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Michael Middleton

TitleProject Scientist
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentRadiology
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0888
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, IrvineMD1985Medicine
    University of CambridgePhD1979Physics
    California State UniversityBSc1972Physics
    University of California, San DiegoResidency1990Radiology
    Mercy Hospital Mercy Hospital (Transitional Internship)Internship1986
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Metrohealth Medical Center, Case Western University2013Visiting Professor
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Hospital2010Visiting Professor
    Metrohealth Medical Center, Case Western University2008Visiting Professor
    University of California, Irvine1985Vincent P. Carroll Research Award
    University of Cambridge1975  - 1978James Clerk Maxwell Scholarship
    California State University1972B.Sc. with honors, cum laude
    University of Dundee (Scotland)1971  - 1972Study Abroad Program

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Loomba R, Kayali Z, Noureddin M, Ruane P, Lawitz EJ, Bennett M, Wang L, Harting E, Tarrant JM, McColgan BJ, Chung C, Ray AS, Subramanian GM, Myers RP, Middleton MS, Lai M, Charlton M, Harrison SA. GS-0976 Reduces Hepatic Steatosis and Fibrosis Markers in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Gastroenterology. 2018 Jul 27. PMID: 30059671.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Park CC, Hooker C, Hooker JC, Bass E, Haufe W, Schlein A, Covarrubias Y, Heba E, Bydder M, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Loomba R, Schwimmer J, Hernando D, Reeder SB, Middleton M, Sirlin CB, Hamilton G. Assessment of a high-SNR chemical-shift-encoded MRI with complex reconstruction for proton density fat fraction (PDFF) estimation overall and in the low-fat range. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Apr 29. PMID: 29707848.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Lawitz EJ, Coste A, Poordad F, Alkhouri N, Loo N, McColgan BJ, Tarrant JM, Nguyen T, Han L, Chung C, Ray AS, McHutchison JG, Subramanian GM, Myers RP, Middleton MS, Sirlin C, Loomba R, Nyangau E, Fitch M, Li K, Hellerstein M. Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitor GS-0976 for 12 Weeks Reduces Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis and Steatosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Apr 26. PMID: 29705265.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Ajmera V, Park CC, Caussy C, Singh S, Hernandez C, Bettencourt R, Hooker J, Sy E, Behling C, Xu R, Middleton MS, Valasek MA, Faulkner C, Rizo E, Richards L, Sirlin CB, Loomba R. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Proton Density Fat Fraction Associates With Progression of Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Gastroenterology. 2018 Apr 13. PMID: 29660324.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Middleton MS, Van Natta ML, Heba ER, Alazraki A, Trout AT, Masand P, Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Doo E, Tonascia J, Lavine JE, Shen W, Hamilton G, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging hepatic proton density fat fraction in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2018 Mar; 67(3):858-872. PMID: 29028128.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Wang K, Manning P, Szeverenyi N, Wolfson T, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Vaida F, Yin M, Glaser K, Ehman RL, Sirlin CB. Repeatability and reproducibility of 2D and 3D hepatic MR elastography with rigid and flexible drivers at end-expiration and end-inspiration in healthy volunteers. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 Dec; 42(12):2843-2854. PMID: 28612163.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Schwimmer JB, Behling C, Angeles JE, Paiz M, Durelle J, Africa J, Newton KP, Brunt EM, Lavine JE, Abrams SH, Masand P, Krishnamurthy R, Wong K, Ehman RL, Yin M, Glaser KJ, Dzyubak B, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Hooker J, Haufe W, Schlein A, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Magnetic resonance elastography measured shear stiffness as a biomarker of fibrosis in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2017 11; 66(5):1474-1485. PMID: 28493388.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Yokoo T, Serai SD, Pirasteh A, Bashir MR, Hamilton G, Hernando D, Hu HH, Hetterich H, Kühn JP, Kukuk GM, Loomba R, Middleton MS, Obuchowski NA, Song JS, Tang A, Wu X, Reeder SB, Sirlin CB. Linearity, Bias, and Precision of Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction Measurements by Using MR Imaging: A Meta-Analysis. Radiology. 2018 02; 286(2):486-498. PMID: 28892458.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Hong CW, Mamidipalli A, Hooker JC, Hamilton G, Wolfson T, Chen DH, Fazeli Dehkordy S, Middleton MS, Reeder SB, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. MRI proton density fat fraction is robust across the biologically plausible range of triglyceride spectra in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Apr; 47(4):995-1002. PMID: 28851124.