Sandholm N, Schadt EE, Scott RA, Stolk L, Vallejo EE, Westra HJ, Zondervan KT, Amouyel P, Arveiler D, Bakker SJ, Beilby J, Bergman RN, Blangero J, Brown MJ, Burnier M, Campbell H, Chakravarti A, Chines PS, Claudi-Boehm S, Collins FS, Crawford DC, Danesh J, de Faire U, de Geus EJ, Dörr M, Erbel R, Eriksson JG, Farrall M, Ferrannini E, Ferrières J, Forouhi NG, Forrester T, Franco OH, Gansevoort RT, Gieger C, Gudnason V, Haiman CA, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Heliövaara M, Hicks AA, Hingorani AD, Hoffmann W, Hofman A, Homuth G, Humphries SE, Hyppönen E, Illig T, Jarvelin MR, Johansen B, Jousilahti P, Jula AM, Kaprio J, Kee F, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kraja AT, Kumari M, Kuulasmaa K, Kuusisto J, Lakka TA, Langenberg C, Le Marchand L, Lehtimäki T, Lyssenko V, Männistö S, Marette A, Matise TC, McKenzie CA, McKnight B, Musk AW, Möhlenkamp S, Morris AD, Nelis M, Ohlsson C, Oldehinkel AJ, Ong KK, Palmer LJ, Penninx BW, Peters A, Pramstaller PP, Raitakari OT, Rankinen T, Rao DC, Rice TK, Ridker PM, Ritchie MD, Rudan I, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Saramies J, Sarzynski MA, Schwarz PE, Shuldiner AR, Staessen JA, Steinthorsdottir V, Stolk RP, Strauch K, Tönjes A, Tremblay A, Tremoli E, Vohl MC, Völker U, Vollenweider P, Wilson JF, Witteman JC, Adair LS, Bochud M, Boehm BO, Bornstein SR, Bouchard C, Cauchi S, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Cooper RS, Dedoussis G, Ferrucci L, Froguel P, Grabe HJ, Hamsten A, Hui J, Hveem K, Jöckel KH, Kivimaki M, Kuh D, Laakso M, Liu Y, März W, Munroe PB, Njølstad I, Oostra BA, Palmer CN, Pedersen NL, Perola M, Pérusse L, et al. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution. Nature. 2015 Feb 12; 518(7538):187-196. PMID: 25673412; PMCID: PMC4338562.
      9. Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, Justice AE, Pers TH, Day FR, Powell C, Vedantam S, Buchkovich ML, Yang J, Croteau-Chonka DC, Esko T, Fall T, Ferreira T, Gustafsson S, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Mägi R, Randall JC, Winkler TW, Wood AR, Workalemahu T, Faul JD, Smith JA, Zhao JH, Zhao W, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Hedman ÅK, Karjalainen J, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bolton JL, Bragg-Gresham JL, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Deng G, Ehret GB, Feenstra B, Feitosa MF, Fischer K, Goel A, Gong J, Jackson AU, Kanoni S, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Lim U, Lotay V, Mangino M, Leach IM, Medina-Gomez C, Medland SE, Nalls MA, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivanis S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Shungin D, Stancáková A, Strawbridge RJ, Sung YJ, Tanaka T, Teumer A, Trompet S, van der Laan SW, van Setten J, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Wang Z, Yengo L, Zhang W, Isaacs A, Albrecht E, Ärnlöv J, Arscott GM, Attwood AP, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bas IN, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blagieva R, Blüher M, Böhringer S, Bonnycastle LL, Böttcher Y, Boyd HA, Bruinenberg M, Caspersen IH, Chen YI, Clarke R, Daw EW, de Craen AJM, Delgado G, Dimitriou M, Doney ASF, Eklund N, Estrada K, Eury E, Folkersen L, Fraser RM, Garcia ME, Geller F, Giedraitis V, Gigante