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    Susan Little

    TitleProfessor In Residence
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address200 W. Arbor Drive #8208
    CA San Diego 92103
    Phone619-543-8080
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Characterizing Privacy Perceptions and Risks in HIV Molecular Epidemiology
      NIH/NIAID R21AI108351Jun 1, 2014 - May 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Efficacy of ART to Interrupt HIV Transmission Networks
      NIH/NIMH R01MH100974May 12, 2014 - Feb 28, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Primary Infection Resource Consortium (PIRC)
      NIH/NIAID R24AI106039Aug 20, 2013 - Mar 31, 2022
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Determinants of HIV Transmission
      NIH/NIAID P01AI074621Mar 15, 2008 - Feb 28, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      General Clinical Research Center
      NIH/NCRR M01RR000827Mar 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2010
      Role: Co-Investigator

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Grebe E, Welte A, Hall J, Keating SM, Facente SN, Marson K, Martin JN, Little S, Price MA, Kallas EG, Busch MP, Pilcher CD, Murphy G. Infection Staging and Incidence Surveillance Applications of High Dynamic Range Diagnostic Immuno-Assay Platforms. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Sep 07. PMID: 28914669.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Wagner GA, Landais E, Caballero G, Phung P, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Poignard P, Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM. Intrasubtype B HIV-1 Superinfection Correlates with Delayed Neutralizing Antibody Response. J Virol. 2017 Sep 01; 91(17). PMID: 28615205.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Chaillon A, Nakazawa M, Wertheim JO, Little S, Smith DM, Mehta SR, Gianella S. No Substantial Evidence for Sexual Transmission of Minority HIV Drug Resistance Mutations in Men Who Have Sex with Men. J Virol. 2017 Aug 09. PMID: 28794047.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Pines HA, Karris MY, Little S. Sexual Partner Concurrency Among Partners Reported by MSM with Recent HIV Infection. AIDS Behav. 2017 Jul 12. PMID: 28702851.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Vesa J, Chaillon A, Wagner GA, Anderson CM, Richman DD, Smith DM, Little S. Increased HIV-1 superinfection risk in carriers of specific human leukocyte antigen alleles. AIDS. 2017 May 15; 31(8):1149-1158. PMID: 28244954.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Jones J, Hoenigl M, Siegler AJ, Sullivan PS, Little S, Rosenberg E. Assessing the Performance of 3 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Incidence Risk Scores in a Cohort of Black and White Men Who Have Sex With Men in the South. Sex Transm Dis. 2017 May; 44(5):297-302. PMID: 28407646.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Hoenigl M, Braun DL, Kouyos R, Günthard HF, Little S. Evaluation of the Predictive Potential of the Short Acute Retroviral Syndrome Severity Score for HIV-1 Disease Progression in Individuals With Acute HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Apr 01; 74(4):e114-e117. PMID: 28225720.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Morris SR, Zhao M, Smith DM, Vargas MV, Little S, Gianella S. Longitudinal Viral Dynamics in Semen During Early HIV Infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 15; 64(4):428-434. PMID: 28174909.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Oliveira MF, Chaillon A, Nakazawa M, Vargas M, Letendre SL, Strain MC, Ellis RJ, Morris S, Little S, Smith DM, Gianella S. Early Antiretroviral Therapy is Associated with Lower HIV DNA Molecular Diversity and Lower Inflammation in Cerebrospinal Fluid but Does Not Prevent the Establishment of Compartmentalized HIV DNA Populations. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Jan 03; 13(1):e1006112. PMID: 28046096.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Green N, Hoenigl M, Chaillon A, Anderson CM, Pond SL, Smith DM, Little S. Partner services in adults with acute and early HIV infection, San Diego, 1996-2014. AIDS. 2016 Nov 7. PMID: 27831950.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Karris MY, Umlauf A, Vaida F, Richman D, Little S, Smith D. A randomized controlled clinical trial on the impact of CCR5 blockade with maraviroc in early infection on T-cell dynamics. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Nov; 95(44):e5315. PMID: 27858912.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Gianella S, Taylor J, Brown TR, Kaytes A, Achim CL, Moore DJ, Little S, Ellis RJ, Smith DM. Can research at the end-of-life be a useful tool to advance HIV cure? AIDS. 2016 Oct 14. PMID: 27755112.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Kassanjee R, Pilcher CD, Busch MP, Murphy G, Facente SN, Keating SM, Mckinney E, Marson K, Price MA, Martin JN, Little S, Hecht FM, Kallas EG, Welte A. Viral load criteria and threshold optimization to improve HIV incidence assay characteristics. AIDS. 2016 Sep 24; 30(15):2361-71. PMID: 27454561.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Smith DM, Nakazawa M, Freeman ML, Anderson CM, Oliveira MF, Little S, Gianella S. Asymptomatic CMV Replication During Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Is Associated With Lower CD4/CD8 Ratio During HIV Treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 6. PMID: 27601222.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Hoenigl M, Chaillon A, Moore DJ, Morris SR, Mehta SR, Gianella S, Amico KR, Little S. Rapid HIV Viral Load Suppression in those Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy at First Visit after HIV Diagnosis. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32947. PMID: 27597312.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Hoenigl M, Chaillon A, Mehta SR, Smith DM, Graff-Zivin J, Little S. Screening for acute HIV infection in community-based settings: Cost-effectiveness and impact on transmissions. J Infect. 2016 Nov; 73(5):476-484. PMID: 27521468.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Chaillon A, Hoenigl M, Mehta SR, Weibel N, Little S, Smith DM. A practical online tool to estimate antiretroviral coverage for HIV infected and susceptible populations needed to reduce local HIV epidemics. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:28707. PMID: 27337983.