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    Kenneth Chien

    TitleEmeritus Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0912
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Human Pluripotent Stem Cell and Progenitor Models of Cardiac and Blood Diseases
      NIH/NHLBI U01HL100408Sep 30, 2009 - Jun 30, 2016
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Characterization of Cardiac Progenitors Derived from 22q11-deleted Patients
      NIH/NHLBI RC1HL099618Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Multipotent heart cell progenitor lineages in cardiac development and disease
      NIH/NHLBI R03HL096319Dec 1, 2008 - May 31, 2009
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Cytoskeletal-Associated Proteins and Cardiomyopathy
      NIH/NHLBI R01HL077181Sep 1, 2005 - May 31, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NEUREGULIN SIGNALING PATHWAY IN CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT
      NIH/FIC R03TW001152Sep 30, 1999 - Aug 31, 2003
      Role: Principal Investigator
      VITAMIN A SIGNALING AND CARDIAC MORPHOGENIC DEFECTS
      NIH/NHLBI R01HL055926Sep 30, 1995 - Jan 31, 2004
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART FAILURE
      NIH/NHLBI P50HL053773Feb 1, 1995 - Feb 28, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      POSITIVE-NEGATIVE REGULATION OF VENTRICULAR DEVELOPMENT
      NIH/NHLBI R01HL051549Jan 1, 1994 - Dec 31, 1999
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Translational Cardiovascular Science and Medicine
      NIH/NHLBI T32HL007770Jul 1, 1993 - Dec 31, 2009
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Molecular Pathways for Hypertrophy and Cardiomyopathy
      NIH/NHLBI P01HL046345Feb 1, 1992 - Jun 30, 2014
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      REGULATION OF VENTRICULAR ANF EXPRESSION
      NIH/NHLBI R01HL045069May 1, 1991 - Apr 30, 1995
      Role: Principal Investigator
      ADRENERGIC REGULATION OF NEONATAL MYOCARDIAL CELL GROWTH
      NIH/NHLBI R01HL036139Dec 1, 1986 - Dec 31, 1993
      Role: Principal Investigator
      PHOSPHOLIPID ALTERATIONS DURING MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
      NIH/NHLBI K08HL001343Jul 1, 1984 - Jun 30, 1989
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Eroglu E, Chien K. Heart Regeneration 4.0: Matrix Medicine. Dev Cell. 2017 Jul 10; 42(1):7-8. PMID: 28697334.
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      2. Zangi L, Oliveira MS, Ye LY, Ma Q, Sultana N, Hadas Y, Chepurko E, Später D, Zhou B, Chew WL, Ebina W, Abrial M, Wang QD, Pu WT, Chien K. An IGF1R-Dependent Pathway Drives Epicardial Adipose Tissue Formation After Myocardial Injury. Circulation. 2016 Nov 1. PMID: 27803039.
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      3. Soh BS, Ng SY, Wu H, Buac K, Park JH, Lian X, Xu J, Foo KS, Felldin U, He X, Nichane M, Yang H, Bu L, Li RA, Lim B, Chien K. Corrigendum: Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells. Nat Commun. 2016; 7:12118. PMID: 27431579.
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      4. Soh BS, Ng SY, Wu H, Buac K, Park JH, Lian X, Xu J, Foo KS, Felldin U, He X, Nichane M, Yang H, Bu L, Li RA, Lim B, Chien K. Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells. Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10774. PMID: 26952167.
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      5. Ljunggren HG, Chien K. Next generation partnerships in translational science and medicine: Partnerships between academics, big pharma, biotech firms, philanthropists and patients look set to change the way science advances. EMBO Rep. 2015 Oct; 16(10):1246-9. PMID: 26358954.
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      6. Sahara M, Santoro F, Chien K. Programming and reprogramming a human heart cell. EMBO J. 2015 Mar 12; 34(6):710-38. PMID: 25712211.
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      7. Sahara M, Hansson EM, Wernet O, Lui KO, Später D, Chien K. Manipulation of a VEGF-Notch signaling circuit drives formation of functional vascular endothelial progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells. Cell Res. 2015 Jan; 25(1):148. PMID: 25553820.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Lui KO, Howie D, Ng SW, Liu S, Chien K, Waldmann H. Tolerance induction to human stem cell transplants with extension to their differentiated progeny. Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5629. PMID: 25434740.
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      9. Später D, Hansson EM, Zangi L, Chien K. How to make a cardiomyocyte. Development. 2014 Dec; 141(23):4418-31. PMID: 25406392.
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      10. Soh BS, Buac K, Xu H, Li E, Ng SY, Wu H, Chmielowiec J, Jiang X, Bu L, Li RA, Cowan C, Chien K. N-cadherin prevents the premature differentiation of anterior heart field progenitors in the pharyngeal mesodermal microenvironment. Cell Res. 2014 Dec; 24(12):1420-32. PMID: 25367124.
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      11. Drawnel FM, Boccardo S, Prummer M, Delobel F, Graff A, Weber M, Gérard R, Badi L, Kam-Thong T, Bu L, Jiang X, Hoflack JC, Kiialainen A, Jeworutzki E, Aoyama N, Carlson C, Burcin M, Gromo G, Boehringer M, Stahlberg H, Hall BJ, Magnone MC, Kolaja K, Chien K, Bailly J, Iacone R. Disease Modeling and Phenotypic Drug Screening for Diabetic Cardiomyopathy using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Rep. 2014 Nov 6; 9(3):810-20. PMID: 25437537.
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      12. Chien K, Zangi L, Lui KO. Synthetic chemically modified mRNA (modRNA): toward a new technology platform for cardiovascular biology and medicine. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015 Jan; 5(1):a014035. PMID: 25301935.
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      13. Lian X, Xu J, Li J, Chien K. Next-generation models of human cardiogenesis via genome editing. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Dec; 4(12):a013920. PMID: 25237142.
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      14. Lui KO, Zangi L, Chien K. Cardiovascular regenerative therapeutics via synthetic paracrine factor modified mRNA. Stem Cell Res. 2014 Nov; 13(3 Pt B):693-704. PMID: 25043723.
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      15. Wang G, McCain ML, Yang L, He A, Pasqualini FS, Agarwal A, Yuan H, Jiang D, Zhang D, Zangi L, Geva J, Roberts AE, Ma Q, Ding J, Chen J, Wang DZ, Li K, Wang J, Wanders RJ, Kulik W, Vaz FM, Laflamme MA, Murry CE, Chien K, Kelley RI, Church GM, Parker KK, Pu WT. Modeling the mitochondrial cardiomyopathy of Barth syndrome with induced pluripotent stem cell and heart-on-chip technologies. Nat Med. 2014 Jun; 20(6):616-23. PMID: 24813252.
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      16. Sahara M, Hansson EM, Wernet O, Lui KO, Später D, Chien K. Manipulation of a VEGF-Notch signaling circuit drives formation of functional vascular endothelial progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells. Cell Res. 2014 Jul; 24(7):820-41. PMID: 24810299.
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      17. Bang ML, Gu Y, Dalton ND, Peterson KL, Chien K, Chen J. The Muscle Ankyrin Repeat Proteins CARP, Ankrd2, and DARP Are Not Essential for Normal Cardiac Development and Function at Basal Conditions and in Response to Pressure Overload. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93638. PMID: 24736439.
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      18. Feinberg AW, Ripplinger CM, van der Meer P, Sheehy SP, Domian I, Chien K, Parker KK. Functional Differences in Engineered Myocardium from Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived versus Neonatal Cardiomyocytes. Stem Cell Reports. 2013; 1(5):387-96. PMID: 24286027.
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      19. Brade T, Pane LS, Moretti A, Chien K, Laugwitz KL. Embryonic heart progenitors and cardiogenesis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013 Oct; 3(10):a013847. PMID: 24086063.
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      20. Lui KO, Zangi L, Silva EA, Bu L, Sahara M, Li RA, Mooney DJ, Chien K. Driving vascular endothelial cell fate of human multipotent Isl1+ heart progenitors with VEGF modified mRNA. Cell Res. 2013 Oct; 23(10):1172-86. PMID: 24018375.
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      21. Zangi L, Lui KO, von Gise A, Ma Q, Ebina W, Ptaszek LM, Später D, Xu H, Tabebordbar M, Gorbatov R, Sena B, Nahrendorf M, Briscoe DM, Li RA, Wagers AJ, Rossi DJ, Pu WT, Chien K. Modified mRNA directs the fate of heart progenitor cells and induces vascular regeneration after myocardial infarction. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Oct; 31(10):898-907. PMID: 24013197.
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      22. Yi BA, Mummery CL, Chien K. Direct cardiomyocyte reprogramming: a new direction for cardiovascular regenerative medicine. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013 Sep; 3(9):a014050. PMID: 24003244.
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      23. Später D, Abramczuk MK, Buac K, Zangi L, Stachel MW, Clarke J, Sahara M, Ludwig A, Chien K. A HCN4+ cardiomyogenic progenitor derived from the first heart field and human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2013 Sep; 15(9):1098-106. PMID: 23974038.
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      24. Lian X, Chien K. The years of the monkey. Cell Res. 2013 Oct; 23(10):1161-2. PMID: 23958583.
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      25. Chien K. Body, heal thyself. An interview with Kenneth Chien, Professor of Cardiovascular Research at the Department of Cell & Molecular Biology, and the Department of Medicine at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. Interview by Holger Breithaupt. EMBO Rep. 2013 Sep; 14(9):755-8. PMID: 23938329.
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      26. Chien K. Regenerative biology: heartbroken embryos heal. Nature. 2013 Jun 27; 498(7455):439-40. PMID: 23783518.
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      27. Soh BS, Wu H, Chien K. Cardiac regenerative medicine 2.0. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Mar; 31(3):209-11. PMID: 23471068.
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      28. Hansson EM, Chien K. Reprogramming a broken heart. Cell Stem Cell. 2012 Jul 6; 11(1):3-4. PMID: 22770235.
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      29. Xu H, Yi BA, Chien K. In vivo reprogramming for heart disease. Cell Res. 2012 Nov; 22(11):1521-3. PMID: 22751090.
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      30. Chien K, Yi BA, Xu H, Mummery CL. Cardiomyocyte reprogramming and the new age of cellular alchemy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Sep; 53(3):311-3. PMID: 22749824.
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      31. Ptaszek LM, Mansour M, Ruskin JN, Chien K. Towards regenerative therapy for cardiac disease. Lancet. 2012 Mar 10; 379(9819):933-42. PMID: 22405796.
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      32. Xu H, Yi BA, Wu H, Bock C, Gu H, Lui KO, Park JH, Shao Y, Riley AK, Domian IJ, Hu E, Willette R, Lepore J, Meissner A, Wang Z, Chien K. Highly efficient derivation of ventricular cardiomyocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells with a distinct epigenetic signature. Cell Res. 2012 Jan; 22(1):142-54. PMID: 22064699.
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      33. Chmielowiec J, Chang YS, Chien K. A GPS for heart progenitor cell lineages. Mol Ther. 2011 Sep; 19(9):1576-8. PMID: 21886115.
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      34. Vunjak-Novakovic G, Lui KO, Tandon N, Chien K. Bioengineering heart muscle: a paradigm for regenerative medicine. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2011 Aug 15; 13:245-67. PMID: 21568715.
