Deborah Spector

InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentCellular and Molecular Medicine
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0712
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Other Positions
    TitleDirector, Research Alliance Clinical and Translational Research Institute (CTRI)

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyPh.D.Molecular and Cell Biology
    Smith CollegeBABiological Sciences
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2014Elected Fellow American Academy of Microbiology
    2011Women Who Mean Business Award
    1995Tribute to Women in Industry Award
    1987Visiting Professor, Hubei Medical College
    1985Kaiser Permanente Teaching Award
    1983Kaiser Permanente teaching Award
    1975  - 1978Helen Hay Whitney Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship
    1971  - 1974NSF Graduate Fellowship
    1971Sigma Xi
    1971Phi Beta Kappa
    1970NSF Undergraduate Research Participant

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Deborah Spector is a Professor in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. She received her PhD from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was a Helen Hay Whitney Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at University of California San Francisco. Her research focuses on herpesvirus pathogenesis and the molecular mechanisms used by these viruses to control their gene expression and subvert the cell's signaling and regulatory pathways. A primary area of study involves human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which is the major viral cause of birth defects, a serious problem in immunocompromised individuals, and a risk factor in atherosclerosis. Specifically her lab is investigating the role of HCMV in atherosclerosis and the effects of HCMV infection on the neural lineage specification and maturation of stem and progenitor cells. Her lab has also developed a novel strategy for vaccines against viruses that persist and establish latency, and has shown their protective efficacy in animal models of cytomegalovirus infection and genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    In addition to her research, Dr. Spector chairs the Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program and directs the CTRI Translational Research Alliance. She is responsible for all aspects of the Translational Research Alliance, including fostering collaboration with regional basic science researchers, strengthening and developing new educational programs that target basic researchers, coordinating joint faculty appointments, and communicating pilot project and core service information to partner scientists.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Zika Virus Pathogenesis and Selective Autophagy Induction to Inhibit Virus Production
    NIH/NIAID R21AI129846Sep 4, 2017 - Aug 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of CMV in Heart Disease of HIV-Infected Women and Perinatally Infected Youth
    NIH/NHLBI R56HL125028Sep 12, 2014 - Aug 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biologic Role of Cytomegalovirus in Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Atheroscler
    NIH/NIAID R56AI105882Sep 1, 2014 - Aug 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Viral Pathogenesis and Atherosclerosis
    NIH/NIAID R21AI113443Jun 1, 2014 - May 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Disruption of Neural Stem Cell Homeostasis by Cytomegalovirus
    NIH/NINDS R21NS084037May 15, 2013 - Apr 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CMV 2012 - combined 4th Congenital Cytomegalovirus Conference and 14th Internatio
    NIH/NIAID R13AI102493Jul 1, 2012 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Atherosclerosis: Cytomegalovirus, Shear Stress, and Endothelial Cells
    NIH/NIAID R21AI094180Jun 1, 2011 - May 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Disabling of the Anaphase Promoting Complex by Human Cytomegalovirus
    NIH/NIAID R21AI083991Aug 12, 2009 - Jul 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of a Novel Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Type 2
    NIH/NIAID R21AI073585Sep 30, 2007 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of a Cytomegalovirus Vaccine
    NIH/NIAID R01AI051557Dec 1, 2002 - Nov 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Dysregulation of the Cell Cycle by Human Cytomegalovirus
    NIH/NCI R01CA073490Dec 20, 1997 - Nov 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NCI R13CA075122Apr 1, 1997 - Mar 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIAID R13AI027197Mar 1, 1989 - Feb 28, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IVEM and Image Analysis Resource
    NIH/NCRR P41RR004050Dec 12, 1988 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Co-Investigator
    NIH/NIAID R01AI020954Jan 1, 1987 - Dec 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Human Cytomegalovirus Gene Expression
    NIH/NCI R01CA034729May 1, 1983 - May 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Faculty Mentoring

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Clark AE, Sabalza M, Gordts PLSM, Spector D. Human Cytomegalovirus Replication Is Inhibited by the Autophagy-Inducing Compounds Trehalose and SMER28 through Distinctively Different Mechanisms. J Virol. 2018 03 15; 92(6). PMID: 29237845.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Batra R, Stark TJ, Clark E, Belzile JP, Wheeler EC, Yee BA, Huang H, Gelboin-Burkhart C, Huelga SC, Aigner S, Roberts BT, Bos TJ, Sathe S, Donohue JP, Rigo F, Ares M, Spector D, Yeo GW. RNA-binding protein CPEB1 remodels host and viral RNA landscapes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016 Dec; 23(12):1101-1110. PMID: 27775709.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Belzile JP, Sabalza M, Craig M, Clark E, Morello CS, Spector D. Trehalose, an mTOR-Independent Inducer of Autophagy, Inhibits Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in Multiple Cell Types. J Virol. 2016 02 01; 90(3):1259-77. PMID: 26559848.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Clark E, Spector D. Studies on the Contribution of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Downmodulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5. J Virol. 2015 Jul; 89(13):6928-39. PMID: 25903336; PMCID: PMC4468507.