B, Go AS, Golay A, Goodall AH, Gordon SD, Gorski M, Grabe HJ, Grallert H, Grammer TB, Gräßler J, Grönberg H, Groves CJ, Gusto G, Haessler J, Hall P, Haller T, Hallmans G, Hartman CA, Hassinen M, Hayward C, Heard-Costa NL, Helmer Q, Hengstenberg C, Holmen O, Hottenga JJ, James AL, Jeff JM, Johansson Å, Jolley J, Juliusdottir T, Kinnunen L, Koenig W, Koskenvuo M, Kratzer W, Laitinen J, Lamina C, Leander K, Lee NR, Lichtner P, Lind L, Lindström J, Lo KS, Lobbens S, Lorbeer R, Lu Y, Mach F, Magnusson PKE, Mahajan A, McArdle WL, McLachlan S, Menni C, Merger S, Mihailov E, Milani L, Moayyeri A, Monda KL, Morken MA, Mulas A, Müller G, Müller-Nurasyid M, Musk AW, Nagaraja R, Nöthen MM, Nolte IM, Pilz S, Rayner NW, Renstrom F, Rettig R, Ried JS, Ripke S, Robertson NR, Rose LM, Sanna S, Scharnagl H, Scholtens S, Schumacher FR, Scott WR, Seufferlein T, Shi J, Smith AV, Smolonska J, Stanton AV, Steinthorsdottir V, Stirrups K, Stringham HM, Sundström J, Swertz MA, Swift AJ, Syvänen AC, Tan ST, Tayo BO, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Tyrer JP, Uh HW, Vandenput L, Verhulst FC, Vermeulen SH, Verweij N, Vonk JM, Waite LL, Warren HR, Waterworth D, Weedon MN, Wilkens LR, Willenborg C, Wilsgaard T, Wojczynski MK, Wong A, Wright AF, Zhang Q, Brennan EP, Choi M, Dastani Z, Drong AW, Eriksson P, Franco-Cereceda A, Gådin JR, Gharavi AG, Goddard ME, Handsaker RE, Huang J, Karpe F, Kathiresan S, Keildson S, Kiryluk K, Kubo M, Lee JY, Liang L, Lifton RP, Ma B, McCarroll SA, McKnight AJ, Min JL, Moffatt MF, Montgomery GW, Murabito JM, Nicholson G, Nyholt DR, Okada Y, Perry JRB, Dorajoo R, Reinmaa E, Salem R, Sandholm N, Scott RA, Stolk L, Takahashi A, Tanaka T, van 't Hooft FM, Vinkhuyzen AAE, Westra HJ, Zheng W, Zondervan KT, Heath AC, Arveiler D, Bakker SJL, Beilby J, Bergman RN, Blangero J, Bovet P, Campbell H, Caulfield MJ, Cesana G, Chakravarti A, Chasman DI, Chines PS, Collins FS, Crawford DC, Cupples LA, Cusi D, Danesh J, de Faire U, den Ruijter HM, Dominiczak AF, Erbel R, Erdmann J, Eriksson JG, Farrall M, Felix SB, Ferrannini E, Ferrières J, Ford I, Forouhi NG, Forrester T, Franco OH, Gansevoort RT, Gejman PV, Gieger C, Gottesman O, Gudnason V, Gyllensten U, Hall AS, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Hicks AA, Hindorff LA, Hingorani AD, Hofman A, Homuth G, Hovingh GK, Humphries SE, Hunt SC, Hyppönen E, Illig T, Jacobs KB, Jarvelin MR, Jöckel KH, Johansen B, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Jula AM, Kaprio J, Kastelein JJP, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Kiemeney LA, Knekt P, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kraja AT, Kumari M, Kuusisto J, Lakka TA, Langenberg C, Marchand LL, Lehtimäki T, Lyssenko V, Männistö S, Marette A, Matise TC, McKenzie CA, McKnight B, Moll FL, Morris AD, Morris AP, Murray JC, Nelis M, Ohlsson C, Oldehinkel AJ, Ong KK, et al. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Nature. 2015 Feb 12; 518(7538):197-206. PMID: 25673413; PMCID: PMC4382211.
      10. Loh PR, Tucker G, Bulik-Sullivan BK, Vilhjálmsson BJ, Finucane HK, Salem R, Chasman DI, Ridker PM, Neale BM, Berger B, Patterson N, Price AL. Efficient Bayesian mixed-model analysis increases association power in large cohorts. Nat Genet. 2015 Mar; 47(3):284-90. PMID: 25642633; PMCID: PMC4342297.
