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Gourisankar Ghosh

Title(s)Professor, Chemistry And Biochemistry
SchoolAcademic Aff
Phone858-822-0469
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    ASF/SF2: Phosphorylation and RNA Binding
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM084277Aug 10, 2009 - Jul 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IKK:Biophysical basis of dynamic regulation
    NIH/NCI R01CA141722Jul 1, 2009 - May 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Investigation of gene regulation by NF-kappaB transcription factors
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM085490Jul 1, 2009 - Oct 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IkB/NF-kB Recognition in Silico, In Vitro and In Vivo
    NIH/NIGMS P01GM071862Apr 7, 2006 - Mar 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Investigator
    NF-kB regulation by p105 and p100
    NIH/NIAID R01AI064326Feb 15, 2005 - Jan 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MECHANISM OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL INHIBITION BY IKB PROTEINS
    NIH/NCI R01CA078749Apr 1, 1999 - Mar 31, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Structure/Function Studies of Nuclear FActor KB
    NIH/NCI R01CA071871Sep 5, 1996 - Oct 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Ngo KA, Kishimoto K, Davis-Turak J, Pimplaskar A, Cheng Z, Spreafico R, Chen EY, Tam A, Ghosh G, Mitchell S, Hoffmann A. Dissecting the Regulatory Strategies of NF-?B RelA Target Genes in the Inflammatory Response Reveals Differential Transactivation Logics. Cell Rep. 2020 Feb 25; 30(8):2758-2775.e6. PMID: 32101750.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Mulero MC, Wang VY, Huxford T, Ghosh G. Genome reading by the NF-?B transcription factors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 11 04; 47(19):9967-9989. PMID: 31501881.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Mitchell S, Mercado EL, Adelaja A, Ho JQ, Cheng QJ, Ghosh G, Hoffmann A. An NF?B Activity Calculator to Delineate Signaling Crosstalk: Type I and II Interferons Enhance NF?B via Distinct Mechanisms. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:1425. PMID: 31293585.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Mulero MC, Huxford T, Ghosh G. NF-?B, I?B, and IKK: Integral Components of Immune System Signaling. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019; 1172:207-226. PMID: 31628658.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Polley S, Huang DB, Biswas T, Ghosh G. A Guide to Production, Crystallization, and Structure Determination of Human IKK1/a. J Vis Exp. 2018 11 02; (141). PMID: 30451218.
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    6. Mulero MC, Shahabi S, Ko MS, Schiffer JM, Huang DB, Wang VY, Amaro RE, Huxford T, Ghosh G. Protein Cofactors Are Essential for High-Affinity DNA Binding by the Nuclear Factor ?B RelA Subunit. Biochemistry. 2018 05 22; 57(20):2943-2957. PMID: 29708732.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Mulero MC, Huang DB, Nguyen HT, Wang VY, Li Y, Biswas T, Ghosh G. DNA-binding affinity and transcriptional activity of the RelA homodimer of nuclear factor ?B are not correlated. J Biol Chem. 2017 11 17; 292(46):18821-18830. PMID: 28935669.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wang VY, Li Y, Kim D, Zhong X, Du Q, Ghassemian M, Ghosh G. Bcl3 Phosphorylation by Akt, Erk2, and IKK Is Required for Its Transcriptional Activity. Mol Cell. 2017 Aug 03; 67(3):484-497.e5. PMID: 28689659.
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    9. Polley S, Passos DO, Huang DB, Mulero MC, Mazumder A, Biswas T, Verma IM, Lyumkis D, Ghosh G. Structural Basis for the Activation of IKK1/a. Cell Rep. 2016 11 15; 17(8):1907-1914. PMID: 27851956.
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    10. Fusco AJ, Mazumder A, Wang VY, Tao Z, Ware C, Ghosh G. The NF-?B subunit RelB controls p100 processing by competing with the kinases NIK and IKK1 for binding to p100. Sci Signal. 2016 09 27; 9(447):ra96. PMID: 27678221.
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    11. Ghosh G, Biswas T. To Swap or Not To Swap. Structure. 2016 09 06; 24(9):1436-8. PMID: 27602989.
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    12. Ghosh G, Sen M. A New DNA Methyltransferase-Histone Deacetylase-Kinase Axis in Innate Immunity. Mol Cell. 2016 08 18; 63(4):544-546. PMID: 27540854.
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    13. Tsui R, Kearns JD, Lynch C, Vu D, Ngo KA, Basak S, Ghosh G, Hoffmann A. I?Bß enhances the generation of the low-affinity NF?B/RelA homodimer. Nat Commun. 2015 May 07; 6:7068. PMID: 25946967.