    5. Spector D. Human cytomegalovirus riding the cell cycle. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2015 Jun; 204(3):409-19. PMID: 25776080.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Spector D. IUGR and congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Infect Dis. 2014 May 15; 209(10):1497-9. PMID: 24526739.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Belzile JP, Stark TJ, Yeo GW, Spector D. Human cytomegalovirus infection of human embryonic stem cell-derived primitive neural stem cells is restricted at several steps but leads to the persistence of viral DNA. J Virol. 2014 Apr; 88(8):4021-39. PMID: 24453373; PMCID: PMC3993748.
    8. Shibata N, Carlin AF, Spann NJ, Saijo K, Morello CS, McDonald JG, Romanoski CE, Maurya MR, Kaikkonen MU, Lam MT, Crotti A, Reichart D, Fox JN, Quehenberger O, Raetz CR, Sullards MC, Murphy RC, Merrill AH, Brown HA, Dennis EA, Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Cavener DR, Spector D, Russell DW, Glass CK. 25-Hydroxycholesterol activates the integrated stress response to reprogram transcription and translation in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2013 Dec 13; 288(50):35812-23. PMID: 24189069; PMCID: PMC3861632.
    9. Spector D. Cytomegaloviruses: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Therapy. Exploitation of Host Cell Cycle Regulatory Pathways by HCMV. 2013.
    10. DuRose JB, Li J, Chien S, Spector D. Infection of vascular endothelial cells with human cytomegalovirus under fluid shear stress reveals preferential entry and spread of virus in flow conditions simulating atheroprone regions of the artery. J Virol. 2012 Dec; 86(24):13745-55. PMID: 23055562; PMCID: PMC3503096.
    11. Morello CS, Kraynyak KA, Levinson MS, Chen Z, Lee KF, Spector D. Inactivated HSV-2 in MPL/alum adjuvant provides nearly complete protection against genital infection and shedding following long term challenge and rechallenge. Vaccine. 2012 Oct 12; 30(46):6541-6550. PMID: 22947141; PMCID: PMC3754855.
    12. Strang BL, Bender BJ, Sharma M, Pesola JM, Sanders RL, Spector D, Coen DM. A mutation deleting sequences encoding the amino terminus of human cytomegalovirus UL84 impairs interaction with UL44 and capsid localization. J Virol. 2012 Oct; 86(20):11066-77. PMID: 22855486; PMCID: PMC3457161.
    13. Steininger C, Widhopf GF, Ghia EM, Morello CS, Vanura K, Sanders R, Spector D, Guiney D, Jäger U, Kipps TJ. Recombinant antibodies encoded by IGHV1-69 react with pUL32, a phosphoprotein of cytomegalovirus and B-cell superantigen. Blood. 2012 Mar 08; 119(10):2293-301. PMID: 22234695; PMCID: PMC3311256.
    14. Stark TJ, Arnold JD, Spector D, Yeo GW. High-resolution profiling and analysis of viral and host small RNAs during human cytomegalovirus infection. J Virol. 2012 Jan; 86(1):226-35. PMID: 22013051; PMCID: PMC3255895.
    15. Burgdorf SW, Clark CL, Burgdorf JR, Spector D. Mutation of glutamine to arginine at position 548 of IE2 86 in human cytomegalovirus leads to decreased expression of IE2 40, IE2 60, UL83, and UL84 and increased transcription of US8-9 and US29-32. J Virol. 2011 Nov; 85(21):11098-110. PMID: 21865379; PMCID: PMC3194931.
    16. Morello CS, Levinson MS, Kraynyak KA, Spector D. Immunization with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genes plus inactivated HSV-2 is highly protective against acute and recurrent HSV-2 disease. J Virol. 2011 Apr; 85(7):3461-72. PMID: 21270160; PMCID: PMC3067869.
    17. Tran K, Kamil JP, Coen DM, Spector D. Inactivation and disassembly of the anaphase-promoting complex during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with degradation of the APC5 and APC4 subunits and does not require UL97-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(20):10832-43. PMID: 20686030; PMCID: PMC2950577.
    18. Sanders RL, Spector D. Human cytomegalovirus IE2 86 and IE2 40 proteins differentially regulate UL84 protein expression posttranscriptionally in the absence of other viral gene products. J Virol. 2010 May; 84(10):5158-70. PMID: 20200242; PMCID: PMC2863830.
    19. Tran K, Mahr JA, Spector D. Proteasome subunits relocalize during human cytomegalovirus infection, and proteasome activity is necessary for efficient viral gene transcription. J Virol. 2010 Mar; 84(6):3079-93. PMID: 20042513; PMCID: PMC2826056.
    20. Kapasi AJ, Clark CL, Tran K, Spector D. Recruitment of cdk9 to the immediate-early viral transcriptosomes during human cytomegalovirus infection requires efficient binding to cyclin T1, a threshold level of IE2 86, and active transcription. J Virol. 2009 Jun; 83(11):5904-17. PMID: 19297489; PMCID: PMC2681946.
    21. Sanders RL, Del Rosario CJ, White EA, Spector D. Internal deletions of IE2 86 and loss of the late IE2 60 and IE2 40 proteins encoded by human cytomegalovirus affect the levels of UL84 protein but not the amount of UL84 mRNA or the loading and distribution of the mRNA on polysomes. J Virol. 2008 Nov; 82(22):11383-97. PMID: 18787008; PMCID: PMC2573290.
