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Carol Franz

TitleAssociate Adjunct Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentPsychiatry
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0738
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-822-1793
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    Biography

    Dr. Franz received her Ph.D.in personality psychology from Boston University in 1988. She completed a post-doctoral fellowship at Harvard University with Dr. David McClelland in 1992. In 1993 and 1994 she was a visiting professor at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, after which she joined the faculty as a Research Psychologist at UC Berkeley from 1994-1996. From 1996, until joining the Psychiatry Department at UC San Diego in 2004, she was a senior research analyst at the Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care at UC Davis. She has been Assistant Adjunct Professor at UCSD since 2009, and is also a faculty member in the Stein Institute for Research on Aging, the Center for Behavioral Genomics, and at the Clinical and Translational Research Institute.

    Research Interests

    Dr. Franz’s primary research is on the longitudinal study of stress and aging, with a focus on risk and preventive factors for cognitive aging. She is co-investigator on three NIH/NIA grants that follow middle-aged twin men from late adolescence into later life. The primary VETSA project focuses on cognition (emphasizing executive functions, memory, and processing speed), personality, psychosocial factors, psychopathology, and biomedical factors in over 1200 twins. Nearly 800 of these twins provided multiple at-home and in-lab saliva samples in order to assess diurnal patterns of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEAS and emotional lability in the VETSA cortisol study. The focus of the VETSA Cortisol study was to understand the role of biological stress-response systems in aging. Approximately VETSA twins underwent 3D structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the VETSA MRI project. The VETSA projects constitute a unique, integrative program of research aimed at understanding the genetic and environmental influences on and the heterogeneity of cognitive aging. Dr. Franz’s other scientific interests include interpersonal relationships in older adults, and using qualitative techniques to study adult lives. She has over 70 publications and is co-editor with Dr. Abigail Stewart at University of Michigan of a book : “Women Creating Lives: Identities, Resilience and Resistance (1994).


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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Archiving the Vietnam Era Twin Studies of Aging (VETSA): New Uses for Old Data
    NIH/NIA R03AG046413Sep 30, 2013 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Piirtola M, Jelenkovic A, Latvala A, Sund R, Honda C, Inui F, Watanabe M, Tomizawa R, Iwatani Y, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Medland SE, Rasmussen F, Tynelius P, Tan Q, Zhang D, Pang Z, Rebato E, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, Brescianini S, Busjahn A, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Sung J, Kim J, Lee J, Lee S, Gatz M, Butler DA, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Magnusson PKE, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJF, Silberg JL, Maes HH, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TIA, Korhonen T, Kaprio J, Silventoinen K. Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200140. PMID: 30001359.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kaup A, Toomey R, Bangen KJ, Delano-Wood L, Yaffe KC, Panizzon MS, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Kremen WS. The Interactive Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychiatric Symptoms on Cognition Among Late Middle-Aged Men: Findings from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). J Neurotrauma. 2018 Jul 06. PMID: 29978738.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gustavson DE, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Franz CE, Beck A, Reynolds CA, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Verbal Fluency in Middle Age: A Longitudinal Twin Study. Behav Genet. 2018 Jun 19. PMID: 29922985.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Elman JA, Jak AJ, Panizzon MS, Tu XM, Chen T, Reynolds CA, Gustavson DE, Franz CE, Hatton SN, Jacobson KC, Toomey R, McKenzie R, Xian H, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Underdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment: A consequence of ignoring practice effects. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2018; 10:372-381. PMID: 30003138.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Fennema-Notestine C, Hagler DJ, Lyons MJ, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Brain structure mediates the association between height and cognitive ability. Brain Struct Funct. 2018 May 11. PMID: 29748873.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Gillespie NA, Neale MC, Bates TC, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Vassileva J, Lyons MJ, Prom-Wormley EC, McMahon KL, Thompson PM, de Zubicaray G, Hickie IB, McGrath JJ, Strike LT, Rentería ME, Panizzon MS, Martin NG, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Wright MJ. Testing associations between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in two large population-based samples. Addiction. 2018 Apr 24. PMID: 29691937.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Finkel D, Franz CE, Christensen K, Reynolds CA, Pedersen NL. Longitudinal Twin Study of Subjective Health: Differences in Genetic and Environmental Components of Variance Across Age and Sex. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018 Mar 24. PMID: 29590493.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Panizzon MS, Hauger RL, Xian H, Jacobson K, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Interactive effects of testosterone and cortisol on hippocampal volume and episodic memory in middle-aged men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 May; 91:115-122. PMID: 29547742.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Hatton SN, Franz CE, Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, McEvoy LK, Lyons MJ, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Negative fateful life events in midlife and advanced predicted brain aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2018 Jul; 67:1-9. PMID: 29609076.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Gustavson DE, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Franz CE, Reynolds CA, Jacobson KC, Friedman NP, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Stability of genetic and environmental influences on executive functions in midlife. Psychol Aging. 2018 Mar; 33(2):219-231. PMID: 29658745.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Logue MW, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Gillespie NA, Hatton SN, Gustavson DE, Andreassen OA, Dale AM, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Reynolds CA, Tu X, Kremen WS. Use of an Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk score to identify mild cognitive impairment in adults in their 50s. Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Feb 27. PMID: 29487403.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Hatton SN, Panizzon MS, Vuoksimaa E, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Rinker D, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic relatedness of axial and radial diffusivity indices of cerebral white matter microstructure in late middle age. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018 Feb 09. PMID: 29427332.
