Kimberly Brouwer

Title(s)Adjunct Professor, Medicine
SchoolHealth Sciences
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    University of California, BerkeleyBAMajor: Integrative Biology; Minors: Music, Spanish
    Johns Hopkins UniversityPhDMolecular Epidemiology
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control & PreventionFellowEmerging Infectious Diseases
    University of California, San DiegoK01 Career AwardSocial & Spatial Epidemiology

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    Dr. Kimberly Brouwer is a professor and infectious disease epidemiologist with expertise in applying both qualitative and quantitative methods to developing new approaches to public health challenges. A recurrent theme of her research has been to explore the effect of mobility and marginalization on transmission and diffusion of infectious diseases. She further explores the effect of environmental, structural, spatial, and social factors on access to preventive and medical services. Dr. Brouwer is currently collaborating with Mexican and Guatemalan officials in studies of substance use, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections, in an effort to inform appropriate public health interventions. Dr. Brouwer's research interests also encompass the epidemiology of vector-borne and tropical infectious diseases, including being a co-investigator of the Peru-Brazil International Center of Excellence in Malaria Research.

    Dr. Brouwer serves as the Vice Chair for Public Health Education and Interim Global Health Division Chief for the Department of Family Medicine & Public Health. She also co-directs the Global Health track of the SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Public Health. She teaches a core course for the UCSD Bachelor of Science in Public Health (Epidemiology 101) and will teach Infectious Diseases & Emerging Trends in the Masters of Public Health program. Further, she facilitates networking and training opportunities for researchers at all levels – but with a focus on young investigators - as part of the UCSD Center for AIDS Research.

    Dr. Brouwer originally earned her Ph.D. in molecular epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, and was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship to investigate factors relating to disease severity of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe. Prior to her appointment at UC San Diego, she worked as an Emerging Infectious Diseases fellow and researcher in the Division of Parasitic Diseases at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, investigating HIV/malaria interactions in western Kenya. After coming to UCSD, Dr. Brouwer received a K01 career award from the National Institute on Drug Abuse through which she acquired additional skills in social and spatial epidemiology.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Rocha-Jiménez T, Morales-Miranda S, Fernández-Casanueva C, Brouwer KC. The influence of migration in substance use practices and HIV/STI-related risks of female sex workers at a dynamic border crossing. J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2019 Feb 22; 1-18. PMID: 30795721.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Salazar M, Brouwer KC, Rocha-Jimenez T, Boyce SC, Staines-Orozco H, Silverman JG. Substance Use among Female Sex Workers in Two US-Mexico Border Cities: Associations with Age of Entry. Subst Use Misuse. 2018 Dec 30; 1-4. PMID: 30595074.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Boyce SC, Brouwer KC, Triplett D, Servin AE, Magis-Rodriguez C, Silverman JG. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Violence, Pregnancy, and Marriage Associated With Child Sex Trafficking Among Female Sex Workers in Two US-Mexico Border Cities. Am J Public Health. 2018 Aug; 108(8):1049-1054. PMID: 29927652.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Rocha-Jiménez T, Morales-Miranda S, Fernández-Casanueva C, Brouwer KC, Goldenberg SM. Stigma and unmet sexual and reproductive health needs among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2018 Oct; 143(1):37-43. PMID: 29328511.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Goldenberg SM, Rocha Jiménez T, Brouwer KC, Morales Miranda S, Silverman JG. Influence of indoor work environments on health, safety, and human rights among migrant sex workers at the Guatemala-Mexico Border: a call for occupational health and safety interventions. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2018 02 02; 18(1):9. PMID: 29394893.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Febres-Cordero B, Brouwer KC, Rocha-Jimenez T, Fernandez-Casanueva C, Morales-Miranda S, Goldenberg SM. Influence of peer support on HIV/STI prevention and safety amongst international migrant sex workers: A qualitative study at the Mexico-Guatemala border. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190787. PMID: 29304164.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Conners EE, Gaines TL, Strathdee SA, Magis-Rodriguez C, Brouwer KC. Structural factors associated with methamphetamine smoking among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2018 04; 37 Suppl 1:S294-S302. PMID: 29218799.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Carrasco-Escobar G, Miranda-Alban J, Fernandez-Miñope C, Brouwer KC, Torres K, Calderon M, Gamboa D, Llanos-Cuentas A, Vinetz JM. High prevalence of very-low Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia carriers in the Peruvian Amazon: insights into local and occupational mobility-related transmission. Malar J. 2017 10 16; 16(1):415. PMID: 29037202.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Conners EE, Ordoñez TL, Cordon-Rosales C, Casanueva CF, Miranda SM, Brouwer KC. Chagas Disease Infection among Migrants at the Mexico/Guatemala Border. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Oct; 97(4):1134-1140. PMID: 29016286.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Rocha-Jiménez T, Brouwer KC, Silverman JG, Morales-Miranda S, Goldenberg SM. Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 10; 19(5):1235-1244. PMID: 27015834.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Bloss CS, Stoler J, Brouwer KC, Bietz M, Cheung C. Public Response to a Proposed Field Trial of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes in the United States. JAMA. 2017 08 15; 318(7):662-664. PMID: 28810013.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Servin AE, Reed E, Brouwer KC, Magis-Rodriguez C, Boyce S, Strathdee SA, Silverman JG. Motherhood and Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in the Mexico-US Border Region. Sex Transm Dis. 2017 08; 44(8):477-482. PMID: 28703726.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Conners EE, Swanson K, Morales-Miranda S, Fernández Casanueva C, Mercer VJ, Brouwer KC. HIV Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Substance Using Migrants at the Mexico/Guatemala Border. AIDS Behav. 2017 Jul; 21(7):2033-2045. PMID: 28238120.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Beletsky L, Arredondo J, Werb D, Vera A, Abramovitz D, Amon JJ, Brouwer KC, Strathdee SA, Gaines TL. Utilization of Google enterprise tools to georeference survey data among hard-to-reach groups: strategic application in international settings. Int J Health Geogr. 2016 07 28; 15(1):24. PMID: 27468764.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Conners EE, West BS, Roth AM, Meckel-Parker KG, Kwan MP, Magis-Rodriguez C, Staines-Orozco H, Clapp JD, Brouwer KC. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155693. PMID: 27191846.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Goldenberg SM, Brouwer KC, Jimenez TR, Miranda SM, Mindt MR. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155048. PMID: 27159157.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Rocha-Jiménez T, Brouwer KC, Silverman JG, Morales-Miranda S, Goldenberg SM. Migration, violence, and safety among migrant sex workers: a qualitative study in two Guatemalan communities. Cult Health Sex. 2016 09; 18(9):965-79. PMID: 27439656.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Conners EE, Vinetz JM, Weeks JR, Brouwer KC. A global systematic review of Chagas disease prevalence among migrants. Acta Trop. 2016 Apr; 156:68-78. PMID: 26777312.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Conners EE, Silverman JG, Ulibarri M, Magis-Rodriguez C, Strathdee SA, Staines-Orozco H, Patterson TL, Brouwer KC. Structural Determinants of Client Perpetrated Violence Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities. AIDS Behav. 2016 Jan; 20(1):215-24. PMID: 26111732; PMCID: PMC4691420 [Available on 01/01/17].
    20. Meacham MC, Rudolph AE, Strathdee SA, Rusch ML, Brouwer KC, Patterson TL, Vera A, Rangel G, Roesch SC. Polydrug Use and HIV Risk Among People Who Inject Heroin in Tijuana, Mexico: A Latent Class Analysis. Subst Use Misuse. 2015; 50(10):1351-9. PMID: 26444185; PMCID: PMC4786000 [Available on 10/07/16].
    21. Silverman JG, Servin A, Goldenberg SM, Magis-Rodriguez C, Ritter J, Raj A, Brouwer KC. Sexual Violence and HIV Infection Associated With Adolescent vs Adult Entry Into the Sex Trade in Mexico. JAMA. 2015 Aug 04; 314(5):516-8. PMID: 26241604; PMCID: PMC4890562.
    22. Mehta SR, Wertheim JO, Brouwer KC, Wagner KD, Chaillon A, Strathdee S, Patterson TL, Rangel MG, Vargas M, Murrell B, Garfein R, Little SJ, Smith DM. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region. EBioMedicine. 2015 Oct; 2(10):1456-63. PMID: 26629540; PMCID: PMC4634195.
