Samuel Ward

TitleVice Chairman, Orthopedic Surgery
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentOrthopedic Surgery
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0863
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Other Positions
    TitleProfessor, Radiology

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    California State University Long BeachBS1997Physical Therapy
    University of Southern CaliforniaPhD2003Biokinesiology
    University of California San DiegoPost-doc2006Orthoapedic Surgery
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Physical Therapy Association1998McMillan Scholar
    University of Southern California2001Jacquelin Perry Research Award
    American Physical Therapy Association2008Eugene Michels New Investigator Award
    American Society of Biomechanics2008Post-Doctoral Scientist Award
    California Physical Therapy Association2009Publication of the Year
    International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine2011Research Prize
    California State University Long Beach2012Distinguished Alumni Award
    University of Southern California2012Distinguished Almuni Award
    American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons2013Kappa Delta Award
    Balgrist Hospital/University of Zurich2016  - 2017Visiting Professor in Residence
    California Physical Therapy Association2016Publication of the Year

    Collapse Overview 

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Promotion of Skeletal Muscle Recovery Using an Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel in a Rabbit Model of Chronic Rotator Cuff Injury
    NIH/NIAMS R21AR072523Mar 7, 2018 - Dec 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Non invasive measurements of muscle microstructure assessed by diffusion tensor imaging
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR070830Aug 11, 2017 - Jul 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Lumbar spine muscle degeneration inhibits rehabilitation-induced muscle recovery
    NIH/NICHD R01HD088437Jul 1, 2017 - Mar 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Physiological Basis of Rotator Cuff Muscle Rehabilitation
    NIH/NICHD R01HD073180May 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regenerative Medicine in Rehabilitation
    NIH/NICHD R13HD074380Jul 15, 2012 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Muscle Structure, Toxin Dose, and Exercise Affect Botulinum Toxin Efficiency
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR057013Jul 1, 2009 - Apr 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    National Center for Muscle Rehabilitation Research
    NIH/NICHD R24HD050837Sep 15, 2005 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Berry DB, Shahidi B, Rodríguez-Soto AE, Hughes-Austin JM, Kelly KR, Ward S. Lumbar Muscle Structure Predicts Operational Postures in Active Duty Marines. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018 May 17; 1-32. PMID: 29772956.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Berry DB, Padwal J, Johnson S, Parra CL, Ward S, Shahidi B. Methodological considerations in region of interest definitions for paraspinal muscles in axial MRIs of the lumbar spine. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 May 07; 19(1):135. PMID: 29734942.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Wetherell JL, Bower ES, Johnson K, Chang DG, Ward S, Petkus AJ. Integrated Exposure Therapy and Exercise Reduces Fear of Falling and Avoidance in Older Adults: A Randomized Pilot Study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018 Apr 12. PMID: 29754811.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Gibbons MC, Fisch KM, Pichika R, Cheng T, Engler AJ, Schenk S, Lane JG, Singh A, Ward S. Heterogeneous muscle gene expression patterns in patients with massive rotator cuff tears. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190439. PMID: 29293645.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Son J, Indresano A, Sheppard K, Ward S, Lieber RL. Intraoperative and biomechanical studies of human vastus lateralis and vastus medialis sarcomere length operating range. J Biomech. 2018 Jan 23; 67:91-97. PMID: 29258751.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Shahidi B, Shah SB, Esparza M, Head BP, Ward S. Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2018 Jan 15; 35(2):398-401. PMID: 28895461.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Berry DB, Regner B, Galinsky V, Ward S, Frank LR. Relationships between tissue microstructure and the diffusion tensor in simulated skeletal muscle. Magn Reson Med. 2018 Jul; 80(1):317-329. PMID: 29090480.