      View in: PubMed
    13. McEvoy LK, Fennema-Notestine C, Elman JA, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Hagler DJ, Hatton SN, Lyons MJ, Panizzon MS, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Alcohol intake and brain white matter in middle aged men: Microscopic and macroscopic differences. Neuroimage Clin. 2018; 18:390-398. PMID: 29487796.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Eyler LT, Granholm EL, Fennema-Notestine C, Lyons MJ, McEvoy LK, Franz CE, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Task-evoked pupil dilation and BOLD variance as indicators of locus coeruleus dysfunction. Cortex. 2017 Dec; 97:60-69. PMID: 29096196.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Latvala A, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Ullemar V, Almqvist C, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJF, Kandler C, Honda C, Inui F, Iwatani Y, Watanabe M, Rebato E, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, Brescianini S, Hur YM, Jeong HU, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Busjahn A, Saudino KJ, Ji F, Ning F, Pang Z, Rose RJ, Koskenvuo M, Heikkilä K, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Sung J, Kim J, Lee J, Lee S, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Tan Q, Zhang D, Llewellyn CH, Fisher A, Burt SA, Klump KL, Knafo-Noam A, Mankuta D, Abramson L, Medland SE, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Magnusson PKE, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Willemsen G, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt CEM, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Maes HH, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Rasmussen F, Tynelius P, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Gatz M, Butler DA, Lichtenstein P, Goldberg JH, Harden KP, Tucker-Drob EM, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Maia JA, Freitas DL, Turkheimer E, Sørensen TIA, Boomsma DI, Kaprio J. Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 10; 20(5):395-405. PMID: 28975875.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Gustavson DE, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Friedman NP, Reynolds CA, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental architecture of executive functions in midlife. Neuropsychology. 2018 Jan; 32(1):18-30. PMID: 28857599.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Rana BK, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Spoon KM, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Ancoli-Israel S, Lyons M, Kremen WS. Association of Sleep Quality on Memory-Related Executive Functions in Middle Age. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2018 Jan; 24(1):67-76. PMID: 28760172.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Hur YM, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, Honda C, Inui F, Iwatani Y, Watanabe M, Tomizawa R, Pietiläinen KH, Rissanen A, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Tan Q, Zhang D, Pang Z, Piirtola M, Aaltonen S, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Rebato E, Hjelmborg JB, Christensen K, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Cutler TL, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Song YM, Yang S, Lee K, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Busjahn A, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Kandler C, Jang KL, Gatz M, Butler DA, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, D'Ippolito C, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Martin NG, Medland SE, Montgomery GW, Jeong HU, Swan GE, Krasnow R, Magnusson PK, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK, McAdams TA, Eley TC, Gregory AM, Tynelius P, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Bayasgalan G, Narandalai D, Spector TD, Mangino M, Lachance G, Burt SA, Klump KL, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt CE, Willemsen G, Goldberg JH, Rasmussen F, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJ, Hopper JL, Sung J, Maes HH, Turkheimer E, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TI, Kaprio J. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug; 106(2):457-466. PMID: 28679550.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Brouwer RM, Panizzon MS, Glahn DC, Hibar DP, Hua X, Jahanshad N, Abramovic L, de Zubicaray GI, Franz CE, Hansell NK, Hickie IB, Koenis MMG, Martin NG, Mather KA, McMahon KL, Schnack HG, Strike LT, Swagerman SC, Thalamuthu A, Wen W, Gilmore JH, Gogtay N, Kahn RS, Sachdev PS, Wright MJ, Boomsma DI, Kremen WS, Thompson PM, Hulshoff Pol HE. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Sep; 38(9):4444-4458. PMID: 28580697.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Xian H, Vasilopoulos T, Liu W, Hauger RL, Jacobson KC, Lyons MJ, Panizzon M, Reynolds CA, Vuoksimaa E, Kremen WS, Franz CE. Steeper change in body mass across four decades predicts poorer cardiometabolic outcomes at midlife. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 Apr; 25(4):773-780. PMID: 28349665.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Lyons MJ, Panizzon MS, Liu W, McKenzie R, Bluestone NJ, Grant MD, Franz CE, Vuoksimaa EP, Toomey R, Jacobson KC, Reynolds CA, Kremen WS, Xian H. A longitudinal twin study of general cognitive ability over four decades. Dev Psychol. 2017 06; 53(6):1170-1177. PMID: 28358535.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Gillespie NA, Neale MC, Hagler DJ, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, McEvoy LK, Dale AM, Panizzon MS, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental influences on mean diffusivity and volume in subcortical brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 05; 38(5):2589-2598. PMID: 28240386.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Joseph J, Kremen WS, Franz CE, Glatt SJ, van de Leemput J, Chandler SD, Tsuang MT, Twamley EW. Predictors of current functioning and functional decline in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2017 Oct; 188:158-164. PMID: 28139356.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Granholm EL, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Jak AJ, Hauger RL, Bondi MW, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Pupillary Responses as a Biomarker of Early Risk for Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017; 56(4):1419-1428. PMID: 28157098.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Hatton SN, Fennema-Notestine C, Rinker D, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Heritability of white matter microstructure in late middle age: A twin study of tract-based fractional anisotropy and absolute diffusivity indices. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 04; 38(4):2026-2036. PMID: 28032374.