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    14. Tao Z, Fusco A, Huang DB, Gupta K, Young Kim D, Ware CF, Van Duyne GD, Ghosh G. p100/I?Bd sequesters and inhibits NF-?B through kappaBsome formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 11; 111(45):15946-51. PMID: 25349408.
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    15. Aubol BE, Plocinik RM, Keshwani MM, McGlone ML, Hagopian JC, Ghosh G, Fu XD, Adams JA. N-terminus of the protein kinase CLK1 induces SR protein hyperphosphorylation. Biochem J. 2014 Aug 15; 462(1):143-52. PMID: 24869919.
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    16. Hauenstein AV, Rogers WE, Shaul JD, Huang DB, Ghosh G, Huxford T. Probing kinase activation and substrate specificity with an engineered monomeric IKK2. Biochemistry. 2014 Apr 01; 53(12):2064-73. PMID: 24611898.
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    17. Mukherjee SP, Behar M, Birnbaum HA, Hoffmann A, Wright PE, Ghosh G. Analysis of the RelA:CBP/p300 interaction reveals its involvement in NF-?B-driven transcription. PLoS Biol. 2013 Sep; 11(9):e1001647. PMID: 24019758.
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    18. Wei H, Wang B, Miyagi M, She Y, Gopalan B, Huang DB, Ghosh G, Stark GR, Lu T. PRMT5 dimethylates R30 of the p65 subunit to activate NF-?B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 13; 110(33):13516-21. PMID: 23904475.
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    19. Lu T, Yang M, Huang DB, Wei H, Ozer GH, Ghosh G, Stark GR. Role of lysine methylation of NF-?B in differential gene regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 13; 110(33):13510-5. PMID: 23904479.
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    20. Polley S, Huang DB, Hauenstein AV, Fusco AJ, Zhong X, Vu D, Schröfelbauer B, Kim Y, Hoffmann A, Verma IM, Ghosh G, Huxford T. A structural basis for I?B kinase 2 activation via oligomerization-dependent trans auto-phosphorylation. PLoS Biol. 2013; 11(6):e1001581. PMID: 23776406.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Vu D, Huang DB, Vemu A, Ghosh G. A structural basis for selective dimerization by NF-?B RelB. J Mol Biol. 2013 Jun 12; 425(11):1934-1945. PMID: 23485337.
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    22. Wang VY, Huang W, Asagiri M, Spann N, Hoffmann A, Glass C, Ghosh G. The transcriptional specificity of NF-?B dimers is coded within the ?B DNA response elements. Cell Rep. 2012 Oct 25; 2(4):824-39. PMID: 23063365.
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    23. Tao Z, Ghosh G. Understanding NIK regulation from its structure. Structure. 2012 Oct 10; 20(10):1615-7. PMID: 23063006.
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    24. Schröfelbauer B, Polley S, Behar M, Ghosh G, Hoffmann A. NEMO ensures signaling specificity of the pleiotropic IKKß by directing its kinase activity toward I?Ba. Mol Cell. 2012 Jul 13; 47(1):111-21. PMID: 22633953.
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    25. Ghosh G, Wang VY, Huang DB, Fusco A. NF-?B regulation: lessons from structures. Immunol Rev. 2012 Mar; 246(1):36-58. PMID: 22435546.
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    26. Cho S, Hoang A, Chakrabarti S, Huynh N, Huang DB, Ghosh G. The SRSF1 linker induces semi-conservative ESE binding by cooperating with the RRMs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Nov; 39(21):9413-21. PMID: 21852328.
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    27. Cho S, Hoang A, Sinha R, Zhong XY, Fu XD, Krainer AR, Ghosh G. Interaction between the RNA binding domains of Ser-Arg splicing factor 1 and U1-70K snRNP protein determines early spliceosome assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 17; 108(20):8233-8. PMID: 21536904.
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    28. Chawla A, Chakrabarti S, Ghosh G, Niwa M. Attenuation of yeast UPR is essential for survival and is mediated by IRE1 kinase. J Cell Biol. 2011 Apr 04; 193(1):41-50. PMID: 21444691.
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    29. Cheng CS, Feldman KE, Lee J, Verma S, Huang DB, Huynh K, Chang M, Ponomarenko JV, Sun SC, Benedict CA, Ghosh G, Hoffmann A. The specificity of innate immune responses is enforced by repression of interferon response elements by NF-?B p50. Sci Signal. 2011 Feb 22; 4(161):ra11. PMID: 21343618.
