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Adam Engler

Title(s)Professor, Bioengineering
SchoolAcademic Aff
Phone858-246-0678
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Mechanogenetics: An Integrated Approach in Muscle Dysfunction
    NIH/NIA 2R01AG045428Sep 30, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Collaborative Research: Heterogeneous Cancer Cell Mechanics Differentially Drives Mechanosensing and Migration
    NSF 1763139Sep 15, 2018 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Interprofessional Design and Entrepreneurship in Medical Devices at UC San Diego
    NIH/NIBIB R25EB023839Jun 5, 2018 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Developing Adhesome Technology as a Physical Marker of Highly Metastatic Cells
    NIH/NCI R21CA217735May 1, 2018 - Apr 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biomaterial Mimicry of Dynamic Matrix Stiffening During Tumor Progression
    NIH/NCI R01CA206880Jul 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    REU Site: Engineered Materials for Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery
    NSF 1559781Apr 1, 2016 - Mar 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Strain-Activated Signaling within Cell Adhesions Dictates Cell Fate
    NSF 1463689Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanogenetics: An Integrated Approach to Aging in Muscle Dysfunction
    NIH/NIA R01AG045428Aug 1, 2013 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Stem Cells and Dynamic Materials Improve Cardiac Function Post-mycardial Infarcti
    NIH/NHLBI R21HL106529Jul 15, 2011 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Improving Endoderm Specification with Hybrid Materials and Growth Factors
    NIH/NIBIB R21EB011727May 1, 2010 - Apr 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    "Smart" Materials to Engineer a More Complete Stem Cell Niche
    NIH DP2OD006460Sep 30, 2009 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Wong L, Kumar A, Gabela-Zuniga B, Chua J, Singh G, Happe CL, Engler AJ, Fan Y, McCloskey KE. Substrate stiffness directs diverging vascular fates. Acta Biomater. 2019 Sep 15; 96:321-329. PMID: 31326665.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Velez DO, Ranamukhaarachchi SK, Kumar A, Modi RN, Lim EW, Engler AJ, Metallo CM, Fraley SI. 3D collagen architecture regulates cell adhesion through degradability, thereby controlling metabolic and oxidative stress. Integr Biol (Camb). 2019 05 01; 11(5):221-234. PMID: 31251330.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Teng EL, Engler AJ. Mechanical influences on cardiovascular differentiation and disease modeling. Exp Cell Res. 2019 Apr 15; 377(1-2):103-108. PMID: 30794804.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Ondeck MG, Kumar A, Placone JK, Plunkett CM, Matte BF, Wong KC, Fattet L, Yang J, Engler AJ. Dynamically stiffened matrix promotes malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells via collective mechanical signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 02 26; 116(9):3502-3507. PMID: 30755531.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Deacon DC, Happe CL, Chen C, Tedeschi N, Manso AM, Li T, Dalton ND, Peng Q, Farah EN, Gu Y, Tenerelli KP, Tran VD, Chen J, Peterson KL, Schork NJ, Adler ED, Engler AJ, Ross RS, Chi NC. Combinatorial interactions of genetic variants in human cardiomyopathy. Nat Biomed Eng. 2019 Feb; 3(2):147-157. PMID: 30923642.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Kumar A, Thomas SK, Wong KC, Lo Sardo V, Cheah DS, Hou YH, Placone JK, Tenerelli KP, Ferguson WC, Torkamani A, Topol EJ, Baldwin KK, Engler AJ. Mechanical activation of noncoding-RNA-mediated regulation of disease-associated phenotypes in human cardiomyocytes. Nat Biomed Eng. 2019 Feb; 3(2):137-146. PMID: 30911429.