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Jelenkovic A, Hur YM, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Tan Q, Zhang D, Pang Z, Aaltonen S, Heikkilä K, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Rebato E, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Christensen K, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Maes HH, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, Sung J, Song YM, Yang S, Lee K, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Busjahn A, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Kandler C, Jang KL, Gatz M, Butler DA, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, D'Ippolito C, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJ, Martin NG, Medland SE, Montgomery GW, Jeong HU, Swan GE, Krasnow R, Magnusson PK, Pedersen NL, Dahl-Aslan AK, McAdams TA, Eley TC, Gregory AM, Tynelius P, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Bayasgalan G, Narandalai D, Lichtenstein P, Spector TD, Mangino M, Lachance G, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt TC, Willemsen G, Burt SA, Klump KL, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Corley RP, Hjelmborg JV, Goldberg JH, Iwatani Y, Watanabe M, Honda C, Inui F, Rasmussen F, Huibregtse BM, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TI, Kaprio J, Silventoinen K. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994. Elife. 2016 12 14; 5. PMID: 27964777.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Lo MT, Hinds DA, Tung JY, Franz C, Fan CC, Wang Y, Smeland OB, Schork A, Holland D, Kauppi K, Sanyal N, Escott-Price V, Smith DJ, O'Donovan M, Stefansson H, Bjornsdottir G, Thorgeirsson TE, Stefansson K, McEvoy LK, Dale AM, Andreassen OA, Chen CH. Genome-wide analyses for personality traits identify six genomic loci and show correlations with psychiatric disorders. Nat Genet. 2017 01; 49(1):152-156. PMID: 27918536.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Gillespie NA, Neale MC, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, McEvoy LK, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental influences on cortical mean diffusivity. Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 01; 146:90-99. PMID: 27864081.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Fennema-Notestine C, McEvoy LK, Notestine R, Panizzon MS, Yau WW, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Eyler LT, Neale MC, Xian H, McKenzie RE, Kremen WS. White matter disease in midlife is heritable, related to hypertension, and shares some genetic influence with systolic blood pressure. Neuroimage Clin. 2016; 12:737-745. PMID: 27790395.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Franz CE, Finkel D, Panizzon MS, Spoon K, Christensen K, Gatz M, Kremen WS, Krueger R, Neiderhiser J, Reynolds C, Pedersen NL. Facets of Subjective Health From Early Adulthood to Old Age. J Aging Health. 2017 Feb; 29(1):149-171. PMID: 26832851.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Prom-Wormley E, Maes HH, Eric Schmitt J, Panizzon MS, Xian H, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Fennema-Notestine C, Kremen WS, Neale MC. Erratum to: Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Relationships Between Brain Structure and Average Lifetime Cigarette Use. Behav Genet. 2016 May; 46(3):478-479. PMID: 27115753.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Chen CH, Fiecas M, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Hagler DJ, Franz CE, Jak AJ, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Rinker DA, Thompson WK, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Is bigger always better? The importance of cortical configuration with respect to cognitive ability. Neuroimage. 2016 Apr 01; 129:356-366. PMID: 26827810; PMCID: PMC4838639 [Available on 04/01/17].
    33. Panizzon MS, Hauger RL, Sailors M, Lyons MJ, Jacobson KC, Murray McKenzie R, Rana B, Vasilopoulos T, Vuoksimaa E, Xian H, Kremen WS, Franz CE. A new look at the genetic and environmental coherence of metabolic syndrome components. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Dec; 23(12):2499-507. PMID: 26524476; PMCID: PMC4701648 [Available on 12/01/16].
    34. Finkel D, Franz CE, Horwitz B, Christensen K, Gatz M, Johnson W, Kaprio J, Korhonen T, Niederheiser J, Petersen I, Rose RJ, Silventoinen K. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health. Behav Genet. 2015 Oct 14. PMID: 26468112.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Jelenkovic A, Yokoyama Y, Sund R, Honda C, Bogl LH, Aaltonen S, Ji F, Ning F, Pang Z, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Burt SA, Klump KL, Medland SE, Montgomery GW, Kandler C, McAdams TA, Eley TC, Gregory AM, Saudino KJ, Dubois L, Boivin M, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Haworth CM, Plomin R, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, D'Ippolito C, Craig JM, Saffery R, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Spector T, Mangino M, Lachance G, Gatz M, Butler DA, Bayasgalan G, Narandalai D, Freitas DL, Maia JA, Harden KP, Tucker-Drob EM, Kim B, Chong Y, Hong C, Shin HJ, Christensen K, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJ, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, He M, Ding X, Chang B, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Maes HH, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Aujard K, Magnusson PK, Pedersen NL, Aslan AK, Song YM, Yang S, Lee K, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Bjerregaard-Andersen M, Beck-Nielsen H, Sodemann M, Heikkilä K, Tan Q, Zhang D, Swan GE, Krasnow R, Jang KL, Knafo-Noam A, Mankuta D, Abramson L, Lichtenstein P, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Tynelius P, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Ooki S, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Inui F, Watanabe M, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt TC, Wardle J, Llewellyn CH, Fisher A, Rebato E, Martin NG, Iwatani Y, Hayakawa K, Sung J, Harris JR, Willemsen G, Busjahn A, Goldberg JH, Rasmussen F, Hur YM, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TI, Kaprio J, Silventoinen K. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Oct; 18(5):557-70. PMID: 26337138; PMCID: PMC4605819.
    36. Petersen I, Pedersen NL, Rantanen T, Kremen WS, Johnson W, Panizzon MS, Christiansen L, Franz CE, McGue M, Christensen K, Hamdi NR, Krueger RF, Reynolds C. G×E Interaction Influences Trajectories of Hand Grip Strength. Behav Genet. 2016 Jan; 46(1):20-30. PMID: 26318288; PMCID: PMC4720577.
    37. Docherty AR, Sawyers CK, Panizzon MS, Neale MC, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Franz CE, Chen CH, McEvoy LK, Verhulst B, Tsuang MT, Kremen WS. Genetic network properties of the human cortex based on regional thickness and surface area measures. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015; 9:440. PMID: 26347632; PMCID: PMC4542323.
    38. McEvoy LK, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Hagler DJ, Lyons MJ, Panizzon MS, Rinker DA, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Hypertension-related alterations in white matter microstructure detectable in middle age. Hypertension. 2015 Aug; 66(2):317-23. PMID: 26056337; PMCID: PMC4499000.
