Nicole Steinmetz

Title(s)Professor, Nanoengineering
SchoolVc-academic Affairs
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Delivered with Plant Virus/Polymer Devices
    NIH R21AI161306Apr 1, 2021 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bioprinting Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Immunotherapy and Relapse Prevention of Ovarian Cancer
    NIH R01CA253615Jul 1, 2020 - Jun 30, 2025
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Protein/Polymer Devices for Slow-Release of Immunotherapies to Treat Ovarian Cancer
    NIH R21EB024874Sep 5, 2017 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Overcoming the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment through in situ vaccination nanotechnology.
    NIH U01CA218292Sep 1, 2017 - Jul 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Dual-pronged nano-drug delivery using plant virus-like particles.
    NIH R01CA224605Aug 1, 2017 - Aug 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A theranostic approach for risk stratification and intervention of deep vein thrombosis.
    NIH R01HL137674Jul 1, 2017 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of metastatic prostate cancer through molecular MR imaging.
    NIH R01CA202814Feb 1, 2016 - Jan 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Engineering 'Grapevine Virus A' filaments for nanomedical applications
    NIH R03EB020602Sep 14, 2015 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Detection of lethal prostate cancer with macromolecule-based, EGFL-7 targeted MR imaging approach
    NIH R21EB020946Jul 1, 2015 - Apr 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Drug Delivery to Thrombotic Cardiovascular Disease
    NIH R21HL121130Nov 14, 2014 - Oct 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Viral nanoparticles as platforms for the design of novel targeted therapeutics
    NIH R00EB009105Aug 1, 2009 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Viral nanoparticles as platforms for the design of novel targeted therapeutics
    NIH K99EB009105Aug 1, 2009 - Jul 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Study of uricase-polynorbornene conjugates derived from grafting-from ring-opening metathesis polymerization. J Mater Chem B. 2024 Feb 07. Davis E, Caparco AA, Jones E, Steinmetz NF, Pokorski JK. PMID: 38323642.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Virus-like Particles Armored by an Endoskeleton. Nano Lett. 2024 Jan 31. Wu Z, Bayón JL, Kouznetsova TB, Ouchi T, Barkovich KJ, Hsu SK, Craig SL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 38294951.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Melt Processing Virus-Like Particle-Based Vaccine Candidates into Biodegradable Polymer Implants. Methods Mol Biol. 2024; 2720:221-245. Puente AA, Ortega-Rivera OA, Wirth DM, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37775669.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Viral nanoparticle vaccines against S100A9 reduce lung tumor seeding and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 10 24; 120(43):e2221859120. Chung YH, Ortega-Rivera OA, Volckaert BA, Jung E, Zhao Z, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37844250; PMCID: PMC10614828.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    5. Transcriptomics of Canine Inflammatory Mammary Cancer Treated with Empty Cowpea Mosaic Virus Implicates Neutrophils in Anti-Tumor Immunity. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Sep 13; 24(18). Barreno L, Sevane N, Valdivia G, Alonso-Miguel D, Suarez-Redondo M, Alonso-Diez A, Fiering S, Beiss V, Steinmetz NF, Perez-Alenza MD, Peña L. PMID: 37762335; PMCID: PMC10531449.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Poly(Oxanorbornene)-Protein Conjugates Prepared by Grafting-to ROMP as Alternatives for PEG. Macromol Biosci. 2023 Sep 09; e2300255. Davis E, Caparco AA, Steinmetz NF, Pokorski JK. PMID: 37688508.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    7. Neoadjuvant Intratumoral Immunotherapy with Cowpea Mosaic Virus Induces Local and Systemic Antitumor Efficacy in Canine Mammary Cancer Patients. Cells. 2023 09 08; 12(18). Valdivia G, Alonso-Miguel D, Perez-Alenza MD, Zimmermann ABE, Schaafsma E, Kolling FW, Barreno L, Alonso-Diez A, Beiss V, Affonso de Oliveira JF, Suárez-Redondo M, Fiering S, Steinmetz NF, Vom Berg J, Peña L, Arias-Pulido H. PMID: 37759464; PMCID: PMC10527658.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    8. Physalis Mottle Virus-Like Nanocarriers with Expanded Internal Loading Capacity. Bioconjug Chem. 2023 09 20; 34(9):1585-1595. Barkovich KJ, Wu Z, Zhao Z, Simms A, Chang EY, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37615599; PMCID: PMC10538386.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    9. TLR Agonists Delivered by Plant Virus and Bacteriophage Nanoparticles for Cancer Immunotherapy. Bioconjug Chem. 2023 09 20; 34(9):1596-1605. Jung E, Chung YH, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37611278; PMCID: PMC10538388.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. In Vitro and Ex Planta Gold-Bonded and Gold-Mineralized Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Langmuir. 2023 08 15; 39(32):11238-11244. Ma Y, Wu Z, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37540623.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    11. Pluronic F127 "nanoarmor" for stabilization of Cowpea mosaic virus immunotherapy. Bioeng Transl Med. 2024 Jan; 9(1):e10574. Shin MD, Jung E, Moreno-Gonzalez MA, Ortega-Rivera OA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 38193118; PMCID: PMC10771553.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    12. A co-formulated vaccine of irradiated cancer cells and cowpea mosaic virus improves ovarian cancer rejection. J Mater Chem B. 2023 06 21; 11(24):5429-5441. Zhao Z, Ortega-Rivera OA, Chung YH, Simms A, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36861401; PMCID: PMC10293063.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Delivery of Nematicides Using TMGMV-Derived Spherical Nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 2023 06 28; 23(12):5785-5793. Caparco AA, González-Gamboa I, Hays SS, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37327572.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. The Potency of Cowpea Mosaic Virus Particles for Cancer In Situ Vaccination Is Unaffected by the Specific Encapsidated Viral RNA. Mol Pharm. 2023 07 03; 20(7):3589-3597. Jung E, Chung YH, Mao C, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37294891; PMCID: PMC10530639.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    15. Molecularly Stimuli-Responsive Self-Assembled Peptide Nanoparticles for Targeted Imaging and Therapy. ACS Nano. 2023 05 09; 17(9):8004-8025. Zhou Y, Li Q, Wu Y, Li X, Zhou Y, Wang Z, Liang H, Ding F, Hong S, Steinmetz NF, Cai H. PMID: 37079378.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    
    16. COVID-19 vaccines based on viral nanoparticles displaying a conserved B-cell epitope show potent immunogenicity and a long-lasting antibody response. Front Microbiol. 2023; 14:1117494. Affonso de Oliveira JF, Zhao Z, Xiang Y, Shin MD, Villaseñor KE, Deng X, Shukla S, Chen S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37152732; PMCID: PMC10157238.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    17. Two decades of vaccine development against atherosclerosis. Nano Today. 2023 Jun; 50. Moreno-Gonzalez MA, Ortega-Rivera OA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37860053; PMCID: PMC10586238.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    18. Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Multimodal In Situ Vaccination Using Cryoablation and a Plant Virus Immunostimulant. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2023 07; 34(7):1247-1257.e8. Ghani MA, Bangar A, Yang Y, Jung E, Sauceda C, Mandt T, Shukla S, Webster NJG, Steinmetz NF, Newton IG. PMID: 36997021.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    19. Nanotechnology meets virology. Virology. 2023 04; 581:56-57. Sainsbury F, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36893501.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    20. microRNA-181a silencing by antisense oligonucleotides delivered by virus-like particles. J Mater Chem B. 2023 01 25; 11(4):816-825. Chan SK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36597907; PMCID: PMC9898218.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Development of a Modular NTA:His Tag Viral Vaccine for Co-delivery of Antigen and Adjuvant. Bioconjug Chem. 2023 01 18; 34(1):269-278. Chung YH, Volckaert BA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36608270; PMCID: PMC10545220.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Potato Virus X Inactivation and Characterization. Methods Mol Biol. 2023; 2671:257-271. Ma Y, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 37308650.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus elicits systemic antitumor immunity and potentiates immune checkpoint blockade. J Immunother Cancer. 2022 12; 10(12). Mao C, Beiss V, Ho GW, Fields J, Steinmetz NF, Fiering S. PMID: 36460333; PMCID: PMC9723958.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    24. Instigation of the epoch of nanovaccines in cancer immunotherapy. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2023 May-Jun; 15(3):e1870. Shah S, Famta P, Tiwari V, Kotha AK, Kashikar R, Chougule MB, Chung YH, Steinmetz NF, Uddin M, Singh SB, Srivastava S. PMID: 36410742; PMCID: PMC10182210.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    25. Inactivated Cowpea Mosaic Virus for In Situ Vaccination: Differential Efficacy of Formalin vs UV-Inactivated Formulations. Mol Pharm. 2023 01 02; 20(1):500-507. Jung E, Mao C, Bhatia M, Koellhoffer EC, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36399598; PMCID: PMC9812890.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    26. Production of cytoplasmic type citrus leprosis virus-like particles by plant molecular farming. Virology. 2023 01; 578:7-12. Ortega-Rivera OA, Beiss V, Osota EO, Chan SK, Karan S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36434906; PMCID: PMC9812895.