Nicholas Spitzer

Title(s)Professor, Neurobiology
SchoolVc-academic Affairs
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Determining Fundamental Properties of Neurotransmitter Switching in Adult Mammals
    NIH R35NS116810May 1, 2020 - Apr 30, 2028
    Role: Principal Investigator
    High-Throughput Whole-Brain Screening for Drug-Induced Chemical Imbalance in the Brain
    NIH R21DA050821Apr 1, 2020 - Mar 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Drugs of abuse drive transmitter switching that causes drug-induced behavior
    NIH R21DA048633Aug 1, 2019 - Jul 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Running-induced Neurotransmitter Switching Enhances Acquisition of Motor Skills
    NIH R56NS107549Apr 1, 2019 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neurotransmitter Switching and Its Function in Hippocampal Plasticity
    NIH R21MH105706Sep 10, 2014 - Aug 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Analysis of Activity Dependent Mechanisms of Neuronal Differentiation
    NIH R01NS057690Dec 1, 2006 - Jan 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Calcium Transients in Neuronal Development
    NIH R01MH074702Jun 1, 2006 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Calcium Transients in Neuronal Development
    NIH R56MH074702Sep 25, 2005 - May 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01NS037002Sep 8, 1998 - Aug 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH F06TW001998Aug 17, 1994
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01EY010422Jul 1, 1994 - Jun 30, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01EY010770Jul 1, 1994 - Jun 30, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH P01NS025916Mar 1, 1988 - Feb 28, 1997
    Role: Co-Investigator
    NIH K04HD000528Jul 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neural Circuits Postdoctoral Training Program
    NIH T32NS007220Jul 1, 1982 - Jun 30, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01HD014490Sep 30, 1980 - May 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of Neurons
    NIH R01NS015918Jan 1, 1980 - Mar 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of Neurons
    NIH R56NS015918Jan 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Decoding Neurotransmitter Switching: The Road Forward. J Neurosci. 2020 05 20; 40(21):4078-4089. Li HQ, Pratelli M, Godavarthi S, Zambetti S, Spitzer NC. PMID: 32434858.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    2. Exercise enhances motor skill learning by neurotransmitter switching in the adult midbrain. Nat Commun. 2020 05 04; 11(1):2195. Li HQ, Spitzer NC. PMID: 32366867.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. Mechanism for neurotransmitter-receptor matching. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 02 25; 117(8):4368-4374. Hammond-Weinberger DR, Wang Y, Glavis-Bloom A, Spitzer NC. PMID: 32041885.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    4. IGFBP2 Plays an Essential Role in Cognitive Development during Early Life. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2019 Dec; 6(23):1901152. Khan S, Lu X, Huang Q, Tang J, Weng J, Yang Z, Lv M, Xu X, Xia F, Zhang M, Li Y, Liu S, Leng G, Spitzer N, Du J, Chen X. PMID: 31832311.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. Photoperiod-induced neurotransmitter plasticity declines with aging: An epigenetic regulation? J Comp Neurol. 2020 02 01; 528(2):199-210. Pritchard R, Chen H, Romoli B, Spitzer NC, Dulcis D. PMID: 31343079.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    6. Neuronal activity regulates neurotransmitter switching in the adult brain following light-induced stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 05 15; 115(20):5064-5071. Meng D, Li HQ, Deisseroth K, Leutgeb S, Spitzer NC. PMID: 29686073.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. Neurotransmitter Switching Regulated by miRNAs Controls Changes in Social Preference. Neuron. 2017 Sep 13; 95(6):1319-1333.e5. Dulcis D, Lippi G, Stark CJ, Do LH, Berg DK, Spitzer NC. PMID: 28867550.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    8. Neurotransmitter Switching in the Developing and Adult Brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2017 07 25; 40:1-19. Spitzer NC. PMID: 28301776.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Differences in Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Associated with Summer and Winter Photoperiods in Humans. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0158847. Aumann TD, Raabus M, Tomas D, Prijanto A, Churilov L, Spitzer NC, Horne MK. PMID: 27428306.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE. Neurotransmitter-tailored dendritic trees. Science. 2015 Oct 30; 350(6260):510-1. Spitzer NC. PMID: 26516267.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. Editorial: Dynamics of cyclic nucleotide signaling in neurons. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015; 9:296. Vincent P, Spitzer NC. PMID: 26283926.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    12. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise. Neuron. 2015 Jun 03; 86(5):1131-44. Spitzer NC. PMID: 26050033.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Non-cell-autonomous mechanism of activity-dependent neurotransmitter switching. Neuron. 2014 Jun 04; 82(5):1004-16. Guemez-Gamboa A, Xu L, Meng D, Spitzer NC. PMID: 24908484.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Development of GABA circuitry of fast-spiking basket interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of erbb4-mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2013 Dec 11; 33(50):19724-33. Yang JM, Zhang J, Chen XJ, Geng HY, Ye M, Spitzer NC, Luo JH, Duan SM, Li XM. PMID: 24336736.