Manuela Raffatellu

Title(s)Professor, Pediatrics
SchoolHealth Sciences
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, Davis, Davis, CA09/2008Microbial pathogenesis
    Texas A&M University, College Station/Texas03/2005Microbial Pathogenesis
    University of Sassari, ItalyM.D.01/2000Medicine

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    C3-Dependent Intracellular Killing in Innate Immunity and Bacterial Pathogenesis
    NIH/NIAID R01AI145325Mar 5, 2019 - Feb 29, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Siderophore-based antibiotics: consequences for the microbiota and bacterial pathogens
    NIH/NIAID R21AI126465Jun 10, 2016 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Nutritional immunity during Salmonella infection
    NIH/NIAID R01AI126277May 15, 2016 - Apr 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The new chemokine CCL28 and its role during Salmonella infection
    NIH/NIAID R21AI121928Jan 1, 2016 - Dec 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of siderophore-based vaccines against non-typhoidal Salmonella infection
    NIH/NIAID R01AI114625Jun 1, 2015 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Targeting iron acquisition in Salmonella with siderophore-based immunization
    NIH/NIAID R21AI101784Jul 1, 2014 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The role of the circadian clock during Salmonella infection
    NIH/NIAID R21AI105374Dec 1, 2013 - Nov 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mucosal barrier function during Salmonella infection
    NIH/NIAID R01AI083663Jan 15, 2010 - Dec 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Metal withholding responses in the gut mucosa
    NIH/NIAID R21AI083619Jul 5, 2009 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Perez-Lopez A, Nuccio SP, Ushach I, Edwards RA, Pahu R, Silva S, Zlotnik A, Raffatellu M. CRTAM Shapes the Gut Microbiota and Enhances the Severity of Infection. J Immunol. 2019 May 29. PMID: 31142601.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Burkhardt AM, Perez-Lopez A, Ushach I, Catalan-Dibene J, Nuccio SP, Chung LK, Hernandez-Ruiz M, Carnevale C, Raffatellu M, Zlotnik A. CCL28 Is Involved in Mucosal IgA Responses, Olfaction, and Resistance to Enteric Infections. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2019 Apr; 39(4):214-223. PMID: 30855201.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Chung LK, Raffatellu M. Probiotic fengycins dis(Agr)ee with Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Cell Res. 2019 Feb; 29(2):93-94. PMID: 30607015.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Seif Y, Kavvas E, Lachance JC, Yurkovich JT, Nuccio SP, Fang X, Catoiu E, Raffatellu M, Palsson BO, Monk JM. Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of multiple Salmonella strains reveal serovar-specific metabolic traits. Nat Commun. 2018 09 14; 9(1):3771. PMID: 30218022.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Raffatellu M. Learning from bacterial competition in the host to develop antimicrobials. Nat Med. 2018 Aug; 24(8):1097-1103. PMID: 30082869.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Lapek JD, Mills RH, Wozniak JM, Campeau A, Fang RH, Wei X, van de Groep K, Perez-Lopez A, van Sorge NM, Raffatellu M, Knight R, Zhang L, Gonzalez DJ. Defining Host Responses during Systemic Bacterial Infection through Construction of a Murine Organ Proteome Atlas. Cell Syst. 2018 May 23; 6(5):579-592.e4. PMID: 29778837.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Gerner RR, Raffatellu M. A Worm's Gut Feelings: Neuronal Muscarinic and Epithelial Canonical Wnt Pathways Promote Antimicrobial Defense. Immunity. 2018 05 15; 48(5):839-841. PMID: 29768168.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Neumann W, Sassone-Corsi M, Raffatellu M, Nolan EM. Esterase-Catalyzed Siderophore Hydrolysis Activates an Enterobactin-Ciprofloxacin Conjugate and Confers Targeted Antibacterial Activity. J Am Chem Soc. 2018 04 18; 140(15):5193-5201. PMID: 29578687.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Hiyoshi H, Wangdi T, Lock G, Saechao C, Raffatellu M, Cobb BA, Bäumler AJ. Mechanisms to Evade the Phagocyte Respiratory Burst Arose by Convergent Evolution in Typhoidal Salmonella Serovars. Cell Rep. 2018 02 13; 22(7):1787-1797. PMID: 29444431.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Chung LK, Raffatellu M. G.I. pros: Antimicrobial defense in the gastrointestinal tract. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2019 Apr; 88:129-137. PMID: 29432952.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Catalan-Dibene J, Vazquez MI, Luu VP, Nuccio SP, Karimzadeh A, Kastenschmidt JM, Villalta SA, Ushach I, Pone EJ, Casali P, Raffatellu M, Burkhardt AM, Hernandez-Ruiz M, Heller G, Hevezi PA, Zlotnik A. Identification of IL-40, a Novel B Cell-Associated Cytokine. J Immunol. 2017 11 01; 199(9):3326-3335. PMID: 28978694.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Li S, Vinci A, Behnsen J, Cheng C, Jellbauer S, Raffatellu M, Sousa KM, Edwards R, Nguyen NT, Stamos MJ, Pigazzi A. Bariatric surgery attenuates colitis in an obese murine model. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2017 Apr; 13(4):661-668. PMID: 28185763.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Valeri M, Raffatellu M. Cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 in the host response to infection. Pathog Dis. 2016 12; 74(9). PMID: 27915228.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Behnsen J, Raffatellu M. Siderophores: More than Stealing Iron. MBio. 2016 11 15; 7(6). PMID: 27935843.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Sassone-Corsi M, Chairatana P, Zheng T, Perez-Lopez A, Edwards RA, George MD, Nolan EM, Raffatellu M. Siderophore-based immunization strategy to inhibit growth of enteric pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 11 22; 113(47):13462-13467. PMID: 27821741.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Sassone-Corsi M, Nuccio SP, Liu H, Hernandez D, Vu CT, Takahashi AA, Edwards RA, Raffatellu M. Microcins mediate competition among Enterobacteriaceae in the inflamed gut. Nature. 2016 12 08; 540(7632):280-283. PMID: 27798599.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Jellbauer S, Perez Lopez A, Behnsen J, Gao N, Nguyen T, Murphy C, Edwards RA, Raffatellu M. Beneficial Effects of Sodium Phenylbutyrate Administration during Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Infect Immun. 2016 09; 84(9):2639-52. PMID: 27382022; PMCID: PMC4995890 [Available on 02/19/17].
    18. Sassone-Corsi M, Raffatellu M. Close encounters of the type-six kind: injected bacterial toxins modulate gut microbial composition. EMBO Rep. 2016 09; 17(9):1242-4. PMID: 27506890; PMCID: PMC5007567 [Available on 09/01/17].
    19. Diaz-Ochoa VE, Lam D, Lee CS, Klaus S, Behnsen J, Liu JZ, Chim N, Nuccio SP, Rathi SG, Mastroianni JR, Edwards RA, Jacobo CM, Cerasi M, Battistoni A, Ouellette AJ, Goulding CW, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Raffatellu M. Salmonella Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Thrives in the Inflamed Gut by Evading Calprotectin-Mediated Manganese Sequestration. Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Jun 08; 19(6):814-25. PMID: 27281571; PMCID: PMC4901528 [Available on 06/08/17].
    20. Perez-Lopez A, Behnsen J, Nuccio SP, Raffatellu M. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Mar; 16(3):135-48. PMID: 26898110.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Glavan TW, Gaulke CA, Santos Rocha C, Sankaran-Walters S, Hirao LA, Raffatellu M, Jiang G, Bäumler AJ, Goulart LR, Dandekar S. Gut immune dysfunction through impaired innate pattern recognition receptor expression and gut microbiota dysbiosis in chronic SIV infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2016 05; 9(3):677-88. PMID: 26376368.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Skaar EP, Raffatellu M. Metals in infectious diseases and nutritional immunity. Metallomics. 2015 Jun; 7(6):926-8. PMID: 26017093.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Ghosal A, Jellbauer S, Kapadia R, Raffatellu M, Said HM. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Jul 15; 309(2):G123-31. PMID: 25999427; PMCID: PMC4504957.
    24. Sassone-Corsi M, Raffatellu M. No vacancy: how beneficial microbes cooperate with immunity to provide colonization resistance to pathogens. J Immunol. 2015 May 01; 194(9):4081-7. PMID: 25888704; PMCID: PMC4402713.
    25. Behnsen J, Perez-Lopez A, Nuccio SP, Raffatellu M. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm. Trends Immunol. 2015 Feb; 36(2):112-20. PMID: 25582038; PMCID: PMC4323876.
    26. Limon JJ, So L, Jellbauer S, Chiu H, Corado J, Sykes SM, Raffatellu M, Fruman DA. mTOR kinase inhibitors promote antibody class switching via mTORC2 inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 25; 111(47):E5076-85. PMID: 25385646; PMCID: PMC4250172.