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Mehta SR, Murrell B, Anderson CM, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Wertheim JO, Young JA, Freitas L, Richman DD, Mathews WC, Scheffler K, Little S, Smith DM. Using HIV Sequence and Epidemiologic Data to Assess the Effect of Self-referral Testing for Acute HIV Infection on Incident Diagnoses in San Diego, California. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jul 1; 63(1):101-7. PMID: 27174704.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Hoenigl M, Chaillon A, Little S. CD4/CD8 Cell Ratio in Acute HIV Infection and the Impact of Early Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 1; 63(3):425-6. PMID: 27143670.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Hoenigl M, Chaillon A, Moore DJ, Morris SR, Smith DM, Little S. Clear Links Between Starting Methamphetamine and Increasing Sexual Risk Behavior: A Cohort Study Among Men Who Have Sex With Men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Apr 15; 71(5):551-7. PMID: 26536321.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Gianella S, Anderson CM, Var SR, Oliveira MF, Lada SM, Vargas MV, Massanella M, Little S, Richman DD, Strain MC, Pérez-Santiago J, Smith DM. Replication of Human Herpesviruses Is Associated with Higher HIV DNA Levels during Antiretroviral Therapy Started at Early Phases of HIV Infection. J Virol. 2016 Apr 15; 90(8):3944-52. PMID: 26842469.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Hoenigl M, Chaillon A, Kessler HH, Haas B, Stelzl E, Weninger K, Little S, Mehta SR. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151478. PMID: 26967154.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Kamat R, Doyle KL, Iudicello JE, Morgan EE, Morris S, Smith DM, Little S, Grant I, Woods SP. Neurobehavioral Disturbances During Acute and Early HIV Infection. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2016 Mar; 29(1):1-10. PMID: 27008244.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Hoenigl M, Green N, Camacho M, Gianella S, Mehta SR, Smith DM, Little S. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Feb; 22(3). PMID: 26890854.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Panichsillapakit T, Smith DM, Wertheim JO, Richman DD, Little S, Mehta SR. Prevalence of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Among Recently Infected Persons in San Diego, CA 1996-2013. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Feb 1; 71(2):228-36. PMID: 26413846.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Panichsillapakit T, Patel D, Santangelo J, Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM. Colorectal Disorders in Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Series. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Jan; 3(1):ofw014. PMID: 26925432.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Vanpouille C, Introini A, Morris SR, Margolis L, Daar ES, Dube MP, Little S, Smith DM, Lisco A, Gianella S. Distinct cytokine/chemokine network in semen and blood characterize different stages of HIV infection. AIDS. 2016 Jan; 30(2):193-201. PMID: 26558730.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Geiger R, Smith DM, Little S, Mehta SR. RETRACTED: Investigation of the GeneXpert® CT/NG assay for use with male pharyngeal and rectal swabs. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Jan 01; 956462416665059. PMID: 27510643.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Gianella S, Anderson CM, Richman DD, Smith DM, Little S. No evidence of posttreatment control after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2015 Oct 23; 29(16):2093-7. PMID: 26544575.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Green N, Hoenigl M, Morris S, Little S. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Oct; 94(41):e1830. PMID: 26469928.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Hoenigl M, Anderson CM, Green N, Mehta SR, Smith DM, Little S. Repeat HIV-testing is associated with an increase in behavioral risk among men who have sex with men: a cohort study. BMC Med. 2015; 13(1):218. PMID: 26444673.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Massanella M, Gianella S, Schrier R, Dan JM, Pérez-Santiago J, Oliveira MF, Richman DD, Little S, Benson CA, Daar ES, Dube MP, Haubrich RH, Smith DM, Morris SR. Methamphetamine Use in HIV-infected Individuals Affects T-cell Function and Viral Outcome during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13179. PMID: 26299251.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Mehta SR, Wertheim JO, Brouwer KC, Wagner KD, Chaillon A, Strathdee S, Patterson TL, Rangel MG, Vargas M, Murrell B, Garfein R, Little S, Smith DM. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region. EBioMedicine. 2015 Oct; 2(10):1456-63. PMID: 26629540.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Gianella S, Scheffler K, Mehta SR, Little S, Freitas L, Morris SR, Smith DM. Seminal Shedding of CMV and HIV Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015; 12(7):7585-92. PMID: 26198239.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Hoenigl M, Green N, Mehta SR, Little S. Risk Factors for Acute and Early HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in San Diego, 2008 to 2014: A Cohort Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Jul; 94(30):e1242. PMID: 26222863.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Hoenigl M, Weibel N, Mehta SR, Anderson CM, Jenks J, Green N, Gianella S, Smith DM, Little S. Development and Validation of the San Diego Early Test Score to Predict Acute and Early HIV Infection Risk in Men Who Have Sex With Men. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 1; 61(3):468-75. PMID: 25904374.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Okulicz JF, Le TD, Agan BK, Camargo JF, Landrum ML, Wright E, Dolan MJ, Ganesan A, Ferguson TM, Smith DM, Richman DD, Little S, Clark RA, He W, Ahuja SK. Influence of the timing of antiretroviral therapy on the potential for normalization of immune status in human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan 1; 175(1):88-99. PMID: 25419650.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Khanna A, Goodreau SM, Wohlfeiler D, Daar E, Little S, Gorbach PM. Individualized diagnosis interventions can add significant effectiveness in reducing human immunodeficiency virus incidence among men who have sex with men: insights from Southern California. Ann Epidemiol. 2015 Jan; 25(1):1-6. PMID: 25453725.