      11. Lim ET, Würtz P, Havulinna AS, Palta P, Tukiainen T, Rehnström K, Esko T, Mägi R, Inouye M, Lappalainen T, Chan Y, Salem R, Lek M, Flannick J, Sim X, Manning A, Ladenvall C, Bumpstead S, Hämäläinen E, Aalto K, Maksimow M, Salmi M, Blankenberg S, Ardissino D, Shah S, Horne B, McPherson R, Hovingh GK, Reilly MP, Watkins H, Goel A, Farrall M, Girelli D, Reiner AP, Stitziel NO, Kathiresan S, Gabriel S, Barrett JC, Lehtimäki T, Laakso M, Groop L, Kaprio J, Perola M, McCarthy MI, Boehnke M, Altshuler DM, Lindgren CM, Hirschhorn JN, Metspalu A, Freimer NB, Zeller T, Jalkanen S, Koskinen S, Raitakari O, Durbin R, MacArthur DG, Salomaa V, Ripatti S, Daly MJ, Palotie A. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population. PLoS Genet. 2014 Jul; 10(7):e1004494. PMID: 25078778; PMCID: PMC4117444.
      12. Sambo F, Malovini A, Sandholm N, Stavarachi M, Forsblom C, Mäkinen VP, Harjutsalo V, Lithovius R, Gordin D, Parkkonen M, Saraheimo M, Thorn LM, Tolonen N, Wadén J, He B, Osterholm AM, Tuomilehto J, Lajer M, Salem R, McKnight AJ, Tarnow L, Panduru NM, Barbarini N, Di Camillo B, Toffolo GM, Tryggvason K, Bellazzi R, Cobelli C, Groop PH. Novel genetic susceptibility loci for diabetic end-stage renal disease identified through robust naive Bayes classification. Diabetologia. 2014 Aug; 57(8):1611-22. PMID: 24871321.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Chan Y, Lim ET, Sandholm N, Wang SR, McKnight AJ, Ripke S, Daly MJ, Neale BM, Salem R, Hirschhorn JN. An excess of risk-increasing low-frequency variants can be a signal of polygenic inheritance in complex diseases. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Mar 06; 94(3):437-52. PMID: 24607388; PMCID: PMC3951950.
      14. Sandholm N, McKnight AJ, Salem R, Brennan EP, Forsblom C, Harjutsalo V, Mäkinen VP, McKay GJ, Sadlier DM, Williams WW, Martin F, Panduru NM, Tarnow L, Tuomilehto J, Tryggvason K, Zerbini G, Comeau ME, Langefeld CD, Godson C, Hirschhorn JN, Maxwell AP, Florez JC, Groop PH. Chromosome 2q31.1 associates with ESRD in women with type 1 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Oct; 24(10):1537-43. PMID: 24029427; PMCID: PMC3785274.
      15. Friese RS, Altshuler AE, Zhang K, Miramontes-Gonzalez JP, Hightower CM, Jirout ML, Salem R, Gayen JR, Mahapatra NR, Biswas N, Cale M, Vaingankar SM, Kim HS, Courel M, Taupenot L, Ziegler MG, Schork NJ, Pravenec M, Mahata SK, Schmid-Schönbein GW, O'Connor DT. MicroRNA-22 and promoter motif polymorphisms at the Chga locus in genetic hypertension: functional and therapeutic implications for gene expression and the pathogenesis of hypertension. Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Sep 15; 22(18):3624-40. PMID: 23674521; PMCID: PMC3749858.
      16. Horikoshi M, Yaghootkar H, Mook-Kanamori DO, Sovio U, Taal HR, Hennig BJ, Bradfield JP, St Pourcain B, Evans DM, Charoen P, Kaakinen M, Cousminer DL, Lehtimäki T, Kreiner-Møller E, Warrington NM, Bustamante M, Feenstra B, Berry DJ, Thiering E, Pfab T, Barton SJ, Shields BM, Kerkhof M, van Leeuwen EM, Fulford AJ, Kutalik Z, Zhao JH, den Hoed M, Mahajan A, Lindi V, Goh LK, Hottenga JJ, Wu Y, Raitakari OT, Harder MN, Meirhaeghe A, Ntalla I, Salem R, Jameson KA, Zhou K, Monies DM, Lagou V, Kirin M, Heikkinen J, Adair LS, Alkuraya FS, Al-Odaib A, Amouyel P, Andersson EA, Bennett AJ, Blakemore AI, Buxton JL, Dallongeville J, Das S, de Geus EJ, Estivill X, Flexeder C, Froguel P, Geller F, Godfrey KM, Gottrand F, Groves CJ, Hansen T, Hirschhorn JN, Hofman A, Hollegaard MV, Hougaard DM, Hyppönen E, Inskip HM, Isaacs A, Jørgensen T, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Kemp JP, Kiess W, Kilpeläinen TO, Klopp N, Knight BA, Kuzawa CW, McMahon G, Newnham JP, Niinikoski H, Oostra BA, Pedersen L, Postma DS, Ring SM, Rivadeneira F, Robertson NR, Sebert S, Simell O, Slowinski T, Tiesler CM, Tönjes A, Vaag A, Viikari JS, Vink JM, Vissing NH, Wareham NJ, Willemsen G, Witte DR, Zhang H, Zhao J, Wilson JF, Stumvoll M, Prentice AM, Meyer BF, Pearson ER, Boreham CA, Cooper C, Gillman MW, Dedoussis GV, Moreno LA, Pedersen O, Saarinen M, Mohlke KL, Boomsma DI, Saw SM, Lakka TA, Körner A, Loos RJ, Ong KK, Vollenweider P, van Duijn CM, Koppelman GH, Hattersley AT, Holloway JW, Hocher B, Heinrich J, Power C, Melbye M, Guxens M, Pennell CE, Bønnelykke K, Bisgaard H, Eriksson JG, Widén E, Hakonarson H, Uitterlinden AG, Pouta A, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Frayling TM, McCarthy MI, Grant SF, Jaddoe VW, Jarvelin MR, Timpson NJ, Prokopenko I, Freathy RM. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism. Nat Genet. 2013 Jan; 45(1):76-82. PMID: 23202124; PMCID: PMC3605762.
