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Gary Vilke

Title(s)Professor Of Clinical, Emergency Medical Services
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone619-543-6463
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    Collapse Overview
    Gary M. Vilke, MD is a Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine. He completed his undergraduate education at Cal Berkeley and his medical school training at UCSD. He completed a surgical internship and an emergency medicine residency program at UCSD as well. Dr. Vilke completed a residency in emergency medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine, where he also earned his medical degree. He is board-certified in emergency medicine and is a fellow of ACEP and AAEM. He works clinically at the UC San Diego Health’s Emergency Departments in Hillcrest and La Jolla and the two UCSD urgent care facilities.

    Dr. Vilke serves as the Medical Director of Risk Management at UC San Diego Health and serves on numerous hospital committees, including chairing the Medical Risk Management Committee and UCSD Allocation Committee. He is the UCSD Vice Chair of Clinical Operations for the Department of Emergency Medicine and oversees clinical operations at the three emergency departments and two urgent cares staffed by UCSD physicians. He is also the previous Chair for the UCSD Patient Care and Peer Review Committee, the former Chief of Staff at UCSD, and the former President for the UCSD Academy of Clinician Scholars.

    Dr. Vilke served as the Director for Custody Services at UCSD, responsible for the care of inmates at seven San Diego Sheriff’s jails for 16 years also taking care of thousands of inmate patients at the jail facilities.

    Dr. Vilke’s EMS background and experience includes having been a flight physician with Lifeflight of San Diego and with Mercy Air. His EMS administrative roles include having been the Base Station Medical Director for UCSD, the Medical Director for the Palomar and Southwestern Paramedic College Training Programs, and he is the former Medical Director for the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services (EMS). He also served as the Medical Director for the San Diego County Metropolitan Medical Strike Team (MMST). Dr. Vilke started the UCSD EMS/Disaster Medicine Fellowship Training Program and was the first Fellowship Director. He currently serves as the Assistant Director of the EMS/Disaster Medicine Division at UCSD. Other administrative roles include being the former medical director for the City of Carlsbad and Chula Vista City Fire Departments and Mercy Air Service. He is also the former medical director for three fixed winged air ambulance companies, Aeromedevac, Aviamedix and AirLinkUSA. Dr. Vilke currently serves as the Medical Director of the San Diego County North Zone Fire Protection District which is a consortium of 18 individual EMS agencies.

    Within the department, Dr. Vilke has served as the director of Clinical Research and led several large, multi-center clinical trials funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH), including the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium which studies out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and severe traumatic injury. He has been funded with over $5 million in research dollars. Dr. Vilke also started the clinical research fellowship in emergency medicine and served as director for 10 years and the EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship and served as director for 6 years.

    Dr. Vilke’s research focus has been in the areas of prehospital care, cardiac arrest and in-custody deaths. He has published over 70 original peer reviews on topics including positional asphyxia, weight force on the back, OC spray, neck holds, restraint chairs, spit socks, Excited Delirium Syndrome, agitation and TASER’s. He has lectured internationally on these topics and Co-Authored with Darrell Ross the book, Guidelines for Investigating Officer-Involved Shootings, Arrest-Related Deaths and Deaths in Custody. He has served as a nationally recognized expert on many high-profile use of force and in custody death cases. Additionally, he has over 35 grant funded research projects including funding by several national organizations to perform research in in-custody deaths, including the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), the Institute for the Prevention of In-Custody Deaths (IPICD) and the National Institute of Justice (NIJ).

    Dr. Vilke has written two textbooks, coauthored over 70 book chapters and over 270 peer reviewed articles, and his work has appeared in Resuscitation, New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, and Annals of Emergency Medicine, among others. He is also on the editorial board for four major medical journals.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    FOCUS program (On the Frontlines of Communities in the United States): Routine Screening for HCV Infection at the UCSD Hillcrest and Thornton Emergency Departments
    Gilead
    Role: Co-Investigator
    A blinded non-randomized comparison of inhaled loxapine (ADASUVE®) versus IM haloperidol/lorazepam
    Teva Pharmaceuticals
    Role: Co-Investigator
    FOCUS program (On the Frontlines of Communities in the United States): Routine Screening for HIV Infection at the UCSD Hillcrest and Thornton Emergency Departments
    Gilead
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Sawyer KN, Humbert A, Leroux BG, Nichol G, Kudenchuk PJ, Daya MR, Grunau B, Wang HE, Ornato JP, Rittenberger JC, Aufderheide TP, Wittwer L, Colella MR, Austin M, Kawano T, Egan D, Richmond N, Vithalani VD, Scales D, Baker AJ, Morrison LJ, Vilke GM, Kurz MC. Relationship Between Duration of Targeted Temperature Management, Ischemic Interval, and Good Functional Outcome From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Crit Care Med. 2020 Mar; 48(3):370-377. PMID: 31821187.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Mathews BK, Fredrickson M, Sebasky M, Seymann G, Ramamoorthy S, Vilke G, Sloane C, Thorson E, El-Kareh R. Structured case reviews for organizational learning about diagnostic vulnerabilities: initial experiences from two medical centers. Diagnosis (Berl). 2020 01 28; 7(1):27-35. PMID: 31444963.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Daya MR, Leroux BG, Dorian P, Rea TD, Newgard CD, Morrison LJ, Lupton JR, Menegazzi JJ, Ornato JP, Sopko G, Christenson J, Idris A, Mody P, Vilke GM, Herdeman C, Barbic D, Kudenchuk PJ. Survival After Intravenous Versus Intraosseous Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Shock-Refractory Cardiac Arrest. Circulation. 2020 Jan 21; 141(3):188-198. PMID: 31941354.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Blewer AL, Schmicker RH, Morrison LJ, Aufderheide TP, Daya M, Starks MA, May S, Idris AH, Callaway CW, Kudenchuk PJ, Vilke GM, Abella BS. Variation in Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Delivery and Subsequent Survival From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Based on Neighborhood-Level Ethnic Characteristics. Circulation. 2020 Jan 07; 141(1):34-41. PMID: 31887076.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Wettersten N, Horiuchi Y, van Veldhuisen DJ, Mueller C, Filippatos G, Nowak R, Hogan C, Kontos MC, Cannon CM, Müeller GA, Birkhahn R, Taub P, Vilke GM, Barnett O, McDonald K, Mahon N, Nuñez J, Briguori C, Passino C, Maisel A, Murray PT. Short-term prognostic implications of serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in acute heart failure: findings from the AKINESIS study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2020 Feb; 22(2):251-263. PMID: 31863682.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Soucy Z, Cheng D, Vilke GM, Childers R. Systematic Review: The Role of Intravenous and Oral Contrast in the Computed Tomography Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis. J Emerg Med. 2019 Dec 13. PMID: 31843324.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Docter TA, Patel BH, Brennan JJ, Castillo EM, Lee RR, Vilke GM. Utility of Shunt Series in the Evaluation of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Dysfunction in Adults. J Emerg Med. 2019 Dec 02. PMID: 31806435.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wettersten N, Horiuchi Y, van Veldhuisen DJ, Mueller C, Filippatos G, Nowak R, Hogan C, Kontos MC, Cannon CM, Müeller GA, Birkhahn R, Taub P, Vilke GM, Barnett O, McDonald K, Mahon N, Nuñez J, Briguori C, Passino C, Murray PT, Maisel A. B-type natriuretic peptide trend predicts clinical significance of worsening renal function in acute heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2019 Dec; 21(12):1553-1560. PMID: 31769140.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Lam SHF, Nakajima Y, Castillo EM, Brennan J, Vilke GM. Willingness to consider alternatives to ambulance use among adult emergency department patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Nov 18. PMID: 31859199.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Hoenigl M, Mathur K, Blumenthal J, Brennan J, Zuazo M, McCauley M, Horton LE, Wagner GA, Reed SL, Vilke GM, Coyne CJ, Little SJ. Universal HIV and Birth Cohort HCV Screening in San Diego Emergency Departments. Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 09; 9(1):14479. PMID: 31597939.