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Mukund K, Ward S, Lieber RL, Subramaniam S. Co-expression Network Approach to Studying the Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A. IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2017 Oct 16; 1. PMID: 29053464.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Flippin M, Harris J, Paxton EW, Prentice HA, Fithian DC, Ward S, Gombatto SP. Effect of body mass index on patient outcomes of surgical intervention for the lumbar spine. J Spine Surg. 2017 Sep; 3(3):349-357. PMID: 29057342.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Gibbons MC, Singh A, Engler AJ, Ward S. The role of mechanobiology in progression of rotator cuff muscle atrophy and degeneration. J Orthop Res. 2018 Feb; 36(2):546-556. PMID: 28755470.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Ward S, Minamoto VB, Suzuki KP, Hulst JB, Bremner SN, Lieber RL. Recovery of rat muscle size but not function more than 1 year after a single botulinum toxin injection. Muscle Nerve. 2018 Mar; 57(3):435-441. PMID: 28556093.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Shahidi B, Hubbard JC, Gibbons MC, Ruoss S, Zlomislic V, Allen RT, Garfin SR, Ward S. Lumbar multifidus muscle degenerates in individuals with chronic degenerative lumbar spine pathology. J Orthop Res. 2017 Dec; 35(12):2700-2706. PMID: 28480978.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Shahidi B, Parra CL, Berry DB, Hubbard JC, Gombatto S, Zlomislic V, Allen RT, Hughes-Austin J, Garfin S, Ward S. Contribution of Lumbar Spine Pathology and Age to Paraspinal Muscle Size and Fatty Infiltration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Apr 15; 42(8):616-623. PMID: 27517512.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Berry DB, You S, Warner J, Frank LR, Chen S, Ward S. * A 3D Tissue-Printing Approach for Validation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Skeletal Muscle. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017 Sep; 23(17-18):980-988. PMID: 28338417.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Rodríguez-Soto AE, Berry DB, Palombo L, Valaik E, Kelly KR, Ward S. Effect of Load Magnitude and Distribution on Lumbar Spine Posture in Active-duty Marines. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Mar; 42(5):345-351. PMID: 27310023.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Gibbons MC, Singh A, Anakwenze O, Cheng T, Pomerantz M, Schenk S, Engler AJ, Ward S. Histological Evidence of Muscle Degeneration in Advanced Human Rotator Cuff Disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017 Feb 01; 99(3):190-199. PMID: 28145949.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Berry DB, Rodríguez-Soto AE, Su J, Gombatto SP, Shahidi B, Palombo L, Chung C, Jensen A, Kelly KR, Ward S. Lumbar spine postures in Marines during simulated operational positions. J Orthop Res. 2017 10; 35(10):2145-2153. PMID: 28052435.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Rodriguez-Soto AE, Berry DB, Jaworski R, Jensen A, Chung CB, Niederberger B, Qadir A, Kelly KR, Ward S. The effect of training on lumbar spine posture and intervertebral disc degeneration in active-duty Marines. Ergonomics. 2017 Aug; 60(8):1055-1063. PMID: 27788619.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Thomas KA, Gibbons MC, Lane JG, Singh A, Ward S, Engler AJ. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells. J Orthop Res. 2017 08; 35(8):1816-1823. PMID: 27699827.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Foran I, Vaz K, Sikora-Klak J, Ward S, Hentzen ER, Shah SB. Regional Ulnar Nerve Strain Following Decompression and Anterior Subcutaneous Transposition in Patients With Cubital Tunnel Syndrome. J Hand Surg Am. 2016 Oct; 41(10):e343-e350. PMID: 27527251.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Go SA, Jensen ER, O'Connor SM, Evertz LQ, Morrow DA, Ward S, Lieber RL, Kaufman KR. Design Considerations of a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Protective Housing for Intramuscular Pressure Measurements. Ann Biomed Eng. 2017 03; 45(3):739-746. PMID: 27495350.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Gibbons MC, Sato EJ, Bachasson D, Cheng T, Azimi H, Schenk S, Engler AJ, Singh A, Ward S. Muscle architectural changes after massive human rotator cuff tear. J Orthop Res. 2016 12; 34(12):2089-2095. PMID: 27061583.
      View in: PubMed
    23. O'Connor SM, Cheng EJ, Young KW, Ward S, Lieber RL. Quantification of sarcomere length distribution in whole muscle frozen sections. J Exp Biol. 2016 05 15; 219(Pt 10):1432-6. PMID: 26994184; PMCID: PMC4874561 [Available on 05/15/17].