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Middleton MS, Heba ER, Hooker CA, Bashir MR, Fowler KJ, Sandrasegaran K, Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Doo E, Van Natta ML, Lavine JE, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Sanyal A, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. Agreement Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging Proton Density Fat Fraction Measurements and Pathologist-Assigned Steatosis Grades of Liver Biopsies From Adults With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2017 09; 153(3):753-761. PMID: 28624576.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Mamidipalli A, Hamilton G, Manning P, Hong CW, Park CC, Wolfson T, Hooker J, Heba E, Schlein A, Gamst A, Durelle J, Paiz M, Middleton MS, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Cross-sectional correlation between hepatic R2* and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in children with hepatic steatosis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Feb; 47(2):418-424. PMID: 28543915.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Park CC, Hamilton G, Desai A, Zand KA, Wolfson T, Hooker JC, Costa E, Heba E, Clark L, Gamst A, Loomba R, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Effect of intravenous gadoxetate disodium and flip angle on hepatic proton density fat fraction estimation with six-echo, gradient-recalled-echo, magnitude-based MR imaging at 3T. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 Apr; 42(4):1189-1198. PMID: 28028556.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Haufe WM, Wolfson T, Hooker CA, Hooker JC, Covarrubias Y, Schlein AN, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Angeles JE, Hernando D, Reeder SB, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Accuracy of PDFF estimation by magnitude-based and complex-based MRI in children with MR spectroscopy as a reference. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Dec; 46(6):1641-1647. PMID: 28323377.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Middleton MS, Haufe W, Hooker J, Borga M, Dahlqvist Leinhard O, Romu T, Tunón P, Hamilton G, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. Quantifying Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Thigh Muscle Volume and Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction: Repeatability and Accuracy of an MR Imaging-based, Semiautomated Analysis Method. Radiology. 2017 05; 283(2):438-449. PMID: 28278002.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Manning PM, Hamilton G, Wang K, Park C, Hooker JC, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Haufe WM, Schlein AN, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Agreement between region-of-interest- and parametric map-based hepatic proton density fat fraction estimation in adults with chronic liver disease. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 Mar; 42(3):833-841. PMID: 27688063.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Manning P, Murphy P, Wang K, Hooker J, Wolfson T, Middleton MS, Newton KP, Behling C, Awai HI, Durelle J, Paiz MN, Angeles JE, De La Pena D, McCutchan JA, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Liver histology and diffusion-weighted MRI in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A MAGNET study. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Oct; 46(4):1149-1158. PMID: 28225568.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Hamilton G, Schlein AN, Middleton MS, Hooker CA, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. In vivo triglyceride composition of abdominal adipose tissue measured by 1 H MRS at 3T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 05; 45(5):1455-1463. PMID: 27571403.
      View in: PubMed
    18. McClellan TR, Motosugi U, Middleton MS, Allen BC, Jaffe TA, Miller CM, Reeder SB, Sirlin CB, Bashir MR. Intravenous Gadoxetate Disodium Administration Reduces Breath-holding Capacity in the Hepatic Arterial Phase: A Multi-Center Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial. Radiology. 2017 Feb; 282(2):361-368. PMID: 27509544.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Tanabe M, Kanki A, Wolfson T, Costa EA, Mamidipalli A, Ferreira MP, Santillan C, Middleton MS, Gamst AC, Kono Y, Kuo A, Sirlin CB. Imaging Outcomes of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2014 Category 2, 3, and 4 Observations Detected at CT and MR Imaging. Radiology. 2016 Oct; 281(1):129-39. PMID: 27115054.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Achmad E, Yokoo T, Hamilton G, Heba ER, Hooker JC, Changchien C, Schroeder M, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Schwimmer JB, Lavine JE, Sirlin CB, Middleton MS. Feasibility of and agreement between MR imaging and spectroscopic estimation of hepatic proton density fat fraction in children with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Abdom Imaging. 2015 Oct; 40(8):3084-90. PMID: 26205992; PMCID: PMC4630122 [Available on 10/01/16].