    23. Chuquiyauri R, Molina DM, Moss EL, Wang R, Gardner MJ, Brouwer KC, Torres S, Gilman RH, Llanos-Cuentas A, Neafsey DE, Felgner P, Liang X, Vinetz JM. Genome-Scale Protein Microarray Comparison of Human Antibody Responses in Plasmodium vivax Relapse and Reinfection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Oct; 93(4):801-9. PMID: 26149860.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Gaines TL, Beletsky L, Arredondo J, Werb D, Rangel G, Vera A, Brouwer K. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform. J Urban Health. 2015 Apr; 92(2):338-51. PMID: 25300503; PMCID: PMC4411320.
    25. Servin AE, Brouwer KC, Gordon L, Rocha-Jimenez T, Staines H, Vera-Monroy RB, Strathdee SA, Silverman JG. Vulnerability Factors and Pathways Leading to Underage Entry into Sex Work in two Mexican-US Border Cities. J Appl Res Child. 2015; 6(1). PMID: 25932343.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Rudolph AE, Gaines TL, Lozada R, Vera A, Brouwer KC. Evaluating outcome-correlated recruitment and geographic recruitment bias in a respondent-driven sample of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. AIDS Behav. 2014 Dec; 18(12):2325-37. PMID: 24969586.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Mackey TK, Liang BA, Cuomo R, Hafen R, Brouwer KC, Lee DE. Emerging and reemerging neglected tropical diseases: a review of key characteristics, risk factors, and the policy and innovation environment. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014 Oct; 27(4):949-79. PMID: 25278579; PMCID: PMC4187634.
    28. Goldenberg SM, Mindt MR, Jimenez TR, Brouwer KC, Miranda SM, Fisher CB. Structural and Interpersonal Benefits and Risks of Participation in HIV Research: Perspectives of Female Sex Workers in Guatemala. Ethics Behav. 2015; 25(2):97-114. PMID: 27840564.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Kori N, Roth AM, Lozada R, Vera A, Brouwer KC. Correlates of injecting in an HIV incidence hotspot among substance users in Tijuana, Mexico. Int J Drug Policy. 2014 May; 25(3):525-32. PMID: 24418632; PMCID: PMC4360998.
    30. Gaines TL, Rusch ML, Brouwer KC, Lozada R, Perkins EE, Strathdee SA, Patterson TL. The effect of geography on HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Tijuana's red light district. J Urban Health. 2013 Oct; 90(5):915-20. PMID: 22689301; PMCID: PMC3795197.
    31. Chuquiyauri R, Peñataro P, Brouwer KC, Fasabi M, Calderon M, Torres S, Gilman RH, Kosek M, Vinetz JM. Microgeographical differences of Plasmodium vivax relapse and re-infection in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Aug; 89(2):326-38. PMID: 23836566.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Gaines TL, Rudolph AE, Brouwer KC, Strathdee SA, Lozada R, Martinez G, Goldenberg SM, Rusch ML. The longitudinal association of venue stability with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities. Int J STD AIDS. 2013 Jul; 24(7):523-9. PMID: 23970766; PMCID: PMC3987857.
    33. Gaines TL, Rusch ML, Brouwer KC, Goldenberg SM, Lozada R, Robertson AM, Perkins E, Strathdee SA, Patterson TL. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: a multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico. Glob Public Health. 2013; 8(4):405-16. PMID: 23534477; PMCID: PMC3704167.
    34. Chen NE, Strathdee SA, Rangel G, Patterson TL, Uribe-Salas FJ, Rosen P, Villalobos J, Brouwer KC. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele. J Public Health Res. 2012 Dec 28; 1(3):208-13. PMID: 25170465.
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    35. Chen NE, Strathdee SA, Rangel G, Patterson TL, Uribe-Salas FJ, Rosen P, Villalobos J, Brouwer KC. HIV risk behaviors differ by workplace stability among Mexican female sex workers with truck driver clientele. J Public Health Res. 2012 12 28; 1(3). PMID: 24724056.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Chen NE, Strathdee SA, Uribe-Salas FJ, Patterson TL, Rangel MG, Rosen P, Brouwer KC. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns. BMC Public Health. 2012 Nov 20; 12:1000. PMID: 23164289; PMCID: PMC3528625.
    37. Brouwer KC, Rusch ML, Weeks JR, Lozada R, Vera A, Magis-Rodríguez C, Strathdee SA. Spatial Epidemiology of HIV among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico. Ann Assoc Am Geogr. 2012; 102(5):1190-1199. PMID: 23606753.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Morris MD, Brouwer KC, Lozada RM, Gallardo M, Vera A, Strathdee SA. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. Am J Addict. 2012 Jan-Feb; 21(1):23-30. PMID: 22211343.