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Vilke G, Chan T, Bozeman WP, Childers R. Emergency Department Evaluation After Conducted Energy Weapon Use: Review of the Literature for the Clinician. J Emerg Med. 2019 Nov; 57(5):740-746. PMID: 31500994.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Pillus D, Bruno E, Farcy D, Vilke GM, Childers R. Systematic Review: The Role of Thrombolysis in Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism. J Emerg Med. 2019 Oct; 57(4):517-522. PMID: 31477311.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Vilke GM, Mash DC, Pardo M, Bozeman W, Hall C, Sloane C, Wilson MP, Coyne CJ, Xie X, Castillo EM. EXCITATION study: Unexplained in-custody deaths: Evaluating biomarkers of stress and agitation. J Forensic Leg Med. 2019 Aug; 66:100-106. PMID: 31252195.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Gleber R, Vilke GM, Castillo EM, Brennan J, Oyama L, Coyne CJ. Trends in emergency physician opioid prescribing practices during the United States opioid crisis. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Jun 06. PMID: 31227419.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Li DR, Brennan JJ, Kreshak AA, Castillo EM, Vilke GM. Patients Who Leave the Emergency Department Without Being Seen and Their Follow-Up Behavior: A Retrospective Descriptive Analysis. J Emerg Med. 2019 Jul; 57(1):106-113. PMID: 31078346.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Sieker JW, Castillo EM, Vilke GM. Timing of fatal BASE jumping incidents: 1981-2018. J Forensic Leg Med. 2019 Jul; 65:39-44. PMID: 31078102.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Chalmers CE, Mullinax S, Brennan J, Vilke GM, Oliveto AH, Wilson MP. Screening Tools Validated in the Outpatient Pain Management Setting Poorly Predict Opioid Misuse in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study. J Emerg Med. 2019 Jun; 56(6):601-610. PMID: 31043338.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Dyson K, Brown SP, May S, Smith K, Koster RW, Beesems SG, Kuisma M, Salo A, Finn J, Sterz F, Nürnberger A, Morrison LJ, Olasveengen TM, Callaway CW, Shin SD, Gräsner JT, Daya M, Ma MH, Herlitz J, Strömsöe A, Aufderheide TP, Masterson S, Wang H, Christenson J, Stiell I, Vilke GM, Idris A, Nishiyama C, Iwami T, Nichol G. International variation in survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A validation study of the Utstein template. Resuscitation. 2019 05; 138:168-181. PMID: 30898569.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Supat B, Brennan JJ, Vilke GM, Ishimine P, Hsia RY, Castillo EM. Characterizing pediatric high frequency users of California emergency departments. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Sep; 37(9):1699-1704. PMID: 30651182.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Khera R, Humbert A, Leroux B, Nichol G, Kudenchuk P, Scales D, Baker A, Austin M, Newgard CD, Radecki R, Vilke GM, Sawyer KN, Sopko G, Idris AH, Wang H, Chan PS, Kurz MC. Hospital Variation in the Utilization and Implementation of Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2018 11; 11(11):e004829. PMID: 30571336.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Alfaraj DN, Wilson MP, Akeely Y, Vilke GM, Nordstrom K. Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Management of Hypercalcemia. J Emerg Med. 2018 Nov; 55(5):688-692. PMID: 30336968.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Lutz M, Sloane CM, Castillo EM, Brennen JJ, Coyne CJ, Swift SL, Vilke GM. Physiological effects of a spit sock. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 02; 37(2):291-293. PMID: 30415982.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Okubo M, Schmicker RH, Wallace DJ, Idris AH, Nichol G, Austin MA, Grunau B, Wittwer LK, Richmond N, Morrison LJ, Kurz MC, Cheskes S, Kudenchuk PJ, Zive DM, Aufderheide TP, Wang HE, Herren H, Vaillancourt C, Davis DP, Vilke GM, Scheuermeyer FX, Weisfeldt ML, Elmer J, Colella R, Callaway CW. Variation in Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Between Emergency Medical Services Agencies. JAMA Cardiol. 2018 10 01; 3(10):989-999. PMID: 30267053.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Kreshak AA, Brennan JJ, Vilke GM, Tolia VM, Caccese M, Castillo EM, Chan TC. A Description of a Health System's Emergency Department Patients Who Were Part of a Large Hepatitis A Outbreak. J Emerg Med. 2018 Nov; 55(5):620-626. PMID: 30253951.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Shuen JA, Wilson MP, Kreshak A, Mullinax S, Brennan J, Castillo EM, Hinkle C, Vilke GM. Telephoned, Texted, or Typed Out: A Randomized Trial of Physician-Patient Communication After Emergency Department Discharge. J Emerg Med. 2018 10; 55(4):573-581. PMID: 30181075.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Blewer AL, McGovern SK, Schmicker RH, May S, Morrison LJ, Aufderheide TP, Daya M, Idris AH, Callaway CW, Kudenchuk PJ, Vilke GM, Abella BS. Gender Disparities Among Adult Recipients of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Public. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2018 08; 11(8):e004710. PMID: 30354377.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Zive DM, Schmicker R, Daya M, Kudenchuk P, Nichol G, Rittenberger JC, Aufderheide T, Vilke GM, Christenson J, Buick JE, Kaila K, May S, Rea T, Morrison LJ. Survival and variability over time from out of hospital cardiac arrest across large geographically diverse communities participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Resuscitation. 2018 10; 131:74-82. PMID: 30053457.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Lam SHF, Li DR, Hong CE, Vilke GM. Systematic Review: Rectal Administration of Medications for Pediatric Procedural Sedation. J Emerg Med. 2018 07; 55(1):51-63. PMID: 29805070.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Beri N, Daniels LB, Jaffe A, Mueller C, Anand I, Peacock WF, Hollander JE, DeFilippi C, Schreiber D, McCord J, Limkakeng AT, Wu AHB, Apple FS, Diercks DB, Nagurney JT, Nowak RM, Cannon CM, Clopton P, Neath SX, Christenson RH, Hogan C, Vilke G, Maisel A. Copeptin to rule out myocardial infarction in Blacks versus Caucasians. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2019 Aug; 8(5):395-403. PMID: 29737180.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Kurz MC, Schmicker RH, Leroux B, Nichol G, Aufderheide TP, Cheskes S, Grunau B, Jasti J, Kudenchuk P, Vilke GM, Buick J, Wittwer L, Sahni R, Straight R, Wang HE. Advanced vs. Basic Life Support in the Treatment of Out-of-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Resuscitation. 2018 07; 128:132-137. PMID: 29723609.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Meurer WJ, Barth B, Abraham M, Hoffman JR, Vilke GM, DeMers G. Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Ischemic Stroke: Focused Update of 2010 Clinical Practice Advisory From the American Academy of Emergency Medicine. J Emerg Med. 2018 05; 54(5):723-730. PMID: 29545057.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Motov S, Strayer R, Hayes BD, Reiter M, Rosenbaum S, Richman M, Repanshek Z, Taylor S, Friedman B, Vilke G, Lasoff D. The Treatment of Acute Pain in the Emergency Department: A White Paper Position Statement Prepared for the American Academy of Emergency Medicine. J Emerg Med. 2018 05; 54(5):731-736. PMID: 29523420.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Hayes BD, Winters ME, Rosenbaum SB, Allehyani MF, Vilke GM. What is the Role of Reversal Agents in the Management of Emergency Department Patients with Dabigatran-Associated Hemorrhage? J Emerg Med. 2018 04; 54(4):571-575. PMID: 29456085.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Winters ME, Sherwin R, Vilke GM, Wardi G. Reply. J Emerg Med. 2018 02; 54(2):245-246. PMID: 29428054.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Mullinax S, Chalmers CE, Brennan J, Vilke GM, Nordstrom K, Wilson MP. Suicide screening scales may not adequately predict disposition of suicidal patients from the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 10; 36(10):1779-1783. PMID: 29530359.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Bruno E, Pillus D, Cheng D, Vilke G, Pokrajac N. During the Emergency Department Evaluation of a Well-Appearing Neonate with Fever, Should Empiric Acyclovir Be Initiated? J Emerg Med. 2018 Feb; 54(2):261-265. PMID: 29198381.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Mills L, Morley EJ, Soucy Z, Vilke GM, Lam SHF. Ultrasound for the Diagnosis and Management of Suspected Urolithiasis in the Emergency Department. J Emerg Med. 2018 Feb; 54(2):215-220. PMID: 29089155.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Winters ME, Sherwin R, Vilke GM, Wardi G. What is the Preferred Resuscitation Fluid for Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock? J Emerg Med. 2017 Dec; 53(6):928-939. PMID: 29079487.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Wilson MP, Nordstrom K, Hopper A, Porter A, Castillo EM, Vilke GM. Risperidone in the Emergency Setting is Associated with More Hypotension in Elderly Patients. J Emerg Med. 2017 Nov; 53(5):735-739. PMID: 28987309.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Alfaraj DN, Vilke GM. Tripartite Fracture of the Ulnar Sesamoid Bone of the Thumb. J Emerg Med. 2017 Nov; 53(5):758-759. PMID: 28988738.