        View in: PubMed
      39. King HL, Keller SB, Giancola MA, Rodriguez DA, Chau JJ, Young JA, Little S, Smith DM. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Accessibility Research and Evaluation (PrEPARE Study). AIDS Behav. 2014 Sep; 18(9):1722-5. PMID: 25017425.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Streeck H, Lu R, Beckwith N, Milazzo M, Liu M, Routy JP, Little S, Jessen H, Kelleher AD, Hecht F, Sekaly RP, Alter G, Heckerman D, Carrington M, Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M. Emergence of Individual HIV-Specific CD8 T Cell Responses during Primary HIV-1 Infection Can Determine Long-Term Disease Outcome. J Virol. 2014 Nov 1; 88(21):12793-801. PMID: 25165102.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Khanna AS, Goodreau SM, Gorbach PM, Daar E, Little S. Modeling the Impact of Post-Diagnosis Behavior Change on HIV Prevalence in Southern California Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM). AIDS Behav. 2014 Aug; 18(8):1523-31. PMID: 24165985.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Kim EY, Lorenzo-Redondo R, Little S, Chung YS, Phalora PK, Maljkovic Berry I, Archer J, Penugonda S, Fischer W, Richman DD, Bhattacharya T, Malim MH, Wolinsky SM. Human APOBEC3 Induced Mutation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Contributes to Adaptation and Evolution in Natural Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jul; 10(7):e1004281. PMID: 25080100.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Kuang XT, Li X, Anmole G, Mwimanzi P, Shahid A, Le AQ, Chong L, Qian H, Miura T, Markle T, Baraki B, Connick E, Daar ES, Jessen H, Kelleher AD, Little S, Markowitz M, Pereyra F, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Ueno T, Brumme ZL, Brockman MA. Impaired Nef Function Is Associated with Early Control of HIV-1 Viremia. J Virol. 2014 Sep 1; 88(17):10200-13. PMID: 24965469.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Little S, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Anderson CM, Young JA, Wertheim JO, Mehta SR, May S, Smith DM. Using HIV Networks to Inform Real Time Prevention Interventions. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e98443. PMID: 24901437.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Gianella S, Massanella M, Richman DD, Little S, Spina CA, Vargas MV, Lada SM, Daar ES, Dube MP, Haubrich RH, Morris SR, Smith DM. Cytomegalovirus Replication in Semen Is Associated with Higher Levels of Proviral HIV DNA and CD4+ T Cell Activation during Antiretroviral Treatment. J Virol. 2014 Jul 15; 88(14):7818-27. PMID: 24789781.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Karris MY, Kao YT, Patel D, Dawson M, Woods SP, Vaida F, Spina C, Richman D, Little S, Smith DM. Predictors of virologic response in persons who start antiretroviral therapy during recent HIV infection. AIDS. 2014 Mar 27; 28(6):841-9. PMID: 24401640.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Doyle KL, Morgan EE, Morris S, Smith DM, Little S, Iudicello JE, Blackstone K, Moore DJ, Grant I, Letendre SL, Woods SP. Real-world impact of neurocognitive deficits in acute and early HIV infection. J Neurovirol. 2013 Dec; 19(6):565-73. PMID: 24277439.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Wagner GA, Pacold ME, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Caballero G, Chaillon A, Rudolph AE, Morris SR, Little S, Richman DD, Smith DM. Incidence and Prevalence of Intrasubtype HIV-1 Dual Infection in At-Risk Men in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; 209(7):1032-8. PMID: 24273040.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Morris SR, Woods SP, Deutsch R, Little S, Wagner G, Morgan EE, Heaton RK, Letendre SL, Grant I, Smith DM. Dual-mixed HIV-1 coreceptor tropism and HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits. J Neurovirol. 2013 Oct; 19(5):488-94. PMID: 24078557.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Chaillon A, Wagner GA, Hepler NL, Little S, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Caballero G, Pacold ME, Phung P, Wrin T, Richman DD, Wertheim JO, Smith DM. Dynamics of Viral Evolution and Neutralizing Antibody Response after HIV-1 Superinfection. J Virol. 2013 Dec; 87(23):12737-44. PMID: 24049166.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Gianella S, Morris SR, Tatro E, Vargas MV, Haubrich RH, Daar ES, Dube MP, Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM. Virologic Correlates of Anti-CMV IgG Levels in HIV-1-Infected Men. J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb; 209(3):452-6. PMID: 23964106.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Massanella M, Singhania A, Beliakova-Bethell N, Pier R, Lada SM, White CH, Pérez-Santiago J, Blanco J, Richman DD, Little S, Woelk CH. Differential gene expression in HIV-infected individuals following ART. Antiviral Res. 2013 Nov; 100(2):420-8. PMID: 23933117.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Pérez-Santiago J, Gianella S, Massanella M, Spina CA, Karris MY, Var SR, Patel D, Jordan PS, Young JA, Little S, Richman DD, Smith DM. Gut Lactobacillales are associated with higher CD4 and less microbial translocation during HIV infection. AIDS. 2013 Jul 31; 27(12):1921-31. PMID: 24180001.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Hightower GK, May SJ, Pérez-Santiago J, Pacold ME, Wagner GA, Little S, Richman DD, Mehta SR, Smith DM, Pond SL. HIV-1 clade B pol evolution following primary infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e68188. PMID: 23840830.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Morris SR, Smith DM, Little S, Gianella S. Reply to Mounzer and DiNubile. J Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 15; 208(4):711-2. PMID: 23667136.