Sign in to edit your profile (add interests, mentoring, photo, etc.)

    Adam Engler

    TitleAssociate Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0695
    CA La Jolla 92093
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Gibbons MC, Fisch KM, Pichika R, Cheng T, Engler A, Schenk S, Lane JG, Singh A, Ward SR. Heterogeneous muscle gene expression patterns in patients with massive rotator cuff tears. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190439. PMID: 29293645.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Gibbons MC, Singh A, Engler A, Ward SR. The role of mechanobiology in progression of rotator cuff muscle atrophy and degeneration. J Orthop Res. 2017 Jul 29. PMID: 28755470.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Barker TH, Engler A. The provisional matrix: setting the stage for tissue repair outcomes. Matrix Biol. 2017 Jul; 60-61:1-4. PMID: 28527902.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Hadden WJ, Young JL, Holle AW, McFetridge ML, Kim DY, Wijesinghe P, Taylor-Weiner H, Wen JH, Lee AR, Bieback K, Vo BN, Sampson DD, Kennedy BF, Spatz JP, Engler A, Choi YS. Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 May 30; 114(22):5647-5652. PMID: 28507138.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Happe CL, Tenerelli KP, Gromova AK, Kolb F, Engler A. Mechanically patterned neuromuscular junctions-in-a-dish have improved functional maturation. Mol Biol Cell. 2017 Jul 07; 28(14):1950-1958. PMID: 28495800.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Herum KM, Choppe J, Kumar A, Engler A, McCulloch AD. Mechanical regulation of cardiac fibroblast profibrotic phenotypes. Mol Biol Cell. 2017 Jul 07; 28(14):1871-1882. PMID: 28468977.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Fuhrmann A, Banisadr A, Beri P, Tlsty TD, Engler A. Metastatic State of Cancer Cells May Be Indicated by Adhesion Strength. Biophys J. 2017 Feb 28; 112(4):736-745. PMID: 28256233.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Blice-Baum AC, Zambon AC, Kaushik G, Viswanathan MC, Engler A, Bodmer R, Cammarato A. Modest overexpression of FOXO maintains cardiac proteostasis and ameliorates age-associated functional decline. Aging Cell. 2017 Feb; 16(1):93-103. PMID: 28090761.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Gibbons MC, Singh A, Anakwenze O, Cheng T, Pomerantz M, Schenk S, Engler A, Ward SR. Histological Evidence of Muscle Degeneration in Advanced Human Rotator Cuff Disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017 Feb 01; 99(3):190-199. PMID: 28145949.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Sessions AO, Kaushik G, Parker S, Raedschelders K, Bodmer R, Van Eyk JE, Engler A. Extracellular matrix downregulation in the Drosophila heart preserves contractile function and improves lifespan. Matrix Biol. 2017 Oct; 62:15-27. PMID: 27793636.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Holle AW, McIntyre AJ, Kehe J, Wijesekara P, Young JL, Vincent LG, Engler A. High content image analysis of focal adhesion-dependent mechanosensitive stem cell differentiation. Integr Biol (Camb). 2016 Oct 10; 8(10):1049-1058. PMID: 27723854.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Engler A, Parot P, Pellequer JL. Sixth International AFM BioMed Conference on AFM in life sciences and medicine, December 13 to 17, 2014, San Diego, California. J Mol Recognit. 2016 Sep; 29(9):404-5. PMID: 27502838.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Sessions AO, Engler A. Mechanical Regulation of Cardiac Aging in Model Systems. Circ Res. 2016 May 13; 118(10):1553-62. PMID: 27174949; PMCID: PMC4868502 [Available on 05/13/17].