      17. Sandholm N, Salem R, McKnight AJ, Brennan EP, Forsblom C, Isakova T, McKay GJ, Williams WW, Sadlier DM, Mäkinen VP, Swan EJ, Palmer C, Boright AP, Ahlqvist E, Deshmukh HA, Keller BJ, Huang H, Ahola AJ, Fagerholm E, Gordin D, Harjutsalo V, He B, Heikkilä O, Hietala K, Kytö J, Lahermo P, Lehto M, Lithovius R, Osterholm AM, Parkkonen M, Pitkäniemi J, Rosengård-Bärlund M, Saraheimo M, Sarti C, Söderlund J, Soro-Paavonen A, Syreeni A, Thorn LM, Tikkanen H, Tolonen N, Tryggvason K, Tuomilehto J, Wadén J, Gill GV, Prior S, Guiducci C, Mirel DB, Taylor A, Hosseini SM, Parving HH, Rossing P, Tarnow L, Ladenvall C, Alhenc-Gelas F, Lefebvre P, Rigalleau V, Roussel R, Tregouet DA, Maestroni A, Maestroni S, Falhammar H, Gu T, Möllsten A, Cimponeriu D, Ioana M, Mota M, Mota E, Serafinceanu C, Stavarachi M, Hanson RL, Nelson RG, Kretzler M, Colhoun HM, Panduru NM, Gu HF, Brismar K, Zerbini G, Hadjadj S, Marre M, Groop L, Lajer M, Bull SB, Waggott D, Paterson AD, Savage DA, Bain SC, Martin F, Hirschhorn JN, Godson C, Florez JC, Groop PH, Maxwell AP. New susceptibility loci associated with kidney disease in type 1 diabetes. PLoS Genet. 2012 Sep; 8(9):e1002921. PMID: 23028342; PMCID: PMC3447939.
      18. Williams WW, Salem R, McKnight AJ, Sandholm N, Forsblom C, Taylor A, Guiducci C, McAteer JB, McKay GJ, Isakova T, Brennan EP, Sadlier DM, Palmer C, Söderlund J, Fagerholm E, Harjutsalo V, Lithovius R, Gordin D, Hietala K, Kytö J, Parkkonen M, Rosengård-Bärlund M, Thorn L, Syreeni A, Tolonen N, Saraheimo M, Wadén J, Pitkäniemi J, Sarti C, Tuomilehto J, Tryggvason K, Österholm AM, He B, Bain S, Martin F, Godson C, Hirschhorn JN, Maxwell AP, Groop PH, Florez JC. Association testing of previously reported variants in a large case-control meta-analysis of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2012 Aug; 61(8):2187-94. PMID: 22721967; PMCID: PMC3402313.
