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Carol Franz

Title(s)Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-822-1793
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    Biography

    Dr. Franz received her Ph.D.in personality psychology from Boston University in 1988. She completed a post-doctoral fellowship at Harvard University with Dr. David McClelland in 1992. In 1993 and 1994 she was a visiting professor at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, after which she joined the faculty as a Research Psychologist at UC Berkeley from 1994-1996. From 1996, until joining the Psychiatry Department at UC San Diego in 2004, she was a senior research analyst at the Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care at UC Davis. She has been Assistant Adjunct Professor at UCSD since 2009, and is also a faculty member in the Stein Institute for Research on Aging, the Center for Behavioral Genomics, and at the Clinical and Translational Research Institute.

    Research Interests

    Dr. Franz’s primary research is on the longitudinal study of stress and aging, with a focus on risk and preventive factors for cognitive aging. She is co-investigator on three NIH/NIA grants that follow middle-aged twin men from late adolescence into later life. The primary VETSA project focuses on cognition (emphasizing executive functions, memory, and processing speed), personality, psychosocial factors, psychopathology, and biomedical factors in over 1200 twins. Nearly 800 of these twins provided multiple at-home and in-lab saliva samples in order to assess diurnal patterns of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEAS and emotional lability in the VETSA cortisol study. The focus of the VETSA Cortisol study was to understand the role of biological stress-response systems in aging. Approximately VETSA twins underwent 3D structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the VETSA MRI project. The VETSA projects constitute a unique, integrative program of research aimed at understanding the genetic and environmental influences on and the heterogeneity of cognitive aging. Dr. Franz’s other scientific interests include interpersonal relationships in older adults, and using qualitative techniques to study adult lives. She has over 70 publications and is co-editor with Dr. Abigail Stewart at University of Michigan of a book : “Women Creating Lives: Identities, Resilience and Resistance (1994).

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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    The VETSA Longitudinal Twin Study of Cognition and Aging (VETSA 3)
    NIH/NIA R01AG050595Sep 1, 2015 - May 31, 2019
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Archiving the Vietnam Era Twin Studies of Aging (VETSA): New Uses for Old Data
    NIH/NIA R03AG046413Sep 30, 2013 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Pedersen NL, Gatz M, Finch BK, Finkel D, Butler DA, Dahl Aslan A, Franz CE, Kaprio J, Lapham S, McGue M, Mosing MA, Neiderhiser J, Nygaard M, Panizzon M, Prescott CA, Reynolds CA, Sachdev P, Whitfield KE. IGEMS: The Consortium on Interplay of Genes and Environment Across Multiple Studies - An Update. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2019 Sep 23; 1-8. PMID: 31544729.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kremen WS, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Granholm EL, Andreassen OA, Dale AM, Gillespie NA, Gustavson DE, Logue MW, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Reynolds CA, Whitsel N, Franz CE. Pupillary dilation responses as a midlife indicator of risk for Alzheimer's disease: association with Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk. Neurobiol Aging. 2019 Sep 09; 83:114-121. PMID: 31585363.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Yokoyama Y, Sund R, Sugawara M, Tanaka M, Matsumoto S, Bogl LH, Freitas DL, Maia JA, Hjelmborg JVB, Aaltonen S, Piirtola M, Latvala A, Calais-Ferreira L, Oliveira VC, Ferreira PH, Ji F, Ning F, Pang Z, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Burt SA, Klump KL, Martin NG, Medland SE, Montgomery GW, Kandler C, McAdams TA, Eley TC, Gregory AM, Saudino KJ, Dubois L, Boivin M, Brendgen M, Dionne G, Vitaro F, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Haworth CMA, Plomin R, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Medda E, Nisticò L, Toccaceli V, Craig JM, Saffery R, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Jeong HU, Spector T, Mangino M, Lachance G, Gatz M, Butler DA, Gao W, Yu C, Li L, Bayasgalan G, Narandalai D, Harden KP, Tucker-Drob EM, Christensen K, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJF, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, He M, Ding X, Silberg JL, Maes HH, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Magnusson PKE, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Bjerregaard-Andersen M, Beck-Nielsen H, Sodemann M, Ullemar V, Almqvist C, Tan Q, Zhang D, Swan GE, Krasnow R, Jang KL, Knafo-Noam A, Mankuta D, Abramson L, Lichtenstein P, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Tynelius P, Rasmussen F, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Ooki S, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Harris JR, Sung J, Park HA, Lee J, Lee SJ, Willemsen G, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt CEM, Llewellyn CH, Fisher A, Rebato E, Busjahn A, Tomizawa R, Inui F, Watanabe M, Honda C, Sakai N, Hur YM, Sørensen TIA, Boomsma DI, Kaprio J. The CODATwins Project: The Current Status and Recent Findings of COllaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2019 Jul 31; 1-9. PMID: 31364586.