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      35. Knöll R, Linke WA, Zou P, Miocic S, Kostin S, Buyandelger B, Ku CH, Neef S, Bug M, Schäfer K, Knöll G, Felkin LE, Wessels J, Toischer K, Hagn F, Kessler H, Didié M, Quentin T, Maier LS, Teucher N, Unsöld B, Schmidt A, Birks EJ, Gunkel S, Lang P, Granzier H, Zimmermann WH, Field LJ, Faulkner G, Dobbelstein M, Barton PJ, Sattler M, Wilmanns M, Chien K. Telethonin deficiency is associated with maladaptation to biomechanical stress in the mammalian heart. Circ Res. 2011 Sep 16; 109(7):758-69. PMID: 21799151.
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      36. Xu H, Yi BA, Chien K. Shortcuts to making cardiomyocytes. Nat Cell Biol. 2011 Mar; 13(3):191-3. PMID: 21364566.
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      37. Terada R, Warren S, Lu JT, Chien K, Wessels A, Kasahara H. Ablation of Nkx2-5 at mid-embryonic stage results in premature lethality and cardiac malformation. Cardiovasc Res. 2011 Jul 15; 91(2):289-99. PMID: 21285290.
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      38. Nakano H, Williams E, Hoshijima M, Sasaki M, Minamisawa S, Chien K, Nakano A. Cardiac origin of smooth muscle cells in the inflow tract. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Feb; 50(2):337-45. PMID: 20974149.
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      39. Rodin S, Domogatskaya A, Ström S, Hansson EM, Chien K, Inzunza J, Hovatta O, Tryggvason K. Long-term self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells on human recombinant laminin-511. Nat Biotechnol. 2010 Jun; 28(6):611-5. PMID: 20512123.
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      40. Bu L, Gao X, Jiang X, Chien K, Wang Z. Targeted conditional gene knockout in human embryonic stem cells. Cell Res. 2010 Mar; 20(3):379-82. PMID: 20142843.
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      41. Yi BA, Wernet O, Chien K. Pregenerative medicine: developmental paradigms in the biology of cardiovascular regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jan; 120(1):20-8. PMID: 20051633.
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      42. Musunuru K, Domian IJ, Chien K. Stem cell models of cardiac development and disease. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2010; 26:667-87. PMID: 20604707.
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      43. Knöll R, Kostin S, Klede S, Savvatis K, Klinge L, Stehle I, Gunkel S, Kötter S, Babicz K, Sohns M, Miocic S, Didié M, Knöll G, Zimmermann WH, Thelen P, Bickeböller H, Maier LS, Schaper W, Schaper J, Kraft T, Tschöpe C, Linke WA, Chien K. A common MLP (muscle LIM protein) variant is associated with cardiomyopathy. Circ Res. 2010 Mar 5; 106(4):695-704. PMID: 20044516.
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      44. Domian IJ, Chiravuri M, van der Meer P, Feinberg AW, Shi X, Shao Y, Wu SM, Parker KK, Chien K. Generation of functional ventricular heart muscle from mouse ventricular progenitor cells. Science. 2009 Oct 16; 326(5951):426-9. PMID: 19833966.
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      45. Hansson EM, Lindsay ME, Chien K. Regeneration next: toward heart stem cell therapeutics. Cell Stem Cell. 2009 Oct 2; 5(4):364-77. PMID: 19796617.
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      46. Andersson KB, Finsen AV, Sjåland C, Winer LH, Sjaastad I, Odegaard A, Louch WE, Wang Y, Chen J, Chien K, Sejersted OM, Christensen G. Mice carrying a conditional Serca2(flox) allele for the generation of Ca(2+) handling-deficient mouse models. Cell Calcium. 2009 Sep; 46(3):219-25. PMID: 19692123.
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      47. Bu L, Jiang X, Martin-Puig S, Caron L, Zhu S, Shao Y, Roberts DJ, Huang PL, Domian IJ, Chien K. Human ISL1 heart progenitors generate diverse multipotent cardiovascular cell lineages. Nature. 2009 Jul 2; 460(7251):113-7. PMID: 19571884.
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      48. Takeda M, Briggs LE, Wakimoto H, Marks MH, Warren SA, Lu JT, Weinberg EO, Robertson KD, Chien K, Kasahara H. Slow progressive conduction and contraction defects in loss of Nkx2-5 mice after cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation. Lab Invest. 2009 Sep; 89(9):983-93. PMID: 19546853.
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      49. Andersson KB, Birkeland JA, Finsen AV, Louch WE, Sjaastad I, Wang Y, Chen J, Molkentin JD, Chien K, Sejersted OM, Christensen G. Moderate heart dysfunction in mice with inducible cardiomyocyte-specific excision of the Serca2 gene. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009 Aug; 47(2):180-7. PMID: 19328205.
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      50. Nakano A, Nakano H, Chien K. Multipotent islet-1 cardiovascular progenitors in development and disease. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2008; 73:297-306. PMID: 19204066.
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      51. Risebro CA, Searles RG, Melville AA, Ehler E, Jina N, Shah S, Pallas J, Hubank M, Dillard M, Harvey NL, Schwartz RJ, Chien K, Oliver G, Riley PR. Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart. Development. 2009 Feb; 136(3):495-505. PMID: 19091769.
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      52. Chien K, Domian IJ, Parker KK. Cardiogenesis and the complex biology of regenerative cardiovascular medicine. Science. 2008 Dec 5; 322(5907):1494-7. PMID: 19056974.
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      53. Chien K, Cai T, Hsu H, Su T, Chang W, Chen M, Lee Y, Hu FB. A prediction model for type 2 diabetes risk among Chinese people. Diabetologia. 2009 Mar; 52(3):443-50. PMID: 19057891.
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      54. Briggs LE, Takeda M, Cuadra AE, Wakimoto H, Marks MH, Walker AJ, Seki T, Oh SP, Lu JT, Sumners C, Raizada MK, Horikoshi N, Weinberg EO, Yasui K, Ikeda Y, Chien K, Kasahara H. Perinatal loss of Nkx2-5 results in rapid conduction and contraction defects. Circ Res. 2008 Sep 12; 103(6):580-90. PMID: 18689573.
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      55. Zhou B, Ma Q, Rajagopal S, Wu SM, Domian I, Rivera-Feliciano J, Jiang D, von Gise A, Ikeda S, Chien K, Pu WT. Epicardial progenitors contribute to the cardiomyocyte lineage in the developing heart. Nature. 2008 Jul 3; 454(7200):109-13. PMID: 18568026.
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      56. Adams JW, Wang J, Davis JR, Liaw C, Gaidarov I, Gatlin J, Dalton ND, Gu Y, Ross J, Behan D, Chien K, Connolly D. Myocardial expression, signaling, and function of GPR22: a protective role for an orphan G protein-coupled receptor. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Aug; 295(2):H509-21. PMID: 18539757.
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      57. Geier C, Gehmlich K, Ehler E, Hassfeld S, Perrot A, Hayess K, Cardim N, Wenzel K, Erdmann B, Krackhardt F, Posch MG, Osterziel KJ, Bublak A, Nägele H, Scheffold T, Dietz R, Chien K, Spuler S, Fürst DO, Nürnberg P, Ozcelik C. Beyond the sarcomere: CSRP3 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Sep 15; 17(18):2753-65. PMID: 18505755.
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      58. Chien K. Regenerative medicine and human models of human disease. Nature. 2008 May 15; 453(7193):302-5. PMID: 18480810.
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      59. Martin-Puig S, Wang Z, Chien K. Lives of a heart cell: tracing the origins of cardiac progenitors. Cell Stem Cell. 2008 Apr 10; 2(4):320-31. PMID: 18397752.
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      60. Wu SM, Chien K, Mummery C. Origins and fates of cardiovascular progenitor cells. Cell. 2008 Feb 22; 132(4):537-43. PMID: 18295570.
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      61. Osafune K, Caron L, Borowiak M, Martinez RJ, Fitz-Gerald CS, Sato Y, Cowan CA, Chien K, Melton DA. Marked differences in differentiation propensity among human embryonic stem cell lines. Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Mar; 26(3):313-5. PMID: 18278034.
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      62. Ikeda Y, Hoshijima M, Chien K. Toward biologically targeted therapy of calcium cycling defects in heart failure. Physiology (Bethesda). 2008 Feb; 23:6-16. PMID: 18268360.
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      63. Chan JY, Takeda M, Briggs LE, Graham ML, Lu JT, Horikoshi N, Weinberg EO, Aoki H, Sato N, Chien K, Kasahara H. Identification of cardiac-specific myosin light chain kinase. Circ Res. 2008 Mar 14; 102(5):571-80. PMID: 18202317.
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      64. Kaye DM, Hoshijima M, Chien K. Reversing advanced heart failure by targeting Ca2+ cycling. Annu Rev Med. 2008; 59:13-28. PMID: 18186701.
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      65. Laugwitz KL, Moretti A, Caron L, Nakano A, Chien K. Islet1 cardiovascular progenitors: a single source for heart lineages? Development. 2008 Jan; 135(2):193-205. PMID: 18156162.
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      66. Yamamoto R, Akazawa H, Ito K, Toko H, Sano M, Yasuda N, Qin Y, Kudo Y, Sugaya T, Chien K, Komuro I. Angiotensin II type 1a receptor signals are involved in the progression of heart failure in MLP-deficient mice. Circ J. 2007 Dec; 71(12):1958-64. PMID: 18037754.
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      67. Knöll R, Postel R, Wang J, Krätzner R, Hennecke G, Vacaru AM, Vakeel P, Schubert C, Murthy K, Rana BK, Kube D, Knöll G, Schäfer K, Hayashi T, Holm T, Kimura A, Schork N, Toliat MR, Nürnberg P, Schultheiss HP, Schaper W, Schaper J, Bos E, Den Hertog J, van Eeden FJ, Peters PJ, Hasenfuss G, Chien K, Bakkers J. Laminin-alpha4 and integrin-linked kinase mutations cause human cardiomyopathy via simultaneous defects in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Circulation. 2007 Jul 31; 116(5):515-25. PMID: 17646580.
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      68. Kaye DM, Preovolos A, Marshall T, Byrne M, Hoshijima M, Hajjar R, Mariani JA, Pepe S, Chien K, Power JM. Percutaneous cardiac recirculation-mediated gene transfer of an inhibitory phospholamban peptide reverses advanced heart failure in large animals. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jul 17; 50(3):253-60. PMID: 17631218.
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      69. Hirai M, Horiguchi M, Ohbayashi T, Kita T, Chien K, Nakamura T. Latent TGF-beta-binding protein 2 binds to DANCE/fibulin-5 and regulates elastic fiber assembly. EMBO J. 2007 Jul 25; 26(14):3283-95. PMID: 17581631.
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      70. Qyang Y, Martin-Puig S, Chiravuri M, Chen S, Xu H, Bu L, Jiang X, Lin L, Granger A, Moretti A, Caron L, Wu X, Clarke J, Taketo MM, Laugwitz KL, Moon RT, Gruber P, Evans SM, Ding S, Chien K. The renewal and differentiation of Isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors are controlled by a Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Cell Stem Cell. 2007 Aug 16; 1(2):165-79. PMID: 18371348.