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Matte BF, Kumar A, Placone JK, Zanella VG, Martins MD, Engler AJ, Lamers ML. Matrix stiffness mechanically conditions EMT and migratory behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Cell Sci. 2019 01 09; 132(1). PMID: 30559248.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Pellequer JL, Parot P, Navajas D, Kumar S, Svetlicic V, Scheuring S, Hu J, Li B, Engler A, Sousa S, Lekka M, Szymonski M, Schillers H, Odorico M, Lafont F, Janel S, Rico F. Fifteen years of Servitude et Grandeur to the application of a biophysical technique in medicine: The tale of AFMBioMed. J Mol Recognit. 2019 Mar; 32(3):e2773. PMID: 30565321.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Lo Sardo V, Chubukov P, Ferguson W, Kumar A, Teng EL, Duran M, Zhang L, Cost G, Engler AJ, Urnov F, Topol EJ, Torkamani A, Baldwin KK. Unveiling the Role of the Most Impactful Cardiovascular Risk Locus through Haplotype Editing. Cell. 2018 12 13; 175(7):1796-1810.e20. PMID: 30528432.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Engler AJ, Discher DE. Rationally engineered advances in cancer research. APL Bioeng. 2018 Sep; 2(3):031601. PMID: 31069310.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Beri P, Matte BF, Fattet L, Kim D, Yang J, Engler AJ. Biomaterials to model and measure epithelial cancers. Nat Rev Mater. 2018 Nov; 3(11):418-430. PMID: 30416759.
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    12. Meng Z, Qiu Y, Lin KC, Kumar A, Placone JK, Fang C, Wang KC, Lu S, Pan M, Hong AW, Moroishi T, Luo M, Plouffe SW, Diao Y, Ye Z, Park HW, Wang X, Yu FX, Chien S, Wang CY, Ren B, Engler AJ, Guan KL. RAP2 mediates mechanoresponses of the Hippo pathway. Nature. 2018 08; 560(7720):655-660. PMID: 30135582.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Sessions AO, Min P, Cordes T, Weickert BJ, Divakaruni AS, Murphy AN, Metallo CM, Engler AJ. Preserved cardiac function by vinculin enhances glucose oxidation and extends health- and life-span. APL Bioeng. 2018 Sep; 2(3). PMID: 30105314.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Zhou Y, Horowitz JC, Naba A, Ambalavanan N, Atabai K, Balestrini J, Bitterman PB, Corley RA, Ding BS, Engler AJ, Hansen KC, Hagood JS, Kheradmand F, Lin QS, Neptune E, Niklason L, Ortiz LA, Parks WC, Tschumperlin DJ, White ES, Chapman HA, Thannickal VJ. Extracellular matrix in lung development, homeostasis and disease. Matrix Biol. 2018 11; 73:77-104. PMID: 29524630.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Gibbons MC, Fisch KM, Pichika R, Cheng T, Engler AJ, Schenk S, Lane JG, Singh A, Ward SR. Heterogeneous muscle gene expression patterns in patients with massive rotator cuff tears. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190439. PMID: 29293645.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Placone JK, Engler AJ. Recent Advances in Extrusion-Based 3D Printing for Biomedical Applications. Adv Healthc Mater. 2018 04; 7(8):e1701161. PMID: 29283220.
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    17. Kumar A, Placone JK, Engler AJ. Understanding the extracellular forces that determine cell fate and maintenance. Development. 2017 12 01; 144(23):4261-4270. PMID: 29183939.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Gibbons MC, Singh A, Engler AJ, Ward SR. The role of mechanobiology in progression of rotator cuff muscle atrophy and degeneration. J Orthop Res. 2018 02; 36(2):546-556. PMID: 28755470.
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    19. Barker TH, Engler AJ. The provisional matrix: setting the stage for tissue repair outcomes. Matrix Biol. 2017 07; 60-61:1-4. PMID: 28527902.