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Gustavson DE, Franz CE, Panizzon MS, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in middle age: genetic and environmental architecture and stability of symptoms over 15 to 20 years. Psychol Med. 2019 Jul 01; 1-9. PMID: 31258104.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Sanderson-Cimino M, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Gustavson DE, Franz CE, Reynolds CA, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental architecture of processing speed across midlife. Neuropsychology. 2019 Jun 13. PMID: 31192653.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Logue MW, Gillespie NA, Neale MC, Reynolds CA, Gustavson DE, Rana BK, Andreassen OA, Dale AM, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic risk for coronary heart disease alters the influence of Alzheimer's genetic risk on mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 2019 Jun 08. PMID: 31272697.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Eyler LT, Elman JA, Hatton SN, Gough S, Mischel AK, Hagler DJ, Franz CE, Docherty A, Fennema-Notestine C, Gillespie N, Gustavson D, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Panizzon MS, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Resting State Abnormalities of the Default Mode Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019 Jun 04. PMID: 31177210.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Latvala A, Yokoyama Y, Sund R, Sugawara M, Tanaka M, Matsumoto S, Aaltonen S, Piirtola M, Freitas DL, Maia JA, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Ji F, Ning F, Pang Z, Rebato E, Saudino KJ, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Ullemar V, Almqvist C, Magnusson PKE, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, Willemsen G, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt CEM, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Sung J, Kim J, Lee J, Lee S, Llewellyn CH, Fisher A, Medda E, Nisticò L, Toccaceli V, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJF, Knafo-Noam A, Mankuta D, Abramson L, Burt SA, Klump KL, Silberg JL, Maes HH, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Gatz M, Butler DA, Harris JR, Nilsen TS, Harden KP, Tucker-Drob EM, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Lichtenstein P, Jeong HU, Hur YM, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TIA, Kaprio J. Parental Education and Genetics of BMI from Infancy to Old Age: A Pooled Analysis of 29 Twin Cohorts. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 May; 27(5):855-865. PMID: 30950584.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Gustavson DE, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Reynolds CA, Corley RP, Hewitt JK, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS, Friedman NP. Integrating verbal fluency with executive functions: Evidence from twin studies in adolescence and middle age. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2019 Mar 21. PMID: 30896200.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Franz CE, Xian H, Lew D, Hatton SN, Puckett O, Whitsel N, Beck A, Dale AM, Fang B, Fennema-Notestine C, Hauger RL, Jacobson KC, Lyons MJ, Reynolds CA, Kremen WS. Body mass trajectories and cortical thickness in middle-aged men: a 42-year longitudinal study starting in young adulthood. Neurobiol Aging. 2019 07; 79:11-21. PMID: 31026618.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Franz CE, Hatton SN, Hauger RL, Kredlow MA, Dale AM, Eyler L, McEvoy LK, Fennema-Notestine C, Hagler D, Jacobson KC, McKenzie RE, Panizzon MS, Gustavson DE, Xian H, Toomey R, Beck A, Stevens S, Tu X, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Posttraumatic stress symptom persistence across 24 years: association with brain structures. Brain Imaging Behav. 2019 Mar 04. PMID: 30830577.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Kremen WS, Beck A, Elman JA, Gustavson DE, Reynolds CA, Tu XM, Sanderson-Cimino ME, Panizzon MS, Vuoksimaa E, Toomey R, Fennema-Notestine C, Hagler DJ, Fang B, Dale AM, Lyons MJ, Franz CE. Influence of young adult cognitive ability and additional education on later-life cognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 02 05; 116(6):2021-2026. PMID: 30670647.