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      71. Chien K. Molecular medicine: microRNAs and the tell-tale heart. Nature. 2007 May 24; 447(7143):389-90. PMID: 17522664.
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      72. Smart N, Risebro CA, Melville AA, Moses K, Schwartz RJ, Chien K, Riley PR. Thymosin beta-4 is essential for coronary vessel development and promotes neovascularization via adult epicardium. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Sep; 1112:171-88. PMID: 17495252.
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      73. Hirai M, Ohbayashi T, Horiguchi M, Okawa K, Hagiwara A, Chien K, Kita T, Nakamura T. Fibulin-5/DANCE has an elastogenic organizer activity that is abrogated by proteolytic cleavage in vivo. J Cell Biol. 2007 Mar 26; 176(7):1061-71. PMID: 17371835.
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      74. Prall OW, Menon MK, Solloway MJ, Watanabe Y, Zaffran S, Bajolle F, Biben C, McBride JJ, Robertson BR, Chaulet H, Stennard FA, Wise N, Schaft D, Wolstein O, Furtado MB, Shiratori H, Chien K, Hamada H, Black BL, Saga Y, Robertson EJ, Buckingham ME, Harvey RP. An Nkx2-5/Bmp2/Smad1 negative feedback loop controls heart progenitor specification and proliferation. Cell. 2007 Mar 9; 128(5):947-59. PMID: 17350578.
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      75. Pomiès P, Pashmforoush M, Vegezzi C, Chien K, Auffray C, Beckerle MC. The cytoskeleton-associated PDZ-LIM protein, ALP, acts on serum response factor activity to regulate muscle differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2007 May; 18(5):1723-33. PMID: 17332502.
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      76. Muller O, Pradervand S, Berger S, Centeno G, Milet A, Nicod P, Pedrazzini T, Tronche F, Schütz G, Chien K, Rossier BC, Firsov D. Identification of corticosteroid-regulated genes in cardiomyocytes by serial analysis of gene expression. Genomics. 2007 Mar; 89(3):370-7. PMID: 17174066.
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      77. Teutsch C, Kondo RP, Dederko DA, Chrast J, Chien K, Giles WR. Spatial distributions of Kv4 channels and KChip2 isoforms in the murine heart based on laser capture microdissection. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Mar 1; 73(4):739-49. PMID: 17289005.
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      78. Moretti A, Caron L, Nakano A, Lam JT, Bernshausen A, Chen Y, Qyang Y, Bu L, Sasaki M, Martin-Puig S, Sun Y, Evans SM, Laugwitz KL, Chien K. Multipotent embryonic isl1+ progenitor cells lead to cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell diversification. Cell. 2006 Dec 15; 127(6):1151-65. PMID: 17123592.
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      79. Smart N, Risebro CA, Melville AA, Moses K, Schwartz RJ, Chien K, Riley PR. Thymosin beta4 induces adult epicardial progenitor mobilization and neovascularization. Nature. 2007 Jan 11; 445(7124):177-82. PMID: 17108969.
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      80. Yajima T, Yasukawa H, Jeon ES, Xiong D, Dorner A, Iwatate M, Nara M, Zhou H, Summers-Torres D, Hoshijima M, Chien K, Yoshimura A, Knowlton KU. Innate defense mechanism against virus infection within the cardiac myocyte requiring gp130-STAT3 signaling. Circulation. 2006 Nov 28; 114(22):2364-73. PMID: 17101849.
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      81. Hoshijima M, Knöll R, Pashmforoush M, Chien K. Reversal of calcium cycling defects in advanced heart failure toward molecular therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Nov 7; 48(9 Suppl 1):A15-23. PMID: 17084280.
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      82. Weissgerber P, Held B, Bloch W, Kaestner L, Chien K, Fleischmann BK, Lipp P, Flockerzi V, Freichel M. Reduced cardiac L-type Ca2+ current in Ca(V)beta2-/- embryos impairs cardiac development and contraction with secondary defects in vascular maturation. Circ Res. 2006 Sep 29; 99(7):749-57. PMID: 16946137.
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      83. Ricote M, Snyder CS, Leung HY, Chen J, Chien K, Glass CK. Normal hematopoiesis after conditional targeting of RXRalpha in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Oct; 80(4):850-61. PMID: 16888087.
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      84. Chien K. Lost and found: cardiac stem cell therapy revisited. J Clin Invest. 2006 Jul; 116(7):1838-40. PMID: 16823485.
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      85. Chien K. Herceptin and the heart--a molecular modifier of cardiac failure. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23; 354(8):789-90. PMID: 16495390.
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      86. St Amand TR, Lu JT, Zamora M, Gu Y, Stricker J, Hoshijima M, Epstein JA, Ross JJ, Ruiz-Lozano P, Chien K. Distinct roles of HF-1b/Sp4 in ventricular and neural crest cells lineages affect cardiac conduction system development. Dev Biol. 2006 Mar 15; 291(2):208-17. PMID: 16430881.
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      87. Chien K. Beyond small molecule drugs for heart failure: prospects for gene therapy. Novartis Found Symp. 2006; 274:244-56; discussion 256-9, 272-6. PMID: 17019816.
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      88. Peng X, Kraus MS, Wei H, Shen TL, Pariaut R, Alcaraz A, Ji G, Cheng L, Yang Q, Kotlikoff MI, Chen J, Chien K, Gu H, Guan JL. Inactivation of focal adhesion kinase in cardiomyocytes promotes eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2006 Jan; 116(1):217-27. PMID: 16374517.
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      89. Kondo RP, Dederko DA, Teutsch C, Chrast J, Catalucci D, Chien K, Giles WR. Comparison of contraction and calcium handling between right and left ventricular myocytes from adult mouse heart: a role for repolarization waveform. J Physiol. 2006 Feb 15; 571(Pt 1):131-46. PMID: 16357014.
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      90. Merki E, Zamora M, Raya A, Kawakami Y, Wang J, Zhang X, Burch J, Kubalak SW, Kaliman P, Izpisua Belmonte JC, Chien K, Ruiz-Lozano P. Epicardial retinoid X receptor alpha is required for myocardial growth and coronary artery formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 20; 102(51):18455-60. PMID: 16352730.
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      91. Wang J, Hoshijima M, Lam J, Zhou Z, Jokiel A, Dalton ND, Hultenby K, Ruiz-Lozano P, Ross J, Tryggvason K, Chien K. Cardiomyopathy associated with microcirculation dysfunction in laminin alpha4 chain-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 6; 281(1):213-20. PMID: 16204254.
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      92. Lorenzen-Schmidt I, Stuyvers BD, ter Keurs HE, Date MO, Hoshijima M, Chien K, McCulloch AD, Omens JH. Young MLP deficient mice show diastolic dysfunction before the onset of dilated cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005 Aug; 39(2):241-50. PMID: 15978612.
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      93. Zhou X, Long JM, Geyer MA, Masliah E, Kelsoe JR, Wynshaw-Boris A, Chien K. Reduced expression of the Sp4 gene in mice causes deficits in sensorimotor gating and memory associated with hippocampal vacuolization. Mol Psychiatry. 2005 Apr; 10(4):393-406. PMID: 15558077.
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      94. Chien K. Alchemy and the new age of cardiac muscle cell biology. PLoS Biol. 2005 Apr; 3(4):e131. PMID: 15819607.
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      95. Chien K, Karsenty G. Longevity and lineages: toward the integrative biology of degenerative diseases in heart, muscle, and bone. Cell. 2005 Feb 25; 120(4):533-44. PMID: 15734685.
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      96. Laugwitz KL, Moretti A, Lam J, Gruber P, Chen Y, Woodard S, Lin LZ, Cai CL, Lu MM, Reth M, Platoshyn O, Yuan JX, Evans S, Chien K. Postnatal isl1+ cardioblasts enter fully differentiated cardiomyocyte lineages. Nature. 2005 Feb 10; 433(7026):647-53. PMID: 15703750.
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      97. Minamisawa S, Oshikawa J, Takeshima H, Hoshijima M, Wang Y, Chien K, Ishikawa Y, Matsuoka R. Junctophilin type 2 is associated with caveolin-3 and is down-regulated in the hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Dec 17; 325(3):852-6. PMID: 15541368.
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      98. Kaliman P, Catalucci D, Lam JT, Kondo R, Gutiérrez JC, Reddy S, Palacín M, Zorzano A, Chien K, Ruiz-Lozano P. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase phosphorylates phospholamban and regulates calcium uptake in cardiomyocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 4; 280(9):8016-21. PMID: 15598648.
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      99. Hayashi T, Arimura T, Itoh-Satoh M, Ueda K, Hohda S, Inagaki N, Takahashi M, Hori H, Yasunami M, Nishi H, Koga Y, Nakamura H, Matsuzaki M, Choi BY, Bae SW, You CW, Han KH, Park JE, Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Chien K, Kimura A. Tcap gene mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Dec 7; 44(11):2192-201. PMID: 15582318.
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      100. Nishida K, Yamaguchi O, Hirotani S, Hikoso S, Higuchi Y, Watanabe T, Takeda T, Osuka S, Morita T, Kondoh G, Uno Y, Kashiwase K, Taniike M, Nakai A, Matsumura Y, Miyazaki J, Sudo T, Hongo K, Kusakari Y, Kurihara S, Chien K, Takeda J, Hori M, Otsu K. p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase plays a critical role in cardiomyocyte survival but not in cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to pressure overload. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Dec; 24(24):10611-20. PMID: 15572667.
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      101. Conrad M, Jakupoglu C, Moreno SG, Lippl S, Banjac A, Schneider M, Beck H, Hatzopoulos AK, Just U, Sinowatz F, Schmahl W, Chien K, Wurst W, Bornkamm GW, Brielmeier M. Essential role for mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in hematopoiesis, heart development, and heart function. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Nov; 24(21):9414-23. PMID: 15485910.
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      102. Pradervand S, Yasukawa H, Muller OG, Kjekshus H, Nakamura T, St Amand TR, Yajima T, Matsumura K, Duplain H, Iwatate M, Woodard S, Pedrazzini T, Ross J, Firsov D, Rossier BC, Hoshijima M, Chien K. Small proline-rich protein 1A is a gp130 pathway- and stress-inducible cardioprotective protein. EMBO J. 2004 Nov 10; 23(22):4517-25. PMID: 15510217.
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      103. Chien K, Moretti A, Laugwitz KL. Development. ES cells to the rescue. Science. 2004 Oct 8; 306(5694):239-40. PMID: 15472069.
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      104. Yamaguchi O, Watanabe T, Nishida K, Kashiwase K, Higuchi Y, Takeda T, Hikoso S, Hirotani S, Asahi M, Taniike M, Nakai A, Tsujimoto I, Matsumura Y, Miyazaki J, Chien K, Matsuzawa A, Sadamitsu C, Ichijo H, Baccarini M, Hori M, Otsu K. Cardiac-specific disruption of the c-raf-1 gene induces cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. J Clin Invest. 2004 Oct; 114(7):937-43. PMID: 15467832.
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      105. Smith RM, Suleman N, Lacerda L, Opie LH, Akira S, Chien K, Sack MN. Genetic depletion of cardiac myocyte STAT-3 abolishes classical preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res. 2004 Sep 1; 63(4):611-6. PMID: 15306216.