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    39. Brouwer KC, Lozada R, Weeks JR, Magis-Rodríguez C, Firestone M, Strathdee SA. Intraurban mobility and its potential impact on the spread of blood-borne infections among drug injectors in Tijuana, Mexico. Subst Use Misuse. 2012 Feb; 47(3):244-53. PMID: 22136446; PMCID: PMC3979331.
    40. Chuquiyauri R, Paredes M, Peñataro P, Torres S, Marin S, Tenorio A, Brouwer KC, Abeles S, Llanos-Cuentas A, Gilman RH, Kosek M, Vinetz JM. Socio-demographics and the development of malaria elimination strategies in the low transmission setting. Acta Trop. 2012 Mar; 121(3):292-302. PMID: 22100446; PMCID: PMC3294046.
    41. Midzi N, Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Sangweme D, Paul NH, Makware G, Mapingure MP, Brouwer KC, Mudzori J, Hlerema G, Chadukura V, Mutapi F, Kumar N, Mduluza T. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2011 Jun 22; 11:9. PMID: 21696629; PMCID: PMC3141662.
    42. Midzi N, Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Mapingure MP, Paul NH, Sangweme D, Hlerema G, Mutsaka MJ, Tongogara F, Makware G, Chadukura V, Brouwer KC, Mutapi F, Kumar N, Mduluza T. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe. BMC Infect Dis. 2011 Jun 13; 11:169. PMID: 21668948; PMCID: PMC3141409.
    43. Pollini RA, Rosen PC, Gallardo M, Robles B, Brouwer KC, Macalino GE, Lozada R. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico. Harm Reduct J. 2011 May 24; 8:13. PMID: 21609471; PMCID: PMC3121588.
    44. Holmes EC, Ghedin E, Halpin RA, Stockwell TB, Zhang XQ, Fleming R, Davey R, Benson CA, Mehta S, Taplitz R, Liu YT, Brouwer KC, Wentworth DE, Lin X, Schooley RT. Extensive geographical mixing of 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus in a single university community. J Virol. 2011 Jul; 85(14):6923-9. PMID: 21593168; PMCID: PMC3126550.
    45. Rondinelli AJ, Morris MD, Rodwell TC, Moser KS, Paida P, Popper ST, Brouwer KC. Under- and over-nutrition among refugees in San Diego County, California. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Feb; 13(1):161-8. PMID: 20505992; PMCID: PMC3021711.
    46. Wagner KD, Pollini RA, Patterson TL, Lozada R, Ojeda VD, Brouwer KC, Vera A, Volkmann TA, Strathdee SA. Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Jan 15; 113(2-3):236-41. PMID: 20889270; PMCID: PMC3025041.
    47. Mehta SR, Delport W, Brouwer KC, Espitia S, Patterson T, Pond SK, Strathdee SA, Smith DM. The relatedness of HIV epidemics in the United States-Mexico border region. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Dec; 26(12):1273-7. PMID: 20977301.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Rusch ML, Brouwer KC, Lozada R, Strathdee SA, Magis-Rodríguez C, Patterson TL. Distribution of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors by work locations among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Oct; 37(10):608-14. PMID: 20585278.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Midzi N, Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Mapingure MP, Sangweme D, Chirehwa MT, Brouwer KC, Mudzori J, Hlerema G, Mutapi F, Kumar N, Mduluza T. Consequences of polyparasitism on anaemia among primary school children in Zimbabwe. Acta Trop. 2010 Jul-Aug; 115(1-2):103-11. PMID: 20175980.
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    50. Morris MD, Popper ST, Rodwell TC, Brodine SK, Brouwer KC. Healthcare barriers of refugees post-resettlement. J Community Health. 2009 Dec; 34(6):529-38. PMID: 19705264.
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    51. Poon AF, Brouwer KC, Strathdee SA, Firestone-Cruz M, Lozada RM, Pond SL, Heckathorn DD, Frost SD. Parsing social network survey data from hidden populations using stochastic context-free grammars. PLoS One. 2009 Sep 07; 4(9):e6777. PMID: 19738904; PMCID: PMC2734164.
    52. Deiss R, Garfein RS, Lozada R, Burgos JL, Brouwer KC, Moser KS, Zuniga ML, Rodwell TC, Ojeda VD, Strathdee SA. Influences of cross-border mobility on tuberculosis diagnoses and treatment interruption among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. Am J Public Health. 2009 Aug; 99(8):1491-5. PMID: 19542040.