      14. Gibbons MC, Sato EJ, Bachasson D, Cheng T, Azimi H, Schenk S, Engler A, Singh A, Ward SR. Muscle architectural changes after massive human rotator cuff tear. J Orthop Res. 2016 Dec; 34(12):2089-2095. PMID: 27061583.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Zhang ZN, Freitas BC, Qian H, Lux J, Acab A, Trujillo CA, Herai RH, Nguyen Huu VA, Wen JH, Joshi-Barr S, Karpiak JV, Engler A, Fu XD, Muotri AR, Almutairi A. Layered hydrogels accelerate iPSC-derived neuronal maturation and reveal migration defects caused by MeCP2 dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22; 113(12):3185-90. PMID: 26944080; PMCID: PMC4812712.
      16. Ondeck MG, Engler A. Mechanical Characterization of a Dynamic and Tunable Methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel. J Biomech Eng. 2016 Feb; 138(2):021003. PMID: 26746491; PMCID: PMC4844086 [Available on 02/01/17].
      17. Happe CL, Engler A. Mechanical Forces Reshape Differentiation Cues That Guide Cardiomyogenesis. Circ Res. 2016 Jan 22; 118(2):296-310. PMID: 26838315; PMCID: PMC4743530 [Available on 01/22/17].
      18. Fuhrmann A, Engler A. The cytoskeleton regulates cell attachment strength. Biophys J. 2015 Jul 07; 109(1):57-65. PMID: 26153702; PMCID: PMC4572469.
      19. Wu H, Lee J, Vincent LG, Wang Q, Gu M, Lan F, Churko JM, Sallam KI, Matsa E, Sharma A, Gold JD, Engler A, Xiang YK, Bers DM, Wu JC. Epigenetic Regulation of Phosphodiesterases 2A and 3A Underlies Compromised ß-Adrenergic Signaling in an iPSC Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Cell Stem Cell. 2015 Jul 02; 17(1):89-100. PMID: 26095046; PMCID: PMC4546705.
      20. Kaushik G, Spenlehauer A, Sessions AO, Trujillo AS, Fuhrmann A, Fu Z, Venkatraman V, Pohl D, Tuler J, Wang M, Lakatta EG, Ocorr K, Bodmer R, Bernstein SI, Van Eyk JE, Cammarato A, Engler A. Vinculin network-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling regulates contractile function in the aging heart. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Jun 17; 7(292):292ra99. PMID: 26084806; PMCID: PMC4507505.
      21. Wen JH, Choi O, Taylor-Weiner H, Fuhrmann A, Karpiak JV, Almutairi A, Engler A. Haptotaxis is cell type specific and limited by substrate adhesiveness. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2015 Dec 01; 8(4):530-542. PMID: 26640598.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Meyer GA, Gibbons MC, Sato E, Lane JG, Ward SR, Engler A. Epimuscular Fat in the Human Rotator Cuff Is a Novel Beige Depot. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015 Jul; 4(7):764-74. PMID: 25999520; PMCID: PMC4479624.
      23. Taylor-Weiner H, Ravi N, Engler A. Traction forces mediated by integrin signaling are necessary for definitive endoderm specification. J Cell Sci. 2015 May 15; 128(10):1961-8. PMID: 25908864; PMCID: PMC4457159.
      24. Hribar KC, Finlay D, Ma X, Qu X, Ondeck MG, Chung PH, Zanella F, Engler A, Sheikh F, Vuori K, Chen SC. Nonlinear 3D projection printing of concave hydrogel microstructures for long-term multicellular spheroid and embryoid body culture. Lab Chip. 2015 Jun 07; 15(11):2412-8. PMID: 25900329; PMCID: PMC4439309.
      25. Wei SC, Fattet L, Tsai JH, Guo Y, Pai VH, Majeski HE, Chen AC, Sah RL, Taylor SS, Engler A, Yang J. Matrix stiffness drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumour metastasis through a TWIST1-G3BP2 mechanotransduction pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 May; 17(5):678-88. PMID: 25893917; PMCID: PMC4452027.
