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    Nicholas Spitzer

    TitleDirector
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentKavli Institute for Brain And Mind
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0357
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-2456
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Neurotransmitter Switching and Its Function in Hippocampal Plasticity
      NIH/NIMH R21MH105706Sep 10, 2014 - Aug 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Analysis of Activity Dependent Mechanisms of Neuronal Differentiation
      NIH/NINDS R01NS057690Dec 1, 2006 - Jan 31, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Mechanisms of Calcium Transients in Neuronal Development
      NIH/NIMH R01MH074702Jun 1, 2006 - Aug 31, 2011
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Mechanisms of Calcium Transients in Neuronal Development
      NIH/NIMH R56MH074702Sep 25, 2005 - May 31, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MECHANISMS OF GENERATION OF GROWTH CONE CALCIUM WAVES
      NIH/NINDS R01NS037002Sep 8, 1998 - Aug 31, 2002
      Role: Principal Investigator
      TARGET GENES OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN XENOPUS
      NIH/FIC F06TW001998Aug 17, 1994
      Role: Principal Investigator
      INDUCTION AND COMPENTENCE IN THE RETINA
      NIH/NEI R01EY010422Jul 1, 1994 - Jun 30, 1998
      Role: Principal Investigator
      FORMATION OF NEURAL PATHWAYS IN THE EMBRYO
      NIH/NEI R01EY010770Jul 1, 1994 - Jun 30, 1997
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MOLECULAR AND BIOPHYSICAL ASPECTS OF NEURONAL SIGNALING
      NIH/NINDS P01NS025916Mar 1, 1988 - Feb 28, 1997
      Role: Co-Investigator
      FORMATION OF NEURAL PATHWAYS IN THE AMPHIBIAN EMBRYO
      NIH/NICHD K04HD000528Jul 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 1988
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Neural Circuits Postdoctoral Training Program
      NIH/NINDS T32NS007220Jul 1, 1982 - Jun 30, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      FORMATION OF NEURAL PATHWAYS IN THE EMBRYO
      NIH/NICHD R01HD014490Sep 30, 1980 - May 31, 1993
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Development of Neurons
      NIH/NINDS R01NS015918Jan 1, 1980 - Mar 31, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Development of Neurons
      NIH/NINDS R56NS015918Jan 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Dulcis D, Lippi G, Stark CJ, Do LH, Berg DK, Spitzer N. Neurotransmitter Switching Regulated by miRNAs Controls Changes in Social Preference. Neuron. 2017 Aug 30. PMID: 28867550.
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      2. Aumann TD, Raabus M, Tomas D, Prijanto A, Churilov L, Spitzer N, Horne MK. Differences in Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Associated with Summer and Winter Photoperiods in Humans. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0158847. PMID: 27428306.
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      3. Spitzer N. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE. Neurotransmitter-tailored dendritic trees. Science. 2015 Oct 30; 350(6260):510-1. PMID: 26516267.
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      4. Vincent P, Spitzer N. Editorial: Dynamics of cyclic nucleotide signaling in neurons. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015; 9:296. PMID: 26283926.
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      5. Spitzer N. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise. Neuron. 2015 Jun 3; 86(5):1131-44. PMID: 26050033.
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      6. Griesi-Oliveira K, Acab A, Gupta AR, Sunaga DY, Chailangkarn T, Nicol X, Nunez Y, Walker MF, Murdoch JD, Sanders SJ, Fernandez TV, Ji W, Lifton RP, Vadasz E, Dietrich A, Pradhan D, Song H, Ming GL, Gu X, Haddad G, Marchetto MC, Spitzer N, Passos-Bueno MR, State MW, Muotri AR. Modeling non-syndromic autism and the impact of TRPC6 disruption in human neurons. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov; 20(11):1350-65. PMID: 25385366.