    22. Sanders RL, Clark CL, Morello CS, Spector D. Development of cell lines that provide tightly controlled temporal translation of the human cytomegalovirus IE2 proteins for complementation and functional analyses of growth-impaired and nonviable IE2 mutant viruses. J Virol. 2008 Jul; 82(14):7059-77. PMID: 18463148; PMCID: PMC2446980.
    23. Sanchez V, Spector D. Subversion of cell cycle regulatory pathways. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2008; 325:243-62. PMID: 18637510.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Grey F, Meyers H, White EA, Spector D, Nelson J. A human cytomegalovirus-encoded microRNA regulates expression of multiple viral genes involved in replication. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Nov; 3(11):e163. PMID: 17983268; PMCID: PMC2048532.
    25. Kapasi AJ, Spector D. Inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinases at the beginning of human cytomegalovirus infection specifically alters the levels and localization of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain kinases cdk9 and cdk7 at the viral transcriptosome. J Virol. 2008 Jan; 82(1):394-407. PMID: 17942543; PMCID: PMC2224385.
    26. Tran K, Mahr JA, Choi J, Teodoro JG, Green MR, Spector D. Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with the phosphorylation of Cdh1 and the dissociation and relocalization of APC subunits. J Virol. 2008 Jan; 82(1):529-37. PMID: 17942546; PMCID: PMC2224378.
    27. Sanchez V, Mahr JA, Orazio NI, Spector D. Nuclear export of the human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp65 requires cyclin-dependent kinase activity and the Crm1 exporter. J Virol. 2007 Nov; 81(21):11730-6. PMID: 17715235; PMCID: PMC2168781.
    28. Morello CS, Kelley LA, Munks MW, Hill AB, Spector D. DNA immunization using highly conserved murine cytomegalovirus genes encoding homologs of human cytomegalovirus UL54 (DNA polymerase) and UL105 (helicase) elicits strong CD8 T-cell responses and is protective against systemic challenge. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(14):7766-75. PMID: 17507492; PMCID: PMC1933361.
    29. White EA, Del Rosario CJ, Sanders RL, Spector D. The IE2 60-kilodalton and 40-kilodalton proteins are dispensable for human cytomegalovirus replication but are required for efficient delayed early and late gene expression and production of infectious virus. J Virol. 2007 Mar; 81(6):2573-83. PMID: 17202222; PMCID: PMC1865986.
    30. White EA and Spector DH .Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis. Betaherpesviruses: Early viral gene expression and function. 2007; 264-294.
    31. Shlapobersky M, Sanders R, Clark C, Spector D. Repression of HMGA2 gene expression by human cytomegalovirus involves the IE2 86-kilodalton protein and is necessary for efficient viral replication and inhibition of cyclin A transcription. J Virol. 2006 Oct; 80(20):9951-61. PMID: 17005673; PMCID: PMC1617307.
    32. Sanchez V, Spector D. Cyclin-dependent kinase activity is required for efficient expression and posttranslational modification of human cytomegalovirus proteins and for production of extracellular particles. J Virol. 2006 Jun; 80(12):5886-96. PMID: 16731927; PMCID: PMC1472584.
    33. Munks MW, Gold MC, Zajac AL, Doom CM, Morello CS, Spector D, Hill AB. Genome-wide analysis reveals a highly diverse CD8 T cell response to murine cytomegalovirus. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 15; 176(6):3760-6. PMID: 16517745.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Sanchez V and Spector DH.Cytomegaloviruses: Molecular Biology and Immunology. Exploitation of host cell cycle regulatory pathways by HCMV. 2006; 205-230.
    35. Tamrakar S, Kapasi AJ, Spector D. Human cytomegalovirus infection induces specific hyperphosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II that is associated with changes in the abundance, activity, and localization of cdk9 and cdk7. J Virol. 2005 Dec; 79(24):15477-93. PMID: 16306619; PMCID: PMC1316045.
    36. White EA, Spector D. Exon 3 of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early region is required for efficient viral gene expression and for cellular cyclin modulation. J Virol. 2005 Jun; 79(12):7438-52. PMID: 15919900; PMCID: PMC1143685.
    37. Morello CS, Ye M, Hung S, Kelley LA, Spector D. Systemic priming-boosting immunization with a trivalent plasmid DNA and inactivated murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) vaccine provides long-term protection against viral replication following systemic or mucosal MCMV challenge. J Virol. 2005 Jan; 79(1):159-75. PMID: 15596812; PMCID: PMC538742.
    38. Ye M, Morello CS, Spector D. Multiple epitopes in the murine cytomegalovirus early gene product M84 are efficiently presented in infected primary macrophages and contribute to strong CD8+-T-lymphocyte responses and protection following DNA immunization. J Virol. 2004 Oct; 78(20):11233-45. PMID: 15452242; PMCID: PMC521820.