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Vuoksimaa E, McEvoy LK, Holland D, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Modifying the minimum criteria for diagnosing amnestic MCI to improve prediction of brain atrophy and progression to Alzheimer's disease. Brain Imaging Behav. 2018 Dec 04. PMID: 30511118.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Gillespie NA, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, McEvoy LK, Neale MC, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic architecture of hippocampal subfields on standard resolution MRI: How the parts relate to the whole. Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Apr 01; 40(5):1528-1540. PMID: 30430703.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Gustavson DE, Franz CE, Panizzon MS, Reynolds CA, Xian H, Jacobson KC, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and Environmental Associations Among Executive Functions, Trait Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms in Middle Age. Clin Psychol Sci. 2019 Jan; 7(1):127-142. PMID: 30923645.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Gustavson DE, Hatton SN, Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, McEvoy LK, Neale MC, Gillespie N, Dale AM, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Predominantly global genetic influences on individual white matter tract microstructure. Neuroimage. 2019 01 01; 184:871-880. PMID: 30296555.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kaup AR, Toomey R, Bangen KJ, Delano-Wood L, Yaffe K, Panizzon MS, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Interactive Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychiatric Symptoms on Cognition among Late Middle-Aged Men: Findings from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. J Neurotrauma. 2019 Jan 15; 36(2):338-347. PMID: 29978738.
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    18. Piirtola M, Jelenkovic A, Latvala A, Sund R, Honda C, Inui F, Watanabe M, Tomizawa R, Iwatani Y, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Medland SE, Rasmussen F, Tynelius P, Tan Q, Zhang D, Pang Z, Rebato E, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, Brescianini S, Busjahn A, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Sung J, Kim J, Lee J, Lee S, Gatz M, Butler DA, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Magnusson PKE, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJF, Silberg JL, Maes HH, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TIA, Korhonen T, Kaprio J, Silventoinen K. Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200140. PMID: 30001359.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Gustavson DE, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Franz CE, Beck A, Reynolds CA, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Verbal Fluency in Middle Age: A Longitudinal Twin Study. Behav Genet. 2018 Sep; 48(5):361-373. PMID: 29922985.
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    20. Elman JA, Jak AJ, Panizzon MS, Tu XM, Chen T, Reynolds CA, Gustavson DE, Franz CE, Hatton SN, Jacobson KC, Toomey R, McKenzie R, Xian H, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Underdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment: A consequence of ignoring practice effects. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2018; 10:372-381. PMID: 30003138.
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    21. Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Fennema-Notestine C, Hagler DJ, Lyons MJ, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Brain structure mediates the association between height and cognitive ability. Brain Struct Funct. 2018 Sep; 223(7):3487-3494. PMID: 29748873.
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    22. Gillespie NA, Neale MC, Bates TC, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Vassileva J, Lyons MJ, Prom-Wormley EC, McMahon KL, Thompson PM, de Zubicaray G, Hickie IB, McGrath JJ, Strike LT, Rentería ME, Panizzon MS, Martin NG, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Wright MJ. Testing associations between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in two large population-based samples. Addiction. 2018 Apr 24. PMID: 29691937.
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    23. Finkel D, Franz CE, Christensen K, Reynolds CA, Pedersen NL. Longitudinal Twin Study of Subjective Health: Differences in Genetic and Environmental Components of Variance Across Age and Sex. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018 Mar 24. PMID: 29590493.
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    24. Pahlen S, Hamdi NR, Dahl Aslan AK, Horwitz BN, Panizzon MS, Petersen I, Zavala C, Christensen K, Finkel D, Franz CE, Gatz M, Johnson W, Kremen WS, Krueger RF, Neiderhiser JM, Reynolds CA, Pedersen NL, McGue M. Age-Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Cognitive Functioning in Mid- and Late-Life for Specific Cognitive Abilities. Intelligence. 2018 May-Jun; 68:70-81. PMID: 30573937.