    21. Tyagi A, Yeganeh O, Levin Y, Hooker JC, Hamilton GC, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Zand AK, Heba E, Loomba R, Schwimmer J, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Intra- and inter-examination repeatability of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnitude-based MRI, and complex-based MRI for estimation of hepatic proton density fat fraction in overweight and obese children and adults. Abdom Imaging. 2015 Oct; 40(8):3070-7. PMID: 26350282; PMCID: PMC4819976.
    22. Yokoo T, Wolfson T, Iwaisako K, Peterson MR, Mani H, Goodman Z, Changchien C, Middleton MS, Gamst AC, Mazhar SM, Kono Y, Ho SB, Sirlin CB. Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Using Texture Analysis on Combined-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Images at 3.0T. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:387653. PMID: 26421287; PMCID: PMC4569760.
    23. Heba ER, Desai A, Zand KA, Hamilton G, Wolfson T, Schlein AN, Gamst A, Loomba R, Sirlin CB, Middleton MS. Accuracy and the effect of possible subject-based confounders of magnitude-based MRI for estimating hepatic proton density fat fraction in adults, using MR spectroscopy as reference. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 Feb; 43(2):398-406. PMID: 26201284; PMCID: PMC4819980.
    24. Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Hooker JC, Haufe WM, Forbang NI, Allison MA, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. In vivo breath-hold (1) H MRS simultaneous estimation of liver proton density fat fraction, and T1 and T2 of water and fat, with a multi-TR, multi-TE sequence. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015 Dec; 42(6):1538-43. PMID: 26114603; PMCID: PMC4691228 [Available on 12/01/16].
    25. Costa EA, Cunha GM, Smorodinsky E, Cruite I, Tang A, Marks RM, Clark L, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Sicklick JK, Hemming A, Peterson MR, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced 3-T MR Imaging for Malignant Liver Lesions by Using Ex Vivo MR Imaging-matched Pathologic Findings as the Reference Standard. Radiology. 2015 Sep; 276(3):775-86. PMID: 25875972; PMCID: PMC4962530.
    26. Zand KA, Shah A, Heba E, Wolfson T, Hamilton G, Lam J, Chen J, Hooker JC, Gamst AC, Middleton MS, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Accuracy of multiecho magnitude-based MRI (M-MRI) for estimation of hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in children. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015 Nov; 42(5):1223-32. PMID: 25847512; PMCID: PMC4592685 [Available on 11/01/16].
    27. Schwimmer JB, Middleton MS, Behling C, Newton KP, Awai HI, Paiz MN, Lam J, Hooker JC, Hamilton G, Fontanesi J, Sirlin CB. Magnetic resonance imaging and liver histology as biomarkers of hepatic steatosis in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2015 Jun; 61(6):1887-95. PMID: 25529941; PMCID: PMC4670559.
    28. Tang A, Chen J, Le TA, Changchien C, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of liver volume and total liver fat burden in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Abdom Imaging. 2015 Jan; 40(1):26-37. PMID: 25015398; PMCID: PMC4293373.
    29. Murphy P, Hooker J, Ang B, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Bydder M, Middleton M, Peterson M, Behling C, Loomba R, Sirlin C. Associations between histologic features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI measurements in adults. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015 Jun; 41(6):1629-38. PMID: 25256692; PMCID: PMC4819971.
    30. Tang A, Desai A, Hamilton G, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Lam J, Clark L, Hooker J, Chavez T, Ang BD, Middleton MS, Peterson M, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. Accuracy of MR imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction for classification of dichotomized histologic steatosis grades in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Radiology. 2015 Feb; 274(2):416-25. PMID: 25247408; PMCID: PMC4314291.