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. The challenge of connecting the dots in the B.R.A.I.N. Neuron. 2013 Oct 16; 80(2):270-4. Devor A, Bandettini PA, Boas DA, Bower JM, Buxton RB, Cohen LB, Dale AM, Einevoll GT, Fox PT, Franceschini MA, Friston KJ, Fujimoto JG, Geyer MA, Greenberg JH, Halgren E, Hämäläinen MS, Helmchen F, Hyman BT, Jasanoff A, Jernigan TL, Judd LL, Kim SG, Kleinfeld D, Kopell NJ, Kutas M, Kwong KK, Larkum ME, Lo EH, Magistretti PJ, Mandeville JB, Masliah E, Mitra PP, Mobley WC, Moskowitz MA, Nimmerjahn A, Reynolds JH, Rosen BR, Salzberg BM, Schaffer CB, Silva GA, So PT, Spitzer NC, Tootell RB, Van Essen DC, Vanduffel W, Vinogradov SA, Wald LL, Wang LV, Weber B, Yodh AG. PMID: 24139032.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    16. Imaging and manipulating calcium transients in developing Xenopus spinal neurons. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2013 Jul 01; 2013(7):653-64. Spitzer NC, Borodinsky LN, Root CM. PMID: 23818661.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Neurotransmitter switching in the adult brain regulates behavior. Science. 2013 Apr 26; 340(6131):449-53. Dulcis D, Jamshidi P, Leutgeb S, Spitzer NC. PMID: 23620046.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 95     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Activity-dependent competition regulates motor neuron axon pathfinding via PlexinA3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 22; 110(4):1524-9. Plazas PV, Nicol X, Spitzer NC. PMID: 23302694.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. Reserve pool neuron transmitter respecification: Novel neuroplasticity. Dev Neurobiol. 2012 Apr; 72(4):465-74. Dulcis D, Spitzer NC. PMID: 21595049.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 Jan 18; 13(2):94-106. Spitzer NC. PMID: 22251956.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Neurotransmitter phenotype plasticity: an unexpected mechanism in the toolbox of network activity homeostasis. Dev Neurobiol. 2012 Jan; 72(1):22-32. Demarque M, Spitzer NC. PMID: 21557513.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Calcium signaling in neuronal development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Oct 01; 3(10):a004259. Rosenberg SS, Spitzer NC. PMID: 21730044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 94     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    23. Spatial and temporal second messenger codes for growth cone turning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 16; 108(33):13776-81. Nicol X, Hong KP, Spitzer NC. PMID: 21795610.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Improved molecular toolkit for cAMP studies in live cells. BMC Res Notes. 2011 Jul 20; 4:241. Hong KP, Spitzer NC, Nicol X. PMID: 21774821.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    
    25. Genetic patterns of correlation among subcortical volumes in humans: results from a magnetic resonance imaging twin study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011 Apr; 32(4):641-53. Eyler LT, Prom-Wormley E, Fennema-Notestine C, Panizzon MS, Neale MC, Jernigan TL, Fischl B, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Stevens A, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Schmitt JE, Spitzer NC, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. PMID: 20572207.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Contexts for dopamine specification by calcium spike activity in the CNS. J Neurosci. 2011 Jan 05; 31(1):78-88. Velázquez-Ulloa NA, Spitzer NC, Dulcis D. PMID: 21209192.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Phenotypic checkpoints regulate neuronal development. Trends Neurosci. 2010 Nov; 33(11):485-92. Ben-Ari Y, Spitzer NC. PMID: 20864191.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Activity-dependent expression of Lmx1b regulates specification of serotonergic neurons modulating swimming behavior. Neuron. 2010 Jul 29; 67(2):321-34. Demarque M, Spitzer NC. PMID: 20670838.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. cJun integrates calcium activity and tlx3 expression to regulate neurotransmitter specification. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Aug; 13(8):944-50. Marek KW, Kurtz LM, Spitzer NC. PMID: 20581840.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Target-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter specification and embryonic neuronal calcium spike activity. J Neurosci. 2010 Apr 21; 30(16):5792-801. Xiao Q, Xu L, Spitzer NC. PMID: 20410131.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. How GABA generates depolarization. J Physiol. 2010 Mar 01; 588(Pt 5):757-8. Spitzer NC. PMID: 20194137.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Brain awareness week and beyond: encouraging the next generation. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ. 2009; 8(1):A61-5. McNerney CD, Chang EJ, Spitzer NC. PMID: 23493673.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    33. Spontaneous calcium spike activity in embryonic spinal neurons is regulated by developmental expression of the Na+, K+-ATPase beta3 subunit. J Neurosci. 2009 Jun 17; 29(24):7877-85. Chang LW, Spitzer NC. PMID: 19535599.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Neuroscience: A bar code for differentiation. Nature. 2009 Apr 16; 458(7240):843-4. Spitzer NC. PMID: 19370023.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. We've got NERVE: a call to arms for neuroscience education. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 18; 29(11):3337-9. Frantz KJ, McNerney CD, Spitzer NC. PMID: 19295139.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating behaviour. Nature. 2008 Nov 13; 456(7219):195-201. Dulcis D, Spitzer NC. PMID: 19005547.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. A Rosetta stone for analysis of human membrane protein function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 05; 105(31):10641-2. Spitzer NC. PMID: 18669649.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. Embryonically expressed GABA and glutamate drive electrical activity regulating neurotransmitter specification. J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 30; 28(18):4777-84. Root CM, Velázquez-Ulloa NA, Monsalve GC, Minakova E, Spitzer NC. PMID: 18448654.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Implications of activity-dependent neurotransmitter-receptor matching. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Apr 12; 363(1495):1393-9. Spitzer NC, Borodinsky LN. PMID: 18198155.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Neurite outgrowth and in vivo sensory innervation mediated by a Ca(V)2.2-laminin beta 2 stop signal. J Neurosci. 2008 Mar 05; 28(10):2366-74. Sann SB, Xu L, Nishimune H, Sanes JR, Spitzer NC. PMID: 18322083.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Calcium: first messenger. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Mar; 11(3):243-4. Spitzer NC. PMID: 18301428.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    42. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter-receptor matching at the neuromuscular junction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 02; 104(1):335-40. Borodinsky LN, Spitzer NC. PMID: 17190810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Electrical activity in early neuronal development. Nature. 2006 Dec 07; 444(7120):707-12. Spitzer NC. PMID: 17151658.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 257     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Second messenger pas de deux: the coordinated dance between calcium and cAMP. Sci STKE. 2006 May 23; 2006(336):pe22. Borodinsky LN, Spitzer NC. PMID: 16720840.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Local calcium transients contribute to disappearance of pFAK, focal complex removal and deadhesion of neuronal growth cones and fibroblasts. Dev Biol. 2005 Nov 01; 287(1):201-12. Conklin MW, Lin MS, Spitzer NC. PMID: 16202989.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Homeostatic activity-dependent paradigm for neurotransmitter specification. Cell Calcium. 2005 May; 37(5):417-23. Spitzer NC, Borodinsky LN, Root CM. PMID: 15820389.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Calcium in the function of the nervous system: new implications. Cell Calcium. 2005 May; 37(5):371-4. Bregestovski P, Spitzer N. PMID: 15820383.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    48. Orchestrating neuronal differentiation: patterns of Ca2+ spikes specify transmitter choice. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 27(7):415-21. Spitzer NC, Root CM, Borodinsky LN. PMID: 15219741.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Nature and nurture in brain development. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 27(7):361. Ben-Ari Y, Spitzer NC. PMID: 15219731.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    50. Activity-dependent homeostatic specification of transmitter expression in embryonic neurons. Nature. 2004 Jun 03; 429(6991):523-30. Borodinsky LN, Root CM, Cronin JA, Sann SB, Gu X, Spitzer NC. PMID: 15175743.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 137     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Coincidence detection enhances appropriate wiring of the nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 13; 101(15):5311-2. Spitzer NC. PMID: 15067118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Calcium transients regulate patterned actin assembly during myofibrillogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004 Feb; 229(2):231-42. Li H, Cook JD, Terry M, Spitzer NC, Ferrari MB. PMID: 14745949.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Dynamic interactions of cyclic AMP transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) spikes. Nature. 2002 Jul 04; 418(6893):93-6. Gorbunova YV, Spitzer NC. PMID: 12097913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Outside and in: development of neuronal excitability. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002 Jun; 12(3):315-23. Spitzer NC, Kingston PA, Manning TJ, Conklin MW. PMID: 12049939.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. Adaptation in the chemotactic guidance of nerve growth cones. Nature. 2002 May 23; 417(6887):411-8. Ming GL, Wong ST, Henley J, Yuan XB, Song HJ, Spitzer NC, Poo MM. PMID: 11986620.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 124     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Activity-dependent neuronal differentiation prior to synapse formation: the functions of calcium transients. J Physiol Paris. 2002 Jan-Mar; 96(1-2):73-80. Spitzer NC. PMID: 11755785.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Differentiation of electrical excitability in motoneurons. Brain Res Bull. 2000 Nov 15; 53(5):547-52. Spitzer NC, Vincent A, Lautermilch NJ. PMID: 11165790.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Coding of neuronal differentiation by calcium transients. Bioessays. 2000 Sep; 22(9):811-7. Spitzer NC, Lautermilch NJ, Smith RD, Gomez TM. PMID: 10944583.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
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