      19. Bradfield JP, Taal HR, Timpson NJ, Scherag A, Lecoeur C, Warrington NM, Hypponen E, Holst C, Valcarcel B, Thiering E, Salem R, Schumacher FR, Cousminer DL, Sleiman PM, Zhao J, Berkowitz RI, Vimaleswaran KS, Jarick I, Pennell CE, Evans DM, St Pourcain B, Berry DJ, Mook-Kanamori DO, Hofman A, Rivadeneira F, Uitterlinden AG, van Duijn CM, van der Valk RJ, de Jongste JC, Postma DS, Boomsma DI, Gauderman WJ, Hassanein MT, Lindgren CM, Mägi R, Boreham CA, Neville CE, Moreno LA, Elliott P, Pouta A, Hartikainen AL, Li M, Raitakari O, Lehtimäki T, Eriksson JG, Palotie A, Dallongeville J, Das S, Deloukas P, McMahon G, Ring SM, Kemp JP, Buxton JL, Blakemore AI, Bustamante M, Guxens M, Hirschhorn JN, Gillman MW, Kreiner-Møller E, Bisgaard H, Gilliland FD, Heinrich J, Wheeler E, Barroso I, O'Rahilly S, Meirhaeghe A, Sørensen TI, Power C, Palmer LJ, Hinney A, Widen E, Farooqi IS, McCarthy MI, Froguel P, Meyre D, Hebebrand J, Jarvelin MR, Jaddoe VW, Smith GD, Hakonarson H, Grant SF. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci. Nat Genet. 2012 May; 44(5):526-31. PMID: 22484627; PMCID: PMC3370100.
      20. Fung MM, Salem R, Lipkowitz MS, Bhatnagar V, Pandey B, Schork NJ, O'Connor DT. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism A1298C (Glu429Ala) predicts decline in renal function over time in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial and Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC). Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Jan; 27(1):197-205. PMID: 21613384; PMCID: PMC3350339.
      21. Salem R, Pandey B, Richard E, Fung MM, Garcia EP, Brophy VH, Schork NJ, O'Connor DT, Bhatnagar V. The VA Hypertension Primary Care Longitudinal Cohort: Electronic medical records in the post-genomic era. Health Informatics J. 2010 Dec; 16(4):274-86. PMID: 21216807; PMCID: PMC3099595.
      22. Chen Y, Rao F, Wen G, Gayen JR, Zhang K, Vaingankar SM, Biswas N, Mahata M, Friese RS, Fung MM, Salem R, Nievergelt C, Bhatnagar V, Hook VY, Ziegler MG, Mahata SK, Hamilton BA, O'Connor DT. Naturally occurring genetic variants in human chromogranin A (CHGA) associated with hypertension as well as hypertensive renal disease. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010 Nov; 30(8):1395-400. PMID: 21061160; PMCID: PMC3008929.
      23. Lango Allen H, Estrada K, Lettre G, Berndt SI, Weedon MN, Rivadeneira F, Willer CJ, Jackson AU, Vedantam S, Raychaudhuri S, Ferreira T, Wood AR, Weyant RJ, Segrè AV, Speliotes EK, Wheeler E, Soranzo N, Park JH, Yang J, Gudbjartsson D, Heard-Costa NL, Randall JC, Qi L, Vernon Smith A, Mägi R, Pastinen T, Liang L, Heid IM, Luan J, Thorleifsson G, Winkler TW, Goddard ME, Sin Lo K, Palmer C, Workalemahu T, Aulchenko YS, Johansson A, Zillikens MC, Feitosa MF, Esko T, Johnson T, Ketkar S, Kraft P, Mangino M, Prokopenko I, Absher D, Albrecht E, Ernst F, Glazer NL, Hayward C, Hottenga JJ, Jacobs KB, Knowles JW, Kutalik Z, Monda KL, Polasek O, Preuss M, Rayner NW, Robertson NR, Steinthorsdottir V, Tyrer JP, Voight BF, Wiklund F, Xu J, Zhao JH, Nyholt DR, Pellikka N, Perola M, Perry JR, Surakka I, Tammesoo ML, Altmaier EL, Amin N, Aspelund T, Bhangale T, Boucher G, Chasman DI, Chen C, Coin L, Cooper MN, Dixon AL, Gibson Q, Grundberg E, Hao K, Juhani Junttila M, Kaplan LM, Kettunen J, König IR, Kwan T, Lawrence RW, Levinson DF, Lorentzon M, McKnight B, Morris AP, Müller M, Suh Ngwa J, Purcell S, Rafelt S, Salem R, Salvi E, Sanna S, Shi J, Sovio U, Thompson JR, Turchin MC, Vandenput L, Verlaan DJ, Vitart V, White