    27. Kortman GA, Raffatellu M, Swinkels DW, Tjalsma H. Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial perspective. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2014 Nov; 38(6):1202-34. PMID: 25205464.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Cerasi M, Liu JZ, Ammendola S, Poe AJ, Petrarca P, Pesciaroli M, Pasquali P, Raffatellu M, Battistoni A. The ZupT transporter plays an important role in zinc homeostasis and contributes to Salmonella enterica virulence. Metallomics. 2014 Apr; 6(4):845-53. PMID: 24430377; PMCID: PMC3969385.
    29. Im SS, Young SG, Raffatellu M, Osborne TF. Response to Gerlic et al. Cell Metab. 2014 Mar 04; 19(3):346-7. PMID: 24606892.
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    30. Behnsen J, Jellbauer S, Wong CP, Edwards RA, George MD, Ouyang W, Raffatellu M. The cytokine IL-22 promotes pathogen colonization by suppressing related commensal bacteria. Immunity. 2014 Feb 20; 40(2):262-73. PMID: 24508234; PMCID: PMC3964146.
    31. Diaz-Ochoa VE, Jellbauer S, Klaus S, Raffatellu M. Transition metal ions at the crossroads of mucosal immunity and microbial pathogenesis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2014; 4:2. PMID: 24478990; PMCID: PMC3900919.
    32. Sassone-Corsi M, Raffatellu M. A hydrogen boost for salmonella. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Dec 11; 14(6):603-4. PMID: 24331457.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Jellbauer S, Raffatellu M. An intestinal arsonist: pathobiont ignites IBD and flees the scene. Gut. 2014 Jul; 63(7):1034-5. PMID: 24026350.
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    34. Behnsen J, Raffatellu M. Keeping the peace: aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling modulates the mucosal microbiota. Immunity. 2013 Aug 22; 39(2):206-7. PMID: 23973218.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Deriu E, Liu JZ, Pezeshki M, Edwards RA, Ochoa RJ, Contreras H, Libby SJ, Fang FC, Raffatellu M. Probiotic bacteria reduce salmonella typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for iron. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Jul 17; 14(1):26-37. PMID: 23870311; PMCID: PMC3752295.
    36. Gradassi M, Pesciaroli M, Martinelli N, Ruggeri J, Petrucci P, Hassan WH, Raffatellu M, Scaglione FE, Ammendola S, Battistoni A, Alborali GL, Pasquali P. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking the ZnuABC transporter: an efficacious orally-administered mucosal vaccine against salmonellosis in pigs. Vaccine. 2013 Aug 12; 31(36):3695-701. PMID: 23770333; PMCID: PMC3880306.
    37. Bellet MM, Deriu E, Liu JZ, Grimaldi B, Blaschitz C, Zeller M, Edwards RA, Sahar S, Dandekar S, Baldi P, George MD, Raffatellu M, Sassone-Corsi P. Circadian clock regulates the host response to Salmonella. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 11; 110(24):9897-902. PMID: 23716692; PMCID: PMC3683799.
    38. Pesciaroli M, Gradassi M, Martinelli N, Ruggeri J, Pistoia C, Raffatellu M, Magistrali CF, Battistoni A, Pasquali P, Alborali GL. Salmonella Typhimurium lacking the Znuabc transporter is attenuated and immunogenic in pigs. Vaccine. 2013 Jun 12; 31(27):2868-73. PMID: 23623860; PMCID: PMC3874890.
    39. Behnsen J, Deriu E, Sassone-Corsi M, Raffatellu M. Probiotics: properties, examples, and specific applications. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013 Mar 01; 3(3):a010074. PMID: 23457295; PMCID: PMC3579206.
    40. Vaziri ND, Goshtasbi N, Yuan J, Jellbauer S, Moradi H, Raffatellu M, Kalantar-Zadeh K. Uremic plasma impairs barrier function and depletes the tight junction protein constituents of intestinal epithelium. Am J Nephrol. 2012; 36(5):438-43. PMID: 23128155; PMCID: PMC3725306.
    41. Liu JZ, Jellbauer S, Poe AJ, Ton V, Pesciaroli M, Kehl-Fie TE, Restrepo NA, Hosking MP, Edwards RA, Battistoni A, Pasquali P, Lane TE, Chazin WJ, Vogl T, Roth J, Skaar EP, Raffatellu M. Zinc sequestration by the neutrophil protein calprotectin enhances Salmonella growth in the inflamed gut. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Mar 15; 11(3):227-39. PMID: 22423963; PMCID: PMC3308348.