    24. Meyer GA, Ward S. Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine: Addressing the Vexing Problem of Persistent Muscle Atrophy in the Chronically Torn Human Rotator Cuff. Phys Ther. 2016 May; 96(5):722-33. PMID: 26847008; PMCID: PMC4858662 [Available on 11/01/16].
    25. Wetherell JL, Johnson K, Chang D, Ward S, Bower ES, Merz C, Petkus AJ. Activity, balance, learning, and exposure (ABLE): a new intervention for fear of falling. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016 07; 31(7):791-8. PMID: 26729564.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Thompson WR, Scott A, Loghmani MT, Ward S, Warden SJ. Understanding Mechanobiology: Physical Therapists as a Force in Mechanotherapy and Musculoskeletal Regenerative Rehabilitation. Phys Ther. 2016 Apr; 96(4):560-9. PMID: 26637643; PMCID: PMC4817213 [Available on 10/01/16].
    27. Rana SH, Farjoodi P, Haloman S, Dutton P, Hariri A, Ward S, Garfin SR, Chang DG. Anatomic Evaluation of the Sacroiliac Joint: A Radiographic Study with Implications for Procedures. Pain Physician. 2015 Nov; 18(6):583-92. PMID: 26606010.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Cho Y, Hazen BC, Gandra PG, Ward S, Schenk S, Russell AP, Kralli A. Perm1 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance in adult skeletal muscle. FASEB J. 2016 Feb; 30(2):674-87. PMID: 26481306.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Killian ML, Cavinatto LM, Ward S, Havlioglu N, Thomopoulos S, Galatz LM. Chronic Degeneration Leads to Poor Healing of Repaired Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in Rats. Am J Sports Med. 2015 Oct; 43(10):2401-10. PMID: 26297522; PMCID: PMC4750378 [Available on 10/01/16].
    30. Bachasson D, Singh A, Shah SB, Lane JG, Ward S. The role of the peripheral and central nervous systems in rotator cuff disease. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2015 Aug; 24(8):1322-35. PMID: 26189809; PMCID: PMC4508670.
    31. Berry DB, Rodríguez-Soto AE, Tokunaga JR, Gombatto SP, Ward S. An Endplate-Based Joint Coordinate System for Measuring Kinematics in Normal and Abnormally-Shaped Lumbar Vertebrae. J Appl Biomech. 2015 Dec; 31(6):499-503. PMID: 26157107.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Minamoto VB, Suzuki KP, Bremner SN, Lieber RL, Ward S. Dramatic changes in muscle contractile and structural properties after 2 botulinum toxin injections. Muscle Nerve. 2015 Oct; 52(4):649-57. PMID: 25598004; PMCID: PMC4506897 [Available on 10/01/16].
    33. Meyer GA, Gibbons MC, Sato E, Lane JG, Ward S, Engler AJ. Epimuscular Fat in the Human Rotator Cuff Is a Novel Beige Depot. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015 Jul; 4(7):764-74. PMID: 25999520.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Sato EJ, Killian ML, Choi AJ, Lin E, Choo AD, Rodriguez-Soto AE, Lim CT, Thomopoulos S, Galatz LM, Ward S. Architectural and biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle and bone following rotator cuff injury in a rat model. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 Apr 01; 97(7):565-73. PMID: 25834081; PMCID: PMC4372988.
    35. Meyer GA, Farris AL, Sato E, Gibbons M, Lane JG, Ward S, Engler AJ. Muscle progenitor cell regenerative capacity in the torn rotator cuff. J Orthop Res. 2015 Mar; 33(3):421-9. PMID: 25410765; PMCID: PMC4346515.
    36. Silldorff MD, Choo AD, Choi AJ, Lin E, Carr JA, Lieber RL, Lane JG, Ward S. Effect of supraspinatus tendon injury on supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle passive tension and associated biochemistry. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Oct 15; 96(20):e175. PMID: 25320205; PMCID: PMC4201769.