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      106. Chien K, Hoshijima M. Unravelling Ras signals in cardiovascular disease. Nat Cell Biol. 2004 Sep; 6(9):807-8. PMID: 15340447.
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      107. Carrier L, Knöll R, Vignier N, Keller DI, Bausero P, Prudhon B, Isnard R, Ambroisine ML, Fiszman M, Ross J, Schwartz K, Chien K. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy in heterozygous cMyBP-C null mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2004 Aug 1; 63(2):293-304. PMID: 15249187.
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      108. Mori H, Hanada R, Hanada T, Aki D, Mashima R, Nishinakamura H, Torisu T, Chien K, Yasukawa H, Yoshimura A. Socs3 deficiency in the brain elevates leptin sensitivity and confers resistance to diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2004 Jul; 10(7):739-43. PMID: 15208705.
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      109. Pashmforoush M, Lu JT, Chen H, Amand TS, Kondo R, Pradervand S, Evans SM, Clark B, Feramisco JR, Giles W, Ho SY, Benson DW, Silberbach M, Shou W, Chien K. Nkx2-5 pathways and congenital heart disease; loss of ventricular myocyte lineage specification leads to progressive cardiomyopathy and complete heart block. Cell. 2004 Apr 30; 117(3):373-86. PMID: 15109497.
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      110. Chien K. Stem cells: lost in translation. Nature. 2004 Apr 8; 428(6983):607-8. PMID: 15034595.
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      111. Chen H, Shi S, Acosta L, Li W, Lu J, Bao S, Chen Z, Yang Z, Schneider MD, Chien K, Conway SJ, Yoder MC, Haneline LS, Franco D, Shou W. BMP10 is essential for maintaining cardiac growth during murine cardiogenesis. Development. 2004 May; 131(9):2219-31. PMID: 15073151.
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      112. Chien K, Chien L. The new Silk Road. Nature. 2004 Mar 11; 428(6979):208-9. PMID: 15014508.
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      113. Iwanaga Y, Hoshijima M, Gu Y, Iwatate M, Dieterle T, Ikeda Y, Date MO, Chrast J, Matsuzaki M, Peterson KL, Chien K, Ross J. Chronic phospholamban inhibition prevents progressive cardiac dysfunction and pathological remodeling after infarction in rats. J Clin Invest. 2004 Mar; 113(5):727-36. PMID: 14991071.
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      114. Bale TL, Hoshijima M, Gu Y, Dalton N, Anderson KR, Lee KF, Rivier J, Chien K, Vale WW, Peterson KL. The cardiovascular physiologic actions of urocortin II: acute effects in murine heart failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9; 101(10):3697-702. PMID: 14990799.
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      115. Kimura A, Kinjyo I, Matsumura Y, Mori H, Mashima R, Harada M, Chien K, Yasukawa H, Yoshimura A. SOCS3 is a physiological negative regulator for granulopoiesis and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 20; 279(8):6905-10. PMID: 14699146.
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      116. Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Chien K. Cardiac mechanotransduction and implications for heart disease. J Mol Med (Berl). 2003 Dec; 81(12):750-6. PMID: 14551702.
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      117. Iwatate M, Gu Y, Dieterle T, Iwanaga Y, Peterson KL, Hoshijima M, Chien K, Ross J. In vivo high-efficiency transcoronary gene delivery and Cre-LoxP gene switching in the adult mouse heart. Gene Ther. 2003 Oct; 10(21):1814-20. PMID: 12960971.
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      118. Zheng M, Dilly K, Dos Santos Cruz J, Li M, Gu Y, Ursitti JA, Chen J, Ross J, Chien K, Lederer JW, Wang Y. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium defect in Ras-induced hypertrophic cardiomyopathy heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004 Jan; 286(1):H424-33. PMID: 12969887.
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      119. Yasukawa H, Ohishi M, Mori H, Murakami M, Chinen T, Aki D, Hanada T, Takeda K, Akira S, Hoshijima M, Hirano T, Chien K, Yoshimura A. IL-6 induces an anti-inflammatory response in the absence of SOCS3 in macrophages. Nat Immunol. 2003 Jun; 4(6):551-6. PMID: 12754507.
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      120. Chien K, Ross J, Hoshijima M. Calcium and heart failure: the cycle game. Nat Med. 2003 May; 9(5):508-9. PMID: 12724757.
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      121. Minamisawa S, Wang Y, Chen J, Ishikawa Y, Chien K, Matsuoka R. Atrial chamber-specific expression of sarcolipin is regulated during development and hypertrophic remodeling. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14; 278(11):9570-5. PMID: 12645548.
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      122. Gopalan SM, Flaim C, Bhatia SN, Hoshijima M, Knoell R, Chien K, Omens JH, McCulloch AD. Anisotropic stretch-induced hypertrophy in neonatal ventricular myocytes micropatterned on deformable elastomers. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003 Mar 5; 81(5):578-87. PMID: 12514807.
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      123. Cheng CF, Kuo HC, Chien K. Genetic modifiers of cardiac arrhythmias. Trends Mol Med. 2003 Feb; 9(2):59-66. PMID: 12615039.
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      124. Yasukawa H, Yajima T, Duplain H, Iwatate M, Kido M, Hoshijima M, Weitzman MD, Nakamura T, Woodard S, Xiong D, Yoshimura A, Chien K, Knowlton KU. The suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) is a novel therapeutic target for enterovirus-induced cardiac injury. J Clin Invest. 2003 Feb; 111(4):469-78. PMID: 12588885.
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      125. Ludwig A, Budde T, Stieber J, Moosmang S, Wahl C, Holthoff K, Langebartels A, Wotjak C, Munsch T, Zong X, Feil S, Feil R, Lancel M, Chien K, Konnerth A, Pape HC, Biel M, Hofmann F. Absence epilepsy and sinus dysrhythmia in mice lacking the pacemaker channel HCN2. EMBO J. 2003 Jan 15; 22(2):216-24. PMID: 12514127.
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      126. Ruiz-Lozano P, Chien K. Cre-constructing the heart. Nat Genet. 2003 Jan; 33(1):8-9. PMID: 12509773.
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      127. Christensen G, Gruber PJ, Wang Y, Chien K. Embryonic and neonatal cardiac gene transfer in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2003; 219:169-78. PMID: 12597007.
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      128. Chien K. Genotype, phenotype: upstairs, downstairs in the family of cardiomyopathies. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jan; 111(2):175-8. PMID: 12531871.
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      129. St Amand TR, Lu JT, Chien K. Defects in cardiac conduction system lineages and malignant arrhythmias: developmental pathways and disease. Novartis Found Symp. 2003; 250:260-70; discussion 271-5, 276-9. PMID: 12956335.
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      130. Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Hoffman HM, Person V, Lorenzen-Schmidt I, Bang ML, Hayashi T, Shiga N, Yasukawa H, Schaper W, McKenna W, Yokoyama M, Schork NJ, Omens JH, McCulloch AD, Kimura A, Gregorio CC, Poller W, Schaper J, Schultheiss HP, Chien K. The cardiac mechanical stretch sensor machinery involves a Z disc complex that is defective in a subset of human dilated cardiomyopathy. Cell. 2002 Dec 27; 111(7):943-55. PMID: 12507422.
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      131. Hamblet NS, Lijam N, Ruiz-Lozano P, Wang J, Yang Y, Luo Z, Mei L, Chien K, Sussman DJ, Wynshaw-Boris A. Dishevelled 2 is essential for cardiac outflow tract development, somite segmentation and neural tube closure. Development. 2002 Dec; 129(24):5827-38. PMID: 12421720.
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      132. Jiang X, Choudhary B, Merki E, Chien K, Maxson RE, Sucov HM. Normal fate and altered function of the cardiac neural crest cell lineage in retinoic acid receptor mutant embryos. Mech Dev. 2002 Sep; 117(1-2):115-22. PMID: 12204252.
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      133. Zhao YY, Liu Y, Stan RV, Fan L, Gu Y, Dalton N, Chu PH, Peterson K, Ross J, Chien K. Defects in caveolin-1 cause dilated cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension in knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Aug 20; 99(17):11375-80. PMID: 12177436.
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      134. Chien K, Olson EN. Converging pathways and principles in heart development and disease: CV@CSH. Cell. 2002 Jul 26; 110(2):153-62. PMID: 12150924.
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      135. Hoshijima M, Ikeda Y, Iwanaga Y, Minamisawa S, Date MO, Gu Y, Iwatate M, Li M, Wang L, Wilson JM, Wang Y, Ross J, Chien K. Chronic suppression of heart-failure progression by a pseudophosphorylated mutant of phospholamban via in vivo cardiac rAAV gene delivery. Nat Med. 2002 Aug; 8(8):864-71. PMID: 12134142.
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      136. Ozcelik C, Erdmann B, Pilz B, Wettschureck N, Britsch S, Hübner N, Chien K, Birchmeier C, Garratt AN. Conditional mutation of the ErbB2 (HER2) receptor in cardiomyocytes leads to dilated cardiomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25; 99(13):8880-5. PMID: 12072561.
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      137. Ferrer-Martínez A, Ruiz-Lozano P, Chien K. Mouse PeP: a novel peroxisomal protein linked to myoblast differentiation and development. Dev Dyn. 2002 Jun; 224(2):154-67. PMID: 12112469.
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      138. Crone SA, Zhao YY, Fan L, Gu Y, Minamisawa S, Liu Y, Peterson KL, Chen J, Kahn R, Condorelli G, Ross J, Chien K, Lee KF. ErbB2 is essential in the prevention of dilated cardiomyopathy. Nat Med. 2002 May; 8(5):459-65. PMID: 11984589.
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      139. Hoshijima M, Chien K. Mixed signals in heart failure: cancer rules. J Clin Invest. 2002 Apr; 109(7):849-55. PMID: 11927610.
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      140. Ikeda Y, Gu Y, Iwanaga Y, Hoshijima M, Oh SS, Giordano FJ, Chen J, Nigro V, Peterson KL, Chien K, Ross J. Restoration of deficient membrane proteins in the cardiomyopathic hamster by in vivo cardiac gene transfer. Circulation. 2002 Jan 29; 105(4):502-8. PMID: 11815435.
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      141. Nakamura T, Lozano PR, Ikeda Y, Iwanaga Y, Hinek A, Minamisawa S, Cheng CF, Kobuke K, Dalton N, Takada Y, Tashiro K, Ross Jr J, Honjo T, Chien K. Fibulin-5/DANCE is essential for elastogenesis in vivo. Nature. 2002 Jan 10; 415(6868):171-5. PMID: 11805835.
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      142. Chien K. Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue: notes on TCM ten years after. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2002 Jan; 12(1):1-2. PMID: 11796236.
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      143. Hoshijima M, Pashmforoush M, Knöll R, Chien K. The MLP family of cytoskeletal Z disc proteins and dilated cardiomyopathy: a stress pathway model for heart failure progression. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2002; 67:399-408. PMID: 12858565.
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      144. Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Chien K. Muscle LIM protein in heart failure. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2002; 7(2-3):104-5. PMID: 19649232.