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    30. Ho JQ, Asagiri M, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G. NF-?B potentiates caspase independent hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 15; 6(2):e16815. PMID: 21347231.
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    31. Ghosh G, Adams JA. Phosphorylation mechanism and structure of serine-arginine protein kinases. FEBS J. 2011 Feb; 278(4):587-97. PMID: 21205204.
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    32. Huxford T, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G. Understanding the logic of I?B:NF-?B regulation in structural terms. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2011; 349:1-24. PMID: 20845107.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Ma CT, Ghosh G, Fu XD, Adams JA. Mechanism of dephosphorylation of the SR protein ASF/SF2 by protein phosphatase 1. J Mol Biol. 2010 Oct 29; 403(3):386-404. PMID: 20826166.
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    34. Mathes E, Wang L, Komives E, Ghosh G. Flexible regions within I{kappa}B{alpha} create the ubiquitin-independent degradation signal. J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 22; 285(43):32927-36. PMID: 20682784.
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    35. Huynh N, Ma CT, Giang N, Hagopian J, Ngo J, Adams J, Ghosh G. Allosteric interactions direct binding and phosphorylation of ASF/SF2 by SRPK1. Biochemistry. 2009 Dec 08; 48(48):11432-40. PMID: 19886675.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Bergqvist S, Alverdi V, Mengel B, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G, Komives EA. Kinetic enhancement of NF-kappaBxDNA dissociation by IkappaBalpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 17; 106(46):19328-33. PMID: 19887633.
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    37. Huxford T, Ghosh G. A structural guide to proteins of the NF-kappaB signaling module. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Sep; 1(3):a000075. PMID: 20066103.
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    38. Savinova OV, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G. The Nfkb1 and Nfkb2 proteins p105 and p100 function as the core of high-molecular-weight heterogeneous complexes. Mol Cell. 2009 Jun 12; 34(5):591-602. PMID: 19524538.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Shih VF, Kearns JD, Basak S, Savinova OV, Ghosh G, Hoffmann A. Kinetic control of negative feedback regulators of NF-kappaB/RelA determines their pathogen- and cytokine-receptor signaling specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 16; 106(24):9619-24. PMID: 19487661.
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    40. Ma CT, Hagopian JC, Ghosh G, Fu XD, Adams JA. Regiospecific phosphorylation control of the SR protein ASF/SF2 by SRPK1. J Mol Biol. 2009 Jul 24; 390(4):618-34. PMID: 19477182.
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    41. Bullock AN, Das S, Debreczeni JE, Rellos P, Fedorov O, Niesen FH, Guo K, Papagrigoriou E, Amos AL, Cho S, Turk BE, Ghosh G, Knapp S. Kinase domain insertions define distinct roles of CLK kinases in SR protein phosphorylation. Structure. 2009 Mar 11; 17(3):352-62. PMID: 19278650.
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    42. Kennedy EJ, Yang J, Pillus L, Taylor SS, Ghosh G. Identifying critical non-catalytic residues that modulate protein kinase A activity. PLoS One. 2009; 4(3):e4746. PMID: 19270744.
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    43. Zhong XY, Ding JH, Adams JA, Ghosh G, Fu XD. Regulation of SR protein phosphorylation and alternative splicing by modulating kinetic interactions of SRPK1 with molecular chaperones. Genes Dev. 2009 Feb 15; 23(4):482-95. PMID: 19240134.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Yang J, Kennedy EJ, Wu J, Deal MS, Pennypacker J, Ghosh G, Taylor SS. Contribution of non-catalytic core residues to activity and regulation in protein kinase A. J Biol Chem. 2009 Mar 06; 284(10):6241-8. PMID: 19122195.
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    45. Fusco AJ, Huang DB, Miller D, Wang VY, Vu D, Ghosh G. NF-kappaB p52:RelB heterodimer recognizes two classes of kappaB sites with two distinct modes. EMBO Rep. 2009 Feb; 10(2):152-9. PMID: 19098713.
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    46. Sen M, Ghosh G. Transcriptional outcome of Wnt-Frizzled signal transduction in inflammation: evolving concepts. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 01; 181(7):4441-5. PMID: 18802045.
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    47. Bergqvist S, Ghosh G, Komives EA. The IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex has two hot spots, one at either end of the interface. Protein Sci. 2008 Dec; 17(12):2051-8. PMID: 18824506.