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Metastatic Colon Cancer Treatment Using S100A9-Targeted Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules. 2022 Dec 12; 23(12):5127-5136. Chung YH, Volckaert BA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36375170; PMCID: PMC9772157.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. In Vivo Fate of Cowpea Mosaic Virus In Situ Vaccine: Biodistribution and Clearance. ACS Nano. 2022 Nov 22; 16(11):18315-18328. Affonso de Oliveira JF, Chan SK, Omole AO, Agrawal V, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36264973.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Isolation of a Peptide That Binds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lytic Bacteriophage. ACS Omega. 2022 Oct 25; 7(42):38053-38060. Chan SK, Zhao Z, Penziner S, Khong E, Pride D, Schooley RT, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36312416; PMCID: PMC9609082.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    30. Multivalent Display of ApoAI Peptides on the Surface of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanotubes Improves Cholesterol Efflux. Bioconjug Chem. 2022 10 19; 33(10):1922-1933. Shin MD, Ortega-Rivera OA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36191144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    31. Polynorbornene-based bioconjugates by aqueous grafting-from ring-opening metathesis polymerization reduce protein immunogenicity. Cell Rep Phys Sci. 2022 Oct 19; 3(10). Church DC, Davis E, Caparco AA, Takiguchi L, Chung YH, Steinmetz NF, Pokorski JK. PMID: 36816463; PMCID: PMC9933924.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    32. Cisplatin-Loaded Tobacco Mosaic Virus for Ovarian Cancer Treatment. Biomacromolecules. 2022 Oct 10; 23(10):4379-4387. Zhao Z, Simms A, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36053908; PMCID: PMC9831511.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    33. Three methods for inoculation of viral vectors into plants. Front Plant Sci. 2022; 13:963756. Monroy-Borrego AG, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36110356; PMCID: PMC9468707.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    34. Bioconjugation Strategies for Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus. Chembiochem. 2022 09 16; 23(18):e202200323. González-Gamboa I, Caparco AA, McCaskill JM, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35835718; PMCID: PMC9624232.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    35. Recent advancements in single dose slow-release devices for prophylactic vaccines. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2023 01; 15(1):e1832. Ray S, Puente A, Steinmetz NF, Pokorski JK. PMID: 35850120; PMCID: PMC9840709.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    36. Toward Plant Cyborgs: Hydrogels Incorporated onto Plant Tissues Enable Programmable Shape Control. ACS Macro Lett. 2022 08 16; 11(8):961-966. Zhao J, Ma Y, Steinmetz NF, Bae J. PMID: 35819363.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    37. A single-dose Qβ VLP vaccine against S100A9 protein reduces atherosclerosis in a preclinical model. Adv Ther (Weinh). 2022 Oct; 5(10). Ortega-Rivera OA, Shin MD, Moreno-Gonzalez MA, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 36570039; PMCID: PMC9783282.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4  
    38. Photothermal immunotherapy of melanoma using TLR-7 agonist laden tobacco mosaic virus with polydopamine coat. Nanomedicine. 2022 08; 44:102573. Nkanga CI, Ortega-Rivera OA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35728739; PMCID: PMC10530638.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Cowpea Mosaic Virus and Natural Killer Cell Agonism for In Situ Cancer Vaccination. Nano Lett. 2022 07 13; 22(13):5348-5356. Koellhoffer EC, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35713326; PMCID: PMC9665426.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    40. Injectable Hydrogel Containing Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles Prevents Colon Cancer Growth. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2022 06 13; 8(6):2518-2525. Nkanga CI, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35522951.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Isolation of Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Binding Peptides for Biotechnology Applications. Chembiochem. 2022 06 03; 23(11):e202200040. Chan SK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35320626; PMCID: PMC9262120.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    42. Injectable Slow-Release Hydrogel Formulation of a Plant Virus-Based COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate. Biomacromolecules. 2022 04 11; 23(4):1812-1825. Nkanga CI, Ortega-Rivera OA, Shin MD, Moreno-Gonzalez MA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35344365.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Cowpea Mosaic Virus Outperforms Other Members of the Secoviridae as In Situ Vaccine for Cancer Immunotherapy. Mol Pharm. 2022 05 02; 19(5):1573-1585. Beiss V, Mao C, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35333531; PMCID: PMC9651057.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. One-Step Supramolecular Multifunctional Coating on Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Therapeutic Applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2022 Mar 23; 14(11):13692-13702. Wu Z, Zhou J, Nkanga CI, Jin Z, He T, Borum RM, Yim W, Zhou J, Cheng Y, Xu M, Steinmetz NF, Jokerst JV. PMID: 35258299; PMCID: PMC9159738.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    45. Neoadjuvant in situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus as a novel therapy against canine inflammatory mammary cancer. J Immunother Cancer. 2022 03; 10(3). Alonso-Miguel D, Valdivia G, Guerrera D, Perez-Alenza MD, Pantelyushin S, Alonso-Diez A, Beiss V, Fiering S, Steinmetz NF, Suarez-Redondo M, Vom Berg J, Peña L, Arias-Pulido H. PMID: 35277459; PMCID: PMC8919457.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    46. Tuning the Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Balance of Molecular Polymer Bottlebrushes Enhances their Tumor Homing Properties. Adv Healthc Mater. 2022 06; 11(12):e2200163. Ramamurthi P, Zhao Z, Burke E, Steinmetz NF, Müllner M. PMID: 35184421; PMCID: PMC9232914.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    47. Dissolving Microneedle Delivery of a Prophylactic HPV Vaccine. Biomacromolecules. 2022 03 14; 23(3):903-912. Ray S, Wirth DM, Ortega-Rivera OA, Steinmetz NF, Pokorski JK. PMID: 35139303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    48. Inactivated Cowpea Mosaic Virus in Combination with OX40 Agonist Primes Potent Antitumor Immunity in a Bilateral Melanoma Mouse Model. Mol Pharm. 2022 02 07; 19(2):592-601. Koellhoffer EC, Mao C, Beiss V, Wang L, Fiering SN, Boone CE, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34978197; PMCID: PMC9207558.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Bioconjugation of Active Ingredients to Plant Viral Nanoparticles Is Enhanced by Preincubation with a Pluronic F127 Polymer Scaffold. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2021 Dec 22; 13(50):59618-59632. Shin MD, Hochberg JD, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34890195.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    50. Integrating plant molecular farming and materials research for next-generation vaccines. Nat Rev Mater. 2022; 7(5):372-388. Chung YH, Church D, Koellhoffer EC, Osota E, Shukla S, Rybicki EP, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34900343; PMCID: PMC8647509.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31  
    51. Three Alternative Treatment Protocols for the Efficient Inactivation of Potato Virus X. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2021 12 20; 4(12):8309-8315. Ma Y, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 35005940.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    52. The in vivo fate of tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticle theranostic agents modified by the addition of a polydopamine coat. Biomater Sci. 2021 Oct 26; 9(21):7134-7150. Nkanga CI, Chung YH, Shukla S, Zhou J, Jokerst JV, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34591046; PMCID: PMC8600448.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    53. Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle Vaccine Candidates Displaying Peptide Epitopes Can Neutralize the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. ACS Infect Dis. 2021 11 12; 7(11):3096-3110. Ortega-Rivera OA, Shukla S, Shin MD, Chen A, Beiss V, Moreno-Gonzalez MA, Zheng Y, Clark AE, Carlin AF, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34672530.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    54. S100A9-Targeted Cowpea Mosaic Virus as a Prophylactic and Therapeutic Immunotherapy against Metastatic Breast Cancer and Melanoma. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2021 11; 8(21):e2101796. Chung YH, Park J, Cai H, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34519180; PMCID: PMC8564454.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    55. Plant Viral Nanoparticle Conjugated with Anti-PD-1 Peptide for Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 08; 22(18). Gautam A, Beiss V, Wang C, Wang L, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34575893; PMCID: PMC8467759.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Trivalent Subunit Vaccine Candidates for COVID-19 and Their Delivery Devices. J Am Chem Soc. 2021 09 15; 143(36):14748-14765. Ortega-Rivera OA, Shin MD, Chen A, Beiss V, Moreno-Gonzalez MA, Lopez-Ramirez MA, Reynoso M, Wang H, Hurst BL, Wang J, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34490778.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    57. A Photoacoustic Contrast Agent for miR-21 via NIR Fluorescent Hybridization Chain Reaction. Bioconjug Chem. 2022 06 15; 33(6):1080-1092. Borum RM, Moore C, Chan SK, Steinmetz NF, Jokerst JV. PMID: 34406744; PMCID: PMC9122088.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    58. Bioprinting of dual ECM scaffolds encapsulating limbal stem/progenitor cells in active and quiescent statuses. Biofabrication. 2021 08 13; 13(4). Zhong Z, Balayan A, Tian J, Xiang Y, Hwang HH, Wu X, Deng X, Schimelman J, Sun Y, Ma C, Dos Santos A, You S, Tang M, Yao E, Shi X, Steinmetz NF, Deng SX, Chen S. PMID: 34330126; PMCID: PMC8716326.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Isolation of Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Binding Peptides. Biomacromolecules. 2021 08 09; 22(8):3613-3623. Chan SK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34314166; PMCID: PMC9679892.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    60. Combining nanomedicine and immune checkpoint therapy for cancer immunotherapy. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2022 01; 14(1):e1739. Boone CE, Wang L, Gautam A, Newton IG, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34296535; PMCID: PMC8906799.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Development of a Virus-Like Particle-Based Anti-HER2 Breast Cancer Vaccine. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jun 10; 13(12). Hu H, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34200802; PMCID: PMC8230452.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11  