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Starks MA, Schmicker RH, Peterson ED, May S, Buick JE, Kudenchuk PJ, Drennan IR, Herren H, Jasti J, Sayre M, Stub D, Vilke GM, Stephens SW, Chang AM, Nuttall J, Nichol G. Association of Neighborhood Demographics With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Treatment and Outcomes: Where You Live May Matter. JAMA Cardiol. 2017 10 01; 2(10):1110-1118. PMID: 28854308.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Kudenchuk PJ, Leroux BG, Daya M, Rea T, Vaillancourt C, Morrison LJ, Callaway CW, Christenson J, Ornato JP, Dunford JV, Wittwer L, Weisfeldt ML, Aufderheide TP, Vilke GM, Idris AH, Stiell IG, Colella MR, Kayea T, Egan D, Desvigne-Nickens P, Gray P, Gray R, Straight R, Dorian P. Antiarrhythmic Drugs for Nonshockable-Turned-Shockable Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The ALPS Study (Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo). Circulation. 2017 Nov 28; 136(22):2119-2131. PMID: 28904070.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Sherwin R, Winters ME, Vilke GM, Wardi G. Does Early and Appropriate Antibiotic Administration Improve Mortality in Emergency Department Patients with Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock? J Emerg Med. 2017 Oct; 53(4):588-595. PMID: 28916120.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Evans CS, Platts-Mills TF, Fernandez AR, Grover JM, Cabanas JG, Patel MD, Vilke GM, Brice JH. Repeated Emergency Medical Services Use by Older Adults: Analysis of a Comprehensive Statewide Database. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Oct; 70(4):506-515.e3. PMID: 28559037.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Blewer AL, Ibrahim SA, Leary M, Dutwin D, McNally B, Anderson ML, Morrison LJ, Aufderheide TP, Daya M, Idris AH, Callaway CW, Kudenchuk PJ, Vilke GM, Abella BS. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Disparities in the United States. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 17; 6(5). PMID: 28515114.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Coyne CJ, Le V, Brennan JJ, Castillo EM, Shatsky RA, Ferran K, Brodine S, Vilke GM. Application of the MASCC and CISNE Risk-Stratification Scores to Identify Low-Risk Febrile Neutropenic Patients in the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jun; 69(6):755-764. PMID: 28041827.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Winters ME, Sherwin R, Vilke GM, Wardi G. Does Early Goal-Directed Therapy Decrease Mortality Compared with Standard Care in Patients with Septic Shock? J Emerg Med. 2017 Mar; 52(3):379-384. PMID: 27876325.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Meurer WJ, Barth BE, Gaddis G, Vilke GM, Lam SH. Rapid Systematic Review: Intra-Arterial Thrombectomy ("Clot Retrieval") for Selected Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. J Emerg Med. 2017 Feb; 52(2):255-261. PMID: 27863833.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Beri N, Marston NA, Daniels LB, Nowak RM, Schreiber D, Mueller C, Jaffe A, Diercks DB, Wettersten N, DeFilippi C, Peacock WF, Limkakeng AT, Anand I, McCord J, Hollander JE, Wu AHB, Apple FS, Nagurney JT, Berardi C, Cannon CM, Clopton P, Neath SX, Christenson RH, Hogan C, Vilke G, Maisel A. Necessity of hospitalization and stress testing in low risk chest pain patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2017 Feb; 35(2):274-280. PMID: 27847253.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Degner NR, Joshua A, Padilla R, Vo HH, Vilke GM. Comparison of Digital Chest Radiography to Purified Protein Derivative for Screening of Tuberculosis in Newly Admitted Inmates. J Correct Health Care. 2016 10; 22(4):322-330. PMID: 27742856.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Granata RT, Castillo EM, Vilke GM. Safety of deferred CT imaging of intoxicated patients presenting with possible traumatic brain injury. Am J Emerg Med. 2017 Jan; 35(1):51-54. PMID: 27743625.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Motov S, Rosenbaum S, Vilke GM, Nakajima Y. Is There a Role for Intravenous Subdissociative-Dose Ketamine Administered as an Adjunct to Opioids or as a Single Agent for Acute Pain Management in the Emergency Department? J Emerg Med. 2016 Dec; 51(6):752-757. PMID: 27693070.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Maisel AS, Wettersten N, van Veldhuisen DJ, Mueller C, Filippatos G, Nowak R, Hogan C, Kontos MC, Cannon CM, Müller GA, Birkhahn R, Clopton P, Taub P, Vilke GM, McDonald K, Mahon N, Nuñez J, Briguori C, Passino C, Murray PT. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin for Acute Kidney Injury During Acute Heart Failure Hospitalizations: The AKINESIS Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 09 27; 68(13):1420-1431. PMID: 27659464.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Coyne CJ, Abraham MK, Perkins J, Vilke GM. Influenza in the Emergency Department: Vaccination, Diagnosis, and Treatment. J Emerg Med. 2016 Dec; 51(6):735-736. PMID: 27687169.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Corbett B, Nordstrom K, Vilke GM, Wilson MP. Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Diagnosis and Management of Steroid Psychosis. J Emerg Med. 2016 Nov; 51(5):557-560. PMID: 27553921.
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    56. Lasoff D, Vilke G, Nordstrom K, Wilson M. Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Detection and Management of Anti-N-Methyl-D-Asparate Receptor Encephalitis. J Emerg Med. 2016 Nov; 51(5):561-563. PMID: 27431869.
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    57. Healy ME, Kozubal DE, Horn AE, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Ufberg JW. Care of the Critically Ill Pregnant Patient and Perimortem Cesarean Delivery in the Emergency Department. J Emerg Med. 2016 Aug; 51(2):172-7. PMID: 27372376.
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    58. Wilson MP, Vilke GM, Hayden SR, Nordstrom K. Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Management of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2016 Jul; 51(1):66-9. PMID: 27247083.
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    59. Kudenchuk PJ, Brown SP, Daya M, Rea T, Nichol G, Morrison LJ, Leroux B, Vaillancourt C, Wittwer L, Callaway CW, Christenson J, Egan D, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt ML, Stiell IG, Idris AH, Aufderheide TP, Dunford JV, Colella MR, Vilke GM, Brienza AM, Desvigne-Nickens P, Gray PC, Gray R, Seals N, Straight R, Dorian P. Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 05; 374(18):1711-22. PMID: 27043165.
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    60. Lam SH, Majlesi N, Vilke GM. Use of Intravenous Fat Emulsion in the Emergency Department for the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient. J Emerg Med. 2016 Aug; 51(2):203-14. PMID: 26972018.
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    61. Meurer WJ, Walsh B, Vilke GM, Coyne CJ. Clinical Guidelines for the Emergency Department Evaluation of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. J Emerg Med. 2016 Apr; 50(4):696-701. PMID: 26823138.
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    62. Abraham MK, Perkins J, Vilke GM, Coyne CJ. Influenza in the Emergency Department: Vaccination, Diagnosis, and Treatment: Clinical Practice Paper Approved by American Academy of Emergency Medicine Clinical Guidelines Committee. J Emerg Med. 2016 Mar; 50(3):536-42. PMID: 26763858.
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    63. Lev R, Petro S, Lee O, Lucas J, Stuck A, Vilke GM, Castillo EM. A description of Medical Examiner prescription-related deaths and prescription drug monitoring program data. Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Mar; 34(3):510-4. PMID: 26778639.
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    64. Campillo A, Castillo E, Vilke GM, Hopper A, Ryan V, Wilson MP. First-generation Antipsychotics Are Often Prescribed in the Emergency Department but Are Often Not Administered with Adjunctive Medications. J Emerg Med. 2015 Dec; 49(6):901-6. PMID: 26433424.
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    65. Wilson MP, Nordstrom K, Shah AA, Vilke GM. Psychiatric Emergencies in Pregnant Women. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2015 Nov; 33(4):841-51. PMID: 26493527.
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    66. Lev R, Petro S, Lee A, Lee O, Lucas J, Castillo EM, Egnatios J, Vilke GM. Methadone related deaths compared to all prescription related deaths. Forensic Sci Int. 2015 Dec; 257:347-352. PMID: 26513639.
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    67. Nordstrom K, Vilke GM, Wilson MP. Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Management of Serotonin Syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2016 Jan; 50(1):89-91. PMID: 26454578.
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    68. Lev R, Lee O, Petro S, Lucas J, Castillo EM, Vilke GM, Coyne CJ. Who is prescribing controlled medications to patients who die of prescription drug abuse? Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Jan; 34(1):30-5. PMID: 26476578.
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    69. Vilke GM, Kass P. Retroperitoneal Hematoma After Femoral Arterial Catheterization. J Emerg Med. 2015 Sep; 49(3):338-9. PMID: 26153033.