      26. Jun I, Lee YB, Choi YS, Engler A, Park H, Shin H. Transfer stamping of human mesenchymal stem cell patches using thermally expandable hydrogels with tunable cell-adhesive properties. Biomaterials. 2015 Jun; 54:44-54. PMID: 25907038.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Viswanathan P, Ondeck MG, Chirasatitsin S, Ngamkham K, Reilly GC, Engler A, Battaglia G. 3D surface topology guides stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Biomaterials. 2015 Jun; 52:140-7. PMID: 25818420; PMCID: PMC4379418.
      28. Fuhrmann A, Engler A. Acute shear stress direction dictates adherent cell remodeling and verifies shear profile of spinning disk assays. Phys Biol. 2015 Jan 26; 12(1):016011. PMID: 25619322; PMCID: PMC4323404.
      29. Meyer GA, Farris AL, Sato E, Gibbons M, Lane JG, Ward SR, Engler A. Muscle progenitor cell regenerative capacity in the torn rotator cuff. J Orthop Res. 2015 Mar; 33(3):421-9. PMID: 25410765; PMCID: PMC4346515.
      30. Young JL, Kretchmer K, Ondeck MG, Zambon AC, Engler A. Mechanosensitive kinases regulate stiffness-induced cardiomyocyte maturation. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 19; 4:6425. PMID: 25236849; PMCID: PMC4168277.
      31. Hribar KC, Choi YS, Ondeck M, Engler A, Chen S. Digital Plasmonic Patterning for Localized Tuning of Hydrogel Stiffness. Adv Funct Mater. 2014 Aug 20; 24(31):4922-4926. PMID: 26120293.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Thomas K, Engler A, Meyer GA. Extracellular matrix regulation in the muscle satellite cell niche. Connect Tissue Res. 2015 Feb; 56(1):1-8. PMID: 25047058; PMCID: PMC4464813.
      33. Wen JH, Vincent LG, Fuhrmann A, Choi YS, Hribar KC, Taylor-Weiner H, Chen S, Engler A. Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation. Nat Mater. 2014 Oct; 13(10):979-87. PMID: 25108614; PMCID: PMC4172528.
      34. Fuhrmann A, Li J, Chien S, Engler A. Cation type specific cell remodeling regulates attachment strength. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102424. PMID: 25014042; PMCID: PMC4094514.
      35. Murphy WL, McDevitt TC, Engler A. Materials as stem cell regulators. Nat Mater. 2014 Jun; 13(6):547-57. PMID: 24845994; PMCID: PMC4163547.
      36. Nishimura M, Kumsta C, Kaushik G, Diop SB, Ding Y, Bisharat-Kernizan J, Catan H, Cammarato A, Ross RS, Engler A, Bodmer R, Hansen M, Ocorr K. A dual role for integrin-linked kinase and ß1-integrin in modulating cardiac aging. Aging Cell. 2014 Jun; 13(3):431-40. PMID: 24400780; PMCID: PMC4032615.
      37. Kaushik G, Engler A. From stem cells to cardiomyocytes: the role of forces in cardiac maturation, aging, and disease. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2014; 126:219-42. PMID: 25081620.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Engler A, Kumar S. Mechanotransduction. Preface. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2014; 126:xiii-xiv. PMID: 25081625.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Viswanathan MC, Kaushik G, Engler A, Lehman W, Cammarato A. A Drosophila melanogaster model of diastolic dysfunction and cardiomyopathy based on impaired troponin-T function. Circ Res. 2014 Jan 17; 114(2):e6-17. PMID: 24221941; PMCID: PMC4526186.
      40. Holle AW, Tang X, Vijayraghavan D, Vincent LG, Fuhrmann A, Choi YS, del Álamo JC, Engler A. In situ mechanotransduction via vinculin regulates stem cell differentiation. Stem Cells. 2013 Nov; 31(11):2467-77. PMID: 23897765; PMCID: PMC3833960.