    37. Mathewson MA, Ward S, Chambers HG, Lieber RL. High resolution muscle measurements provide insights into equinus contractures in patients with cerebral palsy. J Orthop Res. 2015 Jan; 33(1):33-9. PMID: 25242618; PMCID: PMC4343320.
    38. Choo A, McCarthy M, Pichika R, Sato EJ, Lieber RL, Schenk S, Lane JG, Ward S. Muscle gene expression patterns in human rotator cuff pathology. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Sep 17; 96(18):1558-65. PMID: 25232080; PMCID: PMC4159966.
    39. Alperin M, Tuttle LJ, Conner BR, Dixon DM, Mathewson MA, Ward S, Lieber RL. Comparison of pelvic muscle architecture between humans and commonly used laboratory species. Int Urogynecol J. 2014 Nov; 25(11):1507-15. PMID: 24915840; PMCID: PMC4264598.
    40. Swan MA, Sato E, Galatz LM, Thomopoulos S, Ward S. The effect of age on rat rotator cuff muscle architecture. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Dec; 23(12):1786-1791. PMID: 24878035; PMCID: PMC4246025.
    41. Sato EJ, Killian ML, Choi AJ, Lin E, Esparza MC, Galatz LM, Thomopoulos S, Ward S. Skeletal muscle fibrosis and stiffness increase after rotator cuff tendon injury and neuromuscular compromise in a rat model. J Orthop Res. 2014 Sep; 32(9):1111-6. PMID: 24838823; PMCID: PMC4415493.
    42. Mukund K, Mathewson M, Minamoto V, Ward S, Subramaniam S, Lieber RL. Systems analysis of transcriptional data provides insights into muscle's biological response to botulinum toxin. Muscle Nerve. 2014 Nov; 50(5):744-58. PMID: 24536034; PMCID: PMC4136975.
    43. Hulst JB, Minamoto VB, Lim MB, Bremner SN, Ward S, Lieber RL. Systematic test of neurotoxin dose and volume on muscle function in a rat model. Muscle Nerve. 2014 May; 49(5):709-15. PMID: 23929710; PMCID: PMC4565491.
    44. Killian ML, Cavinatto L, Shah SA, Sato EJ, Ward S, Havlioglu N, Galatz LM, Thomopoulos S. The effects of chronic unloading and gap formation on tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of massive rotator cuff tears. J Orthop Res. 2014 Mar; 32(3):439-47. PMID: 24243733; PMCID: PMC3900302.
    45. Cheuy VA, Hastings MK, Commean PK, Ward S, Mueller MJ. Intrinsic foot muscle deterioration is associated with metatarsophalangeal joint angle in people with diabetes and neuropathy. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2013 Nov-Dec; 28(9-10):1055-60. PMID: 24176198; PMCID: PMC3893062.
    46. Mathewson MA, Kwan A, Eng CM, Lieber RL, Ward S. Comparison of rotator cuff muscle architecture between humans and other selected vertebrate species. J Exp Biol. 2014 Jan 15; 217(Pt 2):261-73. PMID: 24072803; PMCID: PMC3898624.
    47. Tuttle LJ, Nguyen OT, Cook MS, Alperin M, Shah SB, Ward S, Lieber RL. Architectural design of the pelvic floor is consistent with muscle functional subspecialization. Int Urogynecol J. 2014 Feb; 25(2):205-12. PMID: 23903821; PMCID: PMC4104205.
    48. Lieber RL, Ward S. Cellular mechanisms of tissue fibrosis. 4. Structural and functional consequences of skeletal muscle fibrosis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013 Aug 01; 305(3):C241-52. PMID: 23761627; PMCID: PMC3742845.
    49. Rodríguez-Soto AE, Jaworski R, Jensen A, Niederberger B, Hargens AR, Frank LR, Kelly KR, Ward S. Effect of load carriage on lumbar spine kinematics. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Jun 01; 38(13):E783-91. PMID: 23524870.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Malhotra N, Madison SJ, Ward S, Mariano ER, Loland VJ, Ilfeld BM. Continuous interscalene nerve block following adhesive capsulitis manipulation. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2013 Mar-Apr; 38(2):171-2. PMID: 23423135; PMCID: PMC3578220.