    31. Valayannopoulos V, Malinova V, Honzík T, Balwani M, Breen C, Deegan PB, Enns GM, Jones SA, Kane JP, Stock EO, Tripuraneni R, Eckert S, Schneider E, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Sirlin C, Kessler B, Bourdon C, Boyadjiev SA, Sharma R, Twelves C, Whitley CB, Quinn AG. Sebelipase alfa over 52 weeks reduces serum transaminases, liver volume and improves serum lipids in patients with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency. J Hepatol. 2014 Nov; 61(5):1135-42. PMID: 24993530; PMCID: PMC4203712.
    32. Bonekamp S, Tang A, Mashhood A, Wolfson T, Changchien C, Middleton MS, Clark L, Gamst A, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. Spatial distribution of MRI-Determined hepatic proton density fat fraction in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 Jun; 39(6):1525-32. PMID: 24987758; PMCID: PMC4083476.
    33. Middleton MS. MR evaluation of breast implants. Radiol Clin North Am. 2014 May; 52(3):591-608. PMID: 24792659.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Negrete LM, Middleton MS, Clark L, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Lam J, Changchien C, Deyoung-Dominguez IM, Hamilton G, Loomba R, Schwimmer J, Sirlin CB. Inter-examination precision of magnitude-based MRI for estimation of segmental hepatic proton density fat fraction in obese subjects. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 May; 39(5):1265-71. PMID: 24136736; PMCID: PMC3984359.
    35. Noureddin M, Lam J, Peterson MR, Middleton M, Hamilton G, Le TA, Bettencourt R, Changchien C, Brenner DA, Sirlin C, Loomba R. Utility of magnetic resonance imaging versus histology for quantifying changes in liver fat in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease trials. Hepatology. 2013 Dec; 58(6):1930-40. PMID: 23696515; PMCID: PMC4819962.
    36. Levin YS, Yokoo T, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Collins J, Achmad EA, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Loomba R, Sirlin CB. Effect of echo-sampling strategy on the accuracy of out-of-phase and in-phase multiecho gradient-echo MRI hepatic fat fraction estimation. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 Mar; 39(3):567-75. PMID: 23720420; PMCID: PMC3760998.
    37. Johnson BL, Schroeder ME, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Hamilton G, Shiehmorteza M, Loomba R, Schwimmer JB, Reeder S, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Effect of flip angle on the accuracy and repeatability of hepatic proton density fat fraction estimation by complex data-based, T1-independent, T2*-corrected, spectrum-modeled MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 Feb; 39(2):440-7. PMID: 23596052; PMCID: PMC3732566.
    38. Tang A, Tan J, Sun M, Hamilton G, Bydder M, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Middleton M, Brunt EM, Loomba R, Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: MR imaging of liver proton density fat fraction to assess hepatic steatosis. Radiology. 2013 May; 267(2):422-31. PMID: 23382291; PMCID: PMC3632805.
    39. Mashhood A, Railkar R, Yokoo T, Levin Y, Clark L, Fox-Bosetti S, Middleton MS, Riek J, Kauh E, Dardzinski BJ, Williams D, Sirlin C, Shire NJ. Reproducibility of hepatic fat fraction measurement by magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Jun; 37(6):1359-70. PMID: 23172799.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Kang GH, Cruite I, Shiehmorteza M, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Hamilton G, Bydder M, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Reproducibility of MRI-determined proton density fat fraction across two different MR scanner platforms. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Oct; 34(4):928-34. PMID: 21769986; PMCID: PMC4803481.
    41. Yokoo T, Shiehmorteza M, Hamilton G, Wolfson T, Schroeder ME, Middleton MS, Bydder M, Gamst AC, Kono Y, Kuo A, Patton HM, Horgan S, Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Estimation of hepatic proton-density fat fraction by using MR imaging at 3.0 T. Radiology. 2011 Mar; 258(3):749-59. PMID: 21212366; PMCID: PMC3042639.