    39. Sanchez V, McElroy AK, Yen J, Tamrakar S, Clark CL, Schwartz RA, Spector D. Cyclin-dependent kinase activity is required at early times for accurate processing and accumulation of the human cytomegalovirus UL122-123 and UL37 immediate-early transcripts and at later times for virus production. J Virol. 2004 Oct; 78(20):11219-32. PMID: 15452241; PMCID: PMC521808.
    40. White EA, Clark CL, Sanchez V, Spector D. Small internal deletions in the human cytomegalovirus IE2 gene result in nonviable recombinant viruses with differential defects in viral gene expression. J Virol. 2004 Feb; 78(4):1817-30. PMID: 14747546; PMCID: PMC369462.
    41. Sanchez V, McElroy AK, Spector D. Mechanisms governing maintenance of Cdk1/cyclin B1 kinase activity in cells infected with human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 2003 Dec; 77(24):13214-24. PMID: 14645578; PMCID: PMC296097.
    42. Biswas N, Sanchez V, Spector D. Human cytomegalovirus infection leads to accumulation of geminin and inhibition of the licensing of cellular DNA replication. J Virol. 2003 Feb; 77(4):2369-76. PMID: 12551974; PMCID: PMC141111.
    43. Fortunato EA, Spector D. Viral induction of site-specific chromosome damage. Rev Med Virol. 2003 Jan-Feb; 13(1):21-37. PMID: 12516060.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Sanchez V, Spector D. Virology. CMV makes a timely exit. Science. 2002 Aug 02; 297(5582):778-9. PMID: 12161637.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Fortunato EA, Sanchez V, Yen JY, Spector D. Infection of cells with human cytomegalovirus during S phase results in a blockade to immediate-early gene expression that can be overcome by inhibition of the proteasome. J Virol. 2002 Jun; 76(11):5369-79. PMID: 11991965; PMCID: PMC137046.
    46. Morello CS, Ye M, Spector D. Development of a vaccine against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), consisting of plasmid DNA and formalin-inactivated MCMV, that provides long-term, complete protection against viral replication. J Virol. 2002 May; 76(10):4822-35. PMID: 11967299; PMCID: PMC136169.
    47. Sanchez V, Clark CL, Yen JY, Dwarakanath R, Spector D. Viable human cytomegalovirus recombinant virus with an internal deletion of the IE2 86 gene affects late stages of viral replication. J Virol. 2002 Mar; 76(6):2973-89. PMID: 11861863; PMCID: PMC135995.
    48. Ye M, Morello CS, Spector D. Strong CD8 T-cell responses following coimmunization with plasmids expressing the dominant pp89 and subdominant M84 antigens of murine cytomegalovirus correlate with long-term protection against subsequent viral challenge. J Virol. 2002 Mar; 76(5):2100-12. PMID: 11836387; PMCID: PMC153826.
    49. Dwarakanath RS, Clark CL, McElroy AK, Spector D. The use of recombinant baculoviruses for sustained expression of human cytomegalovirus immediate early proteins in fibroblasts. Virology. 2001 Jun 05; 284(2):297-307. PMID: 11384228.
      View in: PubMed
    50. McElroy AK, Dwarakanath RS, Spector D. Dysregulation of cyclin E gene expression in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells requires viral early gene expression and is associated with changes in the Rb-related protein p130. J Virol. 2000 May; 74(9):4192-206. PMID: 10756032; PMCID: PMC111934.
    51. Morello CS, Cranmer LD, Spector D. Suppression of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) replication with a DNA vaccine encoding MCMV M84 (a homolog of human cytomegalovirus pp65). J Virol. 2000 Apr; 74(8):3696-708. PMID: 10729145; PMCID: PMC111879.
    52. Fortunato EA, McElroy AK, Sanchez I, Spector D. Exploitation of cellular signaling and regulatory pathways by human cytomegalovirus. Trends Microbiol. 2000 Mar; 8(3):111-9. PMID: 10707064.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Fortunato EA, Dell'Aquila ML, Spector D. Specific chromosome 1 breaks induced by human cytomegalovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jan 18; 97(2):853-8. PMID: 10639169; PMCID: PMC15420.
    54. Morello CS, Cranmer LD, Spector D. In vivo replication, latency, and immunogenicity of murine cytomegalovirus mutants with deletions in the M83 and M84 genes, the putative homologs of human cytomegalovirus pp65 (UL83). J Virol. 1999 Sep; 73(9):7678-93. PMID: 10438858; PMCID: PMC104295.
    55. Fortunato EA, Spector D. Regulation of human cytomegalovirus gene expression. Adv Virus Res. 1999; 54:61-128. PMID: 10547675.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Rodems SM, Spector D. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity is sustained early during human cytomegalovirus infection. J Virol. 1998 Nov; 72(11):9173-80. PMID: 9765464; PMCID: PMC110336.
    57. Navarro L, Mowen K, Rodems S, Weaver B, Reich N, Spector D, David M. Cytomegalovirus activates interferon immediate-early response gene expression and an interferon regulatory factor 3-containing interferon-stimulated response element-binding complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Jul; 18(7):3796-802. PMID: 9632763; PMCID: PMC108963.
    58. Salvant BS, Fortunato EA, Spector D. Cell cycle dysregulation by human cytomegalovirus: influence of the cell cycle phase at the time of infection and effects on cyclin transcription. J Virol. 1998 May; 72(5):3729-41. PMID: 9557655; PMCID: PMC109595.