    62. Tobacco mosaic virus for the targeted delivery of drugs to cells expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen. RSC Adv. 2021 Jun 06; 11(33):20101-20108. Shukla S, Marks I, Church D, Chan SK, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34178308; PMCID: PMC8180379.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2  
    63. Unleashing the potential of cell membrane-based nanoparticles for COVID-19 treatment and vaccination. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2021 10; 18(10):1395-1414. Pereira-Silva M, Chauhan G, Shin MD, Hoskins C, Madou MJ, Martinez-Chapa SO, Steinmetz NF, Veiga F, Paiva-Santos AC. PMID: 33944644; PMCID: PMC8182831.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    64. Designing S100A9-Targeted Plant Virus Nanoparticles to Target Deep Vein Thrombosis. Biomacromolecules. 2021 06 14; 22(6):2582-2594. Park J, Wen AM, Gao H, Shin MD, Simon DI, Wang Y, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34060817; PMCID: PMC9679916.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    65. Cowpea mosaic virus stimulates antitumor immunity through recognition by multiple MYD88-dependent toll-like receptors. Biomaterials. 2021 08; 275:120914. Mao C, Beiss V, Fields J, Steinmetz NF, Fiering S. PMID: 34126409; PMCID: PMC8542346.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    66. A single-dose, implant-based, trivalent virus-like particle vaccine against "cholesterol checkpoint" proteins. Adv Ther (Weinh). 2021 Aug; 4(8). Ortega-Rivera OA, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34541299; PMCID: PMC8447230.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13  
    67. Bluetongue Virus Particles as Nanoreactors for Enzyme Delivery and Cancer Therapy. Mol Pharm. 2021 03 01; 18(3):1150-1156. Thuenemann EC, Le DHT, Lomonossoff GP, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33566625; PMCID: PMC8086382.
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    68. Remission-Stage Ovarian Cancer Cell Vaccine with Cowpea Mosaic Virus Adjuvant Prevents Tumor Growth. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Feb 05; 13(4). Stump CT, Ho G, Mao C, Veliz FA, Beiss V, Fields J, Steinmetz NF, Fiering S. PMID: 33562450; PMCID: PMC7915664.
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    69. Virus-Like Particles as Positive Controls for COVID-19 RT-LAMP Diagnostic Assays. Biomacromolecules. 2021 03 08; 22(3):1231-1243. Chan SK, Du P, Ignacio C, Mehta S, Newton IG, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33539086.
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    70. In situ vaccine application of inactivated CPMV nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy. Mater Adv. 2021 Mar 07; 2(5):1644-1656. Chariou PL, Beiss V, Ma Y, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34368764; PMCID: PMC8323807.
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    71. The pharmacology of plant virus nanoparticles. Virology. 2021 04; 556:39-61. Nkanga CI, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33545555; PMCID: PMC7974633.
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    72. Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle Enhancement of Hypofractionated Radiation in a B16 Murine Melanoma Model. Front Oncol. 2020; 10:594614. Duval KEA, Wagner RJ, Beiss V, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF, Hoopes PJ. PMID: 33392089; PMCID: PMC7773968.
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    73. Biomimetic Virus-Like Particles as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Diagnostic Tools. ACS Nano. 2021 01 26; 15(1):1259-1272. Chan SK, Du P, Ignacio C, Mehta S, Newton IG, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33237727.
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    74. Cisplatin Prodrug-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Physalis Mottle Virus for Cancer Therapy. Mol Pharm. 2020 12 07; 17(12):4629-4636. Hu H, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33186039; PMCID: PMC8087187.
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    75. Charge Calibration Standard for Atomic Force Microscope Tips in Liquids. Langmuir. 2020 11 17; 36(45):13621-13632. Li L, Steinmetz NF, Eppell SJ, Zypman FR. PMID: 33155810.
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    76. COVID-19 Vaccine Frontrunners and Their Nanotechnology Design. ACS Nano. 2020 10 27; 14(10):12522-12537. Chung YH, Beiss V, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33034449.
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    77. Doxorubicin-Loaded Physalis Mottle Virus Particles Function as a pH-Responsive Prodrug Enabling Cancer Therapy. Biotechnol J. 2020 Dec; 15(12):e2000077. Hu H, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32918857; PMCID: PMC7888571.
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    78. The unique potency of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) in situ cancer vaccine. Biomater Sci. 2020 Sep 30; 8(19):5489-5503. Shukla S, Wang C, Beiss V, Cai H, Washington T, Murray AA, Gong X, Zhao Z, Masarapu H, Zlotnick A, Fiering S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32914796; PMCID: PMC8086234.
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    79. Plant Viruses and Bacteriophage-Based Reagents for Diagnosis and Therapy. Annu Rev Virol. 2020 09 29; 7(1):559-587. Shukla S, Hu H, Cai H, Chan SK, Boone CE, Beiss V, Chariou PL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32991265; PMCID: PMC8018517.
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    80. Active Microneedle Administration of Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Cancer in situ Vaccination Improves Immunotherapeutic Efficacy. ACS Appl Nano Mater. 2020 Aug 28; 3(8):8037-8051. Boone CE, Wang C, Lopez-Ramirez MA, Beiss V, Shukla S, Chariou PL, Kupor D, Rueda R, Wang J, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33969278; PMCID: PMC8101548.
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    81. Intra- and intermolecular atomic-scale interactions in the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: implication for ACE2 receptor binding. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2020 Sep 07; 22(33):18272-18283. Adhikari P, Li N, Shin M, Steinmetz NF, Twarock R, Podgornik R, Ching WY. PMID: 32756685.
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    82. COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward. Nat Nanotechnol. 2020 08; 15(8):646-655. Shin MD, Shukla S, Chung YH, Beiss V, Chan SK, Ortega-Rivera OA, Wirth DM, Chen A, Sack M, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32669664.
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    83. Viral nanoparticles for drug delivery, imaging, immunotherapy, and theranostic applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2020; 156:214-235. Chung YH, Cai H, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32603813; PMCID: PMC7320870.
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    84. Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV)-Based Cancer Testis Antigen NY-ESO-1 Vaccine Elicits an Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Response. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2020 Jul 20; 3(7):4179-4187. Patel BK, Wang C, Lorens B, Levine AD, Steinmetz NF, Shukla S. PMID: 34368641; PMCID: PMC8340627.
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    85. Affinity of plant viral nanoparticle potato virus X (PVX) towards malignant B cells enables cancer drug delivery. Biomater Sci. 2020 Jul 21; 8(14):3935-3943. Shukla S, Roe AJ, Liu R, Veliz FA, Commandeur U, Wald DN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32662788; PMCID: PMC7810362.
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    86. Protein cages and virus-like particles: from fundamental insight to biomimetic therapeutics. Biomater Sci. 2020 May 19; 8(10):2771-2777. Steinmetz NF, Lim S, Sainsbury F. PMID: 32352101; PMCID: PMC8085892.
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    87. A Combination of Cowpea Mosaic Virus and Immune Checkpoint Therapy Synergistically Improves Therapeutic Efficacy in Three Tumor Models. Adv Funct Mater. 2020 Jul 02; 30(27). Wang C, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34366758; PMCID: PMC8340625.
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    88. Active Delivery of VLPs Promotes Anti-Tumor Activity in a Mouse Ovarian Tumor Model. Small. 2020 05; 16(20):e1907150. Wang C, Fernández de Ávila BE, Mundaca-Uribe R, Lopez-Ramirez MA, Ramírez-Herrera DE, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF, Wang J. PMID: 32329580; PMCID: PMC7507763.
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    89. Site-Specific Antibody Conjugation Strategy to Functionalize Virus-Based Nanoparticles. Bioconjug Chem. 2020 05 20; 31(5):1408-1416. Park J, Chariou PL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32281790; PMCID: PMC8085887.