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    70. Castillo EM, Coyne CJ, Chan TC, Hall CA, Vilke GM. Review of the medical and legal literature on restraint chairs. J Forensic Leg Med. 2015 Jul; 33:91-7. PMID: 26048505.
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    71. Shah KS, Marston NA, Mueller C, Neath SX, Christenson RH, McCord J, Nowak RM, Vilke GM, Daniels LB, Hollander JE, Apple FS, Cannon CM, Nagurney J, Schreiber D, deFilippi C, Hogan CJ, Diercks DB, Limkakeng A, Anand IS, Wu AH, Clopton P, Jaffe AS, Peacock WF, Maisel AS. Midregional proadrenomedullin predicts mortality and major adverse cardiac events in patients presenting with chest pain: results from the CHOPIN trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2015 May; 22(5):554-63. PMID: 25908114.
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    72. Vilke GM, DeMers G, Patel N, Castillo EM. Safety and efficacy of milk and molasses enemas in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2015 Jun; 48(6):667-70. PMID: 25850633.
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    73. Hopper AB, Vilke GM, Castillo EM, Campillo A, Davie T, Wilson MP. Ketamine use for acute agitation in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2015 Jun; 48(6):712-9. PMID: 25843924.
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    74. Perkins J, Ho JD, Vilke GM, DeMers G. American Academy of Emergency Medicine Position Statement: Safety of Droperidol Use in the Emergency Department. J Emerg Med. 2015 Jul; 49(1):91-7. PMID: 25837231.
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    75. Shi E, Vilke GM, Coyne CJ, Oyama LC, Castillo EM. Clinical outcomes of ED patients with bandemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Jul; 33(7):876-81. PMID: 25937377.
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    76. Nakajima Y, Vilke GM. Editorial: Ambulance Diversion: the Con Perspective. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Jun; 33(6):818-9. PMID: 25863653.
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    77. Warren SA, Prince DK, Huszti E, Rea TD, Fitzpatrick AL, Andrusiek DL, Darling S, Morrison LJ, Vilke GM, Nichol G. Volume versus outcome: More emergency medical services personnel on-scene and increased survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2015 Sep; 94:40-8. PMID: 25724356.
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    78. Wilson MP, Brennan JJ, Modesti L, Deen J, Anderson L, Vilke GM, Castillo EM. Lengths of stay for involuntarily held psychiatric patients in the ED are affected by both patient characteristics and medication use. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Apr; 33(4):527-30. PMID: 25708970.
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    79. Hall C, Votova K, Heyd C, Walker M, MacDonald S, Eramian D, Vilke GM. Restraint in police use of force events: examining sudden in custody death for prone and not-prone positions. J Forensic Leg Med. 2015 Apr; 31:29-35. PMID: 25735781.
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    80. Rowh AD, Ufberg JW, Chan TC, Vilke GM, Harrigan RA. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis: emergency management of orbital compartment syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2015 Mar; 48(3):325-30. PMID: 25524455.
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    81. Wilson MP, Minassian A, Ronquillo L, Vilke G. Wilson reply to Ryan. J Emerg Med. 2015 Mar; 48(3):336. PMID: 25456779.
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    82. Davis DP, Aguilar SA, Smith K, Husa RD, Minokadeh A, Vilke G, Sell R, Fisher R, Brainard C, Dunford JV. Preliminary report of a mathematical model of ventilation and intrathoracic pressure applied to prehospital patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2015 Apr-Jun; 19(2):328-35. PMID: 25291381.
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    83. Vilke GM, Chan TC, Savaser D, Neuman T. Response to "Hemodynamic consequences of restraints in the prone position in excited delirium syndrome". J Forensic Leg Med. 2014 Oct; 27:82-4. PMID: 25287806.
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    84. Wilson MP, Minassian A, Bahramzi M, Campillo A, Vilke GM. Despite expert recommendations, second-generation antipsychotics are not often prescribed in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2014 Jun; 46(6):808-13. PMID: 24656982.
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    85. Darracq MA, Clark RF, Jacoby I, Vilke GM, DeMers G, Cantrell FL. Disaster preparedness of poison control centers in the USA: a 15-year follow-up study. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Mar; 10(1):19-25. PMID: 23842905.
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    86. Sloane C, Chan TC, Kolkhorst F, Neuman T, Castillo EM, Vilke GM. Evaluation of the ventilatory effects of the prone maximum restraint (PMR) position on obese human subjects. Forensic Sci Int. 2014 Apr; 237:86-9. PMID: 24607708.
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    87. Jalali N, Vilke GM, Korenevsky M, Castillo EM, Wilson MP. The tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth: can dental pain ever be the sole presenting symptom of a myocardial infarction? A systematic review. J Emerg Med. 2014 Jun; 46(6):865-72. PMID: 24472352.
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    88. Vilke GM, Bozeman WP, Chan TC. Re: emergency department evaluation of conducted energy weapon (CEW)-injured patients. J Emerg Med. 2014 Apr; 46(4):533-4. PMID: 24412057.
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    89. Del Portal DA, Horn AE, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Ufberg JW. Emergency department management of shoulder dystocia. J Emerg Med. 2014 Mar; 46(3):378-82. PMID: 24360351.
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    90. Perkins J, McCurdy MT, Vilke GM, Al-Marshad AA. Telemetry bed usage for patients with low-risk chest pain: review of the literature for the clinician. J Emerg Med. 2014 Feb; 46(2):273-7. PMID: 24268896.
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    91. Wilson MP, MacDonald K, Vilke GM, Ronquillo L, Feifel D. Intramuscular ziprasidone: influence of alcohol and benzodiazepines on vital signs in the emergency setting. J Emerg Med. 2013 Dec; 45(6):901-8. PMID: 24071032.
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    92. Savaser DJ, Campbell C, Castillo EM, Vilke GM, Sloane C, Neuman T, Hansen AV, Shah V, Chan TC. The effect of the prone maximal restraint position with and without weight force on cardiac output and other hemodynamic measures. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013 Nov; 20(8):991-5. PMID: 24237806.
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    93. Winters ME, Rosenbaum S, Vilke GM, Almazroua FY. Emergency department management of patients with ACE-inhibitor angioedema. J Emerg Med. 2013 Nov; 45(5):775-80. PMID: 23988141.
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    94. Minassian A, Vilke GM, Wilson MP. Frequent emergency department visits are more prevalent in psychiatric, alcohol abuse, and dual diagnosis conditions than in chronic viral illnesses such as hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus. J Emerg Med. 2013 Oct; 45(4):520-5. PMID: 23845528.
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    95. Maisel A, Mueller C, Neath SX, Christenson RH, Morgenthaler NG, McCord J, Nowak RM, Vilke G, Daniels LB, Hollander JE, Apple FS, Cannon C, Nagurney JT, Schreiber D, deFilippi C, Hogan C, Diercks DB, Stein JC, Headden G, Limkakeng AT, Anand I, Wu AHB, Papassotiriou J, Hartmann O, Ebmeyer S, Clopton P, Jaffe AS, Peacock WF. Copeptin helps in the early detection of patients with acute myocardial infarction: primary results of the CHOPIN trial (Copeptin Helps in the early detection Of Patients with acute myocardial INfarction). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jul 09; 62(2):150-160. PMID: 23643595.
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    96. Ali SS, Wilson MP, Castillo EM, Witucki P, Simmons TT, Vilke GM. Common hand sanitizer may distort readings of breathalyzer tests in the absence of acute intoxication. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Feb; 20(2):212-5. PMID: 23406081.
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    97. Rockwell E, Jackson E, Vilke G, Jeste DV. A Study of Delusions in a Large Cohort of Alzheimer's Disease Patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1994 Spring; 2(2):157-164. PMID: 28530995.
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    98. Vilke GM, Chan TC, Karch S. Letter by Vilke et al regarding article, "sudden cardiac arrest and death following application of shocks from a TASER electronic control device". Circulation. 2013 Jan 01; 127(1):e258. PMID: 23283863.
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    99. Ronquillo L, Minassian A, Vilke GM, Wilson MP. Literature-based recommendations for suicide assessment in the emergency department: a review. J Emerg Med. 2012 Nov; 43(5):836-42. PMID: 23040403.
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    100. Nordt SP, Vilke GM, Clark RF, Lee Cantrell F, Chan TC, Galinato M, Nguyen V, Castillo EM. Energy drink use and adverse effects among emergency department patients. J Community Health. 2012 Oct; 37(5):976-81. PMID: 22367607.
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    101. Wilson MP, Vilke GM, Govindarajan P, Itagaki MW. Emergency Physicians Research Common Problems in Proportion to their Frequency. West J Emerg Med. 2012 Sep; 13(4):344-50. PMID: 23251714.