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    20. Hadden WJ, Young JL, Holle AW, McFetridge ML, Kim DY, Wijesinghe P, Taylor-Weiner H, Wen JH, Lee AR, Bieback K, Vo BN, Sampson DD, Kennedy BF, Spatz JP, Engler AJ, Choi YS. Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 05 30; 114(22):5647-5652. PMID: 28507138.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Happe CL, Tenerelli KP, Gromova AK, Kolb F, Engler AJ. Mechanically patterned neuromuscular junctions-in-a-dish have improved functional maturation. Mol Biol Cell. 2017 Jul 07; 28(14):1950-1958. PMID: 28495800.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Herum KM, Choppe J, Kumar A, Engler AJ, McCulloch AD. Mechanical regulation of cardiac fibroblast profibrotic phenotypes. Mol Biol Cell. 2017 Jul 07; 28(14):1871-1882. PMID: 28468977.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Fuhrmann A, Banisadr A, Beri P, Tlsty TD, Engler AJ. Metastatic State of Cancer Cells May Be Indicated by Adhesion Strength. Biophys J. 2017 Feb 28; 112(4):736-745. PMID: 28256233.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Blice-Baum AC, Zambon AC, Kaushik G, Viswanathan MC, Engler AJ, Bodmer R, Cammarato A. Modest overexpression of FOXO maintains cardiac proteostasis and ameliorates age-associated functional decline. Aging Cell. 2017 Feb; 16(1):93-103. PMID: 28090761.
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    25. Gibbons MC, Singh A, Anakwenze O, Cheng T, Pomerantz M, Schenk S, Engler AJ, Ward SR. Histological Evidence of Muscle Degeneration in Advanced Human Rotator Cuff Disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017 Feb 01; 99(3):190-199. PMID: 28145949.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Sessions AO, Kaushik G, Parker S, Raedschelders K, Bodmer R, Van Eyk JE, Engler AJ. Extracellular matrix downregulation in the Drosophila heart preserves contractile function and improves lifespan. Matrix Biol. 2017 10; 62:15-27. PMID: 27793636.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Thomas KA, Gibbons MC, Lane JG, Singh A, Ward SR, Engler AJ. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells. J Orthop Res. 2017 08; 35(8):1816-1823. PMID: 27699827.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Holle AW, McIntyre AJ, Kehe J, Wijesekara P, Young JL, Vincent LG, Engler AJ. High content image analysis of focal adhesion-dependent mechanosensitive stem cell differentiation. Integr Biol (Camb). 2016 10 10; 8(10):1049-1058. PMID: 27723854.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Engler AJ, Parot P, Pellequer JL. Sixth International AFM BioMed Conference on AFM in life sciences and medicine, December 13 to 17, 2014, San Diego, California. J Mol Recognit. 2016 09; 29(9):404-5. PMID: 27502838.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Sessions AO, Engler AJ. Mechanical Regulation of Cardiac Aging in Model Systems. Circ Res. 2016 05 13; 118(10):1553-62. PMID: 27174949.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Gibbons MC, Sato EJ, Bachasson D, Cheng T, Azimi H, Schenk S, Engler AJ, Singh A, Ward SR. Muscle architectural changes after massive human rotator cuff tear. J Orthop Res. 2016 12; 34(12):2089-2095. PMID: 27061583.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Zhang ZN, Freitas BC, Qian H, Lux J, Acab A, Trujillo CA, Herai RH, Nguyen Huu VA, Wen JH, Joshi-Barr S, Karpiak JV, Engler AJ, Fu XD, Muotri AR, Almutairi A. Layered hydrogels accelerate iPSC-derived neuronal maturation and reveal migration defects caused by MeCP2 dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22; 113(12):3185-90. PMID: 26944080.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Ondeck MG, Engler AJ. Mechanical Characterization of a Dynamic and Tunable Methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel. J Biomech Eng. 2016 Feb; 138(2):021003. PMID: 26746491.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Happe CL, Engler AJ. Mechanical Forces Reshape Differentiation Cues That Guide Cardiomyogenesis. Circ Res. 2016 Jan 22; 118(2):296-310. PMID: 26838315.