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    90. Antibody Response against Cowpea Mosaic Viral Nanoparticles Improves In Situ Vaccine Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer. ACS Nano. 2020 03 24; 14(3):2994-3003. Shukla S, Wang C, Beiss V, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32133838; PMCID: PMC8085886.
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    91. Nanocarriers for the Delivery of Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Active Ingredients. ACS Nano. 2020 03 24; 14(3):2678-2701. Chariou PL, Ortega-Rivera OA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32125825; PMCID: PMC8085836.
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    92. The Antitumor Efficacy of CpG Oligonucleotides is Improved by Encapsulation in Plant Virus-Like Particles. Adv Funct Mater. 2020 Apr 14; 30(15). Cai H, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 34366757; PMCID: PMC8340626.
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    93. Dynamic, Simultaneous Concentration Mapping of Multiple MRI Contrast Agents with Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. Sci Rep. 2019 12 27; 9(1):19888. Anderson CE, Johansen M, Erokwu BO, Hu H, Gu Y, Zhang Y, Kavran M, Vincent J, Drumm ML, Griswold MA, Steinmetz NF, Li M, Clark H, Darrah RJ, Yu X, Brady-Kalnay SM, Flask CA. PMID: 31882792; PMCID: PMC6934650.
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    94. Endosomal toll-like receptors play a key role in activation of primary human monocytes by cowpea mosaic virus. Immunology. 2020 02; 159(2):183-192. Albakri MM, Veliz FA, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF, Sieg SF. PMID: 31630392; PMCID: PMC6954739.
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    95. Built-In Active Microneedle Patch with Enhanced Autonomous Drug Delivery. Adv Mater. 2020 Jan; 32(1):e1905740. Lopez-Ramirez MA, Soto F, Wang C, Rueda R, Shukla S, Silva-Lopez C, Kupor D, McBride DA, Pokorski JK, Nourhani A, Steinmetz NF, Shah NJ, Wang J. PMID: 31682039; PMCID: PMC7014935.
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    96. Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles and Empty Virus-Like Particles Show Distinct but Overlapping Immunostimulatory Properties. J Virol. 2019 11 01; 93(21). Wang C, Beiss V, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31375592; PMCID: PMC6803287.
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    97. Biological and evolutionary concepts for nanoscale engineering: Viruses as natural nanoparticles have great potential for a wide range of nanoscale products. EMBO Rep. 2019 08; 20(8):e48806. Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31314151; PMCID: PMC6680157.
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    98. Delivery of siRNA therapeutics using cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles. Biomater Sci. 2019 Aug 01; 7(8):3138-3142. Lam P, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31257379; PMCID: PMC6705399.
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    99. Cowpea Mosaic Virus Immunotherapy Combined with Cyclophosphamide Reduces Breast Cancer Tumor Burden and Inhibits Lung Metastasis. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2019 Aug 21; 6(16):1802281. Cai H, Wang C, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31453050; PMCID: PMC6702650.
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    100. Soil mobility of synthetic and virus-based model nanopesticides. Nat Nanotechnol. 2019 07; 14(7):712-718. Chariou PL, Dogan AB, Welsh AG, Saidel GM, Baskaran H, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31110265; PMCID: PMC6988359.
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    101. Polydopamine-decorated tobacco mosaic virus for photoacoustic/magnetic resonance bimodal imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. Nanoscale. 2019 May 16; 11(19):9760-9768. Hu H, Yang Q, Baroni S, Yang H, Aime S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31066418; PMCID: PMC6679940.
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    102. Physalis Mottle Virus-like Nanoparticles for Targeted Cancer Imaging. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019 May 22; 11(20):18213-18223. Hu H, Masarapu H, Gu Y, Zhang Y, Yu X, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31074602; PMCID: PMC7060085.
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    103. Heterologous Prime-Boost Enhances the Antitumor Immune Response Elicited by Plant-Virus-Based Cancer Vaccine. J Am Chem Soc. 2019 04 24; 141(16):6509-6518. Cai H, Shukla S, Wang C, Masarapu H, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30995022; PMCID: PMC6957130.
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    104. Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Apr 10; 11(4). Kerstetter-Fogle A, Shukla S, Wang C, Beiss V, Harris PLR, Sloan AE, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30974896; PMCID: PMC6521079.
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    105. CD47 Blockade and Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle In Situ Vaccination Triggers Phagocytosis and Tumor Killing. Adv Healthc Mater. 2019 04; 8(8):e1801288. Wang C, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30838815; PMCID: PMC6633909.
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    106. Cowpea Mosaic Virus Promotes Anti-Tumor Activity and Immune Memory in a Mouse Ovarian Tumor Model. Adv Ther (Weinh). 2019 May; 2(5). Wang C, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33969181; PMCID: PMC8101952.
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    107. Freeze-Drying To Produce Efficacious CPMV Virus-like Particles. Nano Lett. 2019 03 13; 19(3):2099-2105. Zheng Y, Lee PW, Wang C, Thomas LD, Stewart PL, Steinmetz NF, Pokorski JK. PMID: 30801195; PMCID: PMC7272238.
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    108. S100A9-targeted tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles exhibit high specificity toward atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice. J Mater Chem B. 2019 03 21; 7(11):1842-1846. Park J, Gao H, Wang Y, Hu H, Simon DI, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32255046; PMCID: PMC7147689.
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    109. Molecular mechanism and binding free energy of doxorubicin intercalation in DNA. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2019 Feb 13; 21(7):3877-3893. Jawad B, Poudel L, Podgornik R, Steinmetz NF, Ching WY. PMID: 30702122.
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    110. Let There Be Light: Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Using High Aspect Ratio Plant Viral Nanoparticles. Macromol Biosci. 2019 05; 19(5):e1800407. Chariou PL, Wang L, Desai C, Park J, Robbins LK, von Recum HA, Ghiladi RA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30721575.
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    111. A Viral Nanoparticle Cancer Vaccine Delays Tumor Progression and Prolongs Survival in a HER2+ Tumor Mouse Model. Adv Ther (Weinh). 2019 Apr; 2(4). Shukla S, Jandzinski M, Wang C, Gong X, Bonk KW, Keri RA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33855164; PMCID: PMC8043622.
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    112. Presentation and Delivery of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand via Elongated Plant Viral Nanoparticle Enhances Antitumor Efficacy. ACS Nano. 2019 02 26; 13(2):2501-2510. Le DHT, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30668110.
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    113. In Situ Vaccination of Tumors Using Plant Viral Nanoparticles. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 2000:111-124. Murray AA, Sheen MR, Veliz FA, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 31148013; PMCID: PMC7302950.
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    114. Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles, a Wool-Ball-like Nanostructure for Drug Delivery. Langmuir. 2019 01 08; 35(1):203-211. Marín-Caba L, Chariou PL, Pesquera C, Correa-Duarte MA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30576145.
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    115. Biodistribution of Filamentous Plant Virus Nanoparticles: Pepino Mosaic Virus versus Potato Virus X. Biomacromolecules. 2019 01 14; 20(1):469-477. Le DHT, Méndez-López E, Wang C, Commandeur U, Aranda MA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30516960; PMCID: PMC6485256.
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    116. Cancer Theranostic Applications of Albumin-Coated Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Nov 21; 10(46):39468-39477. Pitek AS, Hu H, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30403330; PMCID: PMC6485250.
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    117. Delivery of thrombolytic therapy using rod-shaped plant viral nanoparticles decreases the risk of hemorrhage. Nanoscale. 2018 Sep 13; 10(35):16547-16555. Pitek AS, Park J, Wang Y, Gao H, Hu H, Simon DI, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30137088; PMCID: PMC6145846.
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    118. New Directions for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy. Mol Pharm. 2018 09 04; 15(9):3601-3602. Lu ZR, Steinmetz NF, Zhu H. PMID: 30176732.
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    119. Delivery of mitoxantrone using a plant virus-based nanoparticle for the treatment of glioblastomas. J Mater Chem B. 2018 Oct 07; 6(37):5888-5895. Lam P, Lin R, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30923616; PMCID: PMC6433411.
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    120. Tobacco mosaic virus delivery of mitoxantrone for cancer therapy. Nanoscale. 2018 Aug 30; 10(34):16307-16313. Lin RD, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30129956; PMCID: PMC6145845.
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    121. In Situ Vaccination with Cowpea vs Tobacco Mosaic Virus against Melanoma. Mol Pharm. 2018 09 04; 15(9):3700-3716. Murray AA, Wang C, Fiering S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29798673; PMCID: PMC6230260.
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    122. Bioinspired Shielding Strategies for Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Applications. Mol Pharm. 2018 08 06; 15(8):2900-2909. Gulati NM, Stewart PL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29733602; PMCID: PMC6223124.