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    53. Ramos R, Ferreira-Pinto JB, Brouwer KC, Ramos ME, Lozada RM, Firestone-Cruz M, Strathdee SA. A tale of two cities: Social and environmental influences shaping risk factors and protective behaviors in two Mexico-US border cities. Health Place. 2009 Dec; 15(4):999-1005. PMID: 19464228; PMCID: PMC2735581.
    54. Iñiguez-Stevens E, Brouwer KC, Hogg RS, Patterson TL, Lozada R, Magis-Rodríguez C, Elder JP, Viani RM, Strathdee SA. [Estimating the 2006 prevalence of HIV by gender and risk groups in Tijuana, Mexico]. Gac Med Mex. 2009 May-Jun; 145(3):189-95. PMID: 19685824; PMCID: PMC3071654.
    55. Volkow P, Brouwer KC, Loza O, Ramos R, Lozada R, Garfein RS, Magis-Rodriguez C, Firestone-Cruz M, Strathdee SA. Cross-border paid plasma donation among injection drug users in two Mexico-U.S. border cities. Int J Drug Policy. 2009 Sep; 20(5):409-12. PMID: 19230645; PMCID: PMC2955515.
    56. Strathdee SA, Lozada R, Ojeda VD, Pollini RA, Brouwer KC, Vera A, Cornelius W, Nguyen L, Magis-Rodriguez C, Patterson TL. Differential effects of migration and deportation on HIV infection among male and female injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. PLoS One. 2008 Jul 30; 3(7):e2690. PMID: 18665250; PMCID: PMC2467493.
    57. Midzi N, Sangweme D, Zinyowera S, Mapingure MP, Brouwer KC, Munatsi A, Mutapi F, Mudzori J, Kumar N, Woelk G, Mduluza T. The burden of polyparasitism among primary schoolchildren in rural and farming areas in Zimbabwe. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Oct; 102(10):1039-45. PMID: 18656215.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Midzi N, Sangweme D, Zinyowera S, Mapingure MP, Brouwer KC, Kumar N, Mutapi F, Woelk G, Mduluza T. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma haematobium infection among primary school children in Zimbabwe. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Aug; 102(8):759-66. PMID: 18486169.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Philbin M, Pollini RA, Ramos R, Lozada R, Brouwer KC, Ramos ME, Firestone-Cruz M, Case P, Strathdee SA. Shooting gallery attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: correlates, prevention opportunities, and the role of the environment. AIDS Behav. 2008 Jul; 12(4):552-60. PMID: 18369723; PMCID: PMC2733534.
    60. Strathdee SA, Case P, Lozada R, Mantsios AR, Alvelais J, Pu M, Brouwer KC, Miller CL, Patterson TL. The color of meth: is it related to adverse health outcomes? An exploratory study in Tijuana, Mexico. Am J Addict. 2008 Mar-Apr; 17(2):111-5. PMID: 18393053; PMCID: PMC3176304.
    61. Deiss RG, Brouwer KC, Loza O, Lozada RM, Ramos R, Cruz MA, Patterson TL, Heckathorn DD, Frost SD, Strathdee SA. High-risk sexual and drug using behaviors among male injection drug users who have sex with men in 2 Mexico-US border cities. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Mar; 35(3):243-9. PMID: 18046263; PMCID: PMC2391275.
    62. Strathdee SA, Lozada R, Pollini RA, Brouwer KC, Mantsios A, Abramovitz DA, Rhodes T, Latkin CA, Loza O, Alvelais J, Magis-Rodriguez C, Patterson TL. Individual, social, and environmental influences associated with HIV infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Mar 01; 47(3):369-76. PMID: 18176320.
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    63. Brouwer KC, Lozada R, Cornelius WA, Firestone Cruz M, Magis-Rodríguez C, Zúñiga de Nuncio ML, Strathdee SA. Deportation along the U.S.-Mexico border: its relation to drug use patterns and accessing care. J Immigr Minor Health. 2009 Feb; 11(1):1-6. PMID: 18247117; PMCID: PMC3154615.
    64. Case P, Patricia C, Ramos R, Brouwer KC, Firestone-Cruz M, Pollini RA, Fraga MA, Patterson TL, Strathdee SA. At the borders, on the edge: use of injected methamphetamine in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. J Immigr Minor Health. 2008 Feb; 10(1):23-33. PMID: 17516170; PMCID: PMC2716800.