CC, Ziegler A, Almgren P, Balmforth AJ, Campbell H, Citterio L, De Grandi A, Dominiczak A, Duan J, Elliott P, Elosua R, Eriksson JG, Freimer NB, Geus EJ, Glorioso N, Haiqing S, Hartikainen AL, Havulinna AS, Hicks AA, Hui J, Igl W, Illig T, Jula A, Kajantie E, Kilpeläinen TO, Koiranen M, Kolcic I, Koskinen S, Kovacs P, Laitinen J, Liu J, Lokki ML, Marusic A, Maschio A, Meitinger T, Mulas A, Paré G, Parker AN, Peden JF, Petersmann A, Pichler I, Pietiläinen KH, Pouta A, Ridderstråle M, Rotter JI, Sambrook JG, Sanders AR, Schmidt CO, Sinisalo J, Smit JH, Stringham HM, Bragi Walters G, Widen E, Wild SH, Willemsen G, Zagato L, Zgaga L, Zitting P, Alavere H, Farrall M, McArdle WL, Nelis M, Peters MJ, Ripatti S, van Meurs JB, Aben KK, Ardlie KG, Beckmann JS, Beilby JP, Bergman RN, Bergmann S, Collins FS, Cusi D, den Heijer M, Eiriksdottir G, Gejman PV, Hall AS, Hamsten A, Huikuri HV, Iribarren C, Kähönen M, Kaprio J, Kathiresan S, Kiemeney L, Kocher T, Launer LJ, Lehtimäki T, Melander O, Mosley TH, Musk AW, Nieminen MS, O'Donnell CJ, Ohlsson C, Oostra B, Palmer LJ, Raitakari O, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Rissanen A, Rivolta C, Schunkert H, Shuldiner AR, Siscovick DS, Stumvoll M, Tönjes A, Tuomilehto J, van Ommen GJ, Viikari J, Heath AC, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Province MA, Kayser M, Arnold AM, Atwood LD, Boerwinkle E, Chanock SJ, Deloukas P, Gieger C, Grönberg H, Hall P, Hattersley AT, Hengstenberg C, Hoffman W, Lathrop GM, Salomaa V, Schreiber S, Uda M, Waterworth D, Wright AF, Assimes TL, Barroso I, Hofman A, Mohlke KL, Boomsma DI, Caulfield MJ, Cupples LA, Erdmann J, Fox CS, Gudnason V, Gyllensten U, Harris TB, Hayes RB, Jarvelin MR, Mooser V, Munroe PB, Ouwehand WH, Penninx BW, Pramstaller PP, Quertermous T, Rudan I, Samani NJ, Spector TD, Völzke H, Watkins H, Wilson JF, Groop LC, Haritunians T, Hu FB, Kaplan RC, Metspalu A, North KE, Schlessinger D, Wareham NJ, Hunter DJ, O'Connell JR, Strachan DP, Wichmann HE, Borecki IB, van Duijn CM, Schadt EE, Thorsteinsdottir U, Peltonen L, Uitterlinden AG, Visscher PM, Chatterjee N, Loos RJ, Boehnke M, McCarthy MI, Ingelsson E, Lindgren CM, Abecasis GR, Stefansson K, Frayling TM, Hirschhorn JN. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height. Nature. 2010 Oct 14; 467(7317):832-8. PMID: 20881960; PMCID: PMC2955183.
      24. Chen Y, Salem R, Rao F, Fung MM, Bhatnagar V, Pandey B, Mahata M, Waalen J, Nievergelt CM, Lipkowitz MS, Hamilton BA, Mahata SK, O'Connor DT. Common charge-shift mutation Glu65Lys in K+ channel ß1-Subunit KCNMB1: pleiotropic consequences for glomerular filtration rate and progressive renal disease. Am J Nephrol. 2010; 32(5):414-24. PMID: 20861615; PMCID: PMC2975731.
      25. Smith EN, Chen W, Kähönen M, Kettunen J, Lehtimäki T, Peltonen L, Raitakari OT, Salem R, Schork NJ, Shaw M, Srinivasan SR, Topol EJ, Viikari JS, Berenson GS, Murray SS. Longitudinal genome-wide association of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Bogalusa heart study. PLoS Genet. 2010 Sep 09; 6(9):e1001094. PMID: 20838585; PMCID: PMC2936521.
      26. Chen Y, Lipkowitz MS, Salem R, Fung MM, Bhatnagar V, Mahata M, Nievergelt CM, Rao F, Mahata SK, Schork NJ, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Brophy VH, O'Connor DT. Progression of chronic kidney disease: Adrenergic genetic influence on glomerular filtration rate decline in hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Am J Nephrol. 2010; 32(1):23-30. PMID: 20484896; PMCID: PMC2914391.