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    123. Treatment of Canine Oral Melanoma with Nanotechnology-Based Immunotherapy and Radiation. Mol Pharm. 2018 09 04; 15(9):3717-3722. Hoopes PJ, Wagner RJ, Duval K, Kang K, Gladstone DJ, Moodie KL, Crary-Burney M, Ariaspulido H, Veliz FA, Steinmetz NF, Fiering SN. PMID: 29613803; PMCID: PMC6296751.
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    124. Radiation Therapy Combined with Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle in Situ Vaccination Initiates Immune-Mediated Tumor Regression. ACS Omega. 2018 Apr 30; 3(4):3702-3707. Patel R, Czapar AE, Fiering S, Oleinick NL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29732445; PMCID: PMC5928490.
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    125. Encapsulation of Plant Viral Particles in Calcite Crystals. Adv Biosyst. 2018 May; 2(5):e1700176. Al-Handawi MB, Commins P, Shukla S, Didier P, Tanaka M, Raj G, Veliz FA, Pasricha R, Steinmetz NF, Naumov P. PMID: 33103857.
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    126. Speciation of Phenanthriplatin and Its Analogs in the Core of Tobacco Mosaic Virus. J Am Chem Soc. 2018 03 28; 140(12):4279-4287. Vernekar AA, Berger G, Czapar AE, Veliz FA, Wang DI, Steinmetz NF, Lippard SJ. PMID: 29553267; PMCID: PMC5929126.
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    127. The in vivo fates of plant viral nanoparticles camouflaged using self-proteins: overcoming immune recognition. J Mater Chem B. 2018 Apr 21; 6(15):2204-2216. Gulati NM, Pitek AS, Czapar AE, Stewart PL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 30294445; PMCID: PMC6171361.
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    128. Slow-Release Formulation of Cowpea Mosaic Virus for In Situ Vaccine Delivery to Treat Ovarian Cancer. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2018 May; 5(5):1700991. Czapar AE, Tiu BDB, Veliz FA, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29876220; PMCID: PMC5979803.
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    129. Interactions Between Plant Viral Nanoparticles (VNPs) and Blood Plasma Proteins, and Their Impact on the VNP In Vivo Fates. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1776:591-608. Pitek AS, Veliz FA, Jameson SA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29869268.
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    130. Nanomanufacture of Free-Standing, Porous, Janus-Type Films of Polymer-Plant Virus Nanoparticle Arrays. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1776:143-157. Tiu BDB, Advincula RC, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29869239.
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    131. In Planta Production of Fluorescent Filamentous Plant Virus-Based Nanoparticles. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1776:61-84. Shukla S, Dickmeis C, Fischer R, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29869235.
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    132. Drug-Loaded Plant-Virus Based Nanoparticles for Cancer Drug Delivery. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1776:425-436. Bruckman MA, Czapar AE, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29869258.
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    133. Physalis Mottle Virus-Like Particles as Nanocarriers for Imaging Reagents and Drugs. Biomacromolecules. 2017 Dec 11; 18(12):4141-4153. Masarapu H, Patel BK, Chariou PL, Hu H, Gulati NM, Carpenter BL, Ghiladi RA, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 29144726; PMCID: PMC5922981.
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    134. Elongated Plant Virus-Based Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of Thrombolytic Therapies. Mol Pharm. 2017 11 06; 14(11):3815-3823. Pitek AS, Wang Y, Gulati S, Gao H, Stewart PL, Simon DI, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28881141; PMCID: PMC5927583.
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    135. Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Delivered Cisplatin Restores Efficacy in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells. Mol Pharm. 2018 08 06; 15(8):2922-2931. Franke CE, Czapar AE, Patel RB, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28926265.
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    136. Biodegradable Viral Nanoparticle/Polymer Implants Prepared via Melt-Processing. ACS Nano. 2017 09 26; 11(9):8777-8789. Lee PW, Shukla S, Wallat JD, Danda C, Steinmetz NF, Maia J, Pokorski JK. PMID: 28902491; PMCID: PMC5765982.
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    137. Dysprosium-Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles for Ultra-High-Field Magnetic Resonance and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Prostate Cancer. ACS Nano. 2017 09 26; 11(9):9249-9258. Hu H, Zhang Y, Shukla S, Gu Y, Yu X, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28858475; PMCID: PMC5747565.
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    138. Enter the Nanoman. Nat Nanotechnol. 2017 Sep 06; 12(9):928. Steinmetz N. PMID: 28875983.
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    139. Viral nanoparticles decorated with novel EGFL7 ligands enable intravital imaging of tumor neovasculature. Nanoscale. 2017 Aug 24; 9(33):12096-12109. Cho CF, Yu L, Nsiama TK, Kadam AN, Raturi A, Shukla S, Amadei GA, Steinmetz NF, Luyt LG, Lewis JD. PMID: 28799610; PMCID: PMC5770569.
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    140. Photon Management through Virus-Programmed Supramolecular Arrays. Adv Biosyst. 2017 Oct; 1(10):e1700088. Veliz FA, Ma Y, Molugu SK, Tiu BDB, Stewart PL, French RH, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32646196.
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    141. Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC-MRF): A Platform for Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple MRI Contrast Agents. Sci Rep. 2017 08 16; 7(1):8431. Anderson CE, Donnola SB, Jiang Y, Batesole J, Darrah R, Drumm ML, Brady-Kalnay SM, Steinmetz NF, Yu X, Griswold MA, Flask CA. PMID: 28814732; PMCID: PMC5559598.
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    142. Plant viral and bacteriophage delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2018 01; 10(1). Lam P, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28719102.
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    143. Featured Article: Delivery of chemotherapeutic vcMMAE using tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017 08; 242(14):1405-1411. Kernan DL, Wen AM, Pitek AS, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28675044; PMCID: PMC5544173.
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    144. Combination of Plant Virus Nanoparticle-Based in Situ Vaccination with Chemotherapy Potentiates Antitumor Response. Nano Lett. 2017 07 12; 17(7):4019-4028. Lee KL, Murray AA, Le DHT, Sheen MR, Shukla S, Commandeur U, Fiering S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28650644; PMCID: PMC5623935.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    145. Chemical addressability of potato virus X for its applications in bio/nanotechnology. J Struct Biol. 2017 12; 200(3):360-368. Le DHT, Hu H, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28647539.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    146. Impact of Hydrogen Bonding in the Binding Site between Capsid Protein and MS2 Bacteriophage ssRNA. J Phys Chem B. 2017 07 06; 121(26):6321-6330. Poudel L, Twarock R, Steinmetz NF, Podgornik R, Ching WY. PMID: 28581757.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    147. Plant viruses and bacteriophages for drug delivery in medicine and biotechnology. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2017 Jun; 38:108-116. Czapar AE, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28426952; PMCID: PMC5488792.
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    148. Delivery of Pesticides to Plant Parasitic Nematodes Using Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus as a Nanocarrier. ACS Nano. 2017 05 23; 11(5):4719-4730. Chariou PL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28345874.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    149. Cryo-electron tomography investigation of serum albumin-camouflaged tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles. Nanoscale. 2017 Mar 09; 9(10):3408-3415. Gulati NM, Pitek AS, Steinmetz NF, Stewart PL. PMID: 28112764; PMCID: PMC5507697.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    150. Hypo-fractionated Radiation, Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia and a Viral Immunotherapy Treatment of Spontaneous Canine Cancer. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan-Feb; 10066. Hoopes PJ, Moodie KL, Petryk AA, Petryk JD, Sechrist S, Gladstone DJ, Steinmetz NF, Veliz FA, Bursey AA, Wagner RJ, Rajan A, Dugat D, Crary-Burney M, Fiering SN. PMID: 29203951; PMCID: PMC5711517.
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    151. Effect of intra-tumoral magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and viral nanoparticle immunogenicity on primary and metastatic cancer. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan-Feb; 10066. Hoopes PJ, Mazur CM, Osterberg B, Song A, Gladstone DJ, Steinmetz NF, Veliz FA, Bursey AA, Wagner RJ, Fiering SN. PMID: 29203952; PMCID: PMC5711520.
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    152. Potato virus X, a filamentous plant viral nanoparticle for doxorubicin delivery in cancer therapy. Nanoscale. 2017 Feb 09; 9(6):2348-2357. Le DH, Lee KL, Shukla S, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28144662; PMCID: PMC5370163.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    153. A Bioengineered Positive Control for Rapid Detection of the Ebola Virus by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP). ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2017 Mar 13; 3(3):452-459. Lam P, Keri RA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 33465940.