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    35. Fuhrmann A, Engler AJ. The cytoskeleton regulates cell attachment strength. Biophys J. 2015 Jul 07; 109(1):57-65. PMID: 26153702.
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    36. Wu H, Lee J, Vincent LG, Wang Q, Gu M, Lan F, Churko JM, Sallam KI, Matsa E, Sharma A, Gold JD, Engler AJ, Xiang YK, Bers DM, Wu JC. Epigenetic Regulation of Phosphodiesterases 2A and 3A Underlies Compromised ß-Adrenergic Signaling in an iPSC Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Cell Stem Cell. 2015 Jul 02; 17(1):89-100. PMID: 26095046.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Kaushik G, Spenlehauer A, Sessions AO, Trujillo AS, Fuhrmann A, Fu Z, Venkatraman V, Pohl D, Tuler J, Wang M, Lakatta EG, Ocorr K, Bodmer R, Bernstein SI, Van Eyk JE, Cammarato A, Engler AJ. Vinculin network-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling regulates contractile function in the aging heart. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Jun 17; 7(292):292ra99. PMID: 26084806.
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    38. Wen JH, Choi O, Taylor-Weiner H, Fuhrmann A, Karpiak JV, Almutairi A, Engler AJ. Haptotaxis is cell type specific and limited by substrate adhesiveness. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2015 Dec 01; 8(4):530-542. PMID: 26640598.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Meyer GA, Gibbons MC, Sato E, Lane JG, Ward SR, Engler AJ. Epimuscular Fat in the Human Rotator Cuff Is a Novel Beige Depot. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015 Jul; 4(7):764-74. PMID: 25999520.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Taylor-Weiner H, Ravi N, Engler AJ. Traction forces mediated by integrin signaling are necessary for definitive endoderm specification. J Cell Sci. 2015 May 15; 128(10):1961-8. PMID: 25908864.
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    41. Wei SC, Fattet L, Tsai JH, Guo Y, Pai VH, Majeski HE, Chen AC, Sah RL, Taylor SS, Engler AJ, Yang J. Matrix stiffness drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumour metastasis through a TWIST1-G3BP2 mechanotransduction pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 May; 17(5):678-88. PMID: 25893917.
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    42. Jun I, Lee YB, Choi YS, Engler AJ, Park H, Shin H. Transfer stamping of human mesenchymal stem cell patches using thermally expandable hydrogels with tunable cell-adhesive properties. Biomaterials. 2015 Jun; 54:44-54. PMID: 25907038.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Viswanathan P, Ondeck MG, Chirasatitsin S, Ngamkham K, Reilly GC, Engler AJ, Battaglia G. 3D surface topology guides stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Biomaterials. 2015 Jun; 52:140-7. PMID: 25818420.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Fuhrmann A, Engler AJ. Acute shear stress direction dictates adherent cell remodeling and verifies shear profile of spinning disk assays. Phys Biol. 2015 Jan 26; 12(1):016011. PMID: 25619322.
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    45. Meyer GA, Farris AL, Sato E, Gibbons M, Lane JG, Ward SR, Engler AJ. Muscle progenitor cell regenerative capacity in the torn rotator cuff. J Orthop Res. 2015 Mar; 33(3):421-9. PMID: 25410765.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Young JL, Kretchmer K, Ondeck MG, Zambon AC, Engler AJ. Mechanosensitive kinases regulate stiffness-induced cardiomyocyte maturation. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 19; 4:6425. PMID: 25236849.
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    47. Hribar KC, Choi YS, Ondeck M, Engler AJ, Chen S. Digital Plasmonic Patterning for Localized Tuning of Hydrogel Stiffness. Adv Funct Mater. 2014 Aug 20; 24(31):4922-4926. PMID: 26120293.
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    48. Thomas K, Engler AJ, Meyer GA. Extracellular matrix regulation in the muscle satellite cell niche. Connect Tissue Res. 2015 Feb; 56(1):1-8. PMID: 25047058.