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    25. Panizzon MS, Hauger RL, Xian H, Jacobson K, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Interactive effects of testosterone and cortisol on hippocampal volume and episodic memory in middle-aged men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 05; 91:115-122. PMID: 29547742.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Hatton SN, Franz CE, Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, McEvoy LK, Lyons MJ, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Negative fateful life events in midlife and advanced predicted brain aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2018 07; 67:1-9. PMID: 29609076.
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    27. Gustavson DE, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Franz CE, Reynolds CA, Jacobson KC, Friedman NP, Xian H, Toomey R, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Stability of genetic and environmental influences on executive functions in midlife. Psychol Aging. 2018 03; 33(2):219-231. PMID: 29658745.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Logue MW, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Gillespie NA, Hatton SN, Gustavson DE, Andreassen OA, Dale AM, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Reynolds CA, Tu X, Kremen WS. Use of an Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk score to identify mild cognitive impairment in adults in their 50s. Mol Psychiatry. 2019 03; 24(3):421-430. PMID: 29487403.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Hatton SN, Panizzon MS, Vuoksimaa E, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Rinker D, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic relatedness of axial and radial diffusivity indices of cerebral white matter microstructure in late middle age. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018 05; 39(5):2235-2245. PMID: 29427332.
      View in: PubMed
    30. McEvoy LK, Fennema-Notestine C, Elman JA, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Hagler DJ, Hatton SN, Lyons MJ, Panizzon MS, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Alcohol intake and brain white matter in middle aged men: Microscopic and macroscopic differences. Neuroimage Clin. 2018; 18:390-398. PMID: 29487796.
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    31. Beck A, Franz CE, Xian H, Vuoksimaa E, Tu X, Reynolds CA, Panizzon MS, McKenzie RM, Lyons MJ, Toomey R, Jacobson KC, Hauger RL, Hatton SN, Kremen WS. Mediators of the Effect of Childhood Socioeconomic Status on Late Midlife Cognitive Abilities: A Four Decade Longitudinal Study. Innov Aging. 2018 Jan 01; 2(1). PMID: 30465026.
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    32. Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Eyler LT, Granholm EL, Fennema-Notestine C, Lyons MJ, McEvoy LK, Franz CE, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Task-evoked pupil dilation and BOLD variance as indicators of locus coeruleus dysfunction. Cortex. 2017 12; 97:60-69. PMID: 29096196.
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    33. Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Latvala A, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Ullemar V, Almqvist C, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJF, Kandler C, Honda C, Inui F, Iwatani Y, Watanabe M, Rebato E, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, Brescianini S, Hur YM, Jeong HU, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Busjahn A, Saudino KJ, Ji F, Ning F, Pang Z, Rose RJ, Koskenvuo M, Heikkilä K, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Sung J, Kim J, Lee J, Lee S, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Tan Q, Zhang D, Llewellyn CH, Fisher A, Burt SA, Klump KL, Knafo-Noam A, Mankuta D, Abramson L, Medland SE, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Magnusson PKE, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Willemsen G, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt CEM, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Maes HH, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Rasmussen F, Tynelius P, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Gatz M, Butler DA, Lichtenstein P, Goldberg JH, Harden KP, Tucker-Drob EM, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Maia JA, Freitas DL, Turkheimer E, Sørensen TIA, Boomsma DI, Kaprio J. Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 10; 20(5):395-405. PMID: 28975875.
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    34. Gustavson DE, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Friedman NP, Reynolds CA, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Lyons MJ, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental architecture of executive functions in midlife. Neuropsychology. 2018 01; 32(1):18-30. PMID: 28857599.
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    35. Rana BK, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Spoon KM, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Ancoli-Israel S, Lyons M, Kremen WS. Association of Sleep Quality on Memory-Related Executive Functions in Middle Age. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2018 01; 24(1):67-76. PMID: 28760172.