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    48. Hagopian JC, Ma CT, Meade BR, Albuquerque CP, Ngo JC, Ghosh G, Jennings PA, Fu XD, Adams JA. Adaptable molecular interactions guide phosphorylation of the SR protein ASF/SF2 by SRPK1. J Mol Biol. 2008 Oct 17; 382(4):894-909. PMID: 18687337.
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    49. Mathes E, O'Dea EL, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G. NF-kappaB dictates the degradation pathway of IkappaBalpha. EMBO J. 2008 May 07; 27(9):1357-67. PMID: 18401342.
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    50. Ngo JC, Giang K, Chakrabarti S, Ma CT, Huynh N, Hagopian JC, Dorrestein PC, Fu XD, Adams JA, Ghosh G. A sliding docking interaction is essential for sequential and processive phosphorylation of an SR protein by SRPK1. Mol Cell. 2008 Mar 14; 29(5):563-76. PMID: 18342604.
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    51. Truhlar SM, Mathes E, Cervantes CF, Ghosh G, Komives EA. Pre-folding IkappaBalpha alters control of NF-kappaB signaling. J Mol Biol. 2008 Jun 27; 380(1):67-82. PMID: 18511071.
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    52. Fusco AJ, Savinova OV, Talwar R, Kearns JD, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G. Stabilization of RelB requires multidomain interactions with p100/p52. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 02; 283(18):12324-32. PMID: 18321863.
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    53. Kennedy EJ, Ghosh G, Pillus L. Identification of functionally distinct regions that mediate biological activity of the protein kinase a homolog Tpk2. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 11; 283(2):1084-93. PMID: 17971450.
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    54. Drew D, Shimada E, Huynh K, Bergqvist S, Talwar R, Karin M, Ghosh G. Inhibitor kappaB kinase beta binding by inhibitor kappaB kinase gamma. Biochemistry. 2007 Oct 30; 46(43):12482-90. PMID: 17924664.
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    55. Shaw SD, Chakrabarti S, Ghosh G, Krainer AR. Deletion of the N-terminus of SF2/ASF permits RS-domain-independent pre-mRNA splicing. PLoS One. 2007 Sep 05; 2(9):e854. PMID: 17786225.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Moorthy AK, Huang DB, Wang VY, Vu D, Ghosh G. X-ray structure of a NF-kappaB p50/RelB/DNA complex reveals assembly of multiple dimers on tandem kappaB sites. J Mol Biol. 2007 Oct 26; 373(3):723-34. PMID: 17869269.
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    57. Ma CT, Velazquez-Dones A, Hagopian JC, Ghosh G, Fu XD, Adams JA. Ordered multi-site phosphorylation of the splicing factor ASF/SF2 by SRPK1. J Mol Biol. 2008 Feb 08; 376(1):55-68. PMID: 18155240.
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    58. Lukasiewicz R, Velazquez-Dones A, Huynh N, Hagopian J, Fu XD, Adams J, Ghosh G. Structurally unique yeast and mammalian serine-arginine protein kinases catalyze evolutionarily conserved phosphorylation reactions. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10; 282(32):23036-43. PMID: 17517895.
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    59. Basak S, Kim H, Kearns JD, Tergaonkar V, O'Dea E, Werner SL, Benedict CA, Ware CF, Ghosh G, Verma IM, Hoffmann A. A fourth IkappaB protein within the NF-kappaB signaling module. Cell. 2007 Jan 26; 128(2):369-81. PMID: 17254973.
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    60. Ngo JC, Gullingsrud J, Giang K, Yeh MJ, Fu XD, Adams JA, McCammon JA, Ghosh G. SR protein kinase 1 is resilient to inactivation. Structure. 2007 Jan; 15(1):123-33. PMID: 17223538.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Lukasiewicz R, Nolen B, Adams JA, Ghosh G. The RGG domain of Npl3p recruits Sky1p through docking interactions. J Mol Biol. 2007 Mar 16; 367(1):249-61. PMID: 17239901.
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    62. Hoffmann A, Natoli G, Ghosh G. Transcriptional regulation via the NF-kappaB signaling module. Oncogene. 2006 Oct 30; 25(51):6706-16. PMID: 17072323.
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    63. Bergqvist S, Croy CH, Kjaergaard M, Huxford T, Ghosh G, Komives EA. Thermodynamics reveal that helix four in the NLS of NF-kappaB p65 anchors IkappaBalpha, forming a very stable complex. J Mol Biol. 2006 Jul 07; 360(2):421-34. PMID: 16756995.