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    102. DeMers G, Meurer WJ, Shih R, Rosenbaum S, Vilke GM. Tissue plasminogen activator and stroke: review of the literature for the clinician. J Emerg Med. 2012 Dec; 43(6):1149-54. PMID: 22818644.
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    103. Perkins J, Perkins K, Vilke GM, Almazroua FY. Is culture-positive urinary tract infection in febrile children accurately identified by urine dipstick or microanalysis? J Emerg Med. 2012 Dec; 43(6):1155-9. PMID: 22795471.
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    104. Almazroua FY, Vilke GM. The Captain Morgan technique for the reduction of the dislocated hip. Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Jul; 60(1):135-6; author reply 136. PMID: 22720856.
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    105. Hall CA, Kader AS, Danielle McHale AM, Stewart L, Fick GH, Vilke GM. Frequency of signs of excited delirium syndrome in subjects undergoing police use of force: Descriptive evaluation of a prospective, consecutive cohort. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013 Feb; 20(2):102-7. PMID: 23357395.
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    106. MacDonald K, Wilson M, Minassian A, Vilke GM, Becker O, Tallian K, Cobb P, Perez R, Galangue B, Feifel D. A naturalistic study of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular olanzapine for the management of acute agitation. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Jun; 32(3):317-22. PMID: 22544013.
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    107. Wilson MP, Chen N, Vilke GM, Castillo EM, MacDonald KS, Minassian A. Olanzapine in ED patients: differential effects on oxygenation in patients with alcohol intoxication. Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Sep; 30(7):1196-201. PMID: 22633728.
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    108. Repanshek ZD, Ufberg JW, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Harrigan RA. Alternative treatments of pneumothorax. J Emerg Med. 2013 Feb; 44(2):457-66. PMID: 22621938.
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    109. Gault TI, Gray SM, Vilke GM, Wilson MP. Are oral medications effective in the management of acute agitation? J Emerg Med. 2012 Nov; 43(5):854-9. PMID: 22541877.
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    110. Vilke GM, Sloane CM, Chan TC. Clarification of funding sources in "Electronic control device exposures: a review of morbidity and mortality". Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Apr; 59(4):336. PMID: 22449355.
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    111. Kroening-Roche JC, Soroudi A, Castillo EM, Vilke GM. Antibiotic and bronchodilator prescribing for acute bronchitis in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2012 Aug; 43(2):221-7. PMID: 22341759.
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    112. Vilke GM, Sloane CM, Chan TC. "Funding source and author affiliation in TASER research are strongly associated with a conclusion of device safety". Am Heart J. 2012 Mar; 163(3):e5; author reply e9. PMID: 22424027.
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    113. Vilke GM, Bozeman WP, Dawes DM, Demers G, Wilson MP. Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS): treatment options and considerations. J Forensic Leg Med. 2012 Apr; 19(3):117-21. PMID: 22390995.
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    114. Vilke GM, Payne-James J, Karch SB. Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS): redefining an old diagnosis. J Forensic Leg Med. 2012 Jan; 19(1):7-11. PMID: 22152441.
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    115. Stiell IG, Nichol G, Leroux BG, Rea TD, Ornato JP, Powell J, Christenson J, Callaway CW, Kudenchuk PJ, Aufderheide TP, Idris AH, Daya MR, Wang HE, Morrison LJ, Davis D, Andrusiek D, Stephens S, Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Fowler R, Vaillancourt C, Hostler D, Zive D, Pirrallo RG, Vilke GM, Sopko G, Weisfeldt M. Early versus later rhythm analysis in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 01; 365(9):787-97. PMID: 21879896.
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    116. Vilke GM. Pathophysiologic changes due to TASER devices versus excited delirium: potential relevance to deaths-in-custody? J Forensic Leg Med. 2011 Aug; 18(6):291. PMID: 21771562.
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    117. Wilson MP, MacDonald K, Vilke GM, Feifel D. A comparison of the safety of olanzapine and haloperidol in combination with benzodiazepines in emergency department patients with acute agitation. J Emerg Med. 2012 Nov; 43(5):790-7. PMID: 21601409.
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    118. Vilke GM, DeBard ML, Chan TC, Ho JD, Dawes DM, Hall C, Curtis MD, Costello MW, Mash DC, Coffman SR, McMullen MJ, Metzger JC, Roberts JR, Sztajnkrcer MD, Henderson SO, Adler J, Czarnecki F, Heck J, Bozeman WP. Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS): defining based on a review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 2012 Nov; 43(5):897-905. PMID: 21440403.
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    119. Davis DP, Salazar A, Chan TC, Vilke GM. Prospective evaluation of a clinical decision guideline to diagnose spinal epidural abscess in patients who present to the emergency department with spine pain. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Jun; 14(6):765-70. PMID: 21417700.
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    120. Vilke GM, Bozeman WP, Chan TC. Emergency department evaluation after conducted energy weapon use: review of the literature for the clinician. J Emerg Med. 2011 May; 40(5):598-604. PMID: 21220194.
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    121. Vilke GM, Douglas DJ, Shipp H, Stepanski B, Smith A, Ray LU, Castillo EM. Pediatric poisonings in children younger than five years responded to by paramedics. J Emerg Med. 2011 Sep; 41(3):265-9. PMID: 21215556.
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    122. Schranz CI, Castillo EM, Vilke GM. The 2007 San Diego Wildfire impact on the Emergency Department of the University of California, San Diego Hospital System. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010 Sep-Oct; 25(5):472-6. PMID: 21053198.
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    123. MacDonald K, Wilson MP, Minassian A, Vilke GM, Perez R, Cobb P, Tallian K, Becker O, Feifel D. A retrospective analysis of intramuscular haloperidol and intramuscular olanzapine in the treatment of agitation in drug- and alcohol-using patients. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010 Jul-Aug; 32(4):443-5. PMID: 20633750.
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    124. Wilson MP, MacDonald K, Vilke GM, Feifel D. Potential complications of combining intramuscular olanzapine with benzodiazepines in emergency department patients. J Emerg Med. 2012 Nov; 43(5):889-96. PMID: 20542400.
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    125. Chan TC, Killeen JP, Vilke GM, Marshall JB, Castillo EM. Effect of mandated nurse-patient ratios on patient wait time and care time in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 May; 17(5):545-52. PMID: 20536811.
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    126. Hostler D, Thomas EG, Emerson SS, Christenson J, Stiell IG, Rittenberger JC, Gorman KR, Bigham BL, Callaway CW, Vilke GM, Beaudoin T, Cheskes S, Craig A, Davis DP, Reed A, Idris A, Nichol G. Increased survival after EMS witnessed cardiac arrest. Observations from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Epistry-Cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2010 Jul; 81(7):826-30. PMID: 20403656.
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    127. Castillo EM, Vilke GM, Williams M, Turner P, Boyle J, Chan TC. Collaborative to decrease ambulance diversion: the California Emergency Department Diversion Project. J Emerg Med. 2011 Mar; 40(3):300-7. PMID: 20385460.
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    128. Vilke GM, Chan TC. Evaluation and management for carotid dissection in patients presenting after choking or strangulation. J Emerg Med. 2011 Mar; 40(3):355-8. PMID: 20363580.
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    129. Doney MK, Vilke GM. Case report: aortoenteric fistula presenting as repeated hematochezia. J Emerg Med. 2012 Sep; 43(3):431-4. PMID: 20097507.
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    130. Vilke GM, Sloane C, Castillo EM, Kolkhorst FW, Neuman TS, Chan TC. Evaluation of the ventilatory effects of a restraint chair on human subjects. J Emerg Med. 2011 Jun; 40(6):714-8. PMID: 20079597.
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    131. Vilke GM, Sloane CM, Suffecool A, Kolkhorst FW, Neuman TS, Castillo EM, Chan TC. Physiologic effects of the TASER after exercise. Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Aug; 16(8):704-10. PMID: 19594461.
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    132. Firestone DN, Band RA, Hollander JE, Castillo E, Vilke GM. Use of a urine dipstick and brief clinical questionnaire to predict an abnormal serum creatinine in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Aug; 16(8):699-703. PMID: 19500077.
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    133. Vilke GM, Johnson WD, Castillo EM, Sloane C, Chan TC. Tactical and subject considerations of in-custody deaths proximal to use of conductive energy devices. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2009 Mar; 30(1):23-5. PMID: 19237848.
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    134. Chan TC, Killeen JP, Castillo EM, Vilke GM, Guss DA, Feinberg R, Friedman L. Impact of an internet-based emergency department appointment system to access primary care at safety net community clinics. Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Aug; 54(2):279-84. PMID: 19070939.