    65. Moyer LB, Brouwer KC, Brodine SK, Ramos R, Lozada R, Cruz MF, Magis-Rodriguez C, Strathdee SA. Barriers and missed opportunities to HIV testing among injection drug users in two Mexico--US border cities. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2008 Jan; 27(1):39-45. PMID: 18034380; PMCID: PMC2196215.
    66. Pollini RA, Brouwer KC, Lozada RM, Ramos R, Cruz MF, Magis-Rodriguez C, Case P, Burris S, Pu M, Frost SD, Palinkas LA, Miller C, Strathdee SA. Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico-US border cities. Addiction. 2008 Jan; 103(1):101-8. PMID: 18028520; PMCID: PMC2214830.
    67. Miller CL, Firestone M, Ramos R, Burris S, Ramos ME, Case P, Brouwer KC, Fraga MA, Strathdee SA. Injecting drug users' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican-U.S. border cities: public health perspectives. Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Aug; 19(4):324-31. PMID: 17997089; PMCID: PMC2546504.
    68. Rachlis B, Brouwer KC, Mills EJ, Hayes M, Kerr T, Hogg RS. Migration and transmission of blood-borne infections among injection drug users: understanding the epidemiologic bridge. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Oct 08; 90(2-3):107-19. PMID: 17485179.
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    69. White EF, Garfein RS, Brouwer KC, Lozada R, Ramos R, Firestone-Cruz M, Pérez SG, Magis-Rodríguez C, Conde-Glez CJ, Strathdee SA. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection among injection drug users in two Mexican cities bordering the U.S. Salud Publica Mex. 2007 May-Jun; 49(3):165-72. PMID: 17589770; PMCID: PMC2743977.
    70. Cruz MF, Mantsios A, Ramos R, Case P, Brouwer KC, Ramos ME, Fraga WD, Latkin CA, Miller CL, Strathdee SA. A qualitative exploration of gender in the context of injection drug use in two US-Mexico border cities. AIDS Behav. 2007 Mar; 11(2):253-62. PMID: 16865542; PMCID: PMC2733528.
    71. Eyzaguirre L, Brouwer KC, Nadai Y, Patterson TL, Ramos R, Firestone Cruz M, Orozovich P, Strathdee SA, Carr JK. First molecular surveillance report of HIV type 1 in injecting drug users and female sex workers along the U.S.-Mexico border. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Feb; 23(2):331-4. PMID: 17331041; PMCID: PMC2734975.
    72. Brouwer KC, Mirel LB, Yang C, Lal RB, Kolczak MS, Van Eijk AM, Ayisi J, Otieno JA, Nahlen BL, Steketee R, Shi YP, Lal AA. Subclinical Plasmodium falciparum infection and HIV-1 viral load. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Feb; 13(2):351-3. PMID: 17479917; PMCID: PMC2725849.
    73. Frost SD, Brouwer KC, Firestone Cruz MA, Ramos R, Ramos ME, Lozada RM, Magis-Rodriguez C, Strathdee SA. Respondent-driven sampling of injection drug users in two U.S.-Mexico border cities: recruitment dynamics and impact on estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence. J Urban Health. 2006 Nov; 83(6 Suppl):i83-97. PMID: 17072761; PMCID: PMC1705507.
    74. Bharti AR, Chuquiyauri R, Brouwer KC, Stancil J, Lin J, Llanos-Cuentas A, Vinetz JM. Experimental infection of the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles darlingi by human patient-derived Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Oct; 75(4):610-6. PMID: 17038681; PMCID: PMC1630632.
    75. Ganoza CA, Matthias MA, Collins-Richards D, Brouwer KC, Cunningham CB, Segura ER, Gilman RH, Gotuzzo E, Vinetz JM. Determining risk for severe leptospirosis by molecular analysis of environmental surface waters for pathogenic Leptospira. PLoS Med. 2006 Aug; 3(8):e308. PMID: 16933963; PMCID: PMC1551915.
    76. Brouwer KC, Strathdee SA, Magis-Rodríguez C, Bravo-García E, Gayet C, Patterson TL, Bertozzi SM, Hogg RS. Estimated numbers of men and women infected with HIV/AIDS in Tijuana, Mexico. J Urban Health. 2006 Mar; 83(2):299-307. PMID: 16736378; PMCID: PMC2527171.
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