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Wagner GA, Pacold ME, Vigil E, Caballero G, Morris SR, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Little S, Richman DD, Gianella S, Smith DM. Using ultradeep pyrosequencing to study HIV-1 coreceptor usage in primary and dual infection. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 15; 208(2):271-4. PMID: 23599311.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Gianella S, Smith DM, Vargas MV, Little S, Richman DD, Daar ES, Dube MP, Zhang F, Ginocchio CC, Haubrich RH, Morris SR. Shedding of HIV and human herpesviruses in the semen of effectively treated HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Aug; 57(3):441-7. PMID: 23595831.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Le T, Wright EJ, Smith DM, He W, Catano G, Okulicz JF, Young JA, Clark RA, Richman DD, Little S, Ahuja SK. Enhanced CD4+ T-cell recovery with earlier HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 17; 368(3):218-30. PMID: 23323898.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Gianella S, Morris SR, Anderson C, Spina CA, Vargas MV, Young JA, Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM. Herpes viruses and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations influence the virologic and immunologic milieu of the male genital tract. AIDS. 2013 Jan 2; 27(1):39-47. PMID: 22739399.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Gianella S, Anderson CM, Vargas MV, Richman DD, Little S, Morris SR, Smith DM. Cytomegalovirus DNA in semen and blood is associated with higher levels of proviral HIV DNA. J Infect Dis. 2013 Mar 15; 207(6):898-902. PMID: 23275608.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Weber E, Morgan EE, Iudicello JE, Blackstone K, Grant I, Ellis RJ, Letendre SL, Little S, Morris S, Smith DM, Moore DJ, Woods SP. Substance use is a risk factor for neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric distress in acute and early HIV infection. J Neurovirol. 2013 Feb; 19(1):65-74. PMID: 23250704.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Gianella S, Morris SR, Vargas MV, Young JA, Callahan B, Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM. Role of seminal shedding of herpesviruses in HIV Type 1 Transmission. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 15; 207(2):257-61. PMID: 23148284.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Gianella S, Mehta SR, Strain MC, Young JA, Vargas MV, Little S, Richman DD, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Smith DM. Impact of seminal cytomegalovirus replication on HIV-1 dynamics between blood and semen. J Med Virol. 2012 Nov; 84(11):1703-9. PMID: 22997072.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Gianella S, Mehta SR, Young JA, Vargas MV, Little S, Richman DD, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Smith DM. Sexual transmission of predicted CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 likely originating from the source partner's seminal cells. Virology. 2012 Dec 5; 434(1):2-4. PMID: 23040890.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Hightower GK, Wong JK, Letendre SL, Umlauf AA, Ellis RJ, Ignacio CC, Heaton RK, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Little S, Richman DD, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Smith DM. Higher HIV-1 genetic diversity is associated with AIDS and neuropsychological impairment. Virology. 2012 Nov 25; 433(2):498-505. PMID: 22999095.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Tilghman MW, May S, Pérez-Santiago J, Ignacio CC, Little S, Richman DD, Smith DM. A combined screening platform for HIV treatment failure and resistance. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35401. PMID: 22563383.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Mehta SR, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Young JA, Richman D, Little S, Smith DM. Associations between phylogenetic clustering and HLA profile among HIV-infected individuals in San Diego, California. J Infect Dis. 2012 May 15; 205(10):1529-33. PMID: 22448013.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Karris MY, Anderson CM, Morris SR, Smith DM, Little S. Cost savings associated with testing of antibodies, antigens, and nucleic acids for diagnosis of acute HIV infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jun; 50(6):1874-8. PMID: 22442319.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Pacold ME, Pond SL, Wagner GA, Delport W, Bourque DL, Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM. Clinical, virologic, and immunologic correlates of HIV-1 intraclade B dual infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2012 Jan 14; 26(2):157-65. PMID: 22045341.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Hogan CM, Degruttola V, Sun X, Fiscus SA, Del Rio C, Hare CB, Markowitz M, Connick E, Macatangay B, Tashima KT, Kallungal B, Camp R, Morton T, Daar ES, Little S. The setpoint study (ACTG A5217): effect of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy on virologic set point in recently HIV-1-infected individuals. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 1; 205(1):87-96. PMID: 22180621.
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      71. Gianella S, Strain MC, Rought SE, Vargas MV, Little S, Richman DD, Spina CA, Smith DM. Associations between virologic and immunologic dynamics in blood and in the male genital tract. J Virol. 2012 Feb; 86(3):1307-15. PMID: 22114342.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Ghanem A, Little S, Drumright L, Liu L, Morris S, Garfein RS. High-risk behaviors associated with injection drug use among recently HIV-infected men who have sex with men in San Diego, CA. AIDS Behav. 2011 Oct; 15(7):1561-9. PMID: 21607643.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Homann S, Smith D, Little S, Richman D, Guatelli J. Upregulation of BST-2/Tetherin by HIV infection in vivo. J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(20):10659-68. PMID: 21849457.