    39. Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Honda C, Aaltonen S, Yokoyama Y, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Ning F, Ji F, Pang Z, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Burt SA, Klump KL, Medland SE, Montgomery GW, Kandler C, McAdams TA, Eley TC, Gregory AM, Saudino KJ, Dubois L, Boivin M, Haworth CM, Plomin R, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, D'Ippolito C, Craig JM, Saffery R, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Spector T, Mangino M, Lachance G, Gatz M, Butler DA, Bayasgalan G, Narandalai D, Freitas DL, Maia JA, Harden KP, Tucker-Drob EM, Christensen K, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Hong C, Chong Y, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJ, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, He M, Ding X, Chang B, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Maes HH, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Aujard K, Magnusson PK, Pedersen NL, Aslan AK, Song YM, Yang S, Lee K, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Bjerregaard-Andersen M, Beck-Nielsen H, Sodemann M, Heikkilä K, Tan Q, Zhang D, Swan GE, Krasnow R, Jang KL, Knafo-Noam A, Mankuta D, Abramson L, Lichtenstein P, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Tynelius P, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Ooki S, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Inui F, Watanabe M, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt TC, Wardle J, Llewellyn CH, Fisher A, Rebato E, Martin NG, Iwatani Y, Hayakawa K, Rasmussen F, Sung J, Harris JR, Willemsen G, Busjahn A, Goldberg JH, Boomsma DI, Hur YM, Sørensen TI, Kaprio J. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Aug; 18(4):348-60. PMID: 26014041; PMCID: PMC4696543.
    40. Panizzon MS, Neale MC, Docherty AR, Franz CE, Jacobson KC, Toomey R, Xian H, Vasilopoulos T, Rana BK, McKenzie R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental architecture of changes in episodic memory from middle to late middle age. Psychol Aging. 2015 Jun; 30(2):286-300. PMID: 25938244; PMCID: PMC4451379.
    41. Docherty AR, Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Prom-Wormley EC, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Eaves LJ, Neale MC. Comparison of Twin and Extended Pedigree Designs for Obtaining Heritability Estimates. Behav Genet. 2015 Jul; 45(4):461-6. PMID: 25894926; PMCID: PMC4459911.
    42. Joseph J, Kremen WS, Glatt SJ, Franz CE, Chandler SD, Liu X, Johnson BK, Tsuang MT, Twamley EW. Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA) scale: A quantitative interview for self-reported current and functional decline in schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Jun; 65:102-7. PMID: 25898804; PMCID: PMC4439273.
    43. Prom-Wormley E, Maes HH, Schmitt JE, Panizzon MS, Xian H, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Fennema-Notestine C, Kremen WS, Neale MC. Genetic and environmental contributions to the relationships between brain structure and average lifetime cigarette use. Behav Genet. 2015 Mar; 45(2):157-70. PMID: 25690561; PMCID: PMC4348348.
    44. Docherty AR, Hagler DJ, Panizzon MS, Neale MC, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Franz CE, Jak A, Lyons MJ, Rinker DA, Thompson WK, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Does degree of gyrification underlie the phenotypic and genetic associations between cortical surface area and cognitive ability? Neuroimage. 2015 Feb 01; 106:154-60. PMID: 25433211; PMCID: PMC4313767.
    45. Toomey R, Panizzon MS, Kremen WS, Franz CE, Lyons MJ. A twin-study of genetic contributions to morningness-eveningness and depression. Chronobiol Int. 2015 Apr; 32(3):303-9. PMID: 25347156; PMCID: PMC4758835.
    46. Vasilopoulos T, Kremen WS, Grant MD, Panizzon MS, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Jacobson KC, Franz CE. Individual differences in cognitive ability at age 20 predict pulmonary function 35 years later. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Mar; 69(3):261-5. PMID: 25273357; PMCID: PMC4756634.
    47. Jak AJ, Panizzon MS, Spoon KM, Fennema-Notestine C, Franz CE, Thompson WK, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Eyler LT, Vuoksimaa E, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Hippocampal atrophy varies by neuropsychologically defined MCI among men in their 50s. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015 May; 23(5):456-65. PMID: 25306196; PMCID: PMC4345132.
    48. Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Spoon KM, Vuoksimaa E, Jacobson KC, Vasilopoulos T, Xian H, McCaffery JM, Rana BK, Toomey R, McKenzie R, Lyons MJ. Genetic complexity of episodic memory: a twin approach to studies of aging. Psychol Aging. 2014 Jun; 29(2):404-17. PMID: 24956007; PMCID: PMC4850834.
    49. Kremen WS, Jak AJ, Panizzon MS, Spoon KM, Franz CE, Thompson WK, Jacobson KC, Vasilopoulos T, Vuoksimaa E, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ. Authors' response to: commentary by Johnson et al. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr; 43(2):612-3. PMID: 24760875; PMCID: PMC3997381.
    50. Moore CS, Grant MD, Zink TA, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Logue MW, Hauger RL, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ. Erectile dysfunction, vascular risk, and cognitive performance in late middle age. Psychol Aging. 2014 Mar; 29(1):163-72. PMID: 24660805; PMCID: PMC4850828.
    51. Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Spoon KM, Hauger RL, Jacobson KC, Lohr JB, McKenzie R, Panizzon MS, Thompson WK, Tsuang MT, Vasilopoulos T, Vuoksimaa E, Xian H, Kremen WS. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and adult attachment: a 24-year longitudinal study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014 Dec; 22(12):1603-12. PMID: 24636844; PMCID: PMC4138283.
    52. Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Chen CH, Fiecas M, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Hagler DJ, Fischl B, Franz CE, Jak A, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Rinker DA, Thompson WK, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. The Genetic Association Between Neocortical Volume and General Cognitive Ability Is Driven by Global Surface Area Rather Than Thickness. Cereb Cortex. 2015 Aug; 25(8):2127-37. PMID: 24554725; PMCID: PMC4494025.