      41. Taylor-Weiner H, Schwarzbauer JE, Engler A. Defined extracellular matrix components are necessary for definitive endoderm induction. Stem Cells. 2013 Oct; 31(10):2084-94. PMID: 23766144; PMCID: PMC3812380.
      42. Rao N, Grover GN, Vincent LG, Evans SC, Choi YS, Spencer KH, Hui EE, Engler A, Christman KL. A co-culture device with a tunable stiffness to understand combinatorial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Integr Biol (Camb). 2013 Nov; 5(11):1344-54. PMID: 24061208; PMCID: PMC3848881.
      43. Young DA, Choi YS, Engler A, Christman KL. Stimulation of adipogenesis of adult adipose-derived stem cells using substrates that mimic the stiffness of adipose tissue. Biomaterials. 2013 Nov; 34(34):8581-8. PMID: 23953825; PMCID: PMC3786695.
      44. Vincent LG, Engler A. Stem cell differentiation: Post-degradation forces kick in. Nat Mater. 2013 May; 12(5):384-6. PMID: 23603879.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Young JL, Tuler J, Braden R, Schüp-Magoffin P, Schaefer J, Kretchmer K, Christman KL, Engler A. In vivo response to dynamic hyaluronic acid hydrogels. Acta Biomater. 2013 Jul; 9(7):7151-7. PMID: 23523533; PMCID: PMC3674107.
      46. Vincent LG, Choi YS, Alonso-Latorre B, del Álamo JC, Engler A. Mesenchymal stem cell durotaxis depends on substrate stiffness gradient strength. Biotechnol J. 2013 Apr; 8(4):472-84. PMID: 23390141; PMCID: PMC3749305.
      47. Joshi-Barr S, Karpiak JV, Ner Y, Wen JH, Engler A, Almutairi A. Density gradient multilayered polymerization (DGMP): a novel technique for creating multi-compartment, customizable scaffolds for tissue engineering. J Vis Exp. 2013 Feb 12; (72). PMID: 23426045; PMCID: PMC3601043.
      48. Kiang JD, Wen JH, del Álamo JC, Engler A. Dynamic and reversible surface topography influences cell morphology. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013 Aug; 101(8):2313-21. PMID: 23355509; PMCID: PMC4433743.
      49. Viswanathan P, Chirasatitsin S, Ngamkham K, Engler A, Battaglia G. Cell instructive microporous scaffolds through interface engineering. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Dec 12; 134(49):20103-9. PMID: 23163574; PMCID: PMC3556732.
      50. Park J, Kim P, Helen W, Engler A, Levchenko A, Kim DH. Control of stem cell fate and function by engineering physical microenvironments. Integr Biol (Camb). 2012 Sep; 4(9):1008-18. PMID: 23077731; PMCID: PMC3476065.
      51. Kaushik G, Zambon AC, Fuhrmann A, Bernstein SI, Bodmer R, Engler A, Cammarato A. Measuring passive myocardial stiffness in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate diastolic dysfunction. J Cell Mol Med. 2012 Aug; 16(8):1656-62. PMID: 22225769; PMCID: PMC3326184.
      52. Choi YS, Vincent LG, Lee AR, Kretchmer KC, Chirasatitsin S, Dobke MK, Engler A. The alignment and fusion assembly of adipose-derived stem cells on mechanically patterned matrices. Biomaterials. 2012 Oct; 33(29):6943-51. PMID: 22800539; PMCID: PMC3408879.
      53. Choi YS, Vincent LG, Lee AR, Dobke MK, Engler A. Mechanical derivation of functional myotubes from adipose-derived stem cells. Biomaterials. 2012 Mar; 33(8):2482-91. PMID: 22197570; PMCID: PMC3261363.
      54. Kaushik G, Fuhrmann A, Cammarato A, Engler A. In situ mechanical analysis of myofibrillar perturbation and aging on soft, bilayered Drosophila myocardium. Biophys J. 2011 Dec 07; 101(11):2629-37. PMID: 22261050; PMCID: PMC3297788.