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    36. Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Hur YM, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, Honda C, Inui F, Iwatani Y, Watanabe M, Tomizawa R, Pietiläinen KH, Rissanen A, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Tan Q, Zhang D, Pang Z, Piirtola M, Aaltonen S, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Rebato E, Hjelmborg JB, Christensen K, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Cutler TL, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Song YM, Yang S, Lee K, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Busjahn A, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Kandler C, Jang KL, Gatz M, Butler DA, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, D'Ippolito C, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Martin NG, Medland SE, Montgomery GW, Jeong HU, Swan GE, Krasnow R, Magnusson PK, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK, McAdams TA, Eley TC, Gregory AM, Tynelius P, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Bayasgalan G, Narandalai D, Spector TD, Mangino M, Lachance G, Burt SA, Klump KL, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Corley RP, Huibregtse BM, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt CE, Willemsen G, Goldberg JH, Rasmussen F, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJ, Hopper JL, Sung J, Maes HH, Turkheimer E, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TI, Kaprio J. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug; 106(2):457-466. PMID: 28679550.
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    37. Brouwer RM, Panizzon MS, Glahn DC, Hibar DP, Hua X, Jahanshad N, Abramovic L, de Zubicaray GI, Franz CE, Hansell NK, Hickie IB, Koenis MMG, Martin NG, Mather KA, McMahon KL, Schnack HG, Strike LT, Swagerman SC, Thalamuthu A, Wen W, Gilmore JH, Gogtay N, Kahn RS, Sachdev PS, Wright MJ, Boomsma DI, Kremen WS, Thompson PM, Hulshoff Pol HE. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 09; 38(9):4444-4458. PMID: 28580697.
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    38. Xian H, Vasilopoulos T, Liu W, Hauger RL, Jacobson KC, Lyons MJ, Panizzon M, Reynolds CA, Vuoksimaa E, Kremen WS, Franz CE. Steeper change in body mass across four decades predicts poorer cardiometabolic outcomes at midlife. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 04; 25(4):773-780. PMID: 28349665.
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    39. Lyons MJ, Panizzon MS, Liu W, McKenzie R, Bluestone NJ, Grant MD, Franz CE, Vuoksimaa EP, Toomey R, Jacobson KC, Reynolds CA, Kremen WS, Xian H. A longitudinal twin study of general cognitive ability over four decades. Dev Psychol. 2017 06; 53(6):1170-1177. PMID: 28358535.
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    40. Gillespie NA, Neale MC, Hagler DJ, Eyler LT, Fennema-Notestine C, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, McEvoy LK, Dale AM, Panizzon MS, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental influences on mean diffusivity and volume in subcortical brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 05; 38(5):2589-2598. PMID: 28240386.
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    41. Joseph J, Kremen WS, Franz CE, Glatt SJ, van de Leemput J, Chandler SD, Tsuang MT, Twamley EW. Predictors of current functioning and functional decline in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2017 10; 188:158-164. PMID: 28139356.
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    42. Granholm EL, Panizzon MS, Elman JA, Jak AJ, Hauger RL, Bondi MW, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Kremen WS. Pupillary Responses as a Biomarker of Early Risk for Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017; 56(4):1419-1428. PMID: 28157098.
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    43. Vuoksimaa E, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Hatton SN, Fennema-Notestine C, Rinker D, Eyler LT, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Heritability of white matter microstructure in late middle age: A twin study of tract-based fractional anisotropy and absolute diffusivity indices. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 04; 38(4):2026-2036. PMID: 28032374.