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      7. Guemez-Gamboa A, Xu L, Meng D, Spitzer N. Non-cell-autonomous mechanism of activity-dependent neurotransmitter switching. Neuron. 2014 Jun 4; 82(5):1004-16. PMID: 24908484.
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      8. Yang JM, Zhang J, Chen XJ, Geng HY, Ye M, Spitzer N, Luo JH, Duan SM, Li XM. Development of GABA Circuitry of Fast-Spiking Basket Interneurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of erbb4-Mutant Mice. J Neurosci. 2013 Dec 11; 33(50):19724-33. PMID: 24336736.
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      9. Devor A, Bandettini PA, Boas DA, Bower JM, Buxton RB, Cohen LB, Dale AM, Einevoll GT, Fox PT, Franceschini MA, Friston KJ, Fujimoto JG, Geyer MA, Greenberg JH, Halgren E, Hämäläinen MS, Helmchen F, Hyman BT, Jasanoff A, Jernigan TL, Judd LL, Kim SG, Kleinfeld D, Kopell NJ, Kutas M, Kwong KK, Larkum ME, Lo EH, Magistretti PJ, Mandeville JB, Masliah E, Mitra PP, Mobley WC, Moskowitz MA, Nimmerjahn A, Reynolds JH, Rosen BR, Salzberg BM, Schaffer CB, Silva GA, So PT, Spitzer N, Tootell RB, Van Essen DC, Vanduffel W, Vinogradov SA, Wald LL, Wang LV, Weber B, Yodh AG. The challenge of connecting the dots in the B.R.A.I.N. Neuron. 2013 Oct 16; 80(2):270-4. PMID: 24139032.
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      10. Spitzer N, Borodinsky LN, Root CM. Imaging and manipulating calcium transients in developing Xenopus spinal neurons. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2013 Jul; 2013(7):653-64. PMID: 23818661.
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      11. Dulcis D, Jamshidi P, Leutgeb S, Spitzer N. Neurotransmitter switching in the adult brain regulates behavior. Science. 2013 Apr 26; 340(6131):449-53. PMID: 23620046.
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      12. Plazas PV, Nicol X, Spitzer N. Activity-dependent competition regulates motor neuron axon pathfinding via PlexinA3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 22; 110(4):1524-9. PMID: 23302694.
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      13. Dulcis D, Spitzer N. Reserve pool neuron transmitter respecification: Novel neuroplasticity. Dev Neurobiol. 2012 Apr; 72(4):465-74. PMID: 21595049.
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      14. Spitzer N. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 Feb; 13(2):94-106. PMID: 22251956.
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      15. Demarque M, Spitzer N. Neurotransmitter phenotype plasticity: an unexpected mechanism in the toolbox of network activity homeostasis. Dev Neurobiol. 2012 Jan; 72(1):22-32. PMID: 21557513.
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      16. Rosenberg SS, Spitzer N. Calcium signaling in neuronal development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Oct; 3(10):a004259. PMID: 21730044.
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      17. Nicol X, Hong KP, Spitzer N. Spatial and temporal second messenger codes for growth cone turning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 16; 108(33):13776-81. PMID: 21795610.
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      18. Hong KP, Spitzer N, Nicol X. Improved molecular toolkit for cAMP studies in live cells. BMC Res Notes. 2011; 4:241. PMID: 21774821.
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      19. Eyler LT, Prom-Wormley E, Fennema-Notestine C, Panizzon MS, Neale MC, Jernigan TL, Fischl B, Franz CE, Lyons MJ, Stevens A, Pacheco J, Perry ME, Schmitt JE, Spitzer N, Seidman LJ, Thermenos HW, Tsuang MT, Dale AM, Kremen WS. Genetic patterns of correlation among subcortical volumes in humans: results from a magnetic resonance imaging twin study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011 Apr; 32(4):641-53. PMID: 20572207.
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      20. Velázquez-Ulloa NA, Spitzer N, Dulcis D. Contexts for dopamine specification by calcium spike activity in the CNS. J Neurosci. 2011 Jan 5; 31(1):78-88. PMID: 21209192.