      55. Battaglia G, LoPresti C, Massignani M, Warren NJ, Madsen J, Forster S, Vasilev C, Hobbs JK, Armes SP, Chirasatitsin S, Engler A. Wet nanoscale imaging and testing of polymersomes. Small. 2011 Jul 18; 7(14):2010-5. PMID: 21695783; PMCID: PMC3325755.
      56. Holle AW, Engler A. More than a feeling: discovering, understanding, and influencing mechanosensing pathways. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011 Oct; 22(5):648-54. PMID: 21536426; PMCID: PMC3150613.
      57. LoPresti C, Massignani M, Fernyhough C, Blanazs A, Ryan AJ, Madsen J, Warren NJ, Armes SP, Lewis AL, Chirasatitsin S, Engler A, Battaglia G. Controlling polymersome surface topology at the nanoscale by membrane confined polymer/polymer phase separation. ACS Nano. 2011 Mar 22; 5(3):1775-84. PMID: 21344879.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Tse JR, Engler A. Stiffness gradients mimicking in vivo tissue variation regulate mesenchymal stem cell fate. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 05; 6(1):e15978. PMID: 21246050; PMCID: PMC3016411.
      59. Young JL, Engler A. Hydrogels with time-dependent material properties enhance cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro. Biomaterials. 2011 Feb; 32(4):1002-9. PMID: 21071078; PMCID: PMC3000555.
      60. Tse JR, Engler A. Preparation of hydrogel substrates with tunable mechanical properties. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2010 Jun; Chapter 10:Unit 10.16. PMID: 20521229.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Chirasatitsin S, Engler A. Detecting cell-adhesive sites in extracellular matrix using force spectroscopy mapping. J Phys Condens Matter. 2010 May 19; 22(19):194102. PMID: 21152375.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Holle AW, Engler A. Cell rheology: Stressed-out stem cells. Nat Mater. 2010 Jan; 9(1):4-6. PMID: 20019660.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Flores-Merino MV, Chirasatitsin S, Lopresti C, Reilly GC, Battaglia G, Engler A. Nanoscopic mechanical anisotropy in hydrogel surfaces. Soft Matter. 2010 Jan 01; 6(18):4466-4470. PMID: 20953281.
        View in: PubMed
      64. David Merryman W, Engler A. Innovations in cell mechanobiology. J Biomech. 2010 Jan 05; 43(1):1. PMID: 19815212.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Reilly GC, Engler A. Intrinsic extracellular matrix properties regulate stem cell differentiation. J Biomech. 2010 Jan 05; 43(1):55-62. PMID: 19800626.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Engler A, Chan M, Boettiger D, Schwarzbauer JE. A novel mode of cell detachment from fibrillar fibronectin matrix under shear. J Cell Sci. 2009 May 15; 122(Pt 10):1647-53. PMID: 19401337; PMCID: PMC2680103.
      67. Engler A, Humbert PO, Wehrle-Haller B, Weaver VM. Multiscale modeling of form and function. Science. 2009 Apr 10; 324(5924):208-12. PMID: 19359578; PMCID: PMC4527531.
      68. Sen S, Engler A, Discher DE. Matrix strains induced by cells: Computing how far cells can feel. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2009 Mar 01; 2(1):39-48. PMID: 20582230.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Oh S, Brammer KS, Li YS, Teng D, Engler A, Chien S, Jin S. Stem cell fate dictated solely by altered nanotube dimension. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17; 106(7):2130-5. PMID: 19179282; PMCID: PMC2650120.
      70. Engler A, Carag-Krieger C, Johnson CP, Raab M, Tang HY, Speicher DW, Sanger JW, Sanger JM, Discher DE. Embryonic cardiomyocytes beat best on a matrix with heart-like elasticity: scar-like rigidity inhibits beating. J Cell Sci. 2008 Nov 15; 121(Pt 22):3794-802. PMID: 18957515; PMCID: PMC2740334.