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    44. Jelenkovic A, Hur YM, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Siribaddana SH, Hotopf M, Sumathipala A, Rijsdijk F, Tan Q, Zhang D, Pang Z, Aaltonen S, Heikkilä K, Öncel SY, Aliev F, Rebato E, Tarnoki AD, Tarnoki DL, Christensen K, Skytthe A, Kyvik KO, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ, Maes HH, Cutler TL, Hopper JL, Ordoñana JR, Sánchez-Romera JF, Colodro-Conde L, Cozen W, Hwang AE, Mack TM, Sung J, Song YM, Yang S, Lee K, Franz CE, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Busjahn A, Nelson TL, Whitfield KE, Kandler C, Jang KL, Gatz M, Butler DA, Stazi MA, Fagnani C, D'Ippolito C, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Derom CA, Vlietinck RF, Loos RJ, Martin NG, Medland SE, Montgomery GW, Jeong HU, Swan GE, Krasnow R, Magnusson PK, Pedersen NL, Dahl-Aslan AK, McAdams TA, Eley TC, Gregory AM, Tynelius P, Baker LA, Tuvblad C, Bayasgalan G, Narandalai D, Lichtenstein P, Spector TD, Mangino M, Lachance G, Bartels M, van Beijsterveldt TC, Willemsen G, Burt SA, Klump KL, Harris JR, Brandt I, Nilsen TS, Krueger RF, McGue M, Pahlen S, Corley RP, Hjelmborg JV, Goldberg JH, Iwatani Y, Watanabe M, Honda C, Inui F, Rasmussen F, Huibregtse BM, Boomsma DI, Sørensen TI, Kaprio J, Silventoinen K. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994. Elife. 2016 12 14; 5. PMID: 27964777.
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    45. Lo MT, Hinds DA, Tung JY, Franz C, Fan CC, Wang Y, Smeland OB, Schork A, Holland D, Kauppi K, Sanyal N, Escott-Price V, Smith DJ, O'Donovan M, Stefansson H, Bjornsdottir G, Thorgeirsson TE, Stefansson K, McEvoy LK, Dale AM, Andreassen OA, Chen CH. Genome-wide analyses for personality traits identify six genomic loci and show correlations with psychiatric disorders. Nat Genet. 2017 01; 49(1):152-156. PMID: 27918536.
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    46. Elman JA, Panizzon MS, Hagler DJ, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Gillespie NA, Neale MC, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, McEvoy LK, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic and environmental influences on cortical mean diffusivity. Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 01; 146:90-99. PMID: 27864081.
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    119. Xian H, Scherrer JF, Franz CE, McCaffery J, Stein PK, Lyons MJ, Jacobsen K, Eisen SA, Kremen WS. Genetic vulnerability and phenotypic expression of depression and risk for ischemic heart disease in the Vietnam era twin study of aging. Psychosom Med. 2010 May; 72(4):370-5. PMID: 20190130.
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    121. Rimol LM, Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Fischl B, Franz CE, Hagler DJ, Lyons MJ, Neale MC, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Schmitt JE, Grant MD, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Eisen SA, Kremen WS, Dale AM. Cortical thickness is influenced by regionally specific genetic factors. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Mar 01; 67(5):493-9. PMID: 19963208.
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    122. Flores YG, Hinton L, Barker JC, Franz CE, Velasquez A. Beyond familism: a case study of the ethics of care of a Latina caregiver of an elderly parent with dementia. Health Care Women Int. 2009 Dec; 30(12):1055-72. PMID: 19894151.
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    123. Kremen WS, Prom-Wormley E, Panizzon MS, Eyler LT, Fischl B, Neale MC, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Stevens A, Schmitt JE, Grant MD, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Eisen SA, Dale AM, Fennema-Notestine C. Genetic and environmental influences on the size of specific brain regions in midlife: the VETSA MRI study. Neuroimage. 2010 Jan 15; 49(2):1213-23. PMID: 19786105.
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    124. Lyons MJ, York TP, Franz CE, Grant MD, Eaves LJ, Jacobson KC, Schaie KW, Panizzon MS, Boake C, Xian H, Toomey R, Eisen SA, Kremen WS. Genes determine stability and the environment determines change in cognitive ability during 35 years of adulthood. Psychol Sci. 2009 Sep; 20(9):1146-52. PMID: 19686293.
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    125. Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Jernigan TL, Prom-Wormley E, Neale M, Jacobson K, Lyons MJ, Grant MD, Franz CE, Xian H, Tsuang M, Fischl B, Seidman L, Dale A, Kremen WS. Distinct genetic influences on cortical surface area and cortical thickness. Cereb Cortex. 2009 Nov; 19(11):2728-35. PMID: 19299253.