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    154. Electrostatic layer-by-layer construction of fibrous TMV biofilms. Nanoscale. 2017 Jan 26; 9(4):1580-1590. Tiu BD, Kernan DL, Tiu SB, Wen AM, Zheng Y, Pokorski JK, Advincula RC, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28070572.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    155. Polymer Structure and Conformation Alter the Antigenicity of Virus-like Particle-Polymer Conjugates. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 03 08; 139(9):3312-3315. Lee PW, Isarov SA, Wallat JD, Molugu SK, Shukla S, Sun JE, Zhang J, Zheng Y, Lucius Dougherty M, Konkolewicz D, Stewart PL, Steinmetz NF, Hore MJ, Pokorski JK. PMID: 28121424; PMCID: PMC5569573.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    156. Plant viral nanoparticles-based HER2 vaccine: Immune response influenced by differential transport, localization and cellular interactions of particulate carriers. Biomaterials. 2017 03; 121:15-27. Shukla S, Myers JT, Woods SE, Gong X, Czapar AE, Commandeur U, Huang AY, Levine AD, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28063980.
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    157. Optical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Fluorous Colloidal Nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules. 2017 01 09; 18(1):103-112. Wallat JD, Czapar AE, Wang C, Wen AM, Wek KS, Yu X, Steinmetz NF, Pokorski JK. PMID: 27992176; PMCID: PMC5561414.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    158. POxylation as an alternative stealth coating for biomedical applications. Eur Polym J. 2017 Mar; 88:679-688. Bludau H, Czapar AE, Pitek AS, Shukla S, Jordan R, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28713172; PMCID: PMC5510027.
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    159. Implication of the solvent effect, metal ions and topology in the electronic structure and hydrogen bonding of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016 Aug 03; 18(31):21573-85. Poudel L, Steinmetz NF, French RH, Parsegian VA, Podgornik R, Ching WY. PMID: 27425864.
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    160. Enhancing the Angular Sensitivity of Plasmonic Sensors Using Hyperbolic Metamaterials. Adv Opt Mater. 2016 Nov; 4(11):1767-1772. Sreekanth KV, Alapan Y, ElKabbash M, Wen AM, Ilker E, Hinczewski M, Gurkan UA, Steinmetz NF, Strangi G. PMID: 28649484; PMCID: PMC5482536.
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    161. Design of virus-based nanomaterials for medicine, biotechnology, and energy. Chem Soc Rev. 2016 07 25; 45(15):4074-126. Wen AM, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 27152673; PMCID: PMC5068136.
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    162. Free-Standing, Nanopatterned Janus Membranes of Conducting Polymer-Virus Nanoparticle Arrays. Langmuir. 2016 06 21; 32(24):6185-93. Tiu BD, Tiu SB, Wen AM, Lam P, Steinmetz NF, Advincula RC. PMID: 27244119.
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    163. X-ray characterization of mesophases of human telomeric G-quadruplexes and other DNA analogues. Sci Rep. 2016 06 02; 6:27079. Yasar S, Schimelman JB, Aksoyoglu MA, Steinmetz NF, French RH, Parsegian VA, Podgornik R. PMID: 27249961; PMCID: PMC4890033.
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    164. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016 05; 241(10):1116-26. Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 27190253; PMCID: PMC4950359.
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    165. Utilizing Viral Nanoparticle/Dendron Hybrid Conjugates in Photodynamic Therapy for Dual Delivery to Macrophages and Cancer Cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2016 05 18; 27(5):1227-35. Wen AM, Lee KL, Cao P, Pangilinan K, Carpenter BL, Lam P, Veliz FA, Ghiladi RA, Advincula RC, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 27077475; PMCID: PMC5160013.
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    166. Diffusion and Uptake of Tobacco Mosaic Virus as Therapeutic Carrier in Tumor Tissue: Effect of Nanoparticle Aspect Ratio. J Phys Chem B. 2016 07 07; 120(26):6120-9. Chariou PL, Lee KL, Pokorski JK, Saidel GM, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 27045770; PMCID: PMC5207216.
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    167. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays. Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 31; 6:23803. Lam P, Gulati NM, Stewart PL, Keri RA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 27030058; PMCID: PMC4814824.
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    168. Multiple Administrations of Viral Nanoparticles Alter in Vivo Behavior-Insights from Intravital Microscopy. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2016 May 09; 2(5):829-837. Shukla S, Dorand RD, Myers JT, Woods SE, Gulati NM, Stewart PL, Commandeur U, Huang AY, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28752131; PMCID: PMC5526635.
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    169. Tobacco Mosaic Virus Delivery of Phenanthriplatin for Cancer therapy. ACS Nano. 2016 04 26; 10(4):4119-26. Czapar AE, Zheng YR, Riddell IA, Shukla S, Awuah SG, Lippard SJ, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26982250; PMCID: PMC5155116.
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    170. Anti-atherogenic effect of trivalent chromium-loaded CPMV nanoparticles in human aortic smooth muscle cells under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro. Nanoscale. 2016 Mar 28; 8(12):6542-54. Ganguly R, Wen AM, Myer AB, Czech T, Sahu S, Steinmetz NF, Raman P. PMID: 26935414; PMCID: PMC5136293.
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    171. High Aspect Ratio Nanotubes Formed by Tobacco Mosaic Virus for Delivery of Photodynamic Agents Targeting Melanoma. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2016 May 09; 2(5):838-844. Lee KL, Carpenter BL, Wen AM, Ghiladi RA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28713855; PMCID: PMC5509260.
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    172. Tobacco mosaic virus-based protein nanoparticles and nanorods for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer. J Control Release. 2016 06 10; 231:103-13. Bruckman MA, Czapar AE, VanMeter A, Randolph LN, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26941034; PMCID: PMC5207211.
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    173. Serum albumin 'camouflage' of plant virus based nanoparticles prevents their antibody recognition and enhances pharmacokinetics. Biomaterials. 2016 May; 89:89-97. Pitek AS, Jameson SA, Veliz FA, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26950168; PMCID: PMC5127400.
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    174. The Protein Corona of Plant Virus Nanoparticles Influences their Dispersion Properties, Cellular Interactions, and In Vivo Fates. Small. 2016 Apr 06; 12(13):1758-69. Pitek AS, Wen AM, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26853911; PMCID: PMC5147027.
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    175. Virus-based nanoparticles as platform technologies for modern vaccines. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2016 07; 8(4):554-78. Lee KL, Twyman RM, Fiering S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26782096; PMCID: PMC5638654.
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    176. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer. Nat Nanotechnol. 2016 Mar; 11(3):295-303. Lizotte PH, Wen AM, Sheen MR, Fields J, Rojanasopondist P, Steinmetz NF, Fiering S. PMID: 26689376; PMCID: PMC4777632.
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    177. Tropism of CPMV to Professional Antigen Presenting Cells Enables a Platform to Eliminate Chronic Infections. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2015 Nov 09; 1(11):1050-1054. Wen AM, Le N, Zhou X, Steinmetz NF, Popkin DL. PMID: 27280157; PMCID: PMC4894745.
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    178. Production of Immunoabsorbent Nanoparticles by Displaying Single-Domain Protein A on Potato Virus X. Macromol Biosci. 2016 Feb; 16(2):231-41. Uhde-Holzem K, McBurney M, Tiu BD, Advincula RC, Fischer R, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26440117.
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    179. Virus-Based Nanoparticles as Versatile Nanomachines. Annu Rev Virol. 2015 Nov; 2(1):379-401. Koudelka KJ, Pitek AS, Manchester M, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26958921; PMCID: PMC5177684.
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    180. Suppression of Hyperactive Immune Responses Protects against Nitrogen Mustard Injury. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Dec; 135(12):2971-2981. Au L, Meisch JP, Das LM, Binko AM, Boxer RS, Wen AM, Steinmetz NF, Lu KQ. PMID: 26288355; PMCID: PMC4648631.
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    181. Aqueous synthesis of polyhedral "brick-like" iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia and T2 MRI contrast enhancement. J Mater Chem B. 2015 Sep 15; 3(34):6877-6884. Worden M, Bruckman MA, Kim MH, Steinmetz NF, Kikkawa JM, LaSpina C, Hegmann T. PMID: 26693011; PMCID: PMC4675363.
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    182. Silica-coated Gd(DOTA)-loaded protein nanoparticles enable magnetic resonance imaging of macrophages. J Mater Chem B. 2015 Oct 01; 3(38):7503-7510. Bruckman MA, Randolph LN, Gulati NM, Stewart PL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26659591; PMCID: PMC4675143.
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    183. Shaping bio-inspired nanotechnologies to target thrombosis for dual optical-magnetic resonance imaging. J Mater Chem B. 2015 Aug 07; 3(29):6037-6045. Wen AM, Wang Y, Jiang K, Hsu GC, Gao H, Lee KL, Yang AC, Yu X, Simon DI, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26509036; PMCID: PMC4620043.
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    184. van der Waals Interactions on the Mesoscale: Open-Science Implementation, Anisotropy, Retardation, and Solvent Effects. Langmuir. 2015 Sep 22; 31(37):10145-53. Dryden DM, Hopkins JC, Denoyer LK, Poudel L, Steinmetz NF, Ching WY, Podgornik R, Parsegian A, French RH. PMID: 25815562.
