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Francisco Villarreal

Title(s)Adjunct Professor, Medicine
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-534-3630
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Excess O-GlcNAc modification of proteins and myocardial fibrosis
    VA I01BX003230Jan 1, 2018 - Dec 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epicatechin Treatment for Sarcopenia
    NIH/NIA R56AG052593Sep 30, 2017 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epicatechin treatment for sarcopenia
    NIH/NIA R21AG047326Sep 15, 2015 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epicatechin and derivatives to preserve muscle structure function in diabetes
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK098717Mar 10, 2014 - Dec 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Early Phase Pre-Clinical and Initial Clinical Research on Epicatechin
    NIH/NCCIH R01AT008310Sep 1, 2013 - Aug 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Targeting cellular bioenergetics for the prevention and treatment of diabetes
    NIH/NIDDK R24DK092154Aug 1, 2011 - Jul 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Effects of Cocoa Flavonols on Myocardial Infarction Size and Post-Injury Injury
    NIH/NCCIH R21AT004277Sep 30, 2008 - Jul 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    26th Annual Meeting of the North Am. Section of the ISHR
    NIH/NHLBI R13HL078318Jul 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego IRACDA: Professors for the Future
    NIH/NIGMS K12GM068524Aug 1, 2003 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Adenosine Mediated Modulation of Cardiac Fibrosis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL067922Jul 15, 2002 - Jun 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HEART FIBROBLAST AND COLLAGEN TYPE III REGULATION
    NIH/NHLBI K14HL003160Jul 1, 1994 - Jun 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular biology and mechanics of the cardiac interstitium
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL043617Jul 1, 1989 - Mar 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Halbach JL, Prieto JM, Wang AW, Hawisher D, Cauvi DM, Reyes T, Okerblom J, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Villarreal F, Patel HH, Bickler SW, Perdrizet GA, De Maio A. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves survival in a model of severe sepsis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2019 Jul 01; 317(1):R160-R168. PMID: 31091156.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Munguia L, Rubio-Gayosso I, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Ortiz A, Hidalgoa I, Gonzalez C, Meaney E, Villarreal F, Najera N, Ceballos G. High flavonoid cocoa supplement ameliorates plasma oxidative stress and inflammation levels while improving mobility and quality of life in older subjects: a double blind randomized clinical trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 May 06. PMID: 31056655.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Hidalgo I, Ortiz A, Sanchez-Pardo M, Garduño-Siciliano L, Hernández-Ortega M, Villarreal F, Meaney E, Najera N, Ceballos GM. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Improvement Using Cacao By-Products in a Diet-Induced Obesity Murine Model. J Med Food. 2019 Jun; 22(6):567-577. PMID: 31021307.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Montes-Rivera J, Arellano-Mendoza M, Nájera N, Del Valle-Mondragón L, Villarreal F, Rubio-Gayosso I, Perez-Duran J, Meaney E, Ceballos G. Effect of (-)-epicatechin on the modulation of progression markers of chronic renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy experimental model. Heliyon. 2019 Apr; 5(4):e01512. PMID: 31025018.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Bello M, Méndez-Luna D, Sarmiento V, Correa Basurto J, Najera N, Villarreal F, Ceballos G. Structural and energetic basis for novel epicatechin derivatives acting as GPER agonists through the MMGBSA method. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 May; 189:176-186. PMID: 30851383.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Bustamante M, Garate-Carrillo A, R Ito B, Garcia R, Carson N, Ceballos G, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Omens J, Villarreal F. Unmasking of oestrogen-dependent changes in left ventricular structure and function in aged female rats: a potential model for pre-heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. J Physiol. 2019 Apr; 597(7):1805-1817. PMID: 30681142.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Formentini L, Ryan AJ, Gálvez-Santisteban M, Carter L, Taub P, Lapek JD, Gonzalez DJ, Villarreal F, Ciaraldi TP, Cuezva JM, Henry RR. Correction to: Mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in human skeletal muscle: contribution to dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Diabetologia. 2018 12; 61(12):2674. PMID: 30324489.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Mansour C, Navarrete-Yañez V, Ayala-Hernandez M, Guevara G, Castillo C, Loredo M, Bustamante M, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ. (-)-Epicatechin induced reversal of endothelial cell aging and improved vascular function: underlying mechanisms. Food Funct. 2018 Sep 19; 9(9):4802-4813. PMID: 30129961.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Varela-Castillo O, Cordero P, Gutiérrez-Iglesias G, Palma I, Rubio-Gayosso I, Meaney E, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Villarreal F, Ceballos G, Nájera N. Characterization of the cytotoxic effects of the combination of cisplatin and flavanol (-)-epicatechin on human lung cancer cell line A549. An isobolographic approach. Exp Oncol. 2018 Mar; 40(1):19-23. PMID: 29600977.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Sarmiento V, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Moreno-Ulloa A, Romero-Perez D, Chávez D, Ortiz M, Najera N, Correa-Basurto J, Villarreal F, Ceballos G. Synthesis of novel (-)-epicatechin derivatives as potential endothelial GPER agonists: Evaluation of biological effects. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2018 02 15; 28(4):658-663. PMID: 29395974.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Moreno-Ulloa A, Nájera-García N, Hernández M, Ramírez-Sánchez I, Taub PR, Su Y, Beltrán-Partida E, Ceballos G, Dugar S, Schreiner G, Best BM, Ciaraldi TP, Henry RR, Villarreal F. A pilot study on clinical pharmacokinetics and preclinical pharmacodynamics of (+)-epicatechin on cardiometabolic endpoints. Food Funct. 2018 Jan 24; 9(1):307-319. PMID: 29171848.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Moreno-Ulloa A, Miranda-Cervantes A, Licea-Navarro A, Mansour C, Beltrán-Partida E, Donis-Maturano L, Delgado De la Herrán HC, Villarreal F, Álvarez-Delgado C. (-)-Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and cell growth in C2C12 myotubes via the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Mar 05; 822:95-107. PMID: 29355558.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Zamora-Mendoza R, Rosas-Vargas H, Ramos-Cervantes MT, Garcia-Zuniga P, Perez-Lorenzana H, Mendoza-Lorenzo P, Perez-Ortiz AC, Estrada-Mena FJ, Miliar-Garcia A, Lara-Padilla E, Ceballos G, Rodriguez A, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Dysregulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis modulators in adipose tissue of obese children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 04; 42(4):618-624. PMID: 29158541.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Ortiz-Vilchis P, Ortiz-Flores M, Pacheco M, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Moreno-Ulloa A, Vega L, Ortiz A, Villarreal F, Rubio-Gayosso I, Najera N, Meaney E, Ceballos G. The cardioprotective effects of (-)-Epicatechin are mediated through arginase activity inhibition in a murine model of ischemia/reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Jan 05; 818:335-342. PMID: 29126791.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Estrada-Mena FJ, Rodriguez A, Mendoza-Lorenzo P, Neri-Gomez T, Manjarrez-Gutierrez G, Perez-