      27. Salem R, O'Connor DT, Schork NJ. Curve-based multivariate distance matrix regression analysis: application to genetic association analyses involving repeated measures. Physiol Genomics. 2010 Jul 07; 42(2):236-47. PMID: 20423962; PMCID: PMC3032281.
      28. Zhang K, Rao F, Wang L, Rana BK, Ghosh S, Mahata M, Salem R, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Fung MM, Waalen J, Tayo B, Taupenot L, Mahata SK, O'Connor DT. Common functional genetic variants in catecholamine storage vesicle protein promoter motifs interact to trigger systemic hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Apr 06; 55(14):1463-75. PMID: 20359597; PMCID: PMC2889490.
      29. Fung MM, Salem R, Mehtani P, Thomas B, Lu CF, Perez B, Rao F, Stridsberg M, Ziegler MG, Mahata SK, O'Connor DT. Direct vasoactive effects of the chromogranin A (CHGA) peptide catestatin in humans in vivo. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2010; 32(5):278-87. PMID: 20662728; PMCID: PMC3109075.
      30. Fung MM, Chen Y, Lipkowitz MS, Salem R, Bhatnagar V, Mahata M, Nievergelt CM, Rao F, Mahata SK, Schork NJ, Brophy VH, O'Connor DT. Adrenergic beta-1 receptor genetic variation predicts longitudinal rate of GFR decline in hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Dec; 24(12):3677-86. PMID: 19745105; PMCID: PMC2790952.
      31. Fung MM, Rana BK, Tang CM, Shiina T, Nievergelt CM, Rao F, Salem R, Waalen J, Ziegler MG, Insel PA, O'Connor DT. Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) genetic polymorphism: pleiotropic effects on heritable renal traits. Kidney Int. 2009 Nov; 76(10):1070-80. PMID: 19675531; PMCID: PMC2803094.
      32. Zhang K, Rao F, Rana BK, Gayen JR, Calegari F, King A, Rosa P, Huttner WB, Stridsberg M, Mahata M, Vaingankar S, Mahboubi V, Salem R, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Fung MM, Smith DW, Schork NJ, Ziegler MG, Taupenot L, Mahata SK, O'Connor DT. Autonomic function in hypertension; role of genetic variation at the catecholamine storage vesicle protein chromogranin B. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009 Feb; 2(1):46-56. PMID: 20011129.
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      33. Schwimmer JB, Celedon MA, Lavine JE, Salem R, Campbell N, Schork NJ, Shiehmorteza M, Yokoo T, Chavez A, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Heritability of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2009 May; 136(5):1585-92. PMID: 19208353; PMCID: PMC3397140.
      34. Bhatnagar V, O'Connor DT, Brophy VH, Schork NJ, Richard E, Salem R, Nievergelt CM, Bakris GL, Middleton JP, Norris KC, Wright J, Hiremath L, Contreras G, Appel LJ, Lipkowitz MS. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 polymorphisms and blood pressure response to metoprolol among African Americans: sex-specificity and interactions. Am J Hypertens. 2009 Mar; 22(3):332-8. PMID: 19119263; PMCID: PMC2715837.
      35. Rao F, Zhang L, Wessel J, Zhang K, Wen G, Kennedy BP, Rana BK, Das M, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Smith DW, Cadman PE, Salem R, Mahata SK, Schork NJ, Taupenot L, Ziegler MG, O'Connor DT. Adrenergic polymorphism and the human stress response. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Dec; 1148:282-96. PMID: 19120120; PMCID: PMC2743085.
      36. Chen Y, Rao F, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Mahata M, Fung MM, Stridsberg M, Vaingankar SM, Wen G, Salem R, Das M, Cockburn MG, Schork NJ, Ziegler MG, Hamilton BA, Mahata SK, Taupenot L, O'Connor DT. Naturally occurring human genetic variation in the 3'-untranslated region of the secretory protein chromogranin A is associated with autonomic blood pressure regulation and hypertension in a sex-dependent fashion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 28; 52(18):1468-81. PMID: 19017515; PMCID: PMC2659417.
      37. Chen Y, Rao F, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Mahapatra NR, Mahata M, Wen G, Salem R, Shih PA, Das M, Schork NJ, Ziegler MG, Hamilton BA, Mahata SK, O'Connor DT. Common genetic variants in the chromogranin A promoter alter autonomic activity and blood pressure. Kidney Int. 2008 Jul; 74(1):115-25. PMID: 18432188; PMCID: PMC2576285.