    51. Charles MD, Haloman S, Chen L, Ward S, Fithian D, Afra R. Magnetic resonance imaging-based topographical differences between control and recurrent patellofemoral instability patients. Am J Sports Med. 2013 Feb; 41(2):374-84. PMID: 23371940.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Tirrell TF, Cook MS, Carr JA, Lin E, Ward S, Lieber RL. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity. J Exp Biol. 2012 Aug 01; 215(Pt 15):2551-9. PMID: 22786631; PMCID: PMC3394665.
    53. Tuttle LJ, Ward S, Lieber RL. Sample size considerations in human muscle architecture studies. Muscle Nerve. 2012 May; 45(5):742-5. PMID: 22499104; PMCID: PMC3335755.
    54. Takahashi M, Ward S, Fridén J, Lieber RL. Muscle excursion does not correlate with increased serial sarcomere number after muscle adaptation to stretched tendon transfer. J Orthop Res. 2012 Nov; 30(11):1774-80. PMID: 22532301; PMCID: PMC3407307.
    55. Wagner FV, Negrão JR, Campos J, Ward S, Haghighi P, Trudell DJ, Resnick D. Capsular ligaments of the hip: anatomic, histologic, and positional study in cadaveric specimens with MR arthrography. Radiology. 2012 Apr; 263(1):189-98. PMID: 22371607.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Lieber R, Ward S, Frank L, Schenk S. New opportunities and novel paradigms to support neuromuscular research. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2012 Feb; 23(1):95-105, xi. PMID: 22239877.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Brown SH, Carr JA, Ward S, Lieber RL. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix. J Orthop Res. 2012 Aug; 30(8):1321-6. PMID: 22267257; PMCID: PMC3337947.
    58. Foran JR, Sheth NP, Ward S, Della Valle CJ, Levine BR, Sporer SM, Paprosky WG. Patient perception of physician reimbursement in elective total hip and knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2012 May; 27(5):703-9. PMID: 22245124.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Derkacs AD, Ward S, Lieber RL. The use of neural networks and texture analysis for rapid objective selection of regions of interest in cytoskeletal images. Microsc Microanal. 2012 Feb; 18(1):115-22. PMID: 22236365.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Regev GJ, Kim CW, Tomiya A, Lee YP, Ghofrani H, Garfin SR, Lieber RL, Ward S. Psoas muscle architectural design, in vivo sarcomere length range, and passive tensile properties support its role as a lumbar spine stabilizer. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Dec 15; 36(26):E1666-74. PMID: 21415810.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Fridén J, Reinholdt C, Gohritz A, Peace WJ, Ward S, Lieber RL. Simultaneous powering of forearm pronation and key pinch in tetraplegia using a single muscle-tendon unit. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2012 May; 37(4):323-8. PMID: 22048805; PMCID: PMC4084926.
    62. Brown SH, Gregory DE, Carr JA, Ward S, Masuda K, Lieber RL. ISSLS prize winner: Adaptations to the multifidus muscle in response to experimentally induced intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Oct 01; 36(21):1728-36. PMID: 21301396.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Thacker BE, Tomiya A, Hulst JB, Suzuki KP, Bremner SN, Gastwirt RF, Greaser ML, Lieber RL, Ward S. Passive mechanical properties and related proteins change with botulinum neurotoxin A injection of normal skeletal muscle. J Orthop Res. 2012 Mar; 30(3):497-502. PMID: 21853457; PMCID: PMC3227753.
    64. Lieber RL, Ward S. Skeletal muscle design to meet functional demands. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 May 27; 366(1570):1466-76. PMID: 21502118; PMCID: PMC3130443.
    65. Smith LR, Lee KS, Ward S, Chambers HG, Lieber RL. Hamstring contractures in children with spastic cerebral palsy result from a stiffer extracellular matrix and increased in vivo sarcomere length. J Physiol. 2011 May 15; 589(Pt 10):2625-39. PMID: 21486759; PMCID: PMC3115830.