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    185. To Target or Not to Target: Active vs. Passive Tumor Homing of Filamentous Nanoparticles Based on Potato virus X. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2015; 8(3):433-444. Shukla S, DiFranco NA, Wen AM, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 26316894; PMCID: PMC4540758.
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    186. Stealth filaments: Polymer chain length and conformation affect the in vivo fate of PEGylated potato virus X. Acta Biomater. 2015 Jun; 19:166-79. Lee KL, Shukla S, Wu M, Ayat NR, El Sanadi CE, Wen AM, Edelbrock JF, Pokorski JK, Commandeur U, Dubyak GR, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 25769228; PMCID: PMC4411193.
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    187. Photonics and plasmonics go viral: self-assembly of hierarchical metamaterials. Rend Lincei Sci Fis Nat. 2015 Aug; 26(2 Suppl):129-141. Wen AM, Podgornik R, Strangi G, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28713533; PMCID: PMC5509229.
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    188. Electronic structure and partial charge distribution of Doxorubicin in different molecular environments. Chemphyschem. 2015 May 18; 16(7):1451-60. Poudel L, Wen AM, French RH, Parsegian VA, Podgornik R, Steinmetz NF, Ching WY. PMID: 25728554.
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    189. Optical properties and electronic transitions of DNA oligonucleotides as a function of composition and stacking sequence. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015 Feb 14; 17(6):4589-99. Schimelman JB, Dryden DM, Poudel L, Krawiec KE, Ma Y, Podgornik R, Parsegian VA, Denoyer LK, Ching WY, Steinmetz NF, French RH. PMID: 25584920.
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    190. Virus-based nanomaterials as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance contrast agents: from technology development to translational medicine. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 7(5):708-21. Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 25683790; PMCID: PMC4620044.
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    191. Detection and imaging of aggressive cancer cells using an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted filamentous plant virus-based nanoparticle. Bioconjug Chem. 2015 Feb 18; 26(2):262-269. Chariou PL, Lee KL, Wen AM, Gulati NM, Stewart PL, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 25611133; PMCID: PMC4859893.
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    192. The Impact of Aspect Ratio on the Biodistribution and Tumor Homing of Rigid Soft-Matter Nanorods. Adv Healthc Mater. 2015 Apr 22; 4(6):874-82. Shukla S, Eber FJ, Nagarajan AS, DiFranco NA, Schmidt N, Wen AM, Eiben S, Twyman RM, Wege C, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 25641794; PMCID: PMC4934124.
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    193. Interface of physics and biology: engineering virus-based nanoparticles for biophotonics. Bioconjug Chem. 2015 Jan 21; 26(1):51-62. Wen AM, Infusino M, De Luca A, Kernan DL, Czapar AE, Strangi G, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 25541212; PMCID: PMC4306514.
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    194. Nanomanufacturing of Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Based Spherical Biomaterials Using a Continuous Flow Method. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2015 Jan 12; 1(1):13-18. Bruckman MA, VanMeter A, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 25984569; PMCID: PMC4426350.
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    195. Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin under varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering. J Biol Phys. 2015 Jan; 41(1):85-97. Ma Y, Acosta DM, Whitney JR, Podgornik R, Steinmetz NF, French RH, Parsegian VA. PMID: 25403822; PMCID: PMC4298003.
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    196. Plasmonic nanodiamonds: targeted core-shell type nanoparticles for cancer cell thermoablation. Adv Healthc Mater. 2015 Feb 18; 4(3):460-8. Rehor I, Lee KL, Chen K, Hajek M, Havlik J, Lokajova J, Masat M, Slegerova J, Shukla S, Heidari H, Bals S, Steinmetz NF, Cigler P. PMID: 25336437; PMCID: PMC4411186.
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    197. Presentation of HER2 epitopes using a filamentous plant virus-based vaccination platform. J Mater Chem B. 2014 Oct 07; 2(37):6249-6258. Shukla S, Wen AM, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32262142.
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    198. Electronic structure, dielectric response, and surface charge distribution of RGD (1FUV) peptide. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 08; 4:5605. Adhikari P, Wen AM, French RH, Parsegian VA, Steinmetz NF, Podgornik R, Ching WY. PMID: 25001596; PMCID: PMC4085632.
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    199. The aspect ratio of nanoparticle assemblies and the spatial arrangement of ligands can be optimized to enhance the targeting of cancer cells. Adv Healthc Mater. 2014 Nov; 3(11):1739-44. Wen AM, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 24729309; PMCID: PMC4859891.
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    200. Molecular farming of fluorescent virus-based nanoparticles for optical imaging in plants, human cells and mouse models. Biomater Sci. 2014 May 01; 2(5):784-797. Shukla S, Dickmeis C, Nagarajan AS, Fischer R, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 32481848.
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    201. Dual-modal magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo using VCAM-1 targeted tobacco mosaic virus. Nano Lett. 2014 Mar 12; 14(3):1551-8. Bruckman MA, Jiang K, Simpson EJ, Randolph LN, Luyt LG, Yu X, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 24499194; PMCID: PMC4169141.
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    202. Fluorescent nanodiamonds embedded in biocompatible translucent shells. Small. 2014 Mar 26; 10(6):1106-15. Rehor I, Slegerova J, Kucka J, Proks V, Petrakova V, Adam MP, Treussart F, Turner S, Bals S, Sacha P, Ledvina M, Wen AM, Steinmetz NF, Cigler P. PMID: 24500945; PMCID: PMC5207051.
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    203. Chemical modification of the inner and outer surfaces of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1108:173-85. Bruckman MA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 24243249; PMCID: PMC4546836.
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    204. Molecular targeted viral nanoparticles as tools for imaging cancer. Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1108:211-30. Cho CF, Shukla S, Simpson EJ, Steinmetz NF, Luyt LG, Lewis JD. PMID: 24243252; PMCID: PMC4546835.
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    205. Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X. Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1108:3-21. Lee KL, Uhde-Holzem K, Fischer R, Commandeur U, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 24243237; PMCID: PMC5207041.
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    206. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and blood compatibility of native and PEGylated tobacco mosaic virus nano-rods and -spheres in mice. Virology. 2014 Jan 20; 449:163-73. Bruckman MA, Randolph LN, VanMeter A, Hern S, Shoffstall AJ, Taurog RE, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 24418549; PMCID: PMC3906584.
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    207. Engineering Gd-loaded nanoparticles to enhance MRI sensitivity via T(1) shortening. Nanotechnology. 2013 Nov 22; 24(46):462001. Bruckman MA, Yu X, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 24158750; PMCID: PMC3895399.
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    208. Biodistribution and clearance of a filamentous plant virus in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2014 Feb; 9(2):221-35. Shukla S, Wen AM, Ayat NR, Commandeur U, Gopalkrishnan R, Broome AM, Lozada KW, Keri RA, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 23834501; PMCID: PMC4169171.
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    209. Shape matters: the diffusion rates of TMV rods and CPMV icosahedrons in a spheroid model of extracellular matrix are distinct. Biomater Sci. 2013 Jun; 1(6). Lee KL, Hubbard LC, Hern S, Yildiz I, Gratzl M, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 24244867; PMCID: PMC3824242.
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    210. Infusion of imaging and therapeutic molecules into the plant virus-based carrier cowpea mosaic virus: cargo-loading and delivery. J Control Release. 2013 Dec 10; 172(2):568-78. Yildiz I, Lee KL, Chen K, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 23665254; PMCID: PMC3815978.
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    211. Design rules for nanomedical engineering: from physical virology to the applications of virus-based materials in medicine. J Biol Phys. 2013 Mar; 39(2):301-25. Wen AM, Rambhia PH, French RH, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 23860875; PMCID: PMC3662409.
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    212. Tobacco mosaic virus rods and spheres as supramolecular high-relaxivity MRI contrast agents. J Mater Chem B. 2013 Mar 14; 1(10):1482-1490. Bruckman MA, Hern S, Jiang K, Flask CA, Yu X, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 23589767; PMCID: PMC3624747.
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    213. Viral nanoparticles in drug delivery and imaging. Mol Pharm. 2013 Jan 07; 10(1):1-2. Steinmetz NF. PMID: 23294244.
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    214. Viral nanoparticles for in vivo tumor imaging. J Vis Exp. 2012 Nov 16; (69):e4352. Wen AM, Lee KL, Yildiz I, Bruckman MA, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 23183850; PMCID: PMC3572551.
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    215. Interior engineering of a viral nanoparticle and its tumor homing properties. Biomacromolecules. 2012 Dec 10; 13(12):3990-4001. Wen AM, Shukla S, Saxena P, Aljabali AA, Yildiz I, Dey S, Mealy JE, Yang AC, Evans DJ, Lomonossoff GP, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 23121655; PMCID: PMC3525095.