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    49. Wen JH, Vincent LG, Fuhrmann A, Choi YS, Hribar KC, Taylor-Weiner H, Chen S, Engler AJ. Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation. Nat Mater. 2014 Oct; 13(10):979-87. PMID: 25108614.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Fuhrmann A, Li J, Chien S, Engler AJ. Cation type specific cell remodeling regulates attachment strength. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102424. PMID: 25014042.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Murphy WL, McDevitt TC, Engler AJ. Materials as stem cell regulators. Nat Mater. 2014 Jun; 13(6):547-57. PMID: 24845994.
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    52. Nishimura M, Kumsta C, Kaushik G, Diop SB, Ding Y, Bisharat-Kernizan J, Catan H, Cammarato A, Ross RS, Engler AJ, Bodmer R, Hansen M, Ocorr K. A dual role for integrin-linked kinase and ß1-integrin in modulating cardiac aging. Aging Cell. 2014 Jun; 13(3):431-40. PMID: 24400780.
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    53. Kaushik G, Engler AJ. From stem cells to cardiomyocytes: the role of forces in cardiac maturation, aging, and disease. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2014; 126:219-42. PMID: 25081620.
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    54. Engler AJ, Kumar S. Mechanotransduction. Preface. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2014; 126:xiii-xiv. PMID: 25081625.
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    55. Viswanathan MC, Kaushik G, Engler AJ, Lehman W, Cammarato A. A Drosophila melanogaster model of diastolic dysfunction and cardiomyopathy based on impaired troponin-T function. Circ Res. 2014 Jan 17; 114(2):e6-17. PMID: 24221941.
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    56. Holle AW, Tang X, Vijayraghavan D, Vincent LG, Fuhrmann A, Choi YS, del Álamo JC, Engler AJ. In situ mechanotransduction via vinculin regulates stem cell differentiation. Stem Cells. 2013 Nov; 31(11):2467-77. PMID: 23897765.
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    57. Taylor-Weiner H, Schwarzbauer JE, Engler AJ. Defined extracellular matrix components are necessary for definitive endoderm induction. Stem Cells. 2013 Oct; 31(10):2084-94. PMID: 23766144.
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    58. Rao N, Grover GN, Vincent LG, Evans SC, Choi YS, Spencer KH, Hui EE, Engler AJ, Christman KL. A co-culture device with a tunable stiffness to understand combinatorial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Integr Biol (Camb). 2013 Nov; 5(11):1344-54. PMID: 24061208.
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    59. Young DA, Choi YS, Engler AJ, Christman KL. Stimulation of adipogenesis of adult adipose-derived stem cells using substrates that mimic the stiffness of adipose tissue. Biomaterials. 2013 Nov; 34(34):8581-8. PMID: 23953825.
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    60. Vincent LG, Engler AJ. Stem cell differentiation: Post-degradation forces kick in. Nat Mater. 2013 May; 12(5):384-6. PMID: 23603879.
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    61. Young JL, Tuler J, Braden R, Schüp-Magoffin P, Schaefer J, Kretchmer K, Christman KL, Engler AJ. In vivo response to dynamic hyaluronic acid hydrogels. Acta Biomater. 2013 Jul; 9(7):7151-7. PMID: 23523533.
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    62. Vincent LG, Choi YS, Alonso-Latorre B, del Álamo JC, Engler AJ. Mesenchymal stem cell durotaxis depends on substrate stiffness gradient strength. Biotechnol J. 2013 Apr; 8(4):472-84. PMID: 23390141.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Joshi-Barr S, Karpiak JV, Ner Y, Wen JH, Engler AJ, Almutairi A. Density gradient multilayered polymerization (DGMP): a novel technique for creating multi-compartment, customizable scaffolds for tissue engineering. J Vis Exp. 2013 Feb 12; (72). PMID: 23426045.