    66. Brown SH, Ward S, Cook MS, Lieber RL. Architectural analysis of human abdominal wall muscles: implications for mechanical function. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Mar 01; 36(5):355-62. PMID: 21325932; PMCID: PMC3017737.
    67. Teixeira PA, Omoumi P, Trudell DJ, Ward S, Lecocq S, Blum A, Resnick DL. Ultrasound assessment of the lateral collateral ligamentous complex of the elbow: imaging aspects in cadavers and normal volunteers. Eur Radiol. 2011 Jul; 21(7):1492-8. PMID: 21318472; PMCID: PMC3101344.
    68. Winters TM, Takahashi M, Lieber RL, Ward S. Whole muscle length-tension relationships are accurately modeled as scaled sarcomeres in rabbit hindlimb muscles. J Biomech. 2011 Jan 04; 44(1):109-15. PMID: 20889156; PMCID: PMC3003754.
    69. Gondim Teixeira PA, Omoumi P, Trudell DJ, Ward S, Blum A, Resnick DL. High-resolution ultrasound evaluation of the trapeziometacarpal joint with emphasis on the anterior oblique ligament (beak ligament). Skeletal Radiol. 2011 Jul; 40(7):897-904. PMID: 21120474.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Ward S, Sarver JJ, Eng CM, Kwan A, Würgler-Hauri CC, Perry SM, Williams GR, Soslowsky LJ, Lieber RL. Plasticity of muscle architecture after supraspinatus tears. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Nov; 40(11):729-35. PMID: 20710096; PMCID: PMC4321894.
    71. Fridén J, Shillito MC, Chehab EF, Finneran JJ, Ward S, Lieber RL. Mechanical feasibility of immediate mobilization of the brachioradialis muscle after tendon transfer. J Hand Surg Am. 2010 Sep; 35(9):1473-8. PMID: 20709465; PMCID: PMC2947370.
    72. Brown SH, Banuelos K, Ward S, Lieber RL. Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model. J Anat. 2010 Sep; 217(3):196-202. PMID: 20646108; PMCID: PMC2919595.
    73. Regev GJ, Kim CW, Thacker BE, Tomiya A, Garfin SR, Ward S, Lieber RL. Regional Myosin heavy chain distribution in selected paraspinal muscles. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Jun 01; 35(13):1265-70. PMID: 20461040; PMCID: PMC2947743.
    74. Brown SH, Hentzen ER, Kwan A, Ward S, Fridén J, Lieber RL. Mechanical strength of the side-to-side versus Pulvertaft weave tendon repair. J Hand Surg Am. 2010 Apr; 35(4):540-5. PMID: 20223604; PMCID: PMC2852184.
    75. Takahashi M, Ward S, Marchuk LL, Frank CB, Lieber RL. Asynchronous muscle and tendon adaptation after surgical tensioning procedures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Mar; 92(3):664-74. PMID: 20194325; PMCID: PMC2827824.
    76. Ward S, Winters TM, Blemker SS. The architectural design of the gluteal muscle group: implications for movement and rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Feb; 40(2):95-102. PMID: 20118527.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Meyer GA, Kiss B, Ward S, Morgan DL, Kellermayer MS, Lieber RL. Theoretical predictions of the effects of force transmission by desmin on intersarcomere dynamics. Biophys J. 2010 Jan 20; 98(2):258-66. PMID: 20338847; PMCID: PMC2808486.
    78. Arnold EM, Ward S, Lieber RL, Delp SL. A model of the lower limb for analysis of human movement. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010 Feb; 38(2):269-79. PMID: 19957039; PMCID: PMC2903973.
    79. Eng CM, Ward S, Vinyard CJ, Taylor AB. The morphology of the masticatory apparatus facilitates muscle force production at wide jaw gapes in tree-gouging common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). J Exp Biol. 2009 Dec; 212(Pt 24):4040-55. PMID: 19946083; PMCID: PMC4075048.