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      74. Hecht FM, Wellman R, Busch MP, Pilcher CD, Norris PJ, Margolick JB, Collier AC, Little S, Markowitz M, Routy JP, Holte S. Identifying the early post-HIV antibody seroconversion period. J Infect Dis. 2011 Aug 15; 204(4):526-33. PMID: 21791654.
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      75. Morris SR, Little S. MSM: resurgent epidemics. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011 Jul; 6(4):326-32. PMID: 21537172.
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      76. Gianella S, Delport W, Pacold ME, Young JA, Choi JY, Little S, Richman DD, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Smith DM. Detection of minority resistance during early HIV-1 infection: natural variation and spurious detection rather than transmission and evolution of multiple viral variants. J Virol. 2011 Aug; 85(16):8359-67. PMID: 21632754.
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      77. Mehta SR, Nguyen VT, Osorio G, Little S, Smith DM. Evaluation of pooled rapid HIV antibody screening of patients admitted to a San Diego Hospital. J Virol Methods. 2011 Jun; 174(1-2):94-8. PMID: 21513744.
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      78. Gorbach PM, Weiss RE, Jeffries R, Javanbakht M, Drumright LN, Daar ES, Little S. Behaviors of recently HIV-infected men who have sex with men in the year postdiagnosis: effects of drug use and partner types. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Feb 1; 56(2):176-82. PMID: 21119524.
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      79. Meditz AL, MaWhinney S, Allshouse A, Feser W, Markowitz M, Little S, Hecht R, Daar ES, Collier AC, Margolick J, Kilby JM, Routy JP, Conway B, Kaldor J, Levy J, Schooley R, Cooper DA, Altfeld M, Richman D, Connick E. Sex, race, and geographic region influence clinical outcomes following primary HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15; 203(4):442-51. PMID: 21245157.
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      80. Moore DJ, Letendre SL, Morris S, Umlauf A, Deutsch R, Smith DM, Little S, Rooney A, Franklin DR, Gouaux B, Leblanc S, Rosario D, Fennema-Notestine C, Heaton RK, Ellis RJ, Atkinson JH, Grant I. Neurocognitive functioning in acute or early HIV infection. J Neurovirol. 2011 Feb; 17(1):50-7. PMID: 21165782.
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      81. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. Science. 2010 Dec 10; 330(6010):1551-7. PMID: 21051598.
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      82. Pacold M, Smith D, Little S, Cheng PM, Jordan P, Ignacio C, Richman D, Pond SK. Comparison of methods to detect HIV dual infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Dec; 26(12):1291-8. PMID: 20954840.
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      83. Bell SK, Little S, Rosenberg ES. Clinical management of acute HIV infection: best practice remains unknown. J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15; 202 Suppl 2:S278-88. PMID: 20846034.
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      84. Smith D, Delport W, Butler D, Little S, Richman D, Pond SK. Response to Comment on "The Origins of Sexually Transmitted HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men" Sci Transl Med. 2010 Sep; 2(50):501r1. PMID: 21532938.
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      85. Morris SR, Little S, Cunningham T, Garfein RS, Richman DD, Smith DM. Evaluation of an HIV nucleic acid testing program with automated Internet and voicemail systems to deliver results. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Jun 15; 152(12):778-85. PMID: 20547906.
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      86. Miura T, Brumme ZL, Brockman MA, Rosato P, Sela J, Brumme CJ, Pereyra F, Kaufmann DE, Trocha A, Block BL, Daar ES, Connick E, Jessen H, Kelleher AD, Rosenberg E, Markowitz M, Schafer K, Vaida F, Iwamoto A, Little S, Walker BD. Impaired replication capacity of acute/early viruses in persons who become HIV controllers. J Virol. 2010 Aug; 84(15):7581-91. PMID: 20504921.
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      87. DeGruttola V, Smith DM, Little S, Miller V. Developing and evaluating comprehensive HIV infection control strategies: issues and challenges. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15; 50 Suppl 3:S102-7. PMID: 20397937.
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      88. Rosenberg ES, Graham BS, Chan ES, Bosch RJ, Stocker V, Maenza J, Markowitz M, Little S, Sax PE, Collier AC, Nabel G, Saindon S, Flynn T, Kuritzkes D, Barouch DH. Safety and immunogenicity of therapeutic DNA vaccination in individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2010; 5(5):e10555. PMID: 20479938.
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      89. Markowitz M, Vaida F, Hare CB, Boden D, Mohri H, Hecht FM, Kalayjian RC, Conrad A, Mildvan D, Aberg J, Hogan C, Kilby JM, Balfour HH, Schafer K, Richman D, Little S. The virologic and immunologic effects of cyclosporine as an adjunct to antiretroviral therapy in patients treated during acute and early HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2010 May 1; 201(9):1298-302. PMID: 20235838.
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      90. Butler DM, Delport W, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Lakdawala MK, Cheng PM, Little S, Richman DD, Smith DM. The origins of sexually transmitted HIV among men who have sex with men. Sci Transl Med. 2010 Feb 10; 2(18):18re1. PMID: 20371483.