    53. Rana BK, Dhamija A, Panizzon MS, Spoon KM, Vasilopoulos T, Franz CE, Grant MD, Jacobson KC, Kim K, Lyons MJ, McCaffery JM, Stein PK, Xian H, O'Connor DT, Kremen WS. Imputing observed blood pressure for antihypertensive treatment: impact on population and genetic analyses. Am J Hypertens. 2014 Jun; 27(6):828-37. PMID: 24532572; PMCID: PMC4017930.
    54. Panizzon MS, Vuoksimaa E, Spoon KM, Jacobson KC, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Xian H, Vasilopoulos T, Kremen WS. Genetic and Environmental Influences of General Cognitive Ability: Is g a valid latent construct? Intelligence. 2014; 43:65-76. PMID: 24791031.
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    55. Panizzon MS, Hauger R, Xian H, Vuoksimaa E, Spoon KM, Mendoza SP, Jacobson KC, Vasilopoulos T, Rana BK, McKenzie R, McCaffery JM, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS, Franz CE. Interaction of APOE genotype and testosterone on episodic memory in middle-aged men. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Jul; 35(7):1778.e1-8. PMID: 24444806; PMCID: PMC3980008.
    56. Kremen WS, Jak AJ, Panizzon MS, Spoon KM, Franz CE, Thompson WK, Jacobson KC, Vasilopoulos T, Vuoksimaa E, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ. Early identification and heritability of mild cognitive impairment. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr; 43(2):600-10. PMID: 24370560; PMCID: PMC3997374.
    57. Eyler LT, Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Neale MC, Chen CH, Jak A, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Thompson WK, Spoon KM, Fischl B, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Conceptual and data-based investigation of genetic influences and brain asymmetry: a twin study of multiple structural phenotypes. J Cogn Neurosci. 2014 May; 26(5):1100-17. PMID: 24283492; PMCID: PMC3999438.
    58. Kremen WS, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Panizzon MS, Chen CH, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Thompson WK, Dale AM. Genetics of brain structure: contributions from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2013 Oct; 162B(7):751-61. PMID: 24132907; PMCID: PMC4754776.
    59. Lyons MJ, Genderson M, Grant MD, Logue M, Zink T, McKenzie R, Franz CE, Panizzon M, Lohr JB, Jerskey B, Kremen WS. Gene-environment interaction of ApoE genotype and combat exposure on PTSD. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2013 Oct; 162B(7):762-9. PMID: 24132908; PMCID: PMC4745646.
    60. Chen CH, Fiecas M, Gutiérrez ED, Panizzon MS, Eyler LT, Vuoksimaa E, Thompson WK, Fennema-Notestine C, Hagler DJ, Jernigan TL, Neale MC, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Fischl B, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic topography of brain morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 15; 110(42):17089-94. PMID: 24082094.
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    61. Franz CE, Spoon K, Thompson W, Hauger RL, Hellhammer DH, Jacobson KC, Lupien S, Lyons MJ, McCaffery J, McKenzie R, Mendoza SP, Panizzon MS, Ramundo A, Shahroudi A, Kremen WS. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Oct; 38(10):2127-39. PMID: 23684478; PMCID: PMC4755320.
    62. Panizzon MS, Hauger R, Jacobson KC, Eaves LJ, York TP, Prom-Wormley E, Grant MD, Lyons MJ, McKenzie R, Mendoza SP, Xian H, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental influences of daily and intra-individual variation in testosterone levels in middle-aged men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Oct; 38(10):2163-72. PMID: 23639251; PMCID: PMC3775872.
    63. Genderson MR, Rana BK, Panizzon MS, Grant MD, Toomey R, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Cronin-Golomb A, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ. Genetic and environmental influences on sleep quality in middle-aged men: a twin study. J Sleep Res. 2013 Oct; 22(5):519-26. PMID: 23509903; PMCID: PMC4762266.
    64. Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Chen CH, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Fiecas MJ, Fischl B, Franz CE, Grant MD, Jak AJ, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Thompson WK, Tsuang MT, Xian H, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Cognitive reserve moderates the association between hippocampal volume and episodic memory in middle age. Neuropsychologia. 2013 May; 51(6):1124-31. PMID: 23499725; PMCID: PMC3660613.
    65. Kremen WS, Franz CE, Lyons MJ. VETSA: the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging - ADDENDUM. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Feb; 16(1):403. PMID: 23394194; PMCID: PMC3839308.
    66. Vasilopoulos T, Grant MD, Franz CE, Panizzon MS, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS, Jacobson KC. Shared and distinct genetic influences among different measures of pulmonary function. Behav Genet. 2013 Mar; 43(2):141-50. PMID: 23299959; PMCID: PMC4755302.
    67. Jacobson KC, Hoffman CL, Vasilopoulos T, Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Grant MD, Lyons MJ, Xian H, Franz CE. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Frequency of Play with Pets among Middle-Aged Men: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis. Anthrozoos. 2012 Dec; 25(4):441-456. PMID: 25580056.
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    68. Pedersen NL, Christensen K, Dahl AK, Finkel D, Franz CE, Gatz M, Horwitz BN, Johansson B, Johnson W, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Malmberg B, McGue M, Neiderhiser JM, Petersen I, Reynolds CA. IGEMS: the consortium on Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Feb; 16(1):481-9. PMID: 23186995; PMCID: PMC3699700.
    69. Kremen WS, Franz CE, Lyons MJ. VETSA: the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Feb; 16(1):399-402. PMID: 23110957; PMCID: PMC3780387.
    70. Eyler LT, Chen CH, Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Neale MC, Jak A, Jernigan TL, Fischl B, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Grant M, Prom-Wormley E, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Fiecas MJ, Dale AM, Kremen WS. A comparison of heritability maps of cortical surface area and thickness and the influence of adjustment for whole brain measures: a magnetic resonance imaging twin study. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2012 Jun; 15(3):304-14. PMID: 22856366; PMCID: PMC3549553.