    59. Rodems SM, Clark CL, Spector D. Separate DNA elements containing ATF/CREB and IE86 binding sites differentially regulate the human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 promoter at early and late times in the infection. J Virol. 1998 Apr; 72(4):2697-707. PMID: 9525587; PMCID: PMC109712.
    60. Fortunato EA, Spector D. p53 and RPA are sequestered in viral replication centers in the nuclei of cells infected with human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 1998 Mar; 72(3):2033-9. PMID: 9499057; PMCID: PMC109496.
    61. Hsia K, Spector D, Spector SA. Molecular analysis of the differential restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in neuronal cell lines. J Gen Virol. 1997 Dec; 78 ( Pt 12):3255-64. PMID: 9400976.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Fortunato EA, Sommer MH, Yoder K, Spector D. Identification of domains within the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early 86-kilodalton protein and the retinoblastoma protein required for physical and functional interaction with each other. J Virol. 1997 Nov; 71(11):8176-85. PMID: 9343168; PMCID: PMC192274.
    63. Moreno TN, Fortunato EA, Hsia K, Spector SA, Spector D. A model system for human cytomegalovirus-mediated modulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat activity in brain cells. J Virol. 1997 May; 71(5):3693-701. PMID: 9094643; PMCID: PMC191518.
    64. Cranmer LD, Clark CL, Morello CS, Farrell HE, Rawlinson WD, Spector D. Identification, analysis, and evolutionary relationships of the putative murine cytomegalovirus homologs of the human cytomegalovirus UL82 (pp71) and UL83 (pp65) matrix phosphoproteins. J Virol. 1996 Nov; 70(11):7929-39. PMID: 8892916; PMCID: PMC190865.
    65. González Armas JC, Morello CS, Cranmer LD, Spector D. DNA immunization confers protection against murine cytomegalovirus infection. J Virol. 1996 Nov; 70(11):7921-8. PMID: 8892915; PMCID: PMC190864.
    66. Schwartz R, Helmich B, Spector D. CREB and CREB-binding proteins play an important role in the IE2 86-kilodalton protein-mediated transactivation of the human cytomegalovirus 2.2-kilobase RNA promoter. J Virol. 1996 Oct; 70(10):6955-66. PMID: 8794339; PMCID: PMC190745.
    67. Spector D. Activation and regulation of human cytomegalovirus early genes. Intervirology. 1996; 39(5-6):361-77. PMID: 9130046.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Jault FM, Jault JM, Ruchti F, Fortunato EA, Clark C, Corbeil J, Richman DD, Spector D. Cytomegalovirus infection induces high levels of cyclins, phosphorylated Rb, and p53, leading to cell cycle arrest. J Virol. 1995 Nov; 69(11):6697-704. PMID: 7474079; PMCID: PMC189579.
    69. Scully AL, Sommer MH, Schwartz R, Spector D. The human cytomegalovirus IE2 86-kilodalton protein interacts with an early gene promoter via site-specific DNA binding and protein-protein associations. J Virol. 1995 Oct; 69(10):6533-40. PMID: 7666555; PMCID: PMC189555.
    70. Koval V, Jault FM, Pal PG, Moreno TN, Aiken C, Trono D, Spector SA, Spector D. Differential effects of human cytomegalovirus on integrated and unintegrated human immunodeficiency virus sequences. J Virol. 1995 Mar; 69(3):1645-51. PMID: 7853500; PMCID: PMC188762.
    71. Cranmer LD, Clark C, Spector D. Cloning, characterization, and expression of the murine cytomegalovirus homologue of the human cytomegalovirus 28-kDa matrix phosphoprotein (UL99). Virology. 1994 Dec; 205(2):417-29. PMID: 7975245.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Sommer MH, Scully AL, Spector D. Transactivation by the human cytomegalovirus IE2 86-kilodalton protein requires a domain that binds to both the TATA box-binding protein and the retinoblastoma protein. J Virol. 1994 Oct; 68(10):6223-31. PMID: 8083962; PMCID: PMC237042.
    73. Wade EJ, Spector D. The human cytomegalovirus origin of DNA replication (oriLyt) is the critical cis-acting sequence regulating replication-dependent late induction of the viral 1.2-kilobase RNA promoter. J Virol. 1994 Oct; 68(10):6567-77. PMID: 8083993; PMCID: PMC237077.
    74. Schwartz R, Sommer MH, Scully A, Spector D. Site-specific binding of the human cytomegalovirus IE2 86-kilodalton protein to an early gene promoter. J Virol. 1994 Sep; 68(9):5613-22. PMID: 8057441; PMCID: PMC236962.
    75. Lathey JL, Spector D, Spector SA. Human cytomegalovirus-mediated enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 production in monocyte-derived macrophages. Virology. 1994 Feb 15; 199(1):98-104. PMID: 8116259.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Jault FM, Spector SA, Spector D. The effects of cytomegalovirus on human immunodeficiency virus replication in brain-derived cells correlate with permissiveness of the cells for each virus. J Virol. 1994 Feb; 68(2):959-73. PMID: 8289398; PMCID: PMC236534.