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      21. Ben-Ari Y, Spitzer N. Phenotypic checkpoints regulate neuronal development. Trends Neurosci. 2010 Nov; 33(11):485-92. PMID: 20864191.
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      22. Demarque M, Spitzer N. Activity-dependent expression of Lmx1b regulates specification of serotonergic neurons modulating swimming behavior. Neuron. 2010 Jul 29; 67(2):321-34. PMID: 20670838.
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      23. Marek KW, Kurtz LM, Spitzer N. cJun integrates calcium activity and tlx3 expression to regulate neurotransmitter specification. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Aug; 13(8):944-50. PMID: 20581840.
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      24. Xiao Q, Xu L, Spitzer N. Target-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter specification and embryonic neuronal calcium spike activity. J Neurosci. 2010 Apr 21; 30(16):5792-801. PMID: 20410131.
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      25. Spitzer N. How GABA generates depolarization. J Physiol. 2010 Mar 1; 588(Pt 5):757-8. PMID: 20194137.
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      26. McNerney CD, Chang EJ, Spitzer N. Brain awareness week and beyond: encouraging the next generation. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ. 2009; 8(1):A61-5. PMID: 23493673.
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      27. Chang LW, Spitzer N. Spontaneous calcium spike activity in embryonic spinal neurons is regulated by developmental expression of the Na+, K+-ATPase beta3 subunit. J Neurosci. 2009 Jun 17; 29(24):7877-85. PMID: 19535599.
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      28. Spitzer N. Neuroscience: A bar code for differentiation. Nature. 2009 Apr 16; 458(7240):843-4. PMID: 19370023.
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      29. Frantz KJ, McNerney CD, Spitzer N. We've got NERVE: a call to arms for neuroscience education. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 18; 29(11):3337-9. PMID: 19295139.
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      30. Dulcis D, Spitzer N. Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating behaviour. Nature. 2008 Nov 13; 456(7219):195-201. PMID: 19005547.
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      31. Spitzer N. A Rosetta stone for analysis of human membrane protein function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5; 105(31):10641-2. PMID: 18669649.
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      32. Root CM, Velázquez-Ulloa NA, Monsalve GC, Minakova E, Spitzer N. Embryonically expressed GABA and glutamate drive electrical activity regulating neurotransmitter specification. J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 30; 28(18):4777-84. PMID: 18448654.
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      33. Spitzer N, Borodinsky LN. Implications of activity-dependent neurotransmitter-receptor matching. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Apr 12; 363(1495):1393-9. PMID: 18198155.
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      34. Sann SB, Xu L, Nishimune H, Sanes JR, Spitzer N. Neurite outgrowth and in vivo sensory innervation mediated by a Ca(V)2.2-laminin beta 2 stop signal. J Neurosci. 2008 Mar 5; 28(10):2366-74. PMID: 18322083.
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      35. Spitzer N. Calcium: first messenger. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Mar; 11(3):243-4. PMID: 18301428.
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      36. Borodinsky LN, Spitzer N. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter-receptor matching at the neuromuscular junction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 2; 104(1):335-40. PMID: 17190810.
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      37. Spitzer N. Electrical activity in early neuronal development. Nature. 2006 Dec 7; 444(7120):707-12. PMID: 17151658.
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      38. Borodinsky LN, Spitzer N. Second messenger pas de deux: the coordinated dance between calcium and cAMP. Sci STKE. 2006 May 23; 2006(336):pe22. PMID: 16720840.
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      39. Conklin MW, Lin MS, Spitzer N. Local calcium transients contribute to disappearance of pFAK, focal complex removal and deadhesion of neuronal growth cones and fibroblasts. Dev Biol. 2005 Nov 1; 287(1):201-12. PMID: 16202989.