    80. Smith LR, Pontén E, Hedström Y, Ward S, Chambers HG, Subramaniam S, Lieber RL. Novel transcriptional profile in wrist muscles from cerebral palsy patients. BMC Med Genomics. 2009 Jul 14; 2:44. PMID: 19602279; PMCID: PMC2722667.
    81. Winters TM, Sepulveda GS, Cottler PS, Kaufman KR, Lieber RL, Ward S. Correlation between isometric force and intramuscular pressure in rabbit tibialis anterior muscle with an intact anterior compartment. Muscle Nerve. 2009 Jul; 40(1):79-85. PMID: 19533654; PMCID: PMC2713015.
    82. Ward S, Tomiya A, Regev GJ, Thacker BE, Benzl RC, Kim CW, Lieber RL. Passive mechanical properties of the lumbar multifidus muscle support its role as a stabilizer. J Biomech. 2009 Jul 22; 42(10):1384-9. PMID: 19457491; PMCID: PMC2752430.
    83. Ward S, Kim CW, Eng CM, Gottschalk LJ, Tomiya A, Garfin SR, Lieber RL. Architectural analysis and intraoperative measurements demonstrate the unique design of the multifidus muscle for lumbar spine stability. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Jan; 91(1):176-85. PMID: 19122093; PMCID: PMC2663324.
    84. Ward S, Takahashi M, Winters TM, Kwan A, Lieber RL. A novel muscle biopsy clamp yields accurate in vivo sarcomere length values. J Biomech. 2009 Jan 19; 42(2):193-6. PMID: 19036376; PMCID: PMC2674293.
    85. Ward S, Eng CM, Smallwood LH, Lieber RL. Are current measurements of lower extremity muscle architecture accurate? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 Apr; 467(4):1074-82. PMID: 18972175; PMCID: PMC2650051.
    86. Eng CM, Smallwood LH, Rainiero MP, Lahey M, Ward S, Lieber RL. Scaling of muscle architecture and fiber types in the rat hindlimb. J Exp Biol. 2008 Jul; 211(Pt 14):2336-45. PMID: 18587128.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Gokhin DS, Ward S, Bremner SN, Lieber RL. Quantitative analysis of neonatal skeletal muscle functional improvement in the mouse. J Exp Biol. 2008 Mar; 211(Pt 6):837-43. PMID: 18310108.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Ward S, Jones RE, Long WT, Thomas DJ, Dorr LD. Functional recovery of muscles after minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect. 2008; 57:249-54. PMID: 18399587.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Minamoto VB, Hulst JB, Lim M, Peace WJ, Bremner SN, Ward S, Lieber RL. Increased efficacy and decreased systemic-effects of botulinum toxin A injection after active or passive muscle manipulation. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007 Dec; 49(12):907-14. PMID: 18039237.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Ward S, Davis J, Kaufman KR, Lieber RL. Relationship between muscle stress and intramuscular pressure during dynamic muscle contractions. Muscle Nerve. 2007 Sep; 36(3):313-9. PMID: 17554796.
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    91. Ward S, Terk MR, Powers CM. Patella alta: association with patellofemoral alignment and changes in contact area during weight-bearing. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Aug; 89(8):1749-55. PMID: 17671014.
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    92. Eng CM, Abrams GD, Smallwood LR, Lieber RL, Ward S. Muscle geometry affects accuracy of forearm volume determination by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Biomech. 2007; 40(14):3261-6. PMID: 17521657; PMCID: PMC2083633.
    93. Takahashi M, Ward S, Lieber RL. Intraoperative single-site sarcomere length measurement accurately reflects whole-muscle sarcomere length in the rabbit. J Hand Surg Am. 2007 May-Jun; 32(5):612-7. PMID: 17481997.
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    94. Boakes JL, Foran J, Ward S, Lieber RL. Muscle adaptation by serial sarcomere addition 1 year after femoral lengthening. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Mar; 456:250-3. PMID: 17065842.
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    95. Ota S, Ward S, Chen YJ, Tsai YJ, Powers CM. Concurrent criterion-related validity and reliability of a clinical device used to assess lateral patellar displacement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006 Sep; 36(9):645-52. PMID: 17017269.