    77. Spector D, Koval V, Jault FM, Lathey J, Spector SA .Interactions Between Retroviruses and Herpesviruses. Positive and negative effects of human cytomegalovirus on HIV replication. 1994; 65-89.
    78. Klucher KM, Sommer M, Kadonaga JT, Spector D. In vivo and in vitro analysis of transcriptional activation mediated by the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Feb; 13(2):1238-50. PMID: 8423789; PMCID: PMC359009.
    79. Wade EJ, Klucher KM, Spector D. An AP-1 binding site is the predominant cis-acting regulatory element in the 1.2-kilobase early RNA promoter of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 1992 Apr; 66(4):2407-17. PMID: 1312636; PMCID: PMC289036.
    80. Spector D. Potential host range expansion of the retroviruses. Dev Biol Stand. 1992; 76:153-64. PMID: 1335930.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Koval V, Clark C, Vaishnav M, Spector SA, Spector D. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits human immunodeficiency virus replication in cells productively infected by both viruses. J Virol. 1991 Dec; 65(12):6969-78. PMID: 1658386; PMCID: PMC250810.
    82. Elliott R, Clark C, Jaquish D, Spector D. Transcription analysis and sequence of the putative murine cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene. Virology. 1991 Nov; 185(1):169-86. PMID: 1718083.
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    83. Mosier DE, Gulizia RJ, Baird SM, Wilson DB, Spector D, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human-PBL-SCID mice. Science. 1991 Feb 15; 251(4995):791-4. PMID: 1990441.
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    84. Spector D, Klucher KM, Rabert DK, Wright DA .Herpesvirus Transcription and Its Regulation. Regulation of human cytomegalovirus early gene expression. 1991; 261-285.
    85. Klucher KM, Spector D. The human cytomegalovirus 2.7-kilobase RNA promoter contains a functional binding site for the adenovirus major late transcription factor. J Virol. 1990 Sep; 64(9):4189-98. PMID: 2166813; PMCID: PMC247883.
    86. Spector D, Wade E, Wright DA, Koval V, Clark C, Jaquish D, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus pseudotypes with expanded cellular and species tropism. J Virol. 1990 May; 64(5):2298-308. PMID: 1691314; PMCID: PMC249391.
    87. Spector D, Klucher KM, Rabert DK, Wright DA. Human cytomegalovirus early gene expression. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1990; 154:21-45. PMID: 2161321.
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    88. Klucher KM, Rabert DK, Spector D. Sequences in the human cytomegalovirus 2.7-kilobase RNA promoter which mediate its regulation as an early gene. J Virol. 1989 Dec; 63(12):5334-43. PMID: 2555558; PMCID: PMC251200.
    89. Hsia K, Spector D, Lawrie J, Spector SA. Enzymatic amplification of human cytomegalovirus sequences by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Aug; 27(8):1802-9. PMID: 2549097; PMCID: PMC267675.
    90. Spector SA, Hsia K, Denaro F, Spector D. Use of molecular probes to detect human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Chem. 1989 Aug; 35(8):1581-7. PMID: 2547533.
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    91. Wright DA, Spector D. Posttranscriptional regulation of a class of human cytomegalovirus phosphoproteins encoded by an early transcription unit. J Virol. 1989 Jul; 63(7):3117-27. PMID: 2542619; PMCID: PMC250869.
    92. Mosier DE, Gulizia RJ, Baird SM, Spector S, Spector D, Kipps TJ, Fox RI, Carson DA, Cooper N, Richman DD. Studies of HIV infection and the development of Epstein-Barr virus-related B cell lymphomas following transfer of human lymphocytes to mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1989; 152:195-9. PMID: 2553338.
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    93. Spector SA, Dankner WM, Denaro F, Spector D. DNA Probes for Infectious Diseases. DNA probes for the detection of human cytomegalovirus. 1989; 13:135-140.
    94. Mosier DE, Gulizia RJ, Wilson DB, Baird SM, Spector SA, Spector D, Richman DD, Fox RI, Kipps TJ.Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Immunology. Elements of the human immune system: studies of mature lymphoid cells following xenotransplantation to SCID mice. Progress in Immunology. 1989; VII:1264-1271.
    95. Staprans SI, Rabert DK, Spector D. Identification of sequence requirements and trans-acting functions necessary for regulated expression of a human cytomegalovirus early gene. J Virol. 1988 Sep; 62(9):3463-73. PMID: 2841497; PMCID: PMC253471.
    96. Mercer JA, Wiley CA, Spector D. Pathogenesis of murine cytomegalovirus infection: identification of infected cells in the spleen during acute and latent infections. J Virol. 1988 Mar; 62(3):987-97. PMID: 2828694; PMCID: PMC253658.
    97. Marks JR, Spector D. Replication of the murine cytomegalovirus genome: structure and role of the termini in the generation and cleavage of concatenates. Virology. 1988 Jan; 162(1):98-107. PMID: 2827390.
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    98. Wright DA, Staprans SI, Spector D. Four phosphoproteins with common amino termini are encoded by human cytomegalovirus AD169. J Virol. 1988 Jan; 62(1):331-40. PMID: 2824853; PMCID: PMC250534.