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    64. Moorthy AK, Savinova OV, Ho JQ, Wang VY, Vu D, Ghosh G. The 20S proteasome processes NF-kappaB1 p105 into p50 in a translation-independent manner. EMBO J. 2006 May 03; 25(9):1945-56. PMID: 16619030.
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    65. Huxford T, Ghosh G. Inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB activation by kappaB-Ras. Methods Enzymol. 2006; 407:527-34. PMID: 16757350.
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    66. Ding JH, Zhong XY, Hagopian JC, Cruz MM, Ghosh G, Feramisco J, Adams JA, Fu XD. Regulated cellular partitioning of SR protein-specific kinases in mammalian cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Feb; 17(2):876-85. PMID: 16319169.
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    67. Kennedy EJ, Pillus L, Ghosh G. Pho5p and newly identified nucleotide pyrophosphatases/ phosphodiesterases regulate extracellular nucleotide phosphate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2005 Nov; 4(11):1892-901. PMID: 16278456.
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    68. Velazquez-Dones A, Hagopian JC, Ma CT, Zhong XY, Zhou H, Ghosh G, Fu XD, Adams JA. Mass spectrometric and kinetic analysis of ASF/SF2 phosphorylation by SRPK1 and Clk/Sty. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 16; 280(50):41761-8. PMID: 16223727.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Ngo JC, Chakrabarti S, Ding JH, Velazquez-Dones A, Nolen B, Aubol BE, Adams JA, Fu XD, Ghosh G. Interplay between SRPK and Clk/Sty kinases in phosphorylation of the splicing factor ASF/SF2 is regulated by a docking motif in ASF/SF2. Mol Cell. 2005 Oct 07; 20(1):77-89. PMID: 16209947.
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    70. Taylor SS, Haste NM, Ghosh G. PKR and eIF2alpha: integration of kinase dimerization, activation, and substrate docking. Cell. 2005 Sep 23; 122(6):823-5. PMID: 16179248.
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    71. Sanjabi S, Williams KJ, Saccani S, Zhou L, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G, Gerondakis S, Natoli G, Smale ST. A c-Rel subdomain responsible for enhanced DNA-binding affinity and selective gene activation. Genes Dev. 2005 Sep 15; 19(18):2138-51. PMID: 16166378.
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    72. Huang DB, Vu D, Ghosh G. NF-kappaB RelB forms an intertwined homodimer. Structure. 2005 Sep; 13(9):1365-73. PMID: 16154093.
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    73. Mesika A, Kiss V, Brumfeld V, Ghosh G, Reich Z. Enhanced intracellular mobility and nuclear accumulation of DNA plasmids associated with a karyophilic protein. Hum Gene Ther. 2005 Feb; 16(2):200-8. PMID: 15761260.
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    74. Huang DB, Phelps CB, Fusco AJ, Ghosh G. Crystal structure of a free kappaB DNA: insights into DNA recognition by transcription factor NF-kappaB. J Mol Biol. 2005 Feb 11; 346(1):147-60. PMID: 15663934.
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    75. Bonizzi G, Bebien M, Otero DC, Johnson-Vroom KE, Cao Y, Vu D, Jegga AG, Aronow BJ, Ghosh G, Rickert RC, Karin M. Activation of IKKalpha target genes depends on recognition of specific kappaB binding sites by RelB:p52 dimers. EMBO J. 2004 Oct 27; 23(21):4202-10. PMID: 15470505.
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    76. Nolen B, Taylor S, Ghosh G. Regulation of protein kinases; controlling activity through activation segment conformation. Mol Cell. 2004 Sep 10; 15(5):661-75. PMID: 15350212.
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    77. Croy CH, Bergqvist S, Huxford T, Ghosh G, Komives EA. Biophysical characterization of the free IkappaBalpha ankyrin repeat domain in solution. Protein Sci. 2004 Jul; 13(7):1767-77. PMID: 15215520.
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    78. Aubol BE, Ungs L, Lukasiewicz R, Ghosh G, Adams JA. Chemical clamping allows for efficient phosphorylation of the RNA carrier protein Npl3. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 16; 279(29):30182-8. PMID: 15145958.
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    79. Chen Y, Vallee S, Wu J, Vu D, Sondek J, Ghosh G. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by IkappaBbeta in association with kappaB-Ras. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Apr; 24(7):3048-56. PMID: 15024091.