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      91. Woelk CH, Beliakova-Bethell N, Goicoechea M, Zhao Y, Du P, Rought SE, Lozach J, Pérez-Santiago J, Richman DD, Smith DM, Little S. Gene expression before HAART initiation predicts HIV-infected individuals at risk of poor CD4+ T-cell recovery. AIDS. 2010 Jan 16; 24(2):217-22. PMID: 19952713.
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      92. Smith DM, May SJ, Pérez-Santiago J, Strain MC, Ignacio CC, Haubrich RH, Richman DD, Benson CA, Little S. The use of pooled viral load testing to identify antiretroviral treatment failure. AIDS. 2009 Oct 23; 23(16):2151-8. PMID: 19730348.
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      93. Volberding P, Demeter L, Bosch RJ, Aga E, Pettinelli C, Hirsch M, Vogler M, Martinez A, Little S, Connick E. Antiretroviral therapy in acute and recent HIV infection: a prospective multicenter stratified trial of intentionally interrupted treatment. AIDS. 2009 Sep 24; 23(15):1987-95. PMID: 19696651.
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      94. Streeck H, Jolin JS, Qi Y, Yassine-Diab B, Johnson RC, Kwon DS, Addo MM, Brumme C, Routy JP, Little S, Jessen HK, Kelleher AD, Hecht FM, Sekaly RP, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Carrington M, Altfeld M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses during primary infection are major determinants of the viral set point and loss of CD4+ T cells. J Virol. 2009 Aug; 83(15):7641-8. PMID: 19458000.
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      95. Yukl S, Pillai S, Li P, Chang K, Pasutti W, Ahlgren C, Havlir D, Strain M, Günthard H, Richman D, Rice AP, Daar E, Little S, Wong JK. Latently-infected CD4+ T cells are enriched for HIV-1 Tat variants with impaired transactivation activity. Virology. 2009 Apr 25; 387(1):98-108. PMID: 19268337.
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      96. Apuzzo LG, Vaida F, Gallant JE, Ernstrom KB, Little S, Routy JP, Collier AC, Conway B, Markowitz MH, Hecht FM, Walker BD, Connick E, Margolick JB. Tolerability and efficacy of PI versus NNRTI-based regimens in subjects receiving HAART during acute or early HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Mar 1; 50(3):267-75. PMID: 19194317.
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      97. Smith DM, May SJ, Tweeten S, Drumright L, Pacold ME, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Pesano RL, Lie YS, Richman DD, Frost SD, Woelk CH, Little S. A public health model for the molecular surveillance of HIV transmission in San Diego, California. AIDS. 2009 Jan 14; 23(2):225-32. PMID: 19098493.
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      98. Precopio ML, Butterfield TR, Casazza JP, Little S, Richman DD, Koup RA, Roederer M. Optimizing peptide matrices for identifying T-cell antigens. Cytometry A. 2008 Nov; 73(11):1071-8. PMID: 18781655.
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      99. Butler DM, Smith DM, Cachay ER, Hightower GK, Nugent CT, Richman DD, Little S. Herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus and viral loads of HIV-1 in blood and semen as risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2008 Aug 20; 22(13):1667-71. PMID: 18670228.
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      100. Liu L, May S, Richman DD, Hecht FM, Markowitz M, Daar ES, Routy JP, Margolick JB, Collier AC, Woelk CH, Little S, Smith DM. Comparison of algorithms that interpret genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance. AIDS. 2008 Apr 23; 22(7):835-9. PMID: 18427201.
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      101. Cachay ER, Frost SD, Poon AF, Looney D, Rostami SM, Pacold ME, Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM. Herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition during recent HIV infection does not influence plasma HIV levels. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Apr 15; 47(5):592-6. PMID: 18197122.
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      102. Gorbach PM, Drumright LN, Javanbakht M, Pond SL, Woelk CH, Daar ES, Little S. Antiretroviral drug resistance and risk behavior among recently HIV-infected men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Apr 15; 47(5):639-43. PMID: 18285715.
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      103. Ahuja SK, Kulkarni H, Catano G, Agan BK, Camargo JF, He W, O'Connell RJ, Marconi VC, Delmar J, Eron J, Clark RA, Frost S, Martin J, Ahuja SS, Deeks SG, Little S, Richman D, Hecht FM, Dolan MJ. CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype influences durability of immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1-infected individuals. Nat Med. 2008 Apr; 14(4):413-20. PMID: 18376407.
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      104. Little S, Frost SD, Wong JK, Smith DM, Pond SL, Ignacio CC, Parkin NT, Petropoulos CJ, Richman DD. Persistence of transmitted drug resistance among subjects with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol. 2008 Jun; 82(11):5510-8. PMID: 18353964.
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      105. Koelsch KK, Liu L, Haubrich R, May S, Havlir D, Günthard HF, Ignacio CC, Campos-Soto P, Little S, Shafer R, Robbins GK, D'Aquila RT, Kawano Y, Young K, Dao P, Spina CA, Richman DD, Wong JK. Dynamics of total, linear nonintegrated, and integrated HIV-1 DNA in vivo and in vitro. J Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 1; 197(3):411-9. PMID: 18248304.
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      106. Cellerai C, Little S, Loes SK. Treatment of acute HIV-1 infection: are we getting there? Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2008 Jan; 3(1):67-74. PMID: 19372946.