    42. Im SS, Yousef L, Blaschitz C, Liu JZ, Edwards RA, Young SG, Raffatellu M, Osborne TF. Linking lipid metabolism to the innate immune response in macrophages through sterol regulatory element binding protein-1a. Cell Metab. 2011 May 04; 13(5):540-9. PMID: 21531336; PMCID: PMC3090630.
    43. Santos RL, Almeida AP, Xavier MN, Paixão TA, Wilson RP, Dandekar S, Raffatellu M, Bäumler AJ. Enteric pathology and Salmonella-induced cell death in healthy and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Vet Pathol. 2011 Sep; 48(5):933-41. PMID: 21041540.
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    44. Blaschitz C, Raffatellu M. Th17 cytokines and the gut mucosal barrier. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Mar; 30(2):196-203. PMID: 20127275; PMCID: PMC2842875.
    45. Raffatellu M, Bäumler AJ. Salmonella's iron armor for battling the host and its microbiota. Gut Microbes. 2010 Jan; 1(1):70-72. PMID: 21327120.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Tran QT, Gomez G, Khare S, Lawhon SD, Raffatellu M, Bäumler AJ, Ajithdoss D, Dhavala S, Adams LG. The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi Vi capsular antigen is expressed after the bacterium enters the ileal mucosa. Infect Immun. 2010 Jan; 78(1):527-35. PMID: 19901065; PMCID: PMC2798196.
    47. Santos RL, Raffatellu M, Bevins CL, Adams LG, Tükel C, Tsolis RM, Bäumler AJ. Life in the inflamed intestine, Salmonella style. Trends Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 17(11):498-506. PMID: 19819699; PMCID: PMC3235402.
    48. Liu JZ, Pezeshki M, Raffatellu M. Th17 cytokines and host-pathogen interactions at the mucosa: dichotomies of help and harm. Cytokine. 2009 Oct-Nov; 48(1-2):156-60. PMID: 19665391; PMCID: PMC2836905.
    49. Figueiredo JF, Barhoumi R, Raffatellu M, Lawhon SD, Rousseau B, Burghardt RC, Tsolis RM, Bäumler AJ, Adams LG. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-induced internalization and IL-8 expression in HeLa cells does not have a direct relationship with intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Microbes Infect. 2009 Sep; 11(10-11):850-8. PMID: 19450704; PMCID: PMC2742474.
    50. Raffatellu M, George MD, Akiyama Y, Hornsby MJ, Nuccio SP, Paixao TA, Butler BP, Chu H, Santos RL, Berger T, Mak TW, Tsolis RM, Bevins CL, Solnick JV, Dandekar S, Bäumler AJ. Lipocalin-2 resistance confers an advantage to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium for growth and survival in the inflamed intestine. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May 08; 5(5):476-86. PMID: 19454351; PMCID: PMC2768556.
    51. Figueiredo JF, Lawhon SD, Gokulan K, Khare S, Raffatellu M, Tsolis RM, Bäumler AJ, McCormick BA, Adams LG. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SipA induces CXC-chemokine expression through p38MAPK and JUN pathways. Microbes Infect. 2009 Feb; 11(2):302-10. PMID: 19114119.
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    52. Godinez I, Raffatellu M, Chu H, Paixão TA, Haneda T, Santos RL, Bevins CL, Tsolis RM, Bäumler AJ. Interleukin-23 orchestrates mucosal responses to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the intestine. Infect Immun. 2009 Jan; 77(1):387-98. PMID: 18955477; PMCID: PMC2612270.
    53. Raffatellu M, Wilson RP, Winter SE, Bäumler AJ. Clinical pathogenesis of typhoid fever. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008 Aug 30; 2(4):260-6. PMID: 19741286.
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    54. Raffatellu M, Santos RL, Verhoeven DE, George MD, Wilson RP, Winter SE, Godinez I, Sankaran S, Paixao TA, Gordon MA, Kolls JK, Dandekar S, Bäumler AJ. Simian immunodeficiency virus-induced mucosal interleukin-17 deficiency promotes Salmonella dissemination from the gut. Nat Med. 2008 Apr; 14(4):421-8. PMID: 18376406.
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    55. Godinez I, Haneda T, Raffatellu M, George MD, Paixão TA, Rolán HG, Santos RL, Dandekar S, Tsolis RM, Bäumler AJ. T cells help to amplify inflammatory responses induced by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the intestinal mucosa. Infect Immun. 2008 May; 76(5):2008-17. PMID: 18347048; PMCID: PMC2346712.