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      40. Bregestovski P, Spitzer N. Calcium in the function of the nervous system: new implications. Cell Calcium. 2005 May; 37(5):371-4. PMID: 15820383.
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      41. Spitzer N, Borodinsky LN, Root CM. Homeostatic activity-dependent paradigm for neurotransmitter specification. Cell Calcium. 2005 May; 37(5):417-23. PMID: 15820389.
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      42. Ben-Ari Y, Spitzer N. Nature and nurture in brain development. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 27(7):361. PMID: 15219731.
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      43. Spitzer N, Root CM, Borodinsky LN. Orchestrating neuronal differentiation: patterns of Ca2+ spikes specify transmitter choice. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 27(7):415-21. PMID: 15219741.
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      44. Borodinsky LN, Root CM, Cronin JA, Sann SB, Gu X, Spitzer N. Activity-dependent homeostatic specification of transmitter expression in embryonic neurons. Nature. 2004 Jun 3; 429(6991):523-30. PMID: 15175743.
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      45. Spitzer N. Coincidence detection enhances appropriate wiring of the nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 13; 101(15):5311-2. PMID: 15067118.
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      46. Li H, Cook JD, Terry M, Spitzer N, Ferrari MB. Calcium transients regulate patterned actin assembly during myofibrillogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004 Feb; 229(2):231-42. PMID: 14745949.
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      47. Gorbunova YV, Spitzer N. Dynamic interactions of cyclic AMP transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) spikes. Nature. 2002 Jul 4; 418(6893):93-6. PMID: 12097913.
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      48. Spitzer N, Kingston PA, Manning TJ, Conklin MW. Outside and in: development of neuronal excitability. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002 Jun; 12(3):315-23. PMID: 12049939.
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      49. Ming GL, Wong ST, Henley J, Yuan XB, Song HJ, Spitzer N, Poo MM. Adaptation in the chemotactic guidance of nerve growth cones. Nature. 2002 May 23; 417(6887):411-8. PMID: 11986620.
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      50. Spitzer N. Activity-dependent neuronal differentiation prior to synapse formation: the functions of calcium transients. J Physiol Paris. 2002 Jan-Mar; 96(1-2):73-80. PMID: 11755785.
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      51. Fickbohm DJ, Lynn-Bullock CP, Spitzer N, Caldwell HK, Katz PS. Localization and quantification of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in the central nervous systems of Tritonia and Aplysia. J Comp Neurol. 2001 Aug 13; 437(1):91-105. PMID: 11477599.
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      52. Gomez TM, Robles E, Poo M, Spitzer N. Filopodial calcium transients promote substrate-dependent growth cone turning. Science. 2001 Mar 9; 291(5510):1983-7. PMID: 11239161.
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      53. Spitzer N, Vincent A, Lautermilch NJ. Differentiation of electrical excitability in motoneurons. Brain Res Bull. 2000 Nov 15; 53(5):547-52. PMID: 11165790.
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      54. Watt SD, Gu X, Smith RD, Spitzer N. Specific frequencies of spontaneous Ca2+ transients upregulate GAD 67 transcripts in embryonic spinal neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2000 Oct; 16(4):376-87. PMID: 11085875.
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      55. Spitzer N, Lautermilch NJ, Smith RD, Gomez TM. Coding of neuronal differentiation by calcium transients. Bioessays. 2000 Sep; 22(9):811-7. PMID: 10944583.
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      56. Vincent A, Lautermilch NJ, Spitzer N. Antisense suppression of potassium channel expression demonstrates its role in maturation of the action potential. J Neurosci. 2000 Aug 15; 20(16):6087-94. PMID: 10934258.
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      57. Gomez TM, Spitzer N. Regulation of growth cone behavior by calcium: new dynamics to earlier perspectives. J Neurobiol. 2000 Aug; 44(2):174-83. PMID: 10934320.