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    80. Phelps CB, Ghosh G. Discreet mutations from c-Rel to v-Rel alter kappaB DNA recognition, IkappaBalpha binding, and dimerization: implications for v-Rel oncogenicity. Oncogene. 2004 Feb 12; 23(6):1229-38. PMID: 14961076.
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    81. Ghosh G, Huang DB, Huxford T. Molecular mimicry of the NF-kappaB DNA target site by a selected RNA aptamer. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004 Feb; 14(1):21-7. PMID: 15102445.
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    82. Aubol BE, Nolen B, Shaffer J, Ghosh G, Adams JA. Novel destabilization of nucleotide binding by the gamma phosphate of ATP in the yeast SR protein kinase Sky1p. Biochemistry. 2003 Nov 11; 42(44):12813-20. PMID: 14596595.
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    83. Aubol BE, Chakrabarti S, Ngo J, Shaffer J, Nolen B, Fu XD, Ghosh G, Adams JA. Processive phosphorylation of alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 28; 100(22):12601-6. PMID: 14555757.
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    84. Nolen B, Ngo J, Chakrabarti S, Vu D, Adams JA, Ghosh G. Nucleotide-induced conformational changes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR protein kinase, Sky1p, revealed by X-ray crystallography. Biochemistry. 2003 Aug 19; 42(32):9575-85. PMID: 12911299.
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    85. Huang DB, Vu D, Cassiday LA, Zimmerman JM, Maher LJ, Ghosh G. Crystal structure of NF-kappaB (p50)2 complexed to a high-affinity RNA aptamer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 05; 100(16):9268-73. PMID: 12886018.
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    86. Malek S, Huang DB, Huxford T, Ghosh S, Ghosh G. X-ray crystal structure of an IkappaBbeta x NF-kappaB p65 homodimer complex. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 20; 278(25):23094-100. PMID: 12686541.
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    87. Chen Y, Wu J, Ghosh G. KappaB-Ras binds to the unique insert within the ankyrin repeat domain of IkappaBbeta and regulates cytoplasmic retention of IkappaBbeta x NF-kappaB complexes. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 20; 278(25):23101-6. PMID: 12672800.
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    88. Huxford T, Mishler D, Phelps CB, Huang DB, Sengchanthalangsy LL, Reeves R, Hughes CA, Komives EA, Ghosh G. Solvent exposed non-contacting amino acids play a critical role in NF-kappaB/IkappaBalpha complex formation. J Mol Biol. 2002 Dec 06; 324(4):587-97. PMID: 12460563.
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    89. Moorthy AK, Ghosh G. p105.Ikappa Bgamma and prototypical Ikappa Bs use a similar mechanism to bind but a different mechanism to regulate the subcellular localization of NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 03; 278(1):556-66. PMID: 12399470.
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    90. Aubol BE, Nolen B, Vu D, Ghosh G, Adams JA. Mechanistic insights into Sky1p, a yeast homologue of the mammalian SR protein kinases. Biochemistry. 2002 Aug 06; 41(31):10002-9. PMID: 12146964.
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    91. Berkowitz B, Huang DB, Chen-Park FE, Sigler PB, Ghosh G. The x-ray crystal structure of the NF-kappa B p50.p65 heterodimer bound to the interferon beta -kappa B site. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 05; 277(27):24694-700. PMID: 11970948.
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    92. Chen-Park FE, Huang DB, Noro B, Thanos D, Ghosh G. The kappa B DNA sequence from the HIV long terminal repeat functions as an allosteric regulator of HIV transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 05; 277(27):24701-8. PMID: 11970949.
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    93. Malek S, Chen Y, Huxford T, Ghosh G. IkappaBbeta, but not IkappaBalpha, functions as a classical cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappaB dimers by masking both NF-kappaB nuclear localization sequences in resting cells. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 30; 276(48):45225-35. PMID: 11571291.
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    94. Huang DB, Chen YQ, Ruetsche M, Phelps CB, Ghosh G. X-ray crystal structure of proto-oncogene product c-Rel bound to the CD28 response element of IL-2. Structure. 2001 Aug; 9(8):669-78. PMID: 11587641.
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    95. Nolen B, Yun CY, Wong CF, McCammon JA, Fu XD, Ghosh G. The structure of Sky1p reveals a novel mechanism for constitutive activity. Nat Struct Biol. 2001 Feb; 8(2):176-83. PMID: 11175909.
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    96. Huxford T, Malek S, Ghosh G. Preparation and crystallization of dynamic NF-kappa B.Ikappa B complexes. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 20; 275(42):32800-6. PMID: 10906335.
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