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    216. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid. Nanoscale. 2012 Sep 21; 4(18):5640-5. Aljabali AA, Barclay JE, Steinmetz NF, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 22865109.
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    217. CPMV-DOX delivers. Mol Pharm. 2013 Jan 07; 10(1):3-10. Aljabali AA, Shukla S, Lomonossoff GP, Steinmetz NF, Evans DJ. PMID: 22827473; PMCID: PMC3564650.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 52     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    218. Photodynamic activity of viral nanoparticles conjugated with C60. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012 Sep 18; 48(72):9044-6. Wen AM, Ryan MJ, Yang AC, Breitenkamp K, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 22858632; PMCID: PMC3470913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    219. Increased tumor homing and tissue penetration of the filamentous plant viral nanoparticle Potato virus X. Mol Pharm. 2013 Jan 07; 10(1):33-42. Shukla S, Ablack AL, Wen AM, Lee KL, Lewis JD, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 22731633; PMCID: PMC3482416.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    220. Guiding plant virus particles to integrin-displaying cells. Nanoscale. 2012 Jun 21; 4(12):3698-705. Hovlid ML, Steinmetz NF, Laufer B, Lau JL, Kuzelka J, Wang Q, Hyypiä T, Nemerow GR, Kessler H, Manchester M, Finn MG. PMID: 22585108; PMCID: PMC3567620.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    221. Development of viral nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery. Nanoscale. 2012 Jun 07; 4(11):3567-76. Wu Z, Chen K, Yildiz I, Dirksen A, Fischer R, Dawson PE, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 22508503; PMCID: PMC3563001.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    222. Engineering of Brome mosaic virus for biomedical applications. RSC Adv. 2012 May 07; 2(9):3670-3677. Yildiz I, Tsvetkova I, Wen AM, Shukla S, Masarapu MH, Dragnea B, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 28018580; PMCID: PMC5180450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15  
    223. A potential nanobiotechnology platform based on infectious bursal disease subviral particles. RSC Adv. 2012 Mar 07; 2(5):1970-1978. Taghavian O, Mandal MK, Steinmetz NF, Rasche S, Spiegel H, Fischer R, Schillberg S. PMID: 28638593; PMCID: PMC5476370.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3  
    224. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133. Cancers (Basel). 2011 Jul 13; 3(3):2870-85. Steinmetz NF, Maurer J, Sheng H, Bensussan A, Maricic I, Kumar V, Braciak TA. PMID: 24212937; PMCID: PMC3759176.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22  
    225. Applications of viral nanoparticles in medicine. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011 Dec; 22(6):901-8. Yildiz I, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 21592772; PMCID: PMC3206135.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 91     Fields:    
    226. Intravital imaging of human prostate cancer using viral nanoparticles targeted to gastrin-releasing Peptide receptors. Small. 2011 Jun 20; 7(12):1664-72. Steinmetz NF, Ablack AL, Hickey JL, Ablack J, Manocha B, Mymryk JS, Luyt LG, Lewis JD. PMID: 21520408; PMCID: PMC3163449.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    227. Cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles target surface vimentin on cancer cells. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2011 Feb; 6(2):351-64. Steinmetz NF, Cho CF, Ablack A, Lewis JD, Manchester M. PMID: 21385137; PMCID: PMC3436905.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    228. Transferrin-mediated targeting of bacteriophage HK97 nanoparticles into tumor cells. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2011 Jan; 6(1):55-68. Huang RK, Steinmetz NF, Fu CY, Manchester M, Johnson JE. PMID: 21182418; PMCID: PMC3091364.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    229. The art of engineering viral nanoparticles. Mol Pharm. 2011 Feb 07; 8(1):29-43. Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 21047140; PMCID: PMC3156490.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 73     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    230. Labeling live cells by copper-catalyzed alkyne--azide click chemistry. Bioconjug Chem. 2010 Oct 20; 21(10):1912-6. Hong V, Steinmetz NF, Manchester M, Finn MG. PMID: 20886827; PMCID: PMC3014321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 123     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    231. Intravital imaging of embryonic and tumor neovasculature using viral nanoparticles. Nat Protoc. 2010 Aug; 5(8):1406-17. Leong HS, Steinmetz NF, Ablack A, Destito G, Zijlstra A, Stuhlmann H, Manchester M, Lewis JD. PMID: 20671724; PMCID: PMC3163450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    232. Viral nanoparticles as platforms for next-generation therapeutics and imaging devices. Nanomedicine. 2010 Oct; 6(5):634-41. Steinmetz NF. PMID: 20433947; PMCID: PMC2948632.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 75     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    233. Hydrazone ligation strategy to assemble multifunctional viral nanoparticles for cell imaging and tumor targeting. Nano Lett. 2010 Mar 10; 10(3):1093-7. Brunel FM, Lewis JD, Destito G, Steinmetz NF, Manchester M, Stuhlmann H, Dawson PE. PMID: 20163184; PMCID: PMC3988696.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    234. Potato virus X as a novel platform for potential biomedical applications. Nano Lett. 2010 Jan; 10(1):305-12. Steinmetz NF, Mertens ME, Taurog RE, Johnson JE, Commandeur U, Fischer R, Manchester M. PMID: 20017489; PMCID: PMC2958517.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    235. Buckyballs meet viral nanoparticles: candidates for biomedicine. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Dec 02; 131(47):17093-5. Steinmetz NF, Hong V, Spoerke ED, Lu P, Breitenkamp K, Finn MG, Manchester M. PMID: 19904938; PMCID: PMC2797550.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    236. Environmentally benign synthesis of virus-templated, monodisperse, iron-platinum nanoparticles. Dalton Trans. 2009 Oct 28; (40):8479-80. Shah SN, Steinmetz NF, Aljabali AA, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 19809720.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    237. Model-independent analysis of QCM data on colloidal particle adsorption. Langmuir. 2009 May 05; 25(9):5177-84. Tellechea E, Johannsmann D, Steinmetz NF, Richter RP, Reviakine I. PMID: 19397357.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    238. PEGylated viral nanoparticles for biomedicine: the impact of PEG chain length on VNP cell interactions in vitro and ex vivo. Biomacromolecules. 2009 Apr 13; 10(4):784-92. Steinmetz NF, Manchester M. PMID: 19281149; PMCID: PMC2849976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    239. Virus-templated silica nanoparticles. Small. 2009 Apr; 5(7):813-6. Steinmetz NF, Shah SN, Barclay JE, Rallapalli G, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 19197969.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    240. Viruses and nanotechnology. Preface. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009; 327:v-vi. Manchester M, Steinmetz NF. PMID: 19198567.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    241. Structure-based engineering of an icosahedral virus for nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009; 327:23-58. Steinmetz NF, Lin T, Lomonossoff GP, Johnson JE. PMID: 19198569.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    242. Solvation effects in the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring response to biomolecular adsorption. A phenomenological approach. Anal Chem. 2008 Dec 01; 80(23):8880-90. Bingen P, Wang G, Steinmetz NF, Rodahl M, Richter RP. PMID: 19551969.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    243. Layer-by-layer assembly of viral nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes: the film architecture is different for spheres versus rods. Chembiochem. 2008 Jul 02; 9(10):1662-70. Steinmetz NF, Findlay KC, Noel TR, Parker R, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 18536062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    244. Assembly of multilayer arrays of viral nanoparticles via biospecific recognition: a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring study. Biomacromolecules. 2008 Feb; 9(2):456-62. Steinmetz NF, Bock E, Richter RP, Spatz JP, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 18197628.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    245. Utilisation of plant viruses in bionanotechnology. Org Biomol Chem. 2007 Sep 21; 5(18):2891-902. Steinmetz NF, Evans DJ. PMID: 17728853.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    246. Chemical introduction of reactive thiols into a viral nanoscaffold: a method that avoids virus aggregation. Chembiochem. 2007 Jul 09; 8(10):1131-6. Steinmetz NF, Evans DJ, Lomonossoff GP. PMID: 17526061.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    247. Membrane-grafted hyaluronan films: a well-defined model system of glycoconjugate cell coats. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 May 02; 129(17):5306-7. Richter RP, Hock KK, Burkhartsmeyer J, Boehm H, Bingen P, Wang G, Steinmetz NF, Evans DJ, Spatz JP. PMID: 17408270.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    248. Plant viral capsids as nanobuilding blocks: construction of arrays on solid supports. Langmuir. 2006 Nov 21; 22(24):10032-7. Steinmetz NF, Calder G, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 17106996.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    249. Cowpea mosaic virus for material fabrication: addressable carboxylate groups on a programmable nanoscaffold. Langmuir. 2006 Apr 11; 22(8):3488-90. Steinmetz NF, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 16584217.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    250. Decoration of cowpea mosaic virus with multiple, redox-active, organometallic complexes. Small. 2006 Apr; 2(4):530-3. Steinmetz NF, Lomonossoff GP, Evans DJ. PMID: 17193081.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
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