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    135. Ramanujam P, Castillo E, Patel E, Vilke G, Wilson MP, Dunford JV. Prehospital transport time intervals for acute stroke patients. J Emerg Med. 2009 Jul; 37(1):40-5. PMID: 18722734.
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    136. Sloane CM, Chan TC, Levine SD, Dunford JV, Neuman T, Vilke GM. Serum troponin I measurement of subjects exposed to the Taser X-26. J Emerg Med. 2008 Jul; 35(1):29-32. PMID: 18296010.
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    137. Tornabene S, Vilke GM. Gradenigo's syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2010 May; 38(4):449-51. PMID: 18296009.
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    138. Conroy C, Stanley C, Eastman AB, Vaughan T, Vilke GM, Hoyt DB, Pacyna S, Smith A. Asphyxia: a rare cause of death for motor vehicle crash occupants. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2008 Mar; 29(1):14-8. PMID: 19749610.
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    139. Tornabene SV, Deutsch R, Davis DP, Chan TC, Vilke GM. Evaluating the use and timing of opioids for the treatment of migraine headaches in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2009 May; 36(4):333-7. PMID: 18280084.
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    140. Vilke GM, Ufberg JW, Harrigan RA, Chan TC. Evaluation and treatment of acute urinary retention. J Emerg Med. 2008 Aug; 35(2):193-8. PMID: 18280090.
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    141. Chan TC, Harrigan RA, Ufberg J, Vilke GM. Mandibular reduction. J Emerg Med. 2008 May; 34(4):435-40. PMID: 18242920.
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    142. Sloane CM, Chan TC, Vilke GM. Thoracic spine compression fracture after TASER activation. J Emerg Med. 2008 Apr; 34(3):283-5. PMID: 18191526.
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    143. Vilke GM, Sloane C, Levine S, Neuman T, Castillo E, Chan TC. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram monitoring of subjects before and after voluntary exposure to the Taser X26. Am J Emerg Med. 2008 Jan; 26(1):1-4. PMID: 18082773.
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    144. Conroy C, Eastman AB, Stanley C, Vilke GM, Vaughan T, Hoyt DB, Pacyna S. Fatal positional asphyxia associated with rollover crashes. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2007 Dec; 28(4):330-2. PMID: 18043021.
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    145. Davis DP, Graydon C, Stein R, Wilson S, Buesch B, Berthiaume S, Lee DM, Rivas J, Vilke GM, Leahy DR. The positive predictive value of paramedic versus emergency physician interpretation of the prehospital 12-lead electrocardiogram. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2007 Oct-Dec; 11(4):399-402. PMID: 17907023.
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    146. Vilke GM, Sloane CM, Bouton KD, Kolkhorst FW, Levine SD, Neuman TS, Castillo EM, Chan TC. Physiological effects of a conducted electrical weapon on human subjects. Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Nov; 50(5):569-75. PMID: 17719689.
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    147. Khaleghi M, Loh A, Vroman D, Chan TC, Vilke GM. The effects of minimizing ambulance diversion hours on emergency departments. J Emerg Med. 2007 Aug; 33(2):155-9. PMID: 17692767.
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    148. Firestone D, Wos A, Killeen JP, Chan TC, Guluma K, Davis DP, Vilke GM. Can urine dipstick be used as a surrogate for serum creatinine in emergency department patients who undergo contrast studies? J Emerg Med. 2007 Aug; 33(2):119-22. PMID: 17692759.
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    149. Levine SD, Sloane CM, Chan TC, Dunford JV, Vilke GM. Cardiac monitoring of human subjects exposed to the taser. J Emerg Med. 2007 Aug; 33(2):113-7. PMID: 17692758.
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    150. Ma G, Davis DP, Schmitt J, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Hayden SR. The sensitivity and specificity of transcricothyroid ultrasonography to confirm endotracheal tube placement in a cadaver model. J Emerg Med. 2007 May; 32(4):405-7. PMID: 17499695.
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    151. Davis DP, Fisher R, Aguilar S, Metz M, Ochs G, McCallum-Brown L, Ramanujam P, Buono C, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Dunford JV. The feasibility of a regional cardiac arrest receiving system. Resuscitation. 2007 Jul; 74(1):44-51. PMID: 17346870.
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    152. Davis DP, Kene M, Vilke GM, Sise MJ, Kennedy F, Eastman AB, Velky T, Hoyt DB. Head-injured patients who "talk and die": the San Diego perspective. J Trauma. 2007 Feb; 62(2):277-81. PMID: 17297312.
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    153. Soroudi A, Shipp HE, Stepanski BM, Ray LU, Murrin PA, Chan TC, Davis DP, Vilke GM. Adult foreign body airway obstruction in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2007 Jan-Mar; 11(1):25-9. PMID: 17169872.
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    154. Vilke GM, Tornabene SV, Stepanski B, Shipp HE, Ray LU, Metz MA, Vroman D, Anderson M, Murrin PA, Davis DP, Harley J. Paramedic self-reported medication errors. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2007 Jan-Mar; 11(1):80-4. PMID: 17169883.
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    155. Michalewicz BA, Chan TC, Vilke GM, Levy SS, Neuman TS, Kolkhorst FW. Ventilatory and metabolic demands during aggressive physical restraint in healthy adults. J Forensic Sci. 2007 Jan; 52(1):171-5. PMID: 17209931.
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    156. Harrigan RA, Chan TC, Moonblatt S, Vilke GM, Ufberg JW. Temporary transvenous pacemaker placement in the Emergency Department. J Emerg Med. 2007 Jan; 32(1):105-11. PMID: 17239740.
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    157. Dolkas L, Stanley C, Smith AM, Vilke GM. Deaths associated with choking in San Diego county. J Forensic Sci. 2007 Jan; 52(1):176-9. PMID: 17209932.
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    158. Chappell S, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Harrigan RA, Ufberg JW. Peripheral venous cutdown. J Emerg Med. 2006 Nov; 31(4):411-6. PMID: 17046484.
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    159. Vilke GM, Tornabene SV, Stepanski B, Shipp HE, Ray LU, Metz MA, Vroman D, Anderson M, Murrin PA, Davis DP, Harley J. Paramedic self-reported medication errors. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2006 Oct-Dec; 10(4):457-62. PMID: 16997774.
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    160. Vilke GM, Smith AM, Stepanski BM, Ray LU, Murrin PA, Chan TC. Impact of the San Diego county firestorm on emergency medical services. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006 Sep-Oct; 21(5):353-8. PMID: 17297907.
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    161. Davis DP, Serrano JA, Vilke GM, Sise MJ, Kennedy F, Eastman AB, Velky T, Hoyt DB. The predictive value of field versus arrival Glasgow Coma Scale score and TRISS calculations in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2006 May; 60(5):985-90. PMID: 16688059.
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    162. Davis DP, Idris AH, Sise MJ, Kennedy F, Eastman AB, Velky T, Vilke GM, Hoyt DB. Early ventilation and outcome in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr; 34(4):1202-8. PMID: 16484927.
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    163. Davis DP, Douglas DJ, Smith W, Sise MJ, Vilke GM, Holbrook TL, Kennedy F, Eastman AB, Velky T, Hoyt DB. Traumatic brain injury outcomes in pre- and post- menopausal females versus age-matched males. J Neurotrauma. 2006 Feb; 23(2):140-8. PMID: 16503798.
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    164. Vadeboncoeur TF, Davis DP, Ochs M, Poste JC, Hoyt DB, Vilke GM. The ability of paramedics to predict aspiration in patients undergoing prehospital rapid sequence intubation. J Emerg Med. 2006 Feb; 30(2):131-6. PMID: 16567245.
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    165. Dunford JV, Castillo EM, Chan TC, Vilke GM, Jenson P, Lindsay SP. Impact of the San Diego Serial Inebriate Program on use of emergency medical resources. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Apr; 47(4):328-36. PMID: 16546617.
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    166. Davis DP, Vadeboncoeur TF, Ochs M, Poste JC, Vilke GM, Hoyt DB. The association between field Glasgow Coma Scale score and outcome in patients undergoing paramedic rapid sequence intubation. J Emerg Med. 2005 Nov; 29(4):391-7. PMID: 16243194.
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    167. Davis DP, Wiesner C, Chan TC, Vilke GM. The efficacy of nebulized albuterol/ipratropium bromide versus albuterol alone in the prehospital treatment of suspected reactive airways disease. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005 Oct-Dec; 9(4):386-90. PMID: 16263670.