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    126. Kremen WS, Xian H, Jacobson KC, Eaves LJ, Franz CE, Panizzon MS, Eisen SA, Crider A, Lyons MJ. Storage and executive components of working memory: integrating cognitive psychology and behavior genetics in the study of aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2008 Mar; 63(2):P84-91. PMID: 18441269.
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    127. Schultz MR, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Grant MD, Boake C, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Schellenberg GD, Eisen SA, Kremen WS. Apolipoprotein E genotype and memory in the sixth decade of life. Neurology. 2008 May 06; 70(19 Pt 2):1771-7. PMID: 18235080.
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    128. Wingfield A, Panizzon M, Grant MD, Toomey R, Kremen WS, Franz CE, Jacobson KC, Eisen SA, Lyons M. A twin-study of genetic contributions to hearing acuity in late middle age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007 Nov; 62(11):1294-9. PMID: 18000151.
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    131. Franz CE, Barker JC, Kravitz RL, Flores Y, Krishnan S, Hinton L. Nonmedical influences on the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in dementia care. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2007 Jul-Sep; 21(3):241-8. PMID: 17804957.
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    132. Cronin-Golomb A, Panizzon MS, Lyons MJ, Franz CE, Grant MD, Jacobson KC, Eisen SA, Laudate TM, Kremen WS. Genetic influence on contrast sensitivity in middle-aged male twins. Vision Res. 2007 Jul; 47(16):2179-86. PMID: 17604073.
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    133. Kremen WS, Koenen KC, Boake C, Purcell S, Eisen SA, Franz CE, Tsuang MT, Lyons MJ. Pretrauma cognitive ability and risk for posttraumatic stress disorder: a twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Mar; 64(3):361-8. PMID: 17339525.
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    134. Feldman MD, Franks P, Epstein RM, Franz CE, Kravitz RL. Do patient requests for antidepressants enhance or hinder physicians' evaluation of depression? A randomized controlled trial. Med Care. 2006 Dec; 44(12):1107-13. PMID: 17122715.
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    135. Kremen WS, Thompson-Brenner H, Leung YM, Grant MD, Franz CE, Eisen SA, Jacobson KC, Boake C, Lyons MJ. Genes, environment, and time: the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). Twin Res Hum Genet. 2006 Dec; 9(6):1009-22. PMID: 17254445.
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    136. Franz CE, Epstein R, Miller KN, Brown A, Song J, Feldman M, Franks P, Kelly-Reif S, Kravitz RL. Caught in the act? Prevalence, predictors, and consequences of physician detection of unannounced standardized patients. Health Serv Res. 2006 Dec; 41(6):2290-302. PMID: 17116121.
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    137. Hinton L, Franz CE, Yeo G, Levkoff SE. Conceptions of dementia in a multiethnic sample of family caregivers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Aug; 53(8):1405-10. PMID: 16078970.
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    139. Kravitz RL, Krackhardt D, Melnikow J, Franz CE, Gilbert WM, Zach A, Paterniti DA, Romano PS. Networked for change? Identifying obstetric opinion leaders and assessing their opinions on caesarean delivery. Soc Sci Med. 2003 Dec; 57(12):2423-34. PMID: 14572848.
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    141. Mangione-Smith R, McGlynn EA, Elliott MN, McDonald L, Franz CE, Kravitz RL. Parent expectations for antibiotics, physician-parent communication, and satisfaction. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 Jul; 155(7):800-6. PMID: 11434847.
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    142. Zatzick DF, Kang SM, Hinton WL, Kelly RH, Hilty DM, Franz CE, Le L, Kravitz RL. Posttraumatic concerns: a patient-centered approach to outcome assessment after traumatic physical injury. Med Care. 2001 Apr; 39(4):327-39. PMID: 11329520.
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    143. Kravitz RL, Bell RA, Franz CE. A taxonomy of requests by patients (TORP): a new system for understanding clinical negotiation in office practice. J Fam Pract. 1999 Nov; 48(11):872-8. PMID: 10907624.
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    144. Franz CE, McClelland DC. Lives of women and men active in the social protests of the 1960s: a longitudinal study. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994 Jan; 66(1):196-205. PMID: 8126649.
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