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      58. Gurantz D, Lautermilch NJ, Watt SD, Spitzer N. Sustained upregulation in embryonic spinal neurons of a Kv3.1 potassium channel gene encoding a delayed rectifier current. J Neurobiol. 2000 Feb 15; 42(3):347-56. PMID: 10645974.
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      59. Lautermilch NJ, Spitzer N. Regulation of calcineurin by growth cone calcium waves controls neurite extension. J Neurosci. 2000 Jan 1; 20(1):315-25. PMID: 10627609.
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      60. Rohrbough J, Spitzer N. Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors and spontaneous presynaptic transmitter release at developing excitatory spinal synapses. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 1; 19(19):8528-41. PMID: 10493753.
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      61. Ferrari MB, Spitzer N. Calcium signaling in the developing Xenopus myotome. Dev Biol. 1999 Sep 15; 213(2):269-82. PMID: 10479447.
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      62. Spitzer N. New dimensions of neuronal plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 1999 Jun; 2(6):489-91. PMID: 10448206.
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      63. Gomez TM, Spitzer N. In vivo regulation of axon extension and pathfinding by growth-cone calcium transients. Nature. 1999 Jan 28; 397(6717):350-5. PMID: 9950427.
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      64. Olson EC, Schinder AF, Dantzker JL, Marcus EA, Spitzer N, Harris WA. Properties of ectopic neurons induced by Xenopus neurogenin1 misexpression. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998 Nov; 12(4-5):281-99. PMID: 9828092.
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      65. Spitzer N, Ribera AB. Development of electrical excitability in embryonic neurons: mechanisms and roles. J Neurobiol. 1998 Oct; 37(1):190-7. PMID: 9777741.
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      66. Ribera AB, Spitzer N. Development of electrical excitability: mechanisms and roles. J Neurobiol. 1998 Oct; 37(1):1-2. PMID: 9777728.
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      67. Jessen-Eller K, Steele M, Reinisch C, Spitzer N. Blockade of ryanodine receptors stimulates neurite outgrowth in embryos of Spisula solidissima. Biol Bull. 1998 Oct; 195(2):206-7. PMID: 9818372.
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      68. Ferrari MB, Ribbeck K, Hagler DJ, Spitzer N. A calcium signaling cascade essential for myosin thick filament assembly in Xenopus myocytes. J Cell Biol. 1998 Jun 15; 141(6):1349-56. PMID: 9628891.
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      69. Gleason EL, Spitzer N. AMPA and NMDA receptors expressed by differentiating Xenopus spinal neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Jun; 79(6):2986-98. PMID: 9636102.
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      70. Spitzer N, Sejnowski TJ. Biological information processing: bits of progress. Science. 1997 Aug 22; 277(5329):1060-1. PMID: 9289851.
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      71. Spitzer N, Gu X. Purposeful patterns of spontaneous calcium transients in embryonic spinal neurons. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1997 Feb; 8(1):13-9. PMID: 15001100.
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      72. Gu X, Spitzer N. Breaking the code: regulation of neuronal differentiation by spontaneous calcium transients. Dev Neurosci. 1997; 19(1):33-41. PMID: 9078431.
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      73. Schinder AF, Olson EC, Spitzer N, Montal M. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary event in glutamate neurotoxicity. J Neurosci. 1996 Oct 1; 16(19):6125-33. PMID: 8815895.
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      74. Ferrari MB, Rohrbough J, Spitzer N. Spontaneous calcium transients regulate myofibrillogenesis in embryonic Xenopus myocytes. Dev Biol. 1996 Sep 15; 178(2):484-97. PMID: 8812144.
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      75. Gurantz D, Ribera AB, Spitzer N. Temporal regulation of Shaker- and Shab-like potassium channel gene expression in single embryonic spinal neurons during K+ current development. J Neurosci. 1996 May 15; 16(10):3287-95. PMID: 8627366.