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    168. Davis DP, Peay J, Serrano JA, Buono C, Vilke GM, Sise MJ, Kennedy F, Eastman AB, Velky T, Hoyt DB. The impact of aeromedical response to patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Aug; 46(2):115-22. PMID: 16046940.
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    169. Davis DP, Grossman K, Kiggins DC, Vilke GM, Chan TC. The inadvertent administration of anticoagulants to ED patients ultimately diagnosed with thoracic aortic dissection. Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Jul; 23(4):439-42. PMID: 16032607.
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    170. Davis DP, Peay J, Sise MJ, Vilke GM, Kennedy F, Eastman AB, Velky T, Hoyt DB. The impact of prehospital endotracheal intubation on outcome in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2005 May; 58(5):933-9. PMID: 15920406.
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    171. Davis DP, Pettit K, Rom CD, Poste JC, Sise MJ, Hoyt DB, Vilke GM. The safety and efficacy of prehospital needle and tube thoracostomy by aeromedical personnel. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005 Apr-Jun; 9(2):191-7. PMID: 16036846.
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    172. Vilke GM, Chan TC, Dunford JV, Metz M, Ochs G, Smith A, Fisher R, Poste JC, McCallum-Brown L, Davis DP. The three-phase model of cardiac arrest as applied to ventricular fibrillation in a large, urban emergency medical services system. Resuscitation. 2005 Mar; 64(3):341-6. PMID: 15733764.
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    173. Vilke GM, Castillo EM, Ray LU, Murrin PA, Chan TC. Evaluation of pediatric glucose monitoring and hypoglycemic therapy in the field. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005 Jan; 21(1):1-5. PMID: 15643315.
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    174. Vilke GM. San Diego county wildfires: perspective of county officials. Disaster Manag Response. 2004 Oct-Dec; 2(4):99; author reply 99-100. PMID: 15448622.
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    175. Vilke GM, Stepanski BM, Ray LU, Lutz MW, Murrin PA, Chan TC. 9-1-1 responses for shopping cart and stroller injuries. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004 Oct; 20(10):660-3. PMID: 15454739.
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    176. Vilke GM, Castillo EM, Metz MA, Ray LU, Murrin PA, Lev R, Chan TC. Community trial to decrease ambulance diversion hours: the San Diego county patient destination trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Oct; 44(4):295-303. PMID: 15459611.
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    177. Ufberg JW, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Harrigan RA. Anterior shoulder dislocations: beyond traction-countertraction. J Emerg Med. 2004 Oct; 27(3):301-6. PMID: 15388222.
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    178. Chan TC, Neuman T, Clausen J, Eisele J, Vilke GM. Weight force during prone restraint and respiratory function. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2004 Sep; 25(3):185-9. PMID: 15322457.
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    179. Poste JC, Davis DP, Ochs M, Vilke GM, Castillo EM, Stern J, Hoyt DB. Air medical transport of severely head-injured patients undergoing paramedic rapid sequence intubation. Air Med J. 2004 Jul-Aug; 23(4):36-40. PMID: 15224081.
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    180. Vilke GM, Jin A, Davis DP, Chan TC. Prospective randomized study of viscous lidocaine versus benzocaine in a GI cocktail for dyspepsia. J Emerg Med. 2004 Jul; 27(1):7-9. PMID: 15219296.
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    181. Chan TC, Ufberg J, Harrigan RA, Vilke GM. Nasal foreign body removal. J Emerg Med. 2004 May; 26(4):441-5. PMID: 15093852.
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    182. Davis DP, Wold RM, Patel RJ, Tran AJ, Tokhi RN, Chan TC, Vilke GM. The clinical presentation and impact of diagnostic delays on emergency department patients with spinal epidural abscess. J Emerg Med. 2004 Apr; 26(3):285-91. PMID: 15028325.
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    183. Vilke GM, Smith AM, Ray LU, Steen PJ, Murrin PA, Chan TC. Airway obstruction in children aged less than 5 years: the prehospital experience. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2004 Apr-Jun; 8(2):196-9. PMID: 15060856.
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    184. Vilke GM, Harrigan RA, Ufberg JW, Chan TC. Emergency evaluation and treatment of priapism. J Emerg Med. 2004 Apr; 26(3):325-9. PMID: 15028333.
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    185. Doney MK, Vilke GM. Large osteosarcoma not apparent on conventional radiography. J Emerg Med. 2004 Apr; 26(3):351-2. PMID: 15028338.
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    186. Vilke GM, Brown L, Skogland P, Simmons C, Guss DA. Approach to decreasing emergency department ambulance diversion hours. J Emerg Med. 2004 Feb; 26(2):189-92. PMID: 14980342.
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    187. Davis DP, Valentine C, Ochs M, Vilke GM, Hoyt DB. The Combitube as a salvage airway device for paramedic rapid sequence intubation. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Nov; 42(5):697-704. PMID: 14581924.
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    188. Calkins T, Chan TC, Clark RF, Stepanski B, Vilke GM. Review of prehospital sodium bicarbonate use for cyclic antidepressant overdose. Emerg Med J. 2003 Sep; 20(5):483-6. PMID: 12954700.
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    189. Vilke GM, Sloane C, Smith AM, Chan TC. Assessment for deaths in out-of-hospital heroin overdose patients treated with naloxone who refuse transport. Acad Emerg Med. 2003 Aug; 10(8):893-6. PMID: 12896894.
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    190. Deitch S, Davis DP, Schatteman J, Chan TC, Vilke GM. The use of etomidate for prehospital rapid-sequence intubation. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2003 Jul-Sep; 7(3):380-3. PMID: 12879390.
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    191. Vilke GM, Chan TC, Neuman T. Patient restraint in EMS. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2003 Jul-Sep; 7(3):417-8; author reply 418-9. PMID: 12879398.
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    192. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Smith S, Sparrow W, Dunford JV. Impact of an after-hours on-call emergency physician on ambulance transports from a county jail. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2003 Jul-Sep; 7(3):327-31. PMID: 12879382.
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    193. Austin T, Vilke GM, Nyheim E, Kelly D, Chan TC. Safety and effectiveness of methohexital for procedural sedation in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2003 Apr; 24(3):315-8. PMID: 12676304.
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    194. Davis JM, Vilke GM. An elderly patient with intussusception. J Emerg Med. 2003 Feb; 24(2):221-2. PMID: 12609657.
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    195. Vilke GM. Great toe pain. J Emerg Med. 2003 Jan; 24(1):59-60. PMID: 12554041.
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    196. Chew GS, Vilke GM, Davis DP, Chan TC. Toomey syringe aspiration may be inaccurate in detecting esophageal intubation after gastric insufflation. J Emerg Med. 2002 Nov; 23(4):337-40. PMID: 12480010.
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    197. Vilke GM, Sardar W, Fisher R, Dunford JD, Chan TC. Follow-up of elderly patients who refuse transport after accessing 9-1-1. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2002 Oct-Dec; 6(4):391-5. PMID: 12385604.
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    198. Vilke GM, Snyder B. High pressure paint spray gun injury. J Emerg Med. 2002 Aug; 23(2):203-4. PMID: 12359292.
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    199. Vilke GM. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2002 Jul-Sep; 6(3):348-50. PMID: 12109583.
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    200. Vilke GM, Fisher R, Chan TC. An evaluation of the risk for latex allergy in prehospital EMS providers. J Emerg Med. 2002 May; 22(4):345-8. PMID: 12113842.
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    201. Vilke GM, Sharieff GQ, Marino A, Gerhart AE, Chan TC. Midazolam for the treatment of out-of-hospital pediatric seizures. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2002 Apr-Jun; 6(2):215-7. PMID: 11962570.
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    202. Vilke GM, Chan TC. Agitated delirium and sudden death. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2002 Apr-Jun; 6(2):259; author reply 259-60. PMID: 11962577.
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    203. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Clausen J, Clark RF, Schmidt P, Snowden T, Neuman T. The effect of oleoresin capsicum "pepper" spray inhalation on respiratory function. J Forensic Sci. 2002 Mar; 47(2):299-304. PMID: 11908598.
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    204. Vilke GM, Steen PJ, Smith AM, Chan TC. Out-of-hospital pediatric intubation by paramedics: the San Diego experience. J Emerg Med. 2002 Jan; 22(1):71-4. PMID: 11809559.
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    205. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Pollack M, Brady WJ. Electrocardiographic manifestations: pulmonary embolism. J Emerg Med. 2001 Oct; 21(3):263-70. PMID: 11604281.
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    206. Vilke GM, Marino A, Fisher R, Chan TC. Estimation of pediatric patient weight by EMT-PS. J Emerg Med. 2001 Aug; 21(2):125-8. PMID: 11489399.