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      145. Kuo HC, Cheng CF, Clark RB, Lin JJ, Lin JL, Hoshijima M, Nguyêñ-Trân VT, Gu Y, Ikeda Y, Chu PH, Ross J, Giles WR, Chien K. A defect in the Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) gene leads to a complete loss of I(to) and confers susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia. Cell. 2001 Dec 14; 107(6):801-13. PMID: 11747815.
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      146. Ruiz-Lozano P, Nakamura T, Chien K. [Developmental genes and heart disease]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2001 Dec; 54(12):1439-45. PMID: 11754790.
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      147. Yasukawa H, Hoshijima M, Gu Y, Nakamura T, Pradervand S, Hanada T, Hanakawa Y, Yoshimura A, Ross J, Chien K. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 is a biomechanical stress-inducible gene that suppresses gp130-mediated cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and survival pathways. J Clin Invest. 2001 Nov; 108(10):1459-67. PMID: 11714737.
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      148. Wettschureck N, Rütten H, Zywietz A, Gehring D, Wilkie TM, Chen J, Chien K, Offermanns S. Absence of pressure overload induced myocardial hypertrophy after conditional inactivation of Galphaq/Galpha11 in cardiomyocytes. Nat Med. 2001 Nov; 7(11):1236-40. PMID: 11689889.
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      149. Liao P, Georgakopoulos D, Kovacs A, Zheng M, Lerner D, Pu H, Saffitz J, Chien K, Xiao RP, Kass DA, Wang Y. The in vivo role of p38 MAP kinases in cardiac remodeling and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 9; 98(21):12283-8. PMID: 11593045.
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      150. Williams SP, Gerber HP, Giordano FJ, Peale FV, Bernstein LJ, Bunting S, Chien K, Ferrara N, van Bruggen N. Dobutamine stress cine-MRI of cardiac function in the hearts of adult cardiomyocyte-specific VEGF knockout mice. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001 Oct; 14(4):374-82. PMID: 11599061.
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      151. Su Z, Yao A, Zubair I, Sugishita K, Ritter M, Li F, Hunter JJ, Chien K, Barry WH. Effects of deletion of muscle LIM protein on myocyte function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Jun; 280(6):H2665-73. PMID: 11356623.
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      152. Pashmforoush M, Pomiès P, Peterson KL, Kubalak S, Ross J, Hefti A, Aebi U, Beckerle MC, Chien K. Adult mice deficient in actinin-associated LIM-domain protein reveal a developmental pathway for right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Nat Med. 2001 May; 7(5):591-7. PMID: 11329061.
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      153. Giordano FJ, Gerber HP, Williams SP, VanBruggen N, Bunting S, Ruiz-Lozano P, Gu Y, Nath AK, Huang Y, Hickey R, Dalton N, Peterson KL, Ross J, Chien K, Ferrara N. A cardiac myocyte vascular endothelial growth factor paracrine pathway is required to maintain cardiac function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8; 98(10):5780-5. PMID: 11331753.
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      154. Chien K. To Cre or not to Cre: the next generation of mouse models of human cardiac diseases. Circ Res. 2001 Mar 30; 88(6):546-9. PMID: 11282885.
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      155. Canicio J, Ruiz-Lozano P, Carrasco M, Palacin M, Chien K, Zorzano A, Kaliman P. Nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase and Ikappa B kinase-alpha signal skeletal muscle cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 8; 276(23):20228-33. PMID: 11279241.
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      156. Gutstein DE, Morley GE, Tamaddon H, Vaidya D, Schneider MD, Chen J, Chien K, Stuhlmann H, Fishman GI. Conduction slowing and sudden arrhythmic death in mice with cardiac-restricted inactivation of connexin43. Circ Res. 2001 Feb 16; 88(3):333-9. PMID: 11179202.
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      157. Chien K. Myocyte survival pathways and cardiomyopathy: implications for trastuzumab cardiotoxicity. Semin Oncol. 2000 Dec; 27(6 Suppl 11):9-14; discussion 92-100. PMID: 11236034.
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      158. Hongo M, Ryoke T, Schoenfeld J, Hunter J, Dalton N, Clark R, Lowe D, Chien K, Ross J. Effects of growth hormone on cardiac dysfunction and gene expression in genetic murine dilated cardiomyopathy. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000 Dec; 95(6):431-41. PMID: 11192363.
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      159. Chien K. Genomic circuits and the integrative biology of cardiac diseases. Nature. 2000 Sep 14; 407(6801):227-32. PMID: 11001065.
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      160. Nguyên-Trân VT, Kubalak SW, Minamisawa S, Fiset C, Wollert KC, Brown AB, Ruiz-Lozano P, Barrere-Lemaire S, Kondo R, Norman LW, Gourdie RG, Rahme MM, Feld GK, Clark RB, Giles WR, Chien K. A novel genetic pathway for sudden cardiac death via defects in the transition between ventricular and conduction system cell lineages. Cell. 2000 Sep 1; 102(5):671-82. PMID: 11007485.
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      161. Suzumura K, Kasahara E, Wang Y, Chien K, Inoue M. Decreased turnovers of glutathione and ascorbic acid in watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2000 Aug; 46(4):205-9. PMID: 11185659.
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      162. Hart A, Melet F, Grossfeld P, Chien K, Jones C, Tunnacliffe A, Favier R, Bernstein A. Fli-1 is required for murine vascular and megakaryocytic development and is hemizygously deleted in patients with thrombocytopenia. Immunity. 2000 Aug; 13(2):167-77. PMID: 10981960.
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      163. Wan YJ, An D, Cai Y, Repa JJ, Hung-Po Chen T, Flores M, Postic C, Magnuson MA, Chen J, Chien K, French S, Mangelsdorf DJ, Sucov HM. Hepatocyte-specific mutation establishes retinoid X receptor alpha as a heterodimeric integrator of multiple physiological processes in the liver. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Jun; 20(12):4436-44. PMID: 10825207.
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      164. Doevendans PA, Kubalak SW, An RH, Becker DK, Chien K, Kass RS. Differentiation of cardiomyocytes in floating embryoid bodies is comparable to fetal cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 May; 32(5):839-51. PMID: 10775488.
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      165. Jones C, Müllenbach R, Grossfeld P, Auer R, Favier R, Chien K, James M, Tunnacliffe A, Cotter F. Co-localisation of CCG repeats and chromosome deletion breakpoints in Jacobsen syndrome: evidence for a common mechanism of chromosome breakage. Hum Mol Genet. 2000 May 1; 9(8):1201-8. PMID: 10767345.
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      166. Chien K. Meeting Koch's postulates for calcium signaling in cardiac hypertrophy. J Clin Invest. 2000 May; 105(10):1339-42. PMID: 10811840.
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      167. Christensen G, Minamisawa S, Gruber PJ, Wang Y, Chien K. High-efficiency, long-term cardiac expression of foreign genes in living mouse embryos and neonates. Circulation. 2000 Jan 18; 101(2):178-84. PMID: 10637206.
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      168. Hertig CM, Kubalak SW, Wang Y, Chien K. Synergistic roles of neuregulin-1 and insulin-like growth factor-I in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and cardiac chamber morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24; 274(52):37362-9. PMID: 10601306.
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      169. Luo ZD, Wang Y, Werlen G, Camp S, Chien K, Taylor P. Calcineurin enhances acetylcholinesterase mRNA stability during C2-C12 muscle cell differentiation. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Nov; 56(5):886-94. PMID: 10531391.
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      170. Kimber WL, Hsieh P, Hirotsune S, Yuva-Paylor L, Sutherland HF, Chen A, Ruiz-Lozano P, Hoogstraten-Miller SL, Chien K, Paylor R, Scambler PJ, Wynshaw-Boris A. Deletion of 150 kb in the minimal DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome critical region in mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Nov; 8(12):2229-37. PMID: 10545603.
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      171. Minamisawa S, Hoshijima M, Chu G, Ward CA, Frank K, Gu Y, Martone ME, Wang Y, Ross J, Kranias EG, Giles WR, Chien K. Chronic phospholamban-sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase interaction is the critical calcium cycling defect in dilated cardiomyopathy. Cell. 1999 Oct 29; 99(3):313-22. PMID: 10555147.
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      174. Barak Y, Nelson MC, Ong ES, Jones YZ, Ruiz-Lozano P, Chien K, Koder A, Evans RM. PPAR gamma is required for placental, cardiac, and adipose tissue development. Mol Cell. 1999 Oct; 4(4):585-95. PMID: 10549290.
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      175. Knowlton KU, Chien K. Inflammatory pathways and cardiac repair: the affliction of infarction. Nat Med. 1999 Oct; 5(10):1122-3. PMID: 10502807.
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      177. Chien K. Stress pathways and heart failure. Cell. 1999 Sep 3; 98(5):555-8. PMID: 10490095.
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      178. Nakamura T, Ruiz-Lozano P, Lindner V, Yabe D, Taniwaki M, Furukawa Y, Kobuke K, Tashiro K, Lu Z, Andon NL, Schaub R, Matsumori A, Sasayama S, Chien K, Honjo T. DANCE, a novel secreted RGD protein expressed in developing, atherosclerotic, and balloon-injured arteries. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 6; 274(32):22476-83. PMID: 10428823.
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      179. Chen J, Chien K. Complexity in simplicity: monogenic disorders and complex cardiomyopathies. J Clin Invest. 1999 Jun; 103(11):1483-5. PMID: 10359556.
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      180. Sah VP, Minamisawa S, Tam SP, Wu TH, Dorn GW, Ross J, Chien K, Brown JH. Cardiac-specific overexpression of RhoA results in sinus and atrioventricular nodal dysfunction and contractile failure. J Clin Invest. 1999 Jun; 103(12):1627-34. PMID: 10377168.
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      181. Ruiz-Lozano P, Hixon ML, Wagner MW, Flores AI, Ikawa S, Baldwin AS, Chien K, Gualberto A. p53 is a transcriptional activator of the muscle-specific phosphoglycerate mutase gene and contributes in vivo to the control of its cardiac expression. Cell Growth Differ. 1999 May; 10(5):295-306. PMID: 10359011.
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      182. Marszalek JR, Ruiz-Lozano P, Roberts E, Chien K, Goldstein LS. Situs inversus and embryonic ciliary morphogenesis defects in mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A subunit of kinesin-II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 27; 96(9):5043-8. PMID: 10220415.
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      183. Hirota H, Chen J, Betz UA, Rajewsky K, Gu Y, Ross J, Müller W, Chien K. Loss of a gp130 cardiac muscle cell survival pathway is a critical event in the onset of heart failure during biomechanical stress. Cell. 1999 Apr 16; 97(2):189-98. PMID: 10219240.
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      184. Minamisawa S, Gu Y, Ross J, Chien K, Chen J. A post-transcriptional compensatory pathway in heterozygous ventricular myosin light chain 2-deficient mice results in lack of gene dosage effect during normal cardiac growth or hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 9; 274(15):10066-70. PMID: 10187786.
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      185. Chien K. Good fences make good neighbors : cardiovascular science and medicine at the end of the millenium. Circulation. 1999 Jan 5-12; 99(1):6-7. PMID: 9884369.