    99. Tamashiro JC, Spector D. Terminal structure and heterogeneity in human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. J Virol. 1986 Sep; 59(3):591-604. PMID: 3016322; PMCID: PMC253215.
    100. Mercer JA, Spector D. Pathogenesis of acute murine cytomegalovirus infection in resistant and susceptible strains of mice. J Virol. 1986 Feb; 57(2):497-504. PMID: 3003382; PMCID: PMC252762.
    101. Staprans SI, Spector D. 2.2-kilobase class of early transcripts encoded by cell-related sequences in human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. J Virol. 1986 Feb; 57(2):591-602. PMID: 3003391; PMCID: PMC252774.
    102. Spector D, Spector SA.DNA Probes. Molecular analysis of cytomegalovirus infections. 1986; 177-183.
    103. Spector SA, Spector D. The use of DNA probes in studies of human cytomegalovirus. Clin Chem. 1985 Sep; 31(9):1514-20. PMID: 2992841.
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    104. Shaw SB, Rasmussen RD, McDonough SH, Staprans SI, Vacquier JP, Spector D. Cell-related sequences in the DNA genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. J Virol. 1985 Sep; 55(3):843-8. PMID: 2991601; PMCID: PMC255072.
    105. Rasmussen RD, Staprans SI, Shaw SB, Spector D. Sequences in human cytomegalovirus which hybridize with the avian retrovirus oncogene v-myc are G + C rich and do not hybridize with the human c-myc gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Jun; 5(6):1525-30. PMID: 2993868; PMCID: PMC366886.
    106. McDonough SH, Staprans SI, Spector D. Analysis of the major transcripts encoded by the long repeat of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. J Virol. 1985 Mar; 53(3):711-8. PMID: 2983083; PMCID: PMC254698.
    107. Spector D. Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods,. Molecular studies on the cytomegalovirus of mice and men. 1985; 7:199-234.
    108. Tamashiro JC, Filpula D, Friedmann T, Spector D. Structure of the heterogeneous L-S junction region of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 DNA. J Virol. 1984 Nov; 52(2):541-8. PMID: 6092675; PMCID: PMC254556.
    109. Marks JR, Spector D. Fusion of the termini of the murine cytomegalovirus genome after infection. J Virol. 1984 Oct; 52(1):24-8. PMID: 6090700; PMCID: PMC254484.
    110. Spector SA, Rua JA, Spector D, McMillan R. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in clinical specimens by DNA-DNA hybridization. J Infect Dis. 1984 Jul; 150(1):121-6. PMID: 6086767.
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    111. Spector D, McDonough SH, Staprans SI, Tamashiro JC, Friedmann T, Filpula D .Herpesvirus, UCLA Symp. Mol. Cell. Biol., New Series. Organization and expression of the repeats at the termini and L-S junction of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. 1984; 21:441-454.
    112. Spector D, Shaw SB, Hock LJ, Abrams D, Mitsuyasu RT, Gottlieb MS .Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, UCLA Symp. Mol. Cell. Biol., New Series,. Association of human cytomegalovirus with Kaposi's sarcoma. 1984; 6:109-126.
    113. Spector D, Spector SA. The oncogenic potential of human cytomegalovirus. Prog Med Virol. 1984; 29:45-89. PMID: 6322235.
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    114. Marks JR, Mercer JA, Spector D. Transcription in mouse embryo cells permissively infected by murine cytomegalovirus. Virology. 1983 Nov; 131(1):247-54. PMID: 6196913.
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    115. Mercer JA, Marks JR, Spector D. Molecular cloning and restriction endonuclease mapping of the murine cytomegalovirus genome (Smith Strain). Virology. 1983 Aug; 129(1):94-106. PMID: 6310888.
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    116. Spector D, Vacquier JP. Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) contains sequences related to the avian retrovirus oncogene v-myc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jul; 80(13):3889-93. PMID: 6306648; PMCID: PMC394164.
    117. McDonough SH, Spector D. Transcription in human fibroblasts permissively infected by human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. Virology. 1983 Feb; 125(1):31-46. PMID: 6187127.
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    118. Spector SA, Spector D. Molecular epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infections in premature twin infants and their mother. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1982 Nov-Dec; 1(6):405-9. PMID: 6298754.
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    119. Tamashiro JC, Hock LJ, Spector D. Construction of a cloned library of the EcoRI fragments from the human cytomegalovirus genome (strain AD169). J Virol. 1982 May; 42(2):547-57. PMID: 6283172; PMCID: PMC256881.
    120. Spector D, Hock L, Tamashiro JC. Cleavage maps for human cytomegalovirus DNA strain AD169 for restriction endonucleases EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII. J Virol. 1982 May; 42(2):558-82. PMID: 6283173; PMCID: PMC256882.
    121. Spector D. Gene-specific probes for avian retroviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1981; 91:41-80. PMID: 6273070.
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    122. Tamashiro JC, Spector D. Animal Virus Genetics - ICN-UCLA Symp. on Animal Virus Genetics. Molecular cloning of the human cytomegalovirus genome (strain AD 169). 1980; 21-37.