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    64. Kiang JD, Wen JH, del Álamo JC, Engler AJ. Dynamic and reversible surface topography influences cell morphology. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013 Aug; 101(8):2313-21. PMID: 23355509.
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    65. Viswanathan P, Chirasatitsin S, Ngamkham K, Engler AJ, Battaglia G. Cell instructive microporous scaffolds through interface engineering. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Dec 12; 134(49):20103-9. PMID: 23163574.
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    66. Park J, Kim P, Helen W, Engler AJ, Levchenko A, Kim DH. Control of stem cell fate and function by engineering physical microenvironments. Integr Biol (Camb). 2012 Sep; 4(9):1008-18. PMID: 23077731.
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    67. Kaushik G, Zambon AC, Fuhrmann A, Bernstein SI, Bodmer R, Engler AJ, Cammarato A. Measuring passive myocardial stiffness in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate diastolic dysfunction. J Cell Mol Med. 2012 Aug; 16(8):1656-62. PMID: 22225769.
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    68. Choi YS, Vincent LG, Lee AR, Kretchmer KC, Chirasatitsin S, Dobke MK, Engler AJ. The alignment and fusion assembly of adipose-derived stem cells on mechanically patterned matrices. Biomaterials. 2012 Oct; 33(29):6943-51. PMID: 22800539.
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    69. Choi YS, Vincent LG, Lee AR, Dobke MK, Engler AJ. Mechanical derivation of functional myotubes from adipose-derived stem cells. Biomaterials. 2012 Mar; 33(8):2482-91. PMID: 22197570.
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    70. Kaushik G, Fuhrmann A, Cammarato A, Engler AJ. In situ mechanical analysis of myofibrillar perturbation and aging on soft, bilayered Drosophila myocardium. Biophys J. 2011 Dec 07; 101(11):2629-37. PMID: 22261050.
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    71. Battaglia G, LoPresti C, Massignani M, Warren NJ, Madsen J, Forster S, Vasilev C, Hobbs JK, Armes SP, Chirasatitsin S, Engler AJ. Wet nanoscale imaging and testing of polymersomes. Small. 2011 Jul 18; 7(14):2010-5. PMID: 21695783.
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    72. Holle AW, Engler AJ. More than a feeling: discovering, understanding, and influencing mechanosensing pathways. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011 Oct; 22(5):648-54. PMID: 21536426.
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    73. LoPresti C, Massignani M, Fernyhough C, Blanazs A, Ryan AJ, Madsen J, Warren NJ, Armes SP, Lewis AL, Chirasatitsin S, Engler AJ, Battaglia G. Controlling polymersome surface topology at the nanoscale by membrane confined polymer/polymer phase separation. ACS Nano. 2011 Mar 22; 5(3):1775-84. PMID: 21344879.
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    74. Tse JR, Engler AJ. Stiffness gradients mimicking in vivo tissue variation regulate mesenchymal stem cell fate. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 05; 6(1):e15978. PMID: 21246050.
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    75. Young JL, Engler AJ. Hydrogels with time-dependent material properties enhance cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro. Biomaterials. 2011 Feb; 32(4):1002-9. PMID: 21071078.
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    76. Tse JR, Engler AJ. Preparation of hydrogel substrates with tunable mechanical properties. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2010 Jun; Chapter 10:Unit 10.16. PMID: 20521229.
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    77. Chirasatitsin S, Engler AJ. Detecting cell-adhesive sites in extracellular matrix using force spectroscopy mapping. J Phys Condens Matter. 2010 May 19; 22(19):194102. PMID: 21152375.
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    78. Holle AW, Engler AJ. Cell rheology: Stressed-out stem cells. Nat Mater. 2010 Jan; 9(1):4-6. PMID: 20019660.