    71. Franz CE, Panizzon MS, Eaves LJ, Thompson W, Lyons MJ, Jacobson KC, Tsuang M, Glatt SJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental multidimensionality of well- and ill-being in middle aged twin men. Behav Genet. 2012 Jul; 42(4):579-91. PMID: 22484556; PMCID: PMC4056448.
    72. Chen CH, Gutierrez ED, Thompson W, Panizzon MS, Jernigan TL, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Jak AJ, Neale MC, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Grant MD, Fischl B, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Kremen WS, Dale AM. Hierarchical genetic organization of human cortical surface area. Science. 2012 Mar 30; 335(6076):1634-6. PMID: 22461613; PMCID: PMC3690329.
    73. Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Kubarych TS, Chen CH, Eyler LT, Fischl B, Franz CE, Grant MD, Hamza S, Jak A, Jernigan TL, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Prom-Wormley EC, Seidman L, Tsuang MT, Wu H, Xian H, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental influences of white and gray matter signal contrast: a new phenotype for imaging genetics? Neuroimage. 2012 Apr 15; 60(3):1686-95. PMID: 22500923; PMCID: PMC3328105.
    74. Vasilopoulos T, Franz CE, Panizzon MS, Xian H, Grant MD, Lyons MJ, Toomey R, Jacobson KC, Kremen WS. Genetic architecture of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test: evidence for distinct genetic influences on executive function. Neuropsychology. 2012 Mar; 26(2):238-50. PMID: 22201299; PMCID: PMC3295889.
    75. Chen CH, Panizzon MS, Eyler LT, Jernigan TL, Thompson W, Fennema-Notestine C, Jak AJ, Neale MC, Franz CE, Hamza S, Lyons MJ, Grant MD, Fischl B, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Kremen WS, Dale AM. Genetic influences on cortical regionalization in the human brain. Neuron. 2011 Nov 17; 72(4):537-44. PMID: 22099457; PMCID: PMC3222857.
    76. Panizzon MS, Hauger RL, Eaves LJ, Chen CH, Dale AM, Eyler LT, Fischl B, Fennema-Notestine C, Franz CE, Grant MD, Jacobson KC, Jak AJ, Lyons MJ, Mendoza SP, Neale MC, Prom-Wormley E, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Xian H, Kremen WS. Genetic influences on hippocampal volume differ as a function of testosterone level in middle-aged men. Neuroimage. 2012 Jan 16; 59(2):1123-31. PMID: 21983185; PMCID: PMC3230702.
    77. Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Xian H, Barch DM, Franz CE, Grant MD, Toomey R, Lyons MJ. Genetic architecture of context processing in late middle age: more than one underlying mechanism. Psychol Aging. 2011 Dec; 26(4):852-63. PMID: 21875218; PMCID: PMC3222785.
    78. Panizzon MS, Lyons MJ, Jacobson KC, Franz CE, Grant MD, Eisen SA, Xian H, Kremen WS. Genetic architecture of learning and delayed recall: a twin study of episodic memory. Neuropsychology. 2011 Jul; 25(4):488-98. PMID: 21463045; PMCID: PMC3125484.
    79. Vasilopoulos T, Kremen WS, Kim K, Panizzon MS, Stein PK, Xian H, Grant MD, Lyons MJ, Toomey R, Eaves LJ, Franz CE, Jacobson KC. Untreated hypertension decreases heritability of cognition in late middle age. Behav Genet. 2012 Jan; 42(1):107-20. PMID: 21688193; PMCID: PMC3227796.
    80. McCaffery JM, Franz CE, Jacobson K, Leahey TM, Xian H, Wing RR, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Effects of social contact and zygosity on 21-y weight change in male twins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug; 94(2):404-9. PMID: 21677056; PMCID: PMC3142719.
    81. Franz CE, Lyons MJ, O'Brien R, Panizzon MS, Kim K, Bhat R, Grant MD, Toomey R, Eisen S, Xian H, Kremen WS. A 35-year longitudinal assessment of cognition and midlife depression symptoms: the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Jun; 19(6):559-70. PMID: 21606899; PMCID: PMC3101375.
    82. Doane LD, Franz CE, Prom-Wormley E, Eaves LJ, Mendoza SP, Hellhammer DH, Lupien S, Xian H, Lyons MJ, Kremen W, Jacobson KC. Negative emotionality, depressive symptoms and cortisol diurnal rhythms: analysis of a community sample of middle-aged males. Horm Behav. 2011 Jul; 60(2):202-9. PMID: 21619882; PMCID: PMC3126866.
    83. Prom-Wormley EC, York TP, Jacobson KC, Eaves LJ, Mendoza SP, Hellhammer D, Maninger N, Levine S, Lupien S, Lyons MJ, Hauger R, Xian H, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental effects on diurnal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in middle-aged men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Nov; 36(10):1441-52. PMID: 21570195; PMCID: PMC3183407.
    84. Kremen WS, Mai T, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Blankfeld HM, Xian H, Eisen SA, Tsuang MT, Lyons MJ. A twin study of spatial and non-spatial delayed response performance in middle age. Brain Cogn. 2011 Jun; 76(1):43-51. PMID: 21477911; PMCID: PMC3090345.
    85. Scherrer JF, Xian H, Lustman PJ, Franz CE, McCaffery J, Lyons MJ, Jacobson KC, Kremen WS. A test for common genetic and environmental vulnerability to depression and diabetes. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2011 Apr; 14(2):169-72. PMID: 21425899; PMCID: PMC3480187.