    56. Winter SE, Raffatellu M, Wilson RP, Rüssmann H, Bäumler AJ. The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi regulator TviA reduces interleukin-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells by repressing flagellin secretion. Cell Microbiol. 2008 Jan; 10(1):247-61. PMID: 17725646.
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    57. Wilson RP, Raffatellu M, Chessa D, Winter SE, Tükel C, Bäumler AJ. The Vi-capsule prevents Toll-like receptor 4 recognition of Salmonella. Cell Microbiol. 2008 Apr; 10(4):876-90. PMID: 18034866.
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    58. Raffatellu M, Santos RL, Chessa D, Wilson RP, Winter SE, Rossetti CA, Lawhon SD, Chu H, Lau T, Bevins CL, Adams LG, Bäumler AJ. The capsule encoding the viaB locus reduces interleukin-17 expression and mucosal innate responses in the bovine intestinal mucosa during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Infect Immun. 2007 Sep; 75(9):4342-50. PMID: 17591794; PMCID: PMC1951168.
    59. Nuccio SP, Chessa D, Weening EH, Raffatellu M, Clegg S, Bäumler AJ. SIMPLE approach for isolating mutants expressing fimbriae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jul; 73(14):4455-62. PMID: 17526787; PMCID: PMC1932825.
    60. Tükel C, Raffatellu M, Chessa D, Wilson RP, Akçelik M, Bäumler AJ. Neutrophil influx during non-typhoidal salmonellosis: who is in the driver's seat? FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006 Apr; 46(3):320-9. PMID: 16553804.
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    61. Raffatellu M, Chessa D, Wilson RP, Tükel C, Akçelik M, Bäumler AJ. Capsule-mediated immune evasion: a new hypothesis explaining aspects of typhoid fever pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2006 Jan; 74(1):19-27. PMID: 16368953; PMCID: PMC1346610.
    62. Raffatellu M, Sun YH, Wilson RP, Tran QT, Chessa D, Andrews-Polymenis HL, Lawhon SD, Figueiredo JF, Tsolis RM, Adams LG, Bäumler AJ. Host restriction of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is not caused by functional alteration of SipA, SopB, or SopD. Infect Immun. 2005 Dec; 73(12):7817-26. PMID: 16299271; PMCID: PMC1307101.
    63. Tükel C, Raffatellu M, Humphries AD, Wilson RP, Andrews-Polymenis HL, Gull T, Figueiredo JF, Wong MH, Michelsen KS, Akçelik M, Adams LG, Bäumler AJ. CsgA is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium that is recognized by Toll-like receptor 2. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Oct; 58(1):289-304. PMID: 16164566.
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    64. Raffatellu M, Chessa D, Wilson RP, Dusold R, Rubino S, Bäumler AJ. The Vi capsular antigen of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi reduces Toll-like receptor-dependent interleukin-8 expression in the intestinal mucosa. Infect Immun. 2005 Jun; 73(6):3367-74. PMID: 15908363; PMCID: PMC1111811.
    65. Raffatellu M, Wilson RP, Chessa D, Andrews-Polymenis H, Tran QT, Lawhon S, Khare S, Adams LG, Bäumler AJ. SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD, and SopE2 contribute to Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium invasion of epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2005 Jan; 73(1):146-54. PMID: 15618149; PMCID: PMC538951.
    66. Humphries AD, Raffatellu M, Winter S, Weening EH, Kingsley RA, Droleskey R, Zhang S, Figueiredo J, Khare S, Nunes J, Adams LG, Tsolis RM, Bäumler AJ. The use of flow cytometry to detect expression of subunits encoded by 11 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium fimbrial operons. Mol Microbiol. 2003 Jun; 48(5):1357-76. PMID: 12787362.
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    67. Zhang S, Kingsley RA, Santos RL, Andrews-Polymenis H, Raffatellu M, Figueiredo J, Nunes J, Tsolis RM, Adams LG, Bäumler AJ. Molecular pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium-induced diarrhea. Infect Immun. 2003 Jan; 71(1):1-12. PMID: 12496143; PMCID: PMC143292.
    68. Nikbakht GH, Raffatellu M, Uzzau S, Tadjbakhsh H, Rubino S. IS200 fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica serotype Abortusovis strains isolated in Iran. Epidemiol Infect. 2002 Apr; 128(2):333-6. PMID: 12002552; PMCID: PMC2869827.