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      186. Schoenfeld JR, Vasser M, Jhurani P, Ng P, Hunter JJ, Ross J, Chien K, Lowe DG. Distinct molecular phenotypes in murine cardiac muscle development, growth, and hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998 Nov; 30(11):2269-80. PMID: 9925364.
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      187. Gruber PJ, Kubalak SW, Chien K. Downregulation of atrial markers during cardiac chamber morphogenesis is irreversible in murine embryos. Development. 1998 Nov; 125(22):4427-38. PMID: 9778502.
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      188. Liu X, Hwang H, Cao L, Buckland M, Cunningham A, Chen J, Chien K, Graham RM, Zhou M. Domain-specific gene disruption reveals critical regulation of neuregulin signaling by its cytoplasmic tail. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 27; 95(22):13024-9. PMID: 9789034.
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      189. Hongo M, Sentianin EM, Tanaka N, Mao L, McKirnan MD, Clark RG, Won W, Chien K, Ross J. Angiotensin II blockade followed by growth hormone as adjunctive therapy after experimental myocardial infarction. J Card Fail. 1998 Sep; 4(3):213-24. PMID: 9754592.
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      190. Adams JW, Sakata Y, Davis MG, Sah VP, Wang Y, Liggett SB, Chien K, Brown JH, Dorn GW. Enhanced Galphaq signaling: a common pathway mediates cardiac hypertrophy and apoptotic heart failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Aug 18; 95(17):10140-5. PMID: 9707614.
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      191. Cao L, Zhang L, Ruiz-Lozano P, Yang Q, Chien K, Graham RM, Zhou M. A novel putative protein-tyrosine phosphatase contains a BRO1-like domain and suppresses Ha-ras-mediated transformation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 14; 273(33):21077-83. PMID: 9694860.
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      192. Rockman HA, Chien K, Choi DJ, Iaccarino G, Hunter JJ, Ross J, Lefkowitz RJ, Koch WJ. Expression of a beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 inhibitor prevents the development of myocardial failure in gene-targeted mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 9; 95(12):7000-5. PMID: 9618528.
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      193. Chen J, Kubalak SW, Chien K. Ventricular muscle-restricted targeting of the RXRalpha gene reveals a non-cell-autonomous requirement in cardiac chamber morphogenesis. Development. 1998 May; 125(10):1943-9. PMID: 9550726.
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      194. Hoshijima M, Sah VP, Wang Y, Chien K, Brown JH. The low molecular weight GTPase Rho regulates myofibril formation and organization in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Involvement of Rho kinase. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 27; 273(13):7725-30. PMID: 9516480.
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      195. Wang Y, Su B, Sah VP, Brown JH, Han J, Chien K. Cardiac hypertrophy induced by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7, a specific activator for c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in ventricular muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 6; 273(10):5423-6. PMID: 9488659.
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      196. Ruiz-Lozano P, Smith SM, Perkins G, Kubalak SW, Boss GR, Sucov HM, Evans RM, Chien K. Energy deprivation and a deficiency in downstream metabolic target genes during the onset of embryonic heart failure in RXRalpha-/- embryos. Development. 1998 Feb; 125(3):533-44. PMID: 9425147.
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      197. Wang Y, Huang S, Sah VP, Ross J, Brown JH, Han J, Chien K. Cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy and apoptosis induced by distinct members of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jan 23; 273(4):2161-8. PMID: 9442057.
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      198. Chen J, Kubalak SW, Minamisawa S, Price RL, Becker KD, Hickey R, Ross J, Chien K. Selective requirement of myosin light chain 2v in embryonic heart function. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jan 9; 273(2):1252-6. PMID: 9422794.
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      199. Pashmforoush M, Chien K. Tangled up in blue: molecular cardiology in the postmolecular era. Circulation. 1997 Dec 16; 96(12):4126-30. PMID: 9416876.
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      200. Tanaka N, Mao L, DeLano FA, Sentianin EM, Chien K, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Ross J. Left ventricular volumes and function in the embryonic mouse heart. Am J Physiol. 1997 Sep; 273(3 Pt 2):H1368-76. PMID: 9321827.
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      201. Wollert KC, Chien K. Cardiotrophin-1 and the role of gp130-dependent signaling pathways in cardiac growth and development. J Mol Med (Berl). 1997 Jul; 75(7):492-501. PMID: 9253712.
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      202. Fishman MC, Chien K. Fashioning the vertebrate heart: earliest embryonic decisions. Development. 1997 Jun; 124(11):2099-117. PMID: 9187138.
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      203. Christensen G, Wang Y, Chien K. Physiological assessment of complex cardiac phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jun; 272(6 Pt 2):H2513-24. PMID: 9227526.
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      204. Ramirez MT, Sah VP, Zhao XL, Hunter JJ, Chien K, Brown JH. The MEKK-JNK pathway is stimulated by alpha1-adrenergic receptor and ras activation and is associated with in vitro and in vivo cardiac hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 1997 May 30; 272(22):14057-61. PMID: 9162028.
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      205. Gottshall KR, Hunter JJ, Tanaka N, Dalton N, Becker KD, Ross J, Chien K. Ras-dependent pathways induce obstructive hypertrophy in echo-selected transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 29; 94(9):4710-5. PMID: 9114056.
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      206. Becker KD, Gottshall KR, Hickey R, Perriard JC, Chien K. Point mutations in human beta cardiac myosin heavy chain have differential effects on sarcomeric structure and assembly: an ATP binding site change disrupts both thick and thin filaments, whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations display normal assembly. J Cell Biol. 1997 Apr 7; 137(1):131-40. PMID: 9105042.
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      207. Ruiz-Lozano P, Doevendans P, Brown A, Gruber PJ, Chien K. Developmental expression of the murine spliceosome-associated protein mSAP49. Dev Dyn. 1997 Apr; 208(4):482-90. PMID: 9097020.
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      208. Sheng Z, Knowlton K, Chen J, Hoshijima M, Brown JH, Chien K. Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1) inhibition of cardiac myocyte apoptosis via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. Divergence from downstream CT-1 signals for myocardial cell hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 28; 272(9):5783-91. PMID: 9038192.
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      209. Cohn JN, Bristow MR, Chien K, Colucci WS, Frazier OH, Leinwand LA, Lorell BH, Moss AJ, Sonnenblick EH, Walsh RA, Mockrin SC, Reinlib L. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel on Heart Failure Research. Circulation. 1997 Feb 18; 95(4):766-70. PMID: 9054723.
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      210. Arber S, Hunter JJ, Ross J, Hongo M, Sansig G, Borg J, Perriard JC, Chien K, Caroni P. MLP-deficient mice exhibit a disruption of cardiac cytoarchitectural organization, dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Cell. 1997 Feb 7; 88(3):393-403. PMID: 9039266.
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      211. Zou Y, Evans S, Chen J, Kuo HC, Harvey RP, Chien K. CARP, a cardiac ankyrin repeat protein, is downstream in the Nkx2-5 homeobox gene pathway. Development. 1997 Feb; 124(4):793-804. PMID: 9043061.
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      212. Harris AN, Ruiz-Lozano P, Chen YF, Sionit P, Yu YT, Lilly B, Olson EN, Chien K. A novel A/T-rich element mediates ANF gene expression during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1997 Feb; 29(2):515-25. PMID: 9140811.
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      213. Chien K, Shimizu M, Hoshijima M, Minamisawa S, Grace AA. Toward molecular strategies for heart disease--past, present, future. Jpn Circ J. 1997 Feb; 61(2):91-118. PMID: 9070966.
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      214. Sah VP, Hoshijima M, Chien K, Brown JH. Rho is required for Galphaq and alpha1-adrenergic receptor signaling in cardiomyocytes. Dissociation of Ras and Rho pathways. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 6; 271(49):31185-90. PMID: 8940118.
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      215. Gottshall KR, Becker KD, Hunter JJ, Chien K. A genetic based model of cardiac hypertrophy in MLC-ras mice. J Card Fail. 1996 Dec; 2(4 Suppl):S28-34. PMID: 8951558.
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      216. Lembo G, Rockman HA, Hunter JJ, Steinmetz H, Koch WJ, Ma L, Prinz MP, Ross J, Chien K, Powell-Braxton L. Elevated blood pressure and enhanced myocardial contractility in mice with severe IGF-1 deficiency. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 1; 98(11):2648-55. PMID: 8958230.
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      217. Gruber PJ, Kubalak SW, Pexieder T, Sucov HM, Evans RM, Chien K. RXR alpha deficiency confers genetic susceptibility for aortic sac, conotruncal, atrioventricular cushion, and ventricular muscle defects in mice. J Clin Invest. 1996 Sep 15; 98(6):1332-43. PMID: 8823298.
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      218. Vitadello M, Vettore S, Lamar E, Chien K, Gorza L. Neurofilament M mRNA is expressed in conduction system myocytes of the developing and adult rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996 Sep; 28(9):1833-44. PMID: 8899542.
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      219. Tanaka N, Dalton N, Mao L, Rockman HA, Peterson KL, Gottshall KR, Hunter JJ, Chien K, Ross J. Transthoracic echocardiography in models of cardiac disease in the mouse. Circulation. 1996 Sep 1; 94(5):1109-17. PMID: 8790053.
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      220. Duerr RL, McKirnan MD, Gim RD, Clark RG, Chien K, Ross J. Cardiovascular effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone in chronic left ventricular failure in the rat. Circulation. 1996 Jun 15; 93(12):2188-96. PMID: 8925588.
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      221. Said W, Chien K, Takeuchi S, Tasaka T, Asou H, Cho SK, de Vos S, Cesarman E, Knowles DM, Koeffler HP. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) in primary effusion lymphoma: ultrastructural demonstration of herpesvirus in lymphoma cells. Blood. 1996 Jun 15; 87(12):4937-43. PMID: 8652805.
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      222. Pennica D, Wood WI, Chien K. Cardiotrophin-1: a multifunctional cytokine that signals via LIF receptor-gp 130 dependent pathways. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1996 Jun; 7(1):81-91. PMID: 8864356.
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      223. Ross RS, Navankasattusas S, Harvey RP, Chien K. An HF-1a/HF-1b/MEF-2 combinatorial element confers cardiac ventricular specificity and established an anterior-posterior gradient of expression. Development. 1996 Jun; 122(6):1799-809. PMID: 8674419.
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      224. Wollert KC, Taga T, Saito M, Narazaki M, Kishimoto T, Glembotski CC, Vernallis AB, Heath JK, Pennica D, Wood WI, Chien K. Cardiotrophin-1 activates a distinct form of cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy. Assembly of sarcomeric units in series VIA gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-dependent pathways. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 19; 271(16):9535-45. PMID: 8621626.
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      225. Engelmann GL, Worrell RA, Duff RA, Grutkoski PS, Chien K, Harvey RP. Expression of cardiac muscle markers in rat myocyte cell lines. Mol Cell Biochem. 1996 Apr 12-26; 157(1-2):87-91. PMID: 8739232.
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      226. Becker KD, Gottshall KR, Chien K. Strategies for studying cardiovascular phenotypes in genetically manipulated mice. Hypertension. 1996 Mar; 27(3 Pt 2):495-501. PMID: 8613192.
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      227. An RH, Davies MP, Doevendans PA, Kubalak SW, Bangalore R, Chien K, Kass RS. Developmental changes in beta-adrenergic modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels in embryonic mouse heart. Circ Res. 1996 Mar; 78(3):371-8. PMID: 8593695.