    86. Eyler LT, Prom-Wormley E, Fennema-Notestine C, Panizzon MS, Neale MC, Jernigan TL, Fischl B, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Stevens A, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Schmitt JE, Spitzer NC, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic patterns of correlation among subcortical volumes in humans: results from a magnetic resonance imaging twin study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011 Apr; 32(4):641-53. PMID: 20572207; PMCID: PMC3403693.
    87. Eyler LT, Prom-Wormley E, Panizzon MS, Kaup AR, Fennema-Notestine C, Neale MC, Jernigan TL, Fischl B, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Grant M, Stevens A, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Schmitt JE, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Chen CH, Thompson WK, Jak A, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental contributions to regional cortical surface area in humans: a magnetic resonance imaging twin study. Cereb Cortex. 2011 Oct; 21(10):2313-21. PMID: 21378112; PMCID: PMC3169660.
    88. Franz CE, O'Brien RC, Hauger RL, Mendoza SP, Panizzon MS, Prom-Wormley E, Eaves LJ, Jacobson K, Lyons MJ, Lupien S, Hellhammer D, Xian H, Kremen WS. Cross-sectional and 35-year longitudinal assessment of salivary cortisol and cognitive functioning: the Vietnam Era twin study of aging. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Aug; 36(7):1040-52. PMID: 21295410; PMCID: PMC3130089.
    89. Logue MW, Bauver SR, Kremen WS, Franz CE, Eisen SA, Tsuang MT, Grant MD, Lyons MJ. Evidence of overlapping genetic diathesis of panic attacks and gastrointestinal disorders in a sample of male twin pairs. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2011 Feb; 14(1):16-24. PMID: 21314252; PMCID: PMC3058517.
    90. Franz CE, York TP, Eaves LJ, Prom-Wormley E, Jacobson KC, Lyons MJ, Grant MD, Xian H, Panizzon MS, Jimenez E, Kremen WS. Adult romantic attachment, negative emotionality, and depressive symptoms in middle aged men: a multivariate genetic analysis. Behav Genet. 2011 Jul; 41(4):488-98. PMID: 21213033; PMCID: PMC3121938.
    91. Fennema-Notestine C, Panizzon MS, Thompson WR, Chen CH, Eyler LT, Fischl B, Franz CE, Grant MD, Jak AJ, Jernigan TL, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Xian H, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Presence of ApoE e4 allele associated with thinner frontal cortex in middle age. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011; 26 Suppl 3:49-60. PMID: 21971450; PMCID: PMC3302177.
    92. Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Lyons MJ, Franz CE. Cortisol and brain: beyond the hippocampus. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Feb 15; 69(4):e9; author reply e11. PMID: 21093849.
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    93. Brook M, Panizzon MS, Kosson DS, Sullivan EA, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Eisen SA, Kremen WS. Psychopathic personality traits in middle-aged male twins: a behavior genetic investigation. J Pers Disord. 2010 Aug; 24(4):473-86. PMID: 20695807; PMCID: PMC4438762.
    94. Franz CE, Barker JC, Kim K, Flores Y, Jenkins C, Kravitz RL, Hinton L. When help becomes a hindrance: mental health referral systems as barriers to care for primary care physicians treating patients with Alzheimer's disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Jul; 18(7):576-85. PMID: 20593538; PMCID: PMC2955197.
    95. Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Neale MC, Fennema-Notestine C, Prom-Wormley E, Eyler LT, Stevens A, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Grant MD, Jak AJ, Jernigan TL, Xian H, Fischl B, Thermenos HW, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Dale AM. Heritability of brain ventricle volume: converging evidence from inconsistent results. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Jan; 33(1):1-8. PMID: 20363053; PMCID: PMC3221930.
    96. Franz CE, York TP, Eaves LJ, Mendoza SP, Hauger RL, Hellhammer DH, Jacobson KC, Levine S, Lupien SJ, Lyons MJ, Prom-Wormley E, Xian H, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental influences on cortisol regulation across days and contexts in middle-aged men. Behav Genet. 2010 Jul; 40(4):467-79. PMID: 20238238; PMCID: PMC2886910.
    97. Doane LD, Kremen WS, Eaves LJ, Eisen SA, Hauger R, Hellhammer D, Levine S, Lupien S, Lyons MJ, Mendoza S, Prom-Wormley E, Xian H, York TP, Franz CE, Jacobson KC. Associations between jet lag and cortisol diurnal rhythms after domestic travel. Health Psychol. 2010 Mar; 29(2):117-23. PMID: 20230083; PMCID: PMC3089060.
    98. Xian H, Scherrer JF, Franz CE, McCaffery J, Stein PK, Lyons MJ, Jacobsen K, Eisen SA, Kremen WS. Genetic vulnerability and phenotypic expression of depression and risk for ischemic heart disease in the Vietnam era twin study of aging. Psychosom Med. 2010 May; 72(4):370-5. PMID: 20190130; PMCID: PMC2874728.
    99. Kremen WS, O'Brien RC, Panizzon MS, Prom-Wormley E, Eaves LJ, Eisen SA, Eyler LT, Hauger RL, Fennema-Notestine C, Fischl B, Grant MD, Hellhammer DH, Jak AJ, Jacobson KC, Jernigan TL, Lupien SJ, Lyons MJ, Mendoza SP, Neale MC, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Franz CE. Salivary cortisol and prefrontal cortical thickness in middle-aged men: A twin study. Neuroimage. 2010 Nov 15; 53(3):1093-102. PMID: 20156572; PMCID: PMC4034538.
    100. Rimol LM, Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Fischl B, Franz CE, Hagler DJ, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Schmitt JE, Grant MD, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Eisen SA, Kremen WS, Dale AM. Cortical thickness is influenced by regionally specific genetic factors. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Mar 01; 67(5):493-9. PMID: 19963208; PMCID: PMC3184643.