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      76. Rohrbough J, Spitzer N. Regulation of intracellular Cl- levels by Na(+)-dependent Cl- cotransport distinguishes depolarizing from hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor-mediated responses in spinal neurons. J Neurosci. 1996 Jan; 16(1):82-91. PMID: 8613812.
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      77. Gu X, Spitzer N. Distinct aspects of neuronal differentiation encoded by frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients. Nature. 1995 Jun 29; 375(6534):784-7. PMID: 7596410.
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      78. Ernsberger U, Spitzer N. Convertible modes of inactivation of potassium channels in Xenopus myocytes differentiating in vitro. J Physiol. 1995 Apr 15; 484 ( Pt 2):313-29. PMID: 7602528.
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      79. Spitzer N, Olson E, Gu X. Spontaneous calcium transients regulate neuronal plasticity in developing neurons. J Neurobiol. 1995 Mar; 26(3):316-24. PMID: 7775965.
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      80. Spitzer N. Spontaneous activity: functions of calcium transients in neuronal differentiation. Perspect Dev Neurobiol. 1995; 2(4):379-86. PMID: 7757407.
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      81. Gu X, Olson EC, Spitzer N. Spontaneous neuronal calcium spikes and waves during early differentiation. J Neurosci. 1994 Nov; 14(11 Pt 1):6325-35. PMID: 7965039.
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      82. Spitzer N. Spontaneous Ca2+ spikes and waves in embryonic neurons: signaling systems for differentiation. Trends Neurosci. 1994 Mar; 17(3):115-8. PMID: 7515527.
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      83. Spitzer N, Gu X, Olson E. Action potentials, calcium transients and the control of differentiation of excitable cells. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994 Feb; 4(1):70-7. PMID: 7513567.
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      84. Spitzer N. Development of voltage-dependent and ligand-gated channels in excitable membranes. Prog Brain Res. 1994; 102:169-79. PMID: 7528434.
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      85. Spitzer N. Calcium and gene expression. Prog Brain Res. 1994; 103:123-6. PMID: 7886200.
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      86. Spitzer N, Debaca RC, Allen KA, Holliday J. Calcium dependence of differentiation of GABA immunoreactivity in spinal neurons. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Nov 1; 337(1):168-75. PMID: 7506271.
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      87. Gu X, Spitzer N. Low-threshold Ca2+ current and its role in spontaneous elevations of intracellular Ca2+ in developing Xenopus neurons. J Neurosci. 1993 Nov; 13(11):4936-48. PMID: 8229206.
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      88. Desarmenien MG, Clendening B, Spitzer N. In vivo development of voltage-dependent ionic currents in embryonic Xenopus spinal neurons. J Neurosci. 1993 Jun; 13(6):2575-81. PMID: 8501523.
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      89. Holliday J, Spitzer N. Calcium regulates neuronal differentiation both directly and via co-cultured myocytes. J Neurobiol. 1993 Apr; 24(4):506-14. PMID: 8515253.
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      90. Lockery SR, Spitzer N. Reconstruction of action potential development from whole-cell currents of differentiating spinal neurons. J Neurosci. 1992 Jun; 12(6):2268-87. PMID: 1607940.
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      91. Ribera AB, Spitzer N. Developmental regulation of potassium channels and the impact on neuronal differentiation. Ion Channels. 1992; 3:1-38. PMID: 1421060.
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      92. Desarmenien MG, Spitzer N. Role of calcium and protein kinase C in development of the delayed rectifier potassium current in Xenopus spinal neurons. Neuron. 1991 Nov; 7(5):797-805. PMID: 1742026.
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      93. Holliday J, Adams RJ, Sejnowski TJ, Spitzer N. Calcium-induced release of calcium regulates differentiation of cultured spinal neurons. Neuron. 1991 Nov; 7(5):787-96. PMID: 1742025.
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      94. Spitzer N. A developmental handshake: neuronal control of ionic currents and their control of neuronal differentiation. J Neurobiol. 1991 Oct; 22(7):659-73. PMID: 1722506.