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      228. Chien K. Genes and physiology: molecular physiology in genetically engineered animals. J Clin Invest. 1996 Feb 15; 97(4):901-9. PMID: 8613542.
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      229. Sheng Z, Pennica D, Wood WI, Chien K. Cardiotrophin-1 displays early expression in the murine heart tube and promotes cardiac myocyte survival. Development. 1996 Feb; 122(2):419-28. PMID: 8625793.
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      230. Chien K. Molecular medicine in genetically engineered animals: series introduction. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jan 1; 97(1):2. PMID: 8550834.
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      231. Davies MP, An RH, Doevendans P, Kubalak S, Chien K, Kass RS. Developmental changes in ionic channel activity in the embryonic murine heart. Circ Res. 1996 Jan; 78(1):15-25. PMID: 8603498.
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      232. Sucov HM, Lou J, Gruber PJ, Kubalak SW, Dyson E, Gumeringer CL, Lee RY, Moles SA, Chien K, Giguere V, Evans RM. The molecular genetics of retinoic acid receptors: cardiovascular and limb development. Biochem Soc Symp. 1996; 62:143-56. PMID: 8971347.
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      233. Chien K. Molecular cardiology in the postmolecular era Turning toward complexity. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1996 Jan; 6(1):1-3. PMID: 21232267.
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      234. Grace AA, Chien K. Congenital long QT syndromes. Toward molecular dissection of arrhythmia substrates. Circulation. 1995 Nov 15; 92(10):2786-9. PMID: 7586240.
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      235. Thorburn J, Carlson M, Mansour SJ, Chien K, Ahn NG, Thorburn A. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 1995 Nov; 6(11):1479-90. PMID: 8589450.
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      236. Hunter JJ, Tanaka N, Rockman HA, Ross J, Chien K. Ventricular expression of a MLC-2v-ras fusion gene induces cardiac hypertrophy and selective diastolic dysfunction in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 1995 Sep 29; 270(39):23173-8. PMID: 7559464.
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      237. Knowlton KU, Rockman HA, Itani M, Vovan A, Seidman CE, Chien K. Divergent pathways mediate the induction of ANF transgenes in neonatal and hypertrophic ventricular myocardium. J Clin Invest. 1995 Sep; 96(3):1311-8. PMID: 7657806.
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      238. Chien K. Cardiac muscle diseases in genetically engineered mice: evolution of molecular physiology. Am J Physiol. 1995 Sep; 269(3 Pt 2):H755-66. PMID: 7573515.
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      239. Lin MC, Rockman HA, Chien K. Heart and lung disease in engineered mice. Nat Med. 1995 Aug; 1(8):749-51. PMID: 7585174.
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      240. Dyson E, Sucov HM, Kubalak SW, Schmid-Schönbein GW, DeLano FA, Evans RM, Ross J, Chien K. Atrial-like phenotype is associated with embryonic ventricular failure in retinoid X receptor alpha -/- mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 1; 92(16):7386-90. PMID: 7638202.
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      241. Zhou MD, Sucov HM, Evans RM, Chien K. Retinoid-dependent pathways suppress myocardial cell hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 1; 92(16):7391-5. PMID: 7638203.
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      242. Chien K. Close encounters with ET-1. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jul; 96(1):1-3. PMID: 7615778.
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      243. Zou Y, Chien K. EFIA/YB-1 is a component of cardiac HF-1A binding activity and positively regulates transcription of the myosin light-chain 2v gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Jun; 15(6):2972-82. PMID: 7760795.
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      244. Lembo G, Hunter JJ, Chien K. Signaling pathways for cardiac growth and hypertrophy. Recent advances and prospects for growth factor therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Mar 27; 752:115-27. PMID: 7755250.
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      245. Pennica D, King KL, Shaw KJ, Luis E, Rullamas J, Luoh SM, Darbonne WC, Knutzon DS, Yen R, Chien K. Expression cloning of cardiotrophin 1, a cytokine that induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Feb 14; 92(4):1142-6. PMID: 7862649.
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      246. Duerr RL, Huang S, Miraliakbar HR, Clark R, Chien K, Ross J. Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances ventricular hypertrophy and function during the onset of experimental cardiac failure. J Clin Invest. 1995 Feb; 95(2):619-27. PMID: 7860746.
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      247. Navankasattusas S, Sawadogo M, van Bilsen M, Dang CV, Chien K. The basic helix-loop-helix protein upstream stimulating factor regulates the cardiac ventricular myosin light-chain 2 gene via independent cis regulatory elements. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Nov; 14(11):7331-9. PMID: 7935447.
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      248. Kubalak SW, Miller-Hance WC, O'Brien TX, Dyson E, Chien K. Chamber specification of atrial myosin light chain-2 expression precedes septation during murine cardiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun 17; 269(24):16961-70. PMID: 8207020.
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      249. Evans SM, Tai LJ, Tan VP, Newton CB, Chien K. Heterokaryons of cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts reveal the lack of dominance of the cardiac muscle phenotype. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Jun; 14(6):4269-79. PMID: 8196663.
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      250. LaMorte VJ, Thorburn J, Absher D, Spiegel A, Brown JH, Chien K, Feramisco JR, Knowlton KU. Gq- and ras-dependent pathways mediate hypertrophy of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes following alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation. J Biol Chem. 1994 May 6; 269(18):13490-6. PMID: 8175782.
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      251. Sucov HM, Dyson E, Gumeringer CL, Price J, Chien K, Evans RM. RXR alpha mutant mice establish a genetic basis for vitamin A signaling in heart morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1994 May 1; 8(9):1007-18. PMID: 7926783.
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      252. Milano CA, Allen LF, Rockman HA, Dolber PC, McMinn TR, Chien K, Johnson TD, Bond RA, Lefkowitz RJ. Enhanced myocardial function in transgenic mice overexpressing the beta 2-adrenergic receptor. Science. 1994 Apr 22; 264(5158):582-6. PMID: 8160017.
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      253. Rockman HA, Ono S, Ross RS, Jones LR, Karimi M, Bhargava V, Ross J, Chien K. Molecular and physiological alterations in murine ventricular dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Mar 29; 91(7):2694-8. PMID: 8146176.
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      254. Lee KJ, Hickey R, Zhu H, Chien K. Positive regulatory elements (HF-1a and HF-1b) and a novel negative regulatory element (HF-3) mediate ventricular muscle-specific expression of myosin light-chain 2-luciferase fusion genes in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Feb; 14(2):1220-9. PMID: 8289802.
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      255. Fuller SJ, Chien K. Genetic engineering of cardiac muscle cells: in vitro and in vivo. Genet Eng (N Y). 1994; 16:17-31. PMID: 7765197.
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      256. Miller-Hance WC, LaCorbiere M, Fuller SJ, Evans SM, Lyons G, Schmidt C, Robbins J, Chien K. In vitro chamber specification during embryonic stem cell cardiogenesis. Expression of the ventricular myosin light chain-2 gene is independent of heart tube formation. J Biol Chem. 1993 Nov 25; 268(33):25244-52. PMID: 8227090.
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      257. Hunter JJ, Zhu H, Lee KJ, Kubalak S, Chien K. Targeting gene expression to specific cardiovascular cell types in transgenic mice. Hypertension. 1993 Oct; 22(4):608-17. PMID: 8406667.
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      258. Knowlton KU, Michel MC, Itani M, Shubeita HE, Ishihara K, Brown JH, Chien K. The alpha 1A-adrenergic receptor subtype mediates biochemical, molecular, and morphologic features of cultured myocardial cell hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 25; 268(21):15374-80. PMID: 8393439.
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      259. van Bilsen M, Chien K. Growth and hypertrophy of the heart: towards an understanding of cardiac specific and inducible gene expression. Cardiovasc Res. 1993 Jul; 27(7):1140-9. PMID: 8252572.
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      260. Zhu H, Nguyen VT, Brown AB, Pourhosseini A, Garcia AV, van Bilsen M, Chien K. A novel, tissue-restricted zinc finger protein (HF-1b) binds to the cardiac regulatory element (HF-1b/MEF-2) in the rat myosin light-chain 2 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jul; 13(7):4432-44. PMID: 8321243.
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      261. O'Brien TX, Lee KJ, Chien K. Positional specification of ventricular myosin light chain 2 expression in the primitive murine heart tube. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jun 1; 90(11):5157-61. PMID: 8506363.
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      262. Chien K. Molecular advances in cardiovascular biology. Science. 1993 May 14; 260(5110):916-7. PMID: 8493528.
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      263. Feldman ST, Gjerset R, Gately D, Chien K, Feramisco JR. Expression of SV40 virus large T antigen by recombinant adenoviruses activates proliferation of corneal endothelium in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1993 Apr; 91(4):1713-20. PMID: 8386193.
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      264. Miller-Hance WC, Chien K. Of mouse and man: molecular switches that control cardiac growth and development. Heart Dis Stroke. 1993 Mar-Apr; 2(2):157-65. PMID: 8149103.
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      265. Wu GD, Cramer DV, Chapman FA, Wang HK, Chien K, Cole J, Makowka L. Comparative immunopathologic study of hyperacute rejection in naive and sensitized rodent cardiac xenograft models. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):464-5. PMID: 8438380.
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      266. Thorburn A, Thorburn J, Chen SY, Powers S, Shubeita HE, Feramisco JR, Chien K. HRas-dependent pathways can activate morphological and genetic markers of cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jan 25; 268(3):2244-9. PMID: 8420993.
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      267. Chien K, Zhu H, Knowlton KU, Miller-Hance W, van-Bilsen M, O'Brien TX, Evans SM. Transcriptional regulation during cardiac growth and development. Annu Rev Physiol. 1993; 55:77-95. PMID: 8466192.
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      268. Chien K. Lessons from lincoln. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1993 Jan-Feb; 3(1):1. PMID: 21244962.
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      269. Shubeita HE, Thorburn J, Chien K. Microinjection of antibodies and expression vectors into living myocardial cells. Development of a novel approach to identify candidate genes that regulate cardiac growth and hypertrophy. Circulation. 1992 Jun; 85(6):2236-46. PMID: 1534288.
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      270. Navankasattusas S, Zhu H, Garcia AV, Evans SM, Chien K. A ubiquitous factor (HF-1a) and a distinct muscle factor (HF-1b/MEF-2) form an E-box-independent pathway for cardiac muscle gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Apr; 12(4):1469-79. PMID: 1532229.
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      271. Shubeita HE, Martinson EA, Van Bilsen M, Chien K, Brown JH. Transcriptional activation of the cardiac myosin light chain 2 and atrial natriuretic factor genes by protein kinase C in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Feb 15; 89(4):1305-9. PMID: 1531537.
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      272. Chien K. Recent advances in the molecular biology of cardiac growth and hypertrophy: of mouse and man. Cardiologia. 1992 Feb; 37(2):95-103. PMID: 1534711.
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      273. Ngan M, Chien K, Lee S. Sudan black B positivity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Mod Pathol. 1992 Jan; 5(1):68-70. PMID: 1542637.