    101. Flores YG, Hinton L, Barker JC, Franz CE, Velasquez A. Beyond familism: a case study of the ethics of care of a Latina caregiver of an elderly parent with dementia. Health Care Women Int. 2009 Dec; 30(12):1055-72. PMID: 19894151; PMCID: PMC2955855.
    102. Kremen WS, Prom-Wormley E, Panizzon MS, Eyler LT, Fischl B, Neale MC, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Stevens A, Schmitt JE, Grant MD, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Eisen SA, Dale AM, Fennema-Notestine C. Genetic and environmental influences on the size of specific brain regions in midlife: the VETSA MRI study. Neuroimage. 2010 Jan 15; 49(2):1213-23. PMID: 19786105; PMCID: PMC3397915.
    103. Lyons MJ, York TP, Franz CE, Grant MD, Eaves LJ, Jacobson KC, Schaie KW, Panizzon MS, Boake C, Xian H, Toomey R, Eisen SA, Kremen WS. Genes determine stability and the environment determines change in cognitive ability during 35 years of adulthood. Psychol Sci. 2009 Sep; 20(9):1146-52. PMID: 19686293; PMCID: PMC2753423.
    104. Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Jernigan TL, Prom-Wormley E, Neale M, Jacobson K, Lyons MJ, Grant MD, Franz CE, Xian H, Tsuang M, Fischl B, Seidman L, Dale A, Kremen WS. Distinct genetic influences on cortical surface area and cortical thickness. Cereb Cortex. 2009 Nov; 19(11):2728-35. PMID: 19299253; PMCID: PMC2758684.
    105. Kremen WS, Xian H, Jacobson KC, Eaves LJ, Franz CE, Panizzon MS, Eisen SA, Crider A, Lyons MJ. Storage and executive components of working memory: integrating cognitive psychology and behavior genetics in the study of aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2008 Mar; 63(2):P84-91. PMID: 18441269; PMCID: PMC2945700.
    106. Wingfield A, Panizzon M, Grant MD, Toomey R, Kremen WS, Franz CE, Jacobson KC, Eisen SA, Lyons M. A twin-study of genetic contributions to hearing acuity in late middle age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007 Nov; 62(11):1294-9. PMID: 18000151; PMCID: PMC2945698.
    107. Hinton L, Franz CE, Reddy G, Flores Y, Kravitz RL, Barker JC. Practice constraints, behavioral problems, and dementia care: primary care physicians' perspectives. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Nov; 22(11):1487-92. PMID: 17823840; PMCID: PMC2219799.
    108. Franz CE, Grant MD, Jacobson KC, Kremen WS, Eisen SA, Xian H, Romeis J, Thompson-Brenner H, Lyons MJ. Genetics of body mass stability and risk for chronic disease: a 28-year longitudinal study. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007 Aug; 10(4):537-45. PMID: 17708694.
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    109. Franz CE, Barker JC, Kravitz RL, Flores Y, Krishnan S, Hinton L. Nonmedical influences on the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in dementia care. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2007 Jul-Sep; 21(3):241-8. PMID: 17804957.
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    110. Cronin-Golomb A, Panizzon MS, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Grant MD, Jacobson KC, Eisen SA, Laudate TM, Kremen WS. Genetic influence on contrast sensitivity in middle-aged male twins. Vision Res. 2007 Jul; 47(16):2179-86. PMID: 17604073; PMCID: PMC2020833.
    111. Kremen WS, Koenen KC, Boake C, Purcell S, Eisen SA, Franz CE, Tsuang MT, Lyons MJ. Pretrauma cognitive ability and risk for posttraumatic stress disorder: a twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Mar; 64(3):361-8. PMID: 17339525.
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    112. Feldman MD, Franks P, Epstein RM, Franz CE, Kravitz RL. Do patient requests for antidepressants enhance or hinder physicians' evaluation of depression? A randomized controlled trial. Med Care. 2006 Dec; 44(12):1107-13. PMID: 17122715.
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    113. Kremen WS, Thompson-Brenner H, Leung YM, Grant MD, Franz CE, Eisen SA, Jacobson KC, Boake C, Lyons MJ. Genes, environment, and time: the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). Twin Res Hum Genet. 2006 Dec; 9(6):1009-22. PMID: 17254445.
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    114. Franz CE, Epstein R, Miller KN, Brown A, Song J, Feldman M, Franks P, Kelly-Reif S, Kravitz RL. Caught in the act? Prevalence, predictors, and consequences of physician detection of unannounced standardized patients. Health Serv Res. 2006 Dec; 41(6):2290-302. PMID: 17116121; PMCID: PMC1955318.
    115. Hinton L, Franz CE, Yeo G, Levkoff SE. Conceptions of dementia in a multiethnic sample of family caregivers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Aug; 53(8):1405-10. PMID: 16078970.
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    116. Kravitz RL, Epstein RM, Feldman MD, Franz CE, Azari R, Wilkes MS, Hinton L, Franks P. Influence of patients' requests for direct-to-consumer advertised antidepressants: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Apr 27; 293(16):1995-2002. PMID: 15855433; PMCID: PMC3155410.
    117. Kravitz RL, Krackhardt D, Melnikow J, Franz CE, Gilbert WM, Zach A, Paterniti DA, Romano PS. Networked for change? Identifying obstetric opinion leaders and assessing their opinions on caesarean delivery. Soc Sci Med. 2003 Dec; 57(12):2423-34. PMID: 14572848.
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    118. Kravitz RL, Bell RA, Franz CE, Elliott MN, Amsterdam E, Willis C, Silverio L. Characterizing patient requests and physician responses in office practice. Health Serv Res. 2002 Feb; 37(1):217-38. PMID: 11949922.
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