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    96. Fridén J, Ward S, Smallwood L, Lieber RL. Passive muscle-tendon amplitude may not reflect skeletal muscle functional excursion. J Hand Surg Am. 2006 Sep; 31(7):1105-10. PMID: 16945711.
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    97. Ward S, Loren GJ, Lundberg S, Lieber RL. High stiffness of human digital flexor tendons is suited for precise finger positional control. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Nov; 96(5):2815-8. PMID: 16870841.
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    98. Ward S, Hentzen ER, Smallwood LH, Eastlack RK, Burns KA, Fithian DC, Friden J, Lieber RL. Rotator cuff muscle architecture: implications for glenohumeral stability. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006 Jul; 448:157-63. PMID: 16826111.
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    99. Ward S, Peace WJ, Fridén J, Lieber RL. Dorsal transfer of the brachioradialis to the flexor pollicis longus enables simultaneous powering of key pinch and forearm pronation. J Hand Surg Am. 2006 Jul-Aug; 31(6):993-7. PMID: 16843162.
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    100. Long WT, Ward S, Dorr LD, Raya J, Boutary M, Sirianni LE. Postoperative pain management following total knee arthroplasty: a randomized comparison of continuous epidural versus femoral nerve infusion. J Knee Surg. 2006 Apr; 19(2):137-43. PMID: 16642893.
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    101. Felder A, Ward S, Lieber RL. Sarcomere length measurement permits high resolution normalization of muscle fiber length in architectural studies. J Exp Biol. 2005 Sep; 208(Pt 17):3275-9. PMID: 16109889.
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    102. Abrams GD, Ward S, Fridén J, Lieber RL. Pronator teres is an appropriate donor muscle for restoration of wrist and thumb extension. J Hand Surg Am. 2005 Sep; 30(5):1068-73. PMID: 16182069.
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    103. Ward S, Terk MR, Powers CM. Influence of patella alta on knee extensor mechanics. J Biomech. 2005 Dec; 38(12):2415-22. PMID: 16214489.
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    104. Ward S, Lieber RL. Density and hydration of fresh and fixed human skeletal muscle. J Biomech. 2005 Nov; 38(11):2317-20. PMID: 16154420.
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    105. Ward S, Powers CM. The influence of patella alta on patellofemoral joint stress during normal and fast walking. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2004 Dec; 19(10):1040-7. PMID: 15531054.
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    106. Powers CM, Ward S, Chen YJ, Chan LD, Terk MR. Effect of bracing on patellofemoral joint stress while ascending and descending stairs. Clin J Sport Med. 2004 Jul; 14(4):206-14. PMID: 15273526.
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    107. Powers CM, Ward S, Chan LD, Chen YJ, Terk MR. The effect of bracing on patella alignment and patellofemoral joint contact area. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Jul; 36(7):1226-32. PMID: 15235330.
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    108. Powers CM, Ward S, Chen YJ, Chan LD, Terk MR. The effect of bracing on patellofemoral joint stress during free and fast walking. Am J Sports Med. 2004 Jan-Feb; 32(1):224-31. PMID: 14754748.
      View in: PubMed
    109. Salsich GB, Ward S, Terk MR, Powers CM. In vivo assessment of patellofemoral joint contact area in individuals who are pain free. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003 Dec; (417):277-84. PMID: 14646727.
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    110. Heino Brechter J, Powers CM, Terk MR, Ward S, Lee TQ. Quantification of patellofemoral joint contact area using magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Imaging. 2003 Nov; 21(9):955-9. PMID: 14684196.
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    111. Powers CM, Ward S, Fredericson M, Guillet M, Shellock FG. Patellofemoral kinematics during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing knee extension in persons with lateral subluxation of the patella: a preliminary study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003 Nov; 33(11):677-85. PMID: 14669963.
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    112. Ward S, Shellock FG, Terk MR, Salsich GB, Powers CM. Assessment of patellofemoral relationships using kinematic MRI: comparison between qualitative and quantitative methods. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2002 Jul; 16(1):69-74. PMID: 12112505.
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