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      107. Drumright LN, Gorbach PM, Little S, Strathdee SA. Associations between substance use, erectile dysfunction medication and recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2009 Apr; 13(2):328-36. PMID: 18064558.
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      108. Smith DM, Wong JK, Shao H, Hightower GK, Mai SH, Moreno JM, Ignacio CC, Frost SD, Richman DD, Little S. Long-term persistence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in male genital tract secretions: implications for secondary transmission. J Infect Dis. 2007 Aug 1; 196(3):356-60. PMID: 17597449.
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      109. Drumright LN, Strathdee SA, Little S, Araneta MR, Slymen DJ, Malcarne VL, Daar ES, Gorbach PM. Unprotected anal intercourse and substance use before and after HIV diagnosis among recently HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jun; 34(6):401-7. PMID: 17091117.
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      110. Streeck H, Lichterfeld M, Alter G, Meier A, Teigen N, Yassine-Diab B, Sidhu HK, Little S, Kelleher A, Routy JP, Rosenberg ES, Sekaly RP, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Recognition of a defined region within p24 gag by CD8+ T cells during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in individuals expressing protective HLA class I alleles. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(14):7725-31. PMID: 17494064.
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      111. Cachay ER, Frost SD, Richman DD, Smith DM, Little S. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection does not influence viral dynamics during early HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2007 May 1; 195(9):1270-7. PMID: 17396995.
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      112. Smith D, Moini N, Pesano R, Cachay E, Aiem H, Lie Y, Richman D, Little S. Clinical utility of HIV standard genotyping among antiretroviral-naive individuals with unknown duration of infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 1; 44(3):456-8. PMID: 17205459.
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      113. Smith DM, Drumright LN, Frost SD, Cheng WS, Espitia S, Daar ES, Little S, Gorbach PM. Characteristics of recently HIV-infected men who use the Internet to find male sex partners and sexual practices with those partners. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Dec 15; 43(5):582-7. PMID: 17019370.
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      114. Drumright LN, Little S, Strathdee SA, Slymen DJ, Araneta MR, Malcarne VL, Daar ES, Gorbach PM. Unprotected anal intercourse and substance use among men who have sex with men with recent HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Nov 1; 43(3):344-50. PMID: 16980913.
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      115. Barbour JD, Hecht FM, Little S, Markowitz M, Daar ES, Kelleher AD, Routy JP, Campbell TB, Rosenberg ES, Segal MR, Weidler J, Grant RM. Greater CD4 T-cell gains after one year of antiretroviral therapy are associated with lower HIV-1 pol replication capacity. AIDS. 2006 Oct 24; 20(16):2123-5. PMID: 17053362.
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      116. Smith DM, Strain MC, Frost SD, Pillai SK, Wong JK, Wrin T, Liu Y, Petropolous CJ, Daar ES, Little S, Richman DD. Lack of neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 predisposes to superinfection. Virology. 2006 Nov 10; 355(1):1-5. PMID: 16962152.
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      117. Hecht FM, Wang L, Collier A, Little S, Markowitz M, Margolick J, Kilby JM, Daar E, Conway B, Holte S. A multicenter observational study of the potential benefits of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy during acute HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 15; 194(6):725-33. PMID: 16941337.
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      118. Gorbach PM, Drumright LN, Daar ES, Little S. Transmission behaviors of recently HIV-infected men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 May; 42(1):80-5. PMID: 16763494.
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      119. Yuste E, Sanford HB, Carmody J, Bixby J, Little S, Zwick MB, Greenough T, Burton DR, Richman DD, Desrosiers RC, Johnson WE. Simian immunodeficiency virus engrafted with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific epitopes: replication, neutralization, and survey of HIV-1-positive plasma. J Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(6):3030-41. PMID: 16501112.
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      120. Frost SD, Wrin T, Smith DM, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Liu Y, Paxinos E, Chappey C, Galovich J, Beauchaine J, Petropoulos CJ, Little S, Richman DD. Neutralizing antibody responses drive the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope during recent HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 20; 102(51):18514-9. PMID: 16339909.
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      121. Smith DM, Wong JK, Hightower GK, Ignacio CC, Koelsch KK, Petropoulos CJ, Richman DD, Little S. HIV drug resistance acquired through superinfection. AIDS. 2005 Aug 12; 19(12):1251-6. PMID: 16052079.
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      122. Little S, Smith DM. HIV treatment decisions and transmitted drug resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 15; 41(2):233-5. PMID: 15983921.
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      123. Smith DM, Richman DD, Little S. HIV superinfection. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 1; 192(3):438-44. PMID: 15995957.
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      124. Frost SD, Liu Y, Pond SL, Chappey C, Wrin T, Petropoulos CJ, Little S, Richman DD. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope variation and neutralizing antibody responses during transmission of HIV-1 subtype B. J Virol. 2005 May; 79(10):6523-7. PMID: 15858036.
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      125. Strain MC, Little S, Daar ES, Havlir DV, Gunthard HF, Lam RY, Daly OA, Nguyen J, Ignacio CC, Spina CA, Richman DD, Wong JK. Effect of treatment, during primary infection, on establishment and clearance of cellular reservoirs of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2005 May 1; 191(9):1410-8. PMID: 15809898.
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      126. Yang OO, Daar ES, Jamieson BD, Balamurugan A, Smith DM, Pitt JA, Petropoulos CJ, Richman DD, Little S, Brown AJ. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B superinfection: evidence for differential immune containment of distinct clade B strains. J Virol. 2005 Jan; 79(2):860-8. PMID: 15613314.