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    207. Patel RJ, Vilke GM, Chan TC. The prehospital electrocardiogram. J Emerg Med. 2001 Jul; 21(1):35-9. PMID: 11399386.
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    208. Davis DP, Videen JS, Marino A, Vilke GM, Dunford JV, Van Camp SP, Maharam LG. Exercise-associated hyponatremia in marathon runners: a two-year experience. J Emerg Med. 2001 Jul; 21(1):47-57. PMID: 11399389.
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    209. Seltzer AG, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Fisher R, Dunford JV. Outcome study of minors after parental refusal of paramedic transport. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2001 Jul-Sep; 5(3):278-83. PMID: 11446543.
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    210. Davis DP, Kimbro TA, Vilke GM. The use of midazolam for prehospital rapid-sequence intubation may be associated with a dose-related increase in hypotension. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2001 Apr-Jun; 5(2):163-8. PMID: 11339727.
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    211. Gerling MC, Davis DP, Hamilton RS, Morris GF, Vilke GM, Garfin SR, Hayden SR. Effect of surgical cricothyrotomy on the unstable cervical spine in a cadaver model of intubation. J Emerg Med. 2001 Jan; 20(1):1-5. PMID: 11165829.
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    212. Vilke GM, Marino A, Iskander J, Chan TC. Emergency department patient knowledge of medications. J Emerg Med. 2000 Nov; 19(4):327-30. PMID: 11074324.
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    213. Ochs M, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Moats T, Buchanan J. Successful prehospital airway management by EMT-Ds using the combitube. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2000 Oct-Dec; 4(4):333-7. PMID: 11045413.
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    214. Sloane C, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Hayden SR, Hoyt DB, Rosen P. Rapid sequence intubation in the field versus hospital in trauma patients. J Emerg Med. 2000 Oct; 19(3):259-64. PMID: 11033272.
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    215. Gerling MC, Davis DP, Hamilton RS, Morris GF, Vilke GM, Garfin SR, Hayden SR. Effects of cervical spine immobilization technique and laryngoscope blade selection on an unstable cervical spine in a cadaver model of intubation. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Oct; 36(4):293-300. PMID: 11020675.
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    216. Davis DP, Bramwell KJ, Hamilton RS, Chan TC, Vilke GM. Safety and efficacy of the Rapid Four-Step Technique for cricothyrotomy using a Bair Claw. J Emerg Med. 2000 Aug; 19(2):125-9. PMID: 10903458.
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    217. Ma G, Vilke GM. Amoebic abscess. J Emerg Med. 2000 May; 18(4):465-6. PMID: 10802427.
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    218. Vilke GM, Chan TC, Neuman T, Clausen JL. Spirometry in normal subjects in sitting, prone, and supine positions. Respir Care. 2000 Apr; 45(4):407-10. PMID: 10780036.
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    219. Sloane CM, Vilke G. The other olive associated with vomiting. J Emerg Med. 2000 Apr; 18(3):375. PMID: 10729680.
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    220. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Neuman T. Restraint position and positional asphyxia. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2000 Mar; 21(1):93. PMID: 10739237.
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    221. Vilke GM, Chan TC, Guss DA. Use of a complete neurological examination to screen for significant intracranial abnormalities in minor head injury. Am J Emerg Med. 2000 Mar; 18(2):159-63. PMID: 10750921.
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    222. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Bramwell KJ, Davis DP, Hamilton RS, Rosen P. Comparison of wire-guided cricothyrotomy versus standard surgical cricothyrotomy technique. J Emerg Med. 1999 Nov-Dec; 17(6):957-62. PMID: 10595879.
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    223. Chan TC, Neuman T, Vilke GM, Clausen J, Clark RF. Metabolic acidosis in restraint-associated cardiac arrest. Acad Emerg Med. 1999 Oct; 6(10):1075-6; author reply 1076-7. PMID: 10530673.
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    224. Roppolo LP, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Krishel S, Hayden SR, Rosen P, Trione M. Nasotracheal intubation in the emergency department, revisited. J Emerg Med. 1999 Sep-Oct; 17(5):791-9. PMID: 10499691.
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    225. Vilke GM. FOOSH injury with snuff box tenderness. J Emerg Med. 1999 Sep-Oct; 17(5):899-900. PMID: 10499710.
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    226. Vilke GM, Buchanan J, Dunford JV, Chan TC. Are heroin overdose deaths related to patient release after prehospital treatment with naloxone? Prehosp Emerg Care. 1999 Jul-Sep; 3(3):183-6. PMID: 10424852.
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    227. Cardall TY, Brady WJ, Chan TC, Perry JC, Vilke GM, Rosen P. Permanent cardiac pacemakers: issues relevant to the emergency physician, part II. J Emerg Med. 1999 Jul-Aug; 17(4):697-709. PMID: 10431963.
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    228. Friedman L, Vilke GM, Chan TC, Hayden SR, Guss DA, Krishel SJ, Rosen P. Emergency department airway management before and after an emergency medicine residency. J Emerg Med. 1999 May-Jun; 17(3):427-31. PMID: 10338232.
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    229. Bramwell KJ, Davis DP, Cardall TV, Yoshida E, Vilke GM, Rosen P. Use of the Trousseau dilator in cricothyrotomy. J Emerg Med. 1999 May-Jun; 17(3):433-6. PMID: 10338233.
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    230. Cardall TY, Chan TC, Brady WJ, Perry JC, Vilke GM, Rosen P. Permanent cardiac pacemakers: issues relevant to the emergency physician, Part I. J Emerg Med. 1999 May-Jun; 17(3):479-89. PMID: 10338243.
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    231. Davis DP, Stephen KA, Vilke GM. Inaccuracy in endotracheal tube verification using a Toomey syringe. J Emerg Med. 1999 Jan-Feb; 17(1):35-8. PMID: 9950384.
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    232. Davis DP, Bramwell KJ, Vilke GM, Cardall TY, Yoshida E, Rosen P. Cricothyrotomy technique: standard versus the Rapid Four-Step Technique. J Emerg Med. 1999 Jan-Feb; 17(1):17-21. PMID: 9950380.
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    233. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Neuman T. Reexamination of custody restraint position and positional asphyxia. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1998 Sep; 19(3):201-5. PMID: 9760082.
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    234. Vilke GM, Mahoney G, Chan TC. Postpartum coronary artery dissection. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Aug; 32(2):260-2. PMID: 9701314.
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    235. Moss ST, Chan TC, Buchanan J, Dunford JV, Vilke GM. Outcome study of prehospital patients signed out against medical advice by field paramedics. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Feb; 31(2):247-50. PMID: 9472189.
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    236. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Neuman T, Clausen JL. Restraint position and positional asphyxia. Ann Emerg Med. 1997 Nov; 30(5):578-86. PMID: 9360565.
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    237. Vilke GM. Chest pain in an elderly patient. J Emerg Med. 1997 Jul-Aug; 15(4):523. PMID: 9279707.
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    238. Vilke GM, Wulfert EA. Case reports of two patients with pneumothorax following acupuncture. J Emerg Med. 1997 Mar-Apr; 15(2):155-7. PMID: 9144054.
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    239. Vilke GM, Honingford EA. Cervical spine epidural abscess in a patient with no predisposing risk factors. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Jun; 27(6):777-80. PMID: 8644971.
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    240. Vilke GM, Hayden SR. Intraorbital air in a patient status post facial trauma. J Emerg Med. 1996 Jan-Feb; 14(1):77. PMID: 8655941.
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    241. Vilke GM, Jacoby I, Manoguerra AS, Clark R. Disaster preparedness of poison control centers in the United States. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1996; 34(1):53-8. PMID: 8632513.
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    242. Bauman BH, Vilke G, Chan T. Dexamethasone use in croup. West J Med. 1996 Jan; 164(1):66-7. PMID: 8779209.
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    243. Vilke GM, Vilke TS, Rosen P. The completeness of MEDLINE for papers published and abstracted in the Journal of Emergency Medicine. J Emerg Med. 1995 Jul-Aug; 13(4):457-60. PMID: 7594362.
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    244. Vilke GM. Misplaced intravascular catheters in a patient with acute renal failure. J Emerg Med. 1995 May-Jun; 13(3):379. PMID: 7673633.
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    245. Chan T, Vilke GM, Williams S. Bidirectional tachycardia associated with digoxin toxicity. J Emerg Med. 1995 Jan-Feb; 13(1):89. PMID: 7782630.
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    246. Vilke GM, Hoyt DB, Epperson M, Fortlage D, Hutton KC, Rosen P. Intubation techniques in the helicopter. J Emerg Med. 1994 Mar-Apr; 12(2):217-24. PMID: 8207159.
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