    42. Hamilton G, Yokoo T, Bydder M, Cruite I, Schroeder ME, Sirlin CB, Middleton MS. In vivo characterization of the liver fat ¹H MR spectrum. NMR Biomed. 2011 Aug; 24(7):784-90. PMID: 21834002; PMCID: PMC3860876.
    43. Bydder M, Shiehmorteza M, Yokoo T, Sugay S, Middleton MS, Girard O, Schroeder ME, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Sirlin C. Assessment of liver fat quantification in the presence of iron. Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Jul; 28(6):767-76. PMID: 20409663; PMCID: PMC2924146.
    44. Schwimmer JB, Dunn W, Norman GJ, Pardee PE, Middleton MS, Kerkar N, Sirlin CB. SAFETY study: alanine aminotransferase cutoff values are set too high for reliable detection of pediatric chronic liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2010 Apr; 138(4):1357-64, 1364.e1-2. PMID: 20064512; PMCID: PMC2846968.
    45. Mazhar SM, Shiehmorteza M, Kohl CA, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in liver disease: a systematic review. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Dec; 30(6):1313-22. PMID: 19937937; PMCID: PMC2844250.
    46. Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Bydder M, Yokoo T, Schwimmer JB, Kono Y, Patton HM, Lavine JE, Sirlin CB. Effect of PRESS and STEAM sequences on magnetic resonance spectroscopic liver fat quantification. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Jul; 30(1):145-52. PMID: 19557733; PMCID: PMC2982807.
    47. Yokoo T, Bydder M, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Gamst AC, Wolfson T, Hassanein T, Patton HM, Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: diagnostic and fat-grading accuracy of low-flip-angle multiecho gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology. 2009 Apr; 251(1):67-76. PMID: 19221054; PMCID: PMC2663579.
    48. Schwimmer JB, Celedon MA, Lavine JE, Salem R, Campbell N, Schork NJ, Shiehmorteza M, Yokoo T, Chavez A, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Heritability of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2009 May; 136(5):1585-92. PMID: 19208353; PMCID: PMC3397140.
    49. Cassidy FH, Yokoo T, Aganovic L, Hanna RF, Bydder M, Middleton MS, Hamilton G, Chavez AD, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB. Fatty liver disease: MR imaging techniques for the detection and quantification of liver steatosis. Radiographics. 2009 Jan-Feb; 29(1):231-60. PMID: 19168847.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Yokoo T, Collins JM, Hanna RF, Bydder M, Middleton MS, Sirlin CB. Effects of intravenous gadolinium administration and flip angle on the assessment of liver fat signal fraction with opposed-phase and in-phase imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Jul; 28(1):246-51. PMID: 18581393.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Bydder M, Yokoo T, Hamilton G, Middleton MS, Chavez AD, Schwimmer JB, Lavine JE, Sirlin CB. Relaxation effects in the quantification of fat using gradient echo imaging. Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Apr; 26(3):347-59. PMID: 18093781; PMCID: PMC2386876.
    52. Shiehmorteza M, Hanna RF, Middleton MS. Can gadopentetate dimeglumine be safely administered more rapidly than the FDA-approved injection rate for liver imaging? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Oct; 189(4):W231. PMID: 17885038.
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    53. Patton HM, Sirlin C, Behling C, Middleton M, Schwimmer JB, Lavine JE. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a critical appraisal of current data and implications for future research. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Oct; 43(4):413-27. PMID: 17033514.
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    54. Blair S, McElroy M, Middleton MS, Comstock C, Wolfson T, Kamrava M, Wallace A, Mortimer J. The efficacy of breast MRI in predicting breast conservation therapy. J Surg Oncol. 2006 Sep 01; 94(3):220-5. PMID: 16900536.
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    55. Parker PA, Middleton MS, Kulik JA. Counterfactual thinking and quality of life among women with silicone breast implants. J Behav Med. 2002 Aug; 25(4):317-35. PMID: 12136495.
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    56. Berg WA, Nguyen TK, Middleton MS, Soo MS, Pennello G, Brown SL. MR imaging of extracapsular silicone from breast implants: diagnostic pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002 Feb; 178(2):465-72. PMID: 11804919.
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