      71. Williams CM, Engler A, Slone RD, Galante LL, Schwarzbauer JE. Fibronectin expression modulates mammary epithelial cell proliferation during acinar differentiation. Cancer Res. 2008 May 01; 68(9):3185-92. PMID: 18451144; PMCID: PMC2748963.
      72. Engler A, Sweeney HL, Discher DE, Schwarzbauer JE. Extracellular matrix elasticity directs stem cell differentiation. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2007 Oct-Dec; 7(4):335. PMID: 18094500.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Rehfeldt F, Engler A, Eckhardt A, Ahmed F, Discher DE. Cell responses to the mechanochemical microenvironment--implications for regenerative medicine and drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007 Nov 10; 59(13):1329-39. PMID: 17900747; PMCID: PMC4124491.
      74. Frey MT, Engler A, Discher DE, Lee J, Wang YL. Microscopic methods for measuring the elasticity of gel substrates for cell culture: microspheres, microindenters, and atomic force microscopy. Methods Cell Biol. 2007; 83:47-65. PMID: 17613304.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Engler A, Rehfeldt F, Sen S, Discher DE. Microtissue elasticity: measurements by atomic force microscopy and its influence on cell differentiation. Methods Cell Biol. 2007; 83:521-45. PMID: 17613323.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Engler A, Sen S, Sweeney HL, Discher DE. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell. 2006 Aug 25; 126(4):677-89. PMID: 16923388.
        View in: PubMed
      77. Brown AG, Leite RS, Engler A, Discher DE, Strauss JF. A hemoglobin fragment found in cervicovaginal fluid from women in labor potentiates the action of agents that promote contraction of smooth muscle cells. Peptides. 2006 Jul; 27(7):1794-800. PMID: 16621150.
        View in: PubMed
      78. Berry MF, Engler A, Woo YJ, Pirolli TJ, Bish LT, Jayasankar V, Morine KJ, Gardner TJ, Discher DE, Sweeney HL. Mesenchymal stem cell injection after myocardial infarction improves myocardial compliance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Jun; 290(6):H2196-203. PMID: 16473959.
        View in: PubMed
      79. Dahl KN, Engler A, Pajerowski JD, Discher DE. Power-law rheology of isolated nuclei with deformation mapping of nuclear substructures. Biophys J. 2005 Oct; 89(4):2855-64. PMID: 16055543; PMCID: PMC1366783.
      80. Engler A, Griffin MA, Sen S, Bönnemann CG, Sweeney HL, Discher DE. Myotubes differentiate optimally on substrates with tissue-like stiffness: pathological implications for soft or stiff microenvironments. J Cell Biol. 2004 Sep 13; 166(6):877-87. PMID: 15364962; PMCID: PMC2172122.
      81. Richert L, Engler A, Discher DE, Picart C. Elasticity of native and cross-linked polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Biomacromolecules. 2004 Sep-Oct; 5(5):1908-16. PMID: 15360305.
        View in: PubMed
      82. Dalhaimer P, Engler A, Parthasarathy R, Discher DE. Targeted worm micelles. Biomacromolecules. 2004 Sep-Oct; 5(5):1714-9. PMID: 15360279.
        View in: PubMed
      83. Griffin MA, Engler A, Barber TA, Healy KE, Sweeney HL, Discher DE. Patterning, prestress, and peeling dynamics of myocytes. Biophys J. 2004 Feb; 86(2):1209-22. PMID: 14747355; PMCID: PMC1303913.
      84. Engler A, Bacakova L, Newman C, Hategan A, Griffin M, Discher D. Substrate compliance versus ligand density in cell on gel responses. Biophys J. 2004 Jan; 86(1 Pt 1):617-28. PMID: 14695306; PMCID: PMC1303831.