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      127. Dong T, Stewart-Jones G, Chen N, Easterbrook P, Xu X, Papagno L, Appay V, Weekes M, Conlon C, Spina C, Little S, Screaton G, van der Merwe A, Richman DD, McMichael AJ, Jones EY, Rowland-Jones SL. HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells from long-term survivors select a unique T cell receptor. J Exp Med. 2004 Dec 20; 200(12):1547-57. PMID: 15596521.
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      128. Smith DM, Wong JK, Hightower GK, Ignacio CC, Koelsch KK, Daar ES, Richman DD, Little S. Incidence of HIV superinfection following primary infection. JAMA. 2004 Sep 8; 292(10):1177-8. PMID: 15353529.
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      129. Smith DM, Kingery JD, Wong JK, Ignacio CC, Richman DD, Little S. The prostate as a reservoir for HIV-1. AIDS. 2004 Jul 23; 18(11):1600-2. PMID: 15238781.
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      130. Leigh Brown AJ, Frost SD, Good B, Daar ES, Simon V, Markowitz M, Collier AC, Connick E, Conway B, Margolick JB, Routy JP, Corbeil J, Hellmann NS, Richman DD, Little S. Genetic basis of hypersusceptibility to protease inhibitors and low replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in primary infection. J Virol. 2004 Mar; 78(5):2242-6. PMID: 14963120.
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      131. Papagno L, Spina CA, Marchant A, Salio M, Rufer N, Little S, Dong T, Chesney G, Waters A, Easterbrook P, Dunbar PR, Shepherd D, Cerundolo V, Emery V, Griffiths P, Conlon C, McMichael AJ, Richman DD, Rowland-Jones SL, Appay V. Immune activation and CD8+ T-cell differentiation towards senescence in HIV-1 infection. PLoS Biol. 2004 Feb; 2(2):E20. PMID: 14966528.
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      132. Richman DD, Little S, Smith DM, Wrin T, Petropoulos C, Wong JK. HIV evolution and escape. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2004; 115:289-303. PMID: 17060974.
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      133. Zaunders JJ, Moutouh-de Parseval L, Kitada S, Reed JC, Rought S, Genini D, Leoni L, Kelleher A, Cooper DA, Smith DE, Grey P, Estaquier J, Little S, Richman DD, Corbeil J. Polyclonal proliferation and apoptosis of CCR5+ T lymphocytes during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: regulation by interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, and Bcl-2. J Infect Dis. 2003 Jun 1; 187(11):1735-47. PMID: 12751031.
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      134. Koelsch KK, Smith DM, Little S, Ignacio CC, Macaranas TR, Brown AJ, Petropoulos CJ, Richman DD, Wong JK. Clade B HIV-1 superinfection with wild-type virus after primary infection with drug-resistant clade B virus. AIDS. 2003 May 2; 17(7):F11-6. PMID: 12700477.
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      135. Richman DD, Wrin T, Little S, Petropoulos CJ. Rapid evolution of the neutralizing antibody response to HIV type 1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 1; 100(7):4144-9. PMID: 12644702.
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      136. Leigh Brown AJ, Frost SD, Mathews WC, Dawson K, Hellmann NS, Daar ES, Richman DD, Little S. Transmission fitness of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus and the prevalence of resistance in the antiretroviral-treated population. J Infect Dis. 2003 Feb 15; 187(4):683-6. PMID: 12599087.
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      137. Little S, Holte S, Routy JP, Daar ES, Markowitz M, Collier AC, Koup RA, Mellors JW, Connick E, Conway B, Kilby M, Wang L, Whitcomb JM, Hellmann NS, Richman DD. Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV. N Engl J Med. 2002 Aug 8; 347(6):385-94. PMID: 12167680.
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      138. Appay V, Papagno L, Spina CA, Hansasuta P, King A, Jones L, Ogg GS, Little S, McMichael AJ, Richman DD, Rowland-Jones SL. Dynamics of T cell responses in HIV infection. J Immunol. 2002 Apr 1; 168(7):3660-6. PMID: 11907132.
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      139. Appay V, Dunbar PR, Callan M, Klenerman P, Gillespie GM, Papagno L, Ogg GS, King A, Lechner F, Spina CA, Little S, Havlir DV, Richman DD, Gruener N, Pape G, Waters A, Easterbrook P, Salio M, Cerundolo V, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL. Memory CD8+ T cells vary in differentiation phenotype in different persistent virus infections. Nat Med. 2002 Apr; 8(4):379-85. PMID: 11927944.
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      140. Little S. Transmission and prevalence of HIV resistance among treatment-naive subjects. Antivir Ther. 2000 Mar; 5(1):33-40. PMID: 10846591.
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      141. Little S, McLean AR, Spina CA, Richman DD, Havlir DV. Viral dynamics of acute HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med. 1999 Sep 20; 190(6):841-50. PMID: 10499922.
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      142. Little S, Daar ES, D'Aquila RT, Keiser PH, Connick E, Whitcomb JM, Hellmann NS, Petropoulos CJ, Sutton L, Pitt JA, Rosenberg ES, Koup RA, Walker BD, Richman DD. Reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility among patients with primary HIV infection. JAMA. 1999 Sep 22-29; 282(12):1142-9. PMID: 10501117.
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