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      274. Chien K, Knowlton KU, Zhu H, Chien S. Regulation of cardiac gene expression during myocardial growth and hypertrophy: molecular studies of an adaptive physiologic response. FASEB J. 1991 Dec; 5(15):3037-46. PMID: 1835945.
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      275. Rockman HA, Ross RS, Harris AN, Knowlton KU, Steinhelper ME, Field LJ, Ross J, Chien K. Segregation of atrial-specific and inducible expression of an atrial natriuretic factor transgene in an in vivo murine model of cardiac hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 15; 88(18):8277-81. PMID: 1832775.
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      276. O'Brien TX, Hunter JJ, Dyson E, Chien K. Heart-to-heart. New approaches for gene transfer in the myocardium. Circulation. 1991 Jun; 83(6):2133-6. PMID: 2040061.
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      277. Knowlton KU, Baracchini E, Ross RS, Harris AN, Henderson SA, Evans SM, Glembotski CC, Chien K. Co-regulation of the atrial natriuretic factor and cardiac myosin light chain-2 genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells. Identification of cis sequences within an embryonic and a constitutive contractile protein gene which mediate inducible expression. J Biol Chem. 1991 Apr 25; 266(12):7759-68. PMID: 1850419.
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      278. Zhu H, Garcia AV, Ross RS, Evans SM, Chien K. A conserved 28-base-pair element (HF-1) in the rat cardiac myosin light-chain-2 gene confers cardiac-specific and alpha-adrenergic-inducible expression in cultured neonatal rat myocardial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Apr; 11(4):2273-81. PMID: 1848675.
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      279. Ross RS, Chien K. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cardiovascular diagnosis. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1991 Jan-Feb; 1(1):1-5. PMID: 21239338.
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      280. Shubeita HE, McDonough PM, Harris AN, Knowlton KU, Glembotski CC, Brown JH, Chien K. Endothelin induction of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, sarcomere assembly, and cardiac gene expression in ventricular myocytes. A paracrine mechanism for myocardial cell hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 25; 265(33):20555-62. PMID: 2173712.
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      281. Buja LM, Fattor RA, Miller JC, Chien K, Willerson JT. Effects of calcium loading and impaired energy production on metabolic and ultrastructural features of cell injury in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Lab Invest. 1990 Sep; 63(3):320-31. PMID: 2168502.
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      282. Iwaki K, Sukhatme VP, Shubeita HE, Chien K. Alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation induces distinct patterns of immediate early gene expression in neonatal rat myocardial cells. fos/jun expression is associated with sarcomere assembly; Egr-1 induction is primarily an alpha 1-mediated response. J Biol Chem. 1990 Aug 15; 265(23):13809-17. PMID: 1696258.
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      283. Revtyak GE, Buja LM, Chien K, Campbell WB. Reduced arachidonate metabolism in ATP-depleted myocardial cells occurs early in cell injury. Am J Physiol. 1990 Aug; 259(2 Pt 2):H582-91. PMID: 2117403.
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      284. Dunnmon PM, Iwaki K, Henderson SA, Sen A, Chien K. Phorbol esters induce immediate-early genes and activate cardiac gene transcription in neonatal rat myocardial cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1990 Aug; 22(8):901-10. PMID: 2122001.
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      285. Ross RS, Chien K. Of molecules and myocardium. PCR diagnosis of viral myocarditis in cardiac biopsies. Circulation. 1990 Jul; 82(1):294-5. PMID: 2364515.
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      286. Riedo FX, Munford RS, Campbell WB, Reisch JS, Chien K, Gerard RD. Deacylated lipopolysaccharide inhibits plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, prostacyclin, and prostaglandin E2 induction by lipopolysaccharide but not by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol. 1990 May 1; 144(9):3506-12. PMID: 2109778.
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      287. Wu GD, Shintaku IP, Chien K, Geller SA. A comparison of routine light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization for the detection of cytomegalovirus in gastrointestinal biopsies. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989 Dec; 84(12):1517-20. PMID: 2556912.
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      288. Henderson SA, Spencer M, Sen A, Kumar C, Siddiqui MA, Chien K. Structure, organization, and expression of the rat cardiac myosin light chain-2 gene. Identification of a 250-base pair fragment which confers cardiac-specific expression. J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 25; 264(30):18142-8. PMID: 2808370.
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      289. Jones RL, Miller JC, Hagler HK, Chien K, Willerson JT, Buja LM. Association between inhibition of arachidonic acid release and prevention of calcium loading during ATP depletion in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. Am J Pathol. 1989 Sep; 135(3):541-56. PMID: 2506756.
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      290. Chien K, Knowlton KU. Cardiovascular molecular biology. Introduction to the series. Circulation. 1989 Aug; 80(2):219-33. PMID: 2502325.
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      291. Sills MN, Xu YC, Baracchini E, Goodman RH, Cooperman SS, Mandel G, Chien K. Expression of diverse Na+ channel messenger RNAs in rat myocardium. Evidence for a cardiac-specific Na+ channel. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jul; 84(1):331-6. PMID: 2544627.
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      292. Sen A, Dunnmon P, Henderson SA, Gerard RD, Chien K. Terminally differentiated neonatal rat myocardial cells proliferate and maintain specific differentiated functions following expression of SV40 large T antigen. J Biol Chem. 1988 Dec 15; 263(35):19132-6. PMID: 3198615.
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      293. Sen A, Miller JC, Reynolds R, Willerson JT, Buja LM, Chien K. Inhibition of the release of arachidonic acid prevents the development of sarcolemmal membrane defects in cultured rat myocardial cells during adenosine triphosphate depletion. J Clin Invest. 1988 Oct; 82(4):1333-8. PMID: 3139713.
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      294. Lee HR, Henderson SA, Reynolds R, Dunnmon P, Yuan D, Chien K. Alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac gene transcription in neonatal rat myocardial cells. Effects on myosin light chain-2 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1988 May 25; 263(15):7352-8. PMID: 2835372.
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      295. Henderson SA, Xu YC, Chien K. Nucleotide sequence of full length cDNAs encoding rat cardiac myosin light chain-2. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 May 25; 16(10):4722. PMID: 3380697.
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      296. Buja LM, Burton KP, Chien K, Willerson JT. Altered calcium homeostasis and membrane integrity in myocardial cell injury. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988; 232:115-24. PMID: 3213680.
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      297. Sen A, Buja LM, Willerson JT, Chien K. Membrane phospholipid metabolism during myocardial ischaemia: past, present and future. Basic Res Cardiol. 1987; 82 Suppl 1:121-5. PMID: 3311000.
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      298. Meidell RS, Sen A, Henderson SA, Slahetka MF, Chien K. Alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation of rat myocardial cells increases protein synthesis. Am J Physiol. 1986 Nov; 251(5 Pt 2):H1076-84. PMID: 3022607.
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      299. Burton KP, Buja LM, Sen A, Willerson JT, Chien K. Accumulation of arachidonate in triacylglycerols and unesterified fatty acids during ischemia and reflow in the isolated rat heart. Correlation with the loss of contractile function and the development of calcium overload. Am J Pathol. 1986 Aug; 124(2):238-45. PMID: 3090888.
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      300. Kumar CC, Cribbs L, Delaney P, Chien K, Siddiqui MA. Heart myosin light chain 2 gene. Nucleotide sequence of full length cDNA and expression in normal and hypertensive rat. J Biol Chem. 1986 Feb 25; 261(6):2866-72. PMID: 3005270.
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      301. Gunn MD, Sen A, Chang A, Willerson JT, Buja LM, Chien K. Mechanisms of accumulation of arachidonic acid in cultured myocardial cells during ATP depletion. Am J Physiol. 1985 Dec; 249(6 Pt 2):H1188-94. PMID: 3934986.
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      302. Buja LM, Muntz KH, Rosenbaum T, Haghani Z, Buja DK, Sen A, Chien K, Willerson JT. Characterization of a potentially reversible increase in beta-adrenergic receptors in isolated, neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with impaired energy metabolism. Circ Res. 1985 Oct; 57(4):640-5. PMID: 2994904.
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      303. Buja LM, Hagler HK, Parsons D, Chien K, Reynolds RC, Willerson JT. Alterations of ultrastructure and elemental composition in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes after metabolic inhibition with iodoacetic acid. Lab Invest. 1985 Oct; 53(4):397-412. PMID: 2413276.
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      304. Chien K, Sen A, Reynolds R, Chang A, Kim Y, Gunn MD, Buja LM, Willerson JT. Release of arachidonate from membrane phospholipids in cultured neonatal rat myocardial cells during adenosine triphosphate depletion. Correlation with the progression of cell injury. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jun; 75(6):1770-80. PMID: 3924955.
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      305. Chien K, Han A, Sen A, Buja LM, Willerson JT. Accumulation of unesterified arachidonic acid in ischemic canine myocardium. Relationship to a phosphatidylcholine deacylation-reacylation cycle and the depletion of membrane phospholipids. Circ Res. 1984 Mar; 54(3):313-22. PMID: 6421507.
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      306. Chien K, Sen A, Buja LM, Willerson JT. Fatty acylcarnitine accumulation and membrane injury in ischemic canine myocardium. Am J Cardiol. 1983 Oct 1; 52(7):893-7. PMID: 6624683.
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      307. Chien K, Han A, White J, Kulkarni P. In vivo esterification of a synthetic 125I-labeled fatty acid into cardiac glycerolipids. Am J Physiol. 1983 Oct; 245(4):H693-7. PMID: 6624940.
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      308. Chien K, Crie JS, Decker RS, Wildenthal K. Influence of chlorpromazine on lysosomal alterations during myocardial ischaemia. Cardiovasc Res. 1983 Jul; 17(7):407-14. PMID: 6883416.
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      309. Chien K, Bellary A, Nicar M, Mukherjee A, Buja LM. Induction of a reversible cardiac lipidosis by a dietary long-chain fatty acid (erucic acid). Relationship to lipid accumulation in border zones of myocardial infarcts. Am J Pathol. 1983 Jul; 112(1):68-77. PMID: 6859230.
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      310. Buja LM, Chien K, Burton KP, Hagler HK, Mukherjee A, Willerson JT. Membrane damage in ischemia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1983; 161:421-31. PMID: 6135307.
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      311. Mukherjee A, Buja LM, Kulkarni P, Nicar M, Chien K, Willerson JT. Relationship of mitochondrial alterations and 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake during myocardial ischemia. Am J Physiol. 1982 Aug; 243(2):H268-76. PMID: 6287855.
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      312. Chien K, Reeves JP, Buja LM, Bonte F, Parkey RW, Willerson JT. Phospholipid alterations in canine ischemic myocardium. Temporal and topographical correlations with Tc-99m-PPi accumulation and an in vitro sarcolemmal Ca2+ permeability defect. Circ Res. 1981 May; 48(5):711-9. PMID: 7214679.
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      313. Chien K, Peau RG, Farber JL. Ischemic myocardial cell injury. Prevention by chlorpromazine of an accelerated phospholipid degradation and associated membrane dysfunction. Am J Pathol. 1979 Dec; 97(3):505-29. PMID: 507189.
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      314. Chien K, Abrams J, Pfau RG, Farber JL. Prevention by chlorpromazine of ischemic liver cell death. Am J Pathol. 1977 Sep; 88(3):539-57. PMID: 888908.
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