    123. Hughes SH, Payvar F, Spector D, Schimke RT, Robinson HL, Payne GS, Bishop JM, Varmus HE. Heterogeneity of genetic loci in chickens: analysis of endogenous viral and nonviral genes by cleavage of DNA with restriction endonucleases. Cell. 1979 Oct; 18(2):347-59. PMID: 227605.
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    124. Hughes SH, Stubblefield E, Payvar F, Engel JD, Dodgson JB, Spector D, Cordell B, Schimke RT, Varmus HE. Gene localization by chromosome fractionation: globin genes are on at least two chromosomes and three estrogen-inducible genes are on three chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Mar; 76(3):1348-52. PMID: 286316; PMCID: PMC383248.
    125. Hughes SH, Shank PR, Spector D, Kung HJ, Bishop JM, Varmus HE, Vogt PK, Breitman ML. Proviruses of avian sarcoma virus are terminally redundant, co-extensive with unintegrated linear DNA and integrated at many sites. Cell. 1978 Dec; 15(4):1397-410. PMID: 215325.
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    126. Spector D, Varmus HE, Bishop JM. Nucleotide sequences related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus are present in DNA of uninfected vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Sep; 75(9):4102-6. PMID: 212733; PMCID: PMC336059.
    127. Bishop JM, Baker B, Fujita D, McCombe P, Sheiness D, Smith K, Spector D, Stehelin D, Varmus HE. Genesis of a virus-transforming gene. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1978 May; (48):219-23. PMID: 219354.
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    128. Spector D, Smith K, Padgett T, McCombe P, Roulland-Dussoix D, Moscovici C, Varmus HE, Bishop JM. Uninfected avian cells contain RNA related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma viruses. Cell. 1978 Feb; 13(2):371-9. PMID: 203404.
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    129. Spector D, Baker B, Varmus HE, Bishop JM. Characteristics of cellular RNA related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma viruses. Cell. 1978 Feb; 13(2):381-6. PMID: 203405.
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    130. Krzyzek RA, Lau AF, Faras AJ, Spector D. Post-transcriptional control of avian oncornavirus transforming gene sequences in mammalian cells. Nature. 1977 Sep 08; 269(5624):175-9. PMID: 198665.
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    131. Varmus H, Spector D, Stehelin D, Deng C-T, Padgett T, Stubblefield E, Bishop JM.International Cell Biology. The function and origin of the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus. 1977; 553-557.
    132. Bishop JM, Stehelin D, Tal J, Fujita D, Spector D, Roulland-Dossoix D, , Padgett T, Varmus HE.Symposium on the Molecular Biology of the Mammalian Genetic Apparatus. The transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus. 1977; 263-274.
    133. Spector D, Varmus, Bishop JM.Oncogenic Viruses and Host Cell Genes. The distribution of sequences related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus in uninfected vertebrate cells. 1977.
    134. Varmus H, Spector D, Stehelin D, Deng C-T, Padgett T, Stubblefield E, Bishop JM. .Cold Spring Harbor Conference on Cell Proliferation. The function and origin of the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus. 1977; 4:1159-1168.
    135. Varmus H, Stehelin D, Spector D, Tal J, Fujita D, Padgett T, Roulland-Dossoix D, Kung H-J, Bishop JM.ICN-UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology. Distribution and function of defined regions of avian tumor virus genomes in viruses and uninfected cells. 1976; 4.
    136. Spector D, Baltimore D. Poly(A) on mengovirus RNA. J Virol. 1975 Oct; 16(4):1081-4. PMID: 170414; PMCID: PMC354771.
    137. Spector D, Baltimore D. Polyadenylic acid on poliovirus RNA IV. Poly(U) in replicative intermediate and double-stranded RNA. Virology. 1975 Oct; 67(2):498-505. PMID: 171838.
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    138. Spector D, Villa-Komaroff L, Baltimore D. Studies on the function of polyadenylic acid on poliovirus RNA. Cell. 1975 Sep; 6(1):41-4. PMID: 170001.
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    139. Spector D, Baltimore D. Polyadenylic acid on poliovirus RNA. III. In vitro addition of polyadenylic acid to poliovirus RNAs. J Virol. 1975 Jun; 15(6):1432-9. PMID: 167194; PMCID: PMC354610.
    140. Spector D, Baltimore D. Polyadenylic acid on poliovirus RNA. II. poly(A) on intracellular RNAs. J Virol. 1975 Jun; 15(6):1418-31. PMID: 167193; PMCID: PMC354609.
    141. Spector D, Baltimore D. The molecular biology of poliovirus. Sci Am. 1975 May; 232(5):25-31. PMID: 167433.
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    142. Spector D, Baltimore D. Requirement of 3'-terminal poly(adenylic acid) for the infectivity of poliovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Aug; 71(8):2983-7. PMID: 4370340; PMCID: PMC388603.
    143. Baltimore D. Cole CN, Villa-Komaroff L, Spector D. Mechanisms of Virus Disease. Poliovirus defective interfering particles. 1974.
    144. Oestreicher MI, Shuman DH, Wurster CF. DDE reduces medullary bone formation in birds. Nature. 1971 Feb 19; 229(5286):571. PMID: 4925362.
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