      38. Salem R, Cadman PE, Chen Y, Rao F, Wen G, Hamilton BA, Rana BK, Smith DW, Stridsberg M, Ward HJ, Mahata M, Mahata SK, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Freedman BI, Schork NJ, O'Connor DT. Chromogranin A polymorphisms are associated with hypertensive renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Mar; 19(3):600-14. PMID: 18235090; PMCID: PMC2391050.
      39. Fung MM, Nguyen C, Mehtani P, Salem R, Perez B, Thomas B, Das M, Schork NJ, Mahata SK, Ziegler MG, O'Connor DT. Genetic variation within adrenergic pathways determines in vivo effects of presynaptic stimulation in humans. Circulation. 2008 Jan 29; 117(4):517-25. PMID: 18180394; PMCID: PMC2628716.
      40. Bhatnagar V, O'Connor DT, Schork NJ, Salem R, Nievergelt CM, Rana BK, Smith DW, Bakris GL, Middleton JP, Norris KC, Wright JT, Cheek D, Hiremath L, Contreras G, Appel LJ, Lipkowitz MS. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism predicts the time-course of blood pressure response to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in the AASK trial. J Hypertens. 2007 Oct; 25(10):2082-92. PMID: 17885551; PMCID: PMC2792638.
      41. Zhang L, Rao F, Zhang K, Khandrika S, Das M, Vaingankar SM, Bao X, Rana BK, Smith DW, Wessel J, Salem R, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Mahata SK, Schork NJ, Ziegler MG, O'Connor DT. Discovery of common human genetic variants of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) governing nitric oxide, autonomic activity, and cardiovascular risk. J Clin Invest. 2007 Sep; 117(9):2658-71. PMID: 17717598; PMCID: PMC1950457.
      42. Rao F, Zhang L, Wessel J, Zhang K, Wen G, Kennedy BP, Rana BK, Das M, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Smith DW, Cadman PE, Salem R, Mahata SK, Schork NJ, Taupenot L, Ziegler MG, O'Connor DT. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis: discovery of common human genetic variants governing transcription, autonomic activity, and blood pressure in vivo. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28; 116(9):993-1006. PMID: 17698732.
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      43. Rao F, Wen G, Gayen JR, Das M, Vaingankar SM, Rana BK, Mahata M, Kennedy BP, Salem R, Stridsberg M, Abel K, Smith DW, Eskin E, Schork NJ, Hamilton BA, Ziegler MG, Mahata SK, O'Connor DT. Catecholamine release-inhibitory peptide catestatin (chromogranin A(352-372)): naturally occurring amino acid variant Gly364Ser causes profound changes in human autonomic activity and alters risk for hypertension. Circulation. 2007 May 01; 115(17):2271-81. PMID: 17438154.
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      44. Rao F, Wessel J, Wen G, Zhang L, Rana BK, Kennedy BP, Greenwood TA, Salem R, Chen Y, Khandrika S, Hamilton BA, Smith DW, Holstein-Rathlou NH, Ziegler MG, Schork NJ, O'Connor DT. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism. Hypertension. 2007 May; 49(5):1015-31. PMID: 17353515.
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      45. Zhang K, Rao F, Wen G, Salem R, Vaingankar S, Mahata M, Mahapatra NR, Lillie EO, Cadman PE, Friese RS, Hamilton BA, Hook VY, Mahata SK, Taupenot L, O'Connor DT. Catecholamine storage vesicles and the metabolic syndrome: The role of the chromogranin A fragment pancreastatin. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006 Nov; 8(6):621-33. PMID: 17026486.
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      46. O'Connor DT, Cadman PE, Smiley C, Salem R, Rao F, Smith J, Funk SD, Mahata SK, Mahata M, Wen G, Taupenot L, Gonzalez-Yanes C, Harper KL, Henry RR, Sanchez-Margalet V. Pancreastatin: multiple actions on human intermediary metabolism in vivo, variation in disease, and naturally occurring functional genetic polymorphism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep; 90(9):5414-25. PMID: 15956083.
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      47. Salem R, Wessel J, Schork NJ. A comprehensive literature review of haplotyping software and methods for use with unrelated individuals. Hum Genomics. 2005 Mar; 2(1):39-66. PMID: 15814067; PMCID: PMC3525117.