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      95. Ribera AB, Spitzer N. Differentiation of delayed rectifier potassium current in embryonic amphibian myocytes. Dev Biol. 1991 Mar; 144(1):119-28. PMID: 1995391.
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      96. Holliday J, Spitzer N. Spontaneous calcium influx and its roles in differentiation of spinal neurons in culture. Dev Biol. 1990 Sep; 141(1):13-23. PMID: 2167857.
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      97. Ribera AB, Spitzer N. Differentiation of IKA in amphibian spinal neurons. J Neurosci. 1990 Jun; 10(6):1886-91. PMID: 2355255.
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      98. Ribera AB, Spitzer N. A critical period of transcription required for differentiation of the action potential of spinal neurons. Neuron. 1989 Jan; 2(1):1055-62. PMID: 2483107.
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      99. Harris GL, Henderson LP, Spitzer N. Changes in densities and kinetics of delayed rectifier potassium channels during neuronal differentiation. Neuron. 1988 Oct; 1(8):739-50. PMID: 3272186.
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      100. O'Dowd DK, Ribera AB, Spitzer N. Development of voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, and potassium currents in Xenopus spinal neurons. J Neurosci. 1988 Mar; 8(3):792-805. PMID: 3346722.
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      101. Ribera AB, Spitzer N. Both barium and calcium activate neuronal potassium currents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Sep; 84(18):6577-81. PMID: 2442762.
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      102. Henderson LP, Spitzer N. Autonomous early differentiation of neurons and muscle cells in single cell cultures. Dev Biol. 1986 Feb; 113(2):381-7. PMID: 2868950.
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      103. Easter SS, Purves D, Rakic P, Spitzer N. The changing view of neural specificity. Science. 1985 Nov 1; 230(4725):507-11. PMID: 4048944.
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      104. Henderson LP, Smith MA, Spitzer N. The absence of calcium blocks impulse-evoked release of acetylcholine but not de novo formation of functional neuromuscular synaptic contacts in culture. J Neurosci. 1984 Dec; 4(12):3140-50. PMID: 6094749.
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      105. Spitzer N. On the basis of delayed depolarization and its role in repetitive firing of Rohon-Beard neurones in Xenopus tadpoles. J Physiol. 1984 Dec; 357:51-65. PMID: 6512703.
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      106. Bixby JL, Spitzer N. Early differentiation of vertebrate spinal neurons in the absence of voltage-dependent Ca2+ and Na+ influx. Dev Biol. 1984 Nov; 106(1):89-96. PMID: 6092180.
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      107. Bixby JL, Spitzer N. The appearance and development of neurotransmitter sensitivity in Xenopus embryonic spinal neurones in vitro. J Physiol. 1984 Aug; 353:143-55. PMID: 6148408.
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      108. Bixby JL, Spitzer N. Enkephalin reduces calcium action potentials in Rohon-Beard neurons in vivo. J Neurosci. 1983 May; 3(5):1014-8. PMID: 6842279.
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      109. Bixby JL, Spitzer N. Enkephalin reduces quantal content at the frog neuromuscular junction. Nature. 1983 Feb 3; 301(5899):431-2. PMID: 6823319.
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      110. Bixby JL, Spitzer N. The appearance and development of chemosensitivity in Rohon-Beard neurones of the Xenopus spinal cord. J Physiol. 1982 Sep; 330:513-36. PMID: 6294289.
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      111. Spitzer N. Voltage- and stage-dependent uncoupling of Rohon-Beard neurones during embryonic development of Xenopus tadpoles. J Physiol. 1982 Sep; 330:145-62. PMID: 7175739.
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      112. Bate M, Goodman CS, Spitzer N. Embryonic development of identified neurons: segment-specific differences in the H cell homologues. J Neurosci. 1981 Jan; 1(1):103-6. PMID: 7346554.