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    79. Flores-Merino MV, Chirasatitsin S, Lopresti C, Reilly GC, Battaglia G, Engler AJ. Nanoscopic mechanical anisotropy in hydrogel surfaces. Soft Matter. 2010 Jan 01; 6(18):4466-4470. PMID: 20953281.
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    80. David Merryman W, Engler AJ. Innovations in cell mechanobiology. J Biomech. 2010 Jan 05; 43(1):1. PMID: 19815212.
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    81. Reilly GC, Engler AJ. Intrinsic extracellular matrix properties regulate stem cell differentiation. J Biomech. 2010 Jan 05; 43(1):55-62. PMID: 19800626.
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    82. Engler AJ, Chan M, Boettiger D, Schwarzbauer JE. A novel mode of cell detachment from fibrillar fibronectin matrix under shear. J Cell Sci. 2009 May 15; 122(Pt 10):1647-53. PMID: 19401337.
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    83. Engler AJ, Humbert PO, Wehrle-Haller B, Weaver VM. Multiscale modeling of form and function. Science. 2009 Apr 10; 324(5924):208-12. PMID: 19359578.
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    84. Sen S, Engler AJ, Discher DE. Matrix strains induced by cells: Computing how far cells can feel. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2009 Mar 01; 2(1):39-48. PMID: 20582230.
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    85. Oh S, Brammer KS, Li YS, Teng D, Engler AJ, Chien S, Jin S. Stem cell fate dictated solely by altered nanotube dimension. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17; 106(7):2130-5. PMID: 19179282.
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    86. Engler AJ, Carag-Krieger C, Johnson CP, Raab M, Tang HY, Speicher DW, Sanger JW, Sanger JM, Discher DE. Embryonic cardiomyocytes beat best on a matrix with heart-like elasticity: scar-like rigidity inhibits beating. J Cell Sci. 2008 Nov 15; 121(Pt 22):3794-802. PMID: 18957515.
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    87. Williams CM, Engler AJ, Slone RD, Galante LL, Schwarzbauer JE. Fibronectin expression modulates mammary epithelial cell proliferation during acinar differentiation. Cancer Res. 2008 May 01; 68(9):3185-92. PMID: 18451144.
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    88. Rehfeldt F, Engler AJ, Eckhardt A, Ahmed F, Discher DE. Cell responses to the mechanochemical microenvironment--implications for regenerative medicine and drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007 Nov 10; 59(13):1329-39. PMID: 17900747.
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    89. Engler AJ, Rehfeldt F, Sen S, Discher DE. Microtissue elasticity: measurements by atomic force microscopy and its influence on cell differentiation. Methods Cell Biol. 2007; 83:521-45. PMID: 17613323.
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    90. Frey MT, Engler A, Discher DE, Lee J, Wang YL. Microscopic methods for measuring the elasticity of gel substrates for cell culture: microspheres, microindenters, and atomic force microscopy. Methods Cell Biol. 2007; 83:47-65. PMID: 17613304.
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    91. Engler AJ, Sen S, Sweeney HL, Discher DE. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell. 2006 Aug 25; 126(4):677-89. PMID: 16923388.
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    92. Brown AG, Leite RS, Engler AJ, Discher DE, Strauss JF. A hemoglobin fragment found in cervicovaginal fluid from women in labor potentiates the action of agents that promote contraction of smooth muscle cells. Peptides. 2006 Jul; 27(7):1794-800. PMID: 16621150.
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    93. Berry MF, Engler AJ, Woo YJ, Pirolli TJ, Bish LT, Jayasankar V, Morine KJ, Gardner TJ, Discher DE, Sweeney HL. Mesenchymal stem cell injection after myocardial infarction improves myocardial compliance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Jun; 290(6):H2196-203. PMID: 16473959.
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    94. Dahl KN, Engler AJ, Pajerowski JD, Discher DE. Power-law rheology of isolated nuclei with deformation mapping of nuclear substructures. Biophys J. 2005 Oct; 89(4):2855-64. PMID: 16055543.
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