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      113. Goodman CS, Bate M, Spitzer N. Embryonic development of identified neurons: origin and transformation of the H cell. J Neurosci. 1981 Jan; 1(1):94-102. PMID: 7346562.
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      114. Goodman CS, Spitzer N. The mature electrical properties of identified neurones in grasshopper embryos. J Physiol. 1981; 313:369-84. PMID: 7277226.
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      115. Goodman CS, Spitzer N. The development of electrical properties of identified neurones in grasshopper embryos. J Physiol. 1981; 313:385-403. PMID: 7277228.
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      116. Goodman CS, Pearson KG, Spitzer N. Electrical excitability: a spectrum of properties in the progeny of a single embryonic neuroblast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Mar; 77(3):1676-80. PMID: 6246499.
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      117. Darszon A, Vandenberg CA, Schönfeld M, Ellisman MH, Spitzer N, Montal M. Reassembly of protein-lipid complexes into large bilayer vesicles: perspectives for membrane reconstitution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jan; 77(1):239-43. PMID: 6244547.
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      118. Goodman CS, Spitzer N. Embryonic development of identified neurones: differentiation from neuroblast to neurone. Nature. 1979 Jul 19; 280(5719):208-14. PMID: 450137.
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      119. Goodman CS, O'Shea M, McCaman R, Spitzer N. Embryonic development of identified neurons: temporal pattern of morphological and biochemical differentiation. Science. 1979 Jun 15; 204(4398):1219-22. PMID: 36661.
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      120. Lamborghini JE, Revenaugh M, Spitzer N. Ultrastructural development of Rohon-Beard neurons: loss of intramitochondrial granules parallels loss of calcium action potentials. J Comp Neurol. 1979 Feb 15; 183(4):741-52. PMID: 762270.
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      121. Spitzer N. Low pH selectively blocks calcium action potentials in amphibian neurons developing in culture. Brain Res. 1979 Feb 9; 161(3):555-9. PMID: 33747.
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      122. Spitzer N. Ion channels in development. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1979; 2:363-97. PMID: 395884.
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      123. Baccaglini PI, Spitzer N. Developmental changes in the inward current of the action potential of Rohon-Beard neurones. J Physiol. 1977 Sep; 271(1):93-117. PMID: 915836.
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      124. Spitzer N, Baccaglini PI. Development of the action potential in embryo amphibian neurons in vivo. Brain Res. 1976 May 14; 107(3):610-6. PMID: 1268744.
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      125. Spitzer N, Lamborghini JE. The development of the action potential mechanism of amphibian neurons isolated in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 May; 73(5):1641-5. PMID: 1064036.
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      126. Spitzer N. The ionic basis of the resting potential and a slow depolarizing response in Rohon-Beard neurones of Xenopus tadpoles. J Physiol. 1976 Feb; 255(1):105-35. PMID: 1255512.
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      127. Doore BJ, Bashor MM, Spitzer N, Mawe RC, Saier MH. Regulation of adenosine 3' :5'-monophosphate efflux from rat glioma cells in culture*. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jun 10; 250(11):4371-2. PMID: 165200.
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      128. Miledi R, Spitzer N. Absence of action potentials in frog slow muscle fibres paralysed by botulinum toxin. J Physiol. 1974 Aug; 241(1):183-99. PMID: 4371279.
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      129. Holman ME, Spitzer N. Action of botulinum toxin on transmission from sympathetic nerves to the vas deferens. Br J Pharmacol. 1973 Feb; 47(2):431-3. PMID: 4352870.
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      130. McMahan UJ, Spitzer N. Viewing neuromuscular junctions in live, unstained skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 1971 Jul; 216(1):35P-37P. PMID: 5558366.
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      131. Spitzer N. Low resistance connections between cells in the developing anther of the lily. J Cell Biol. 1970 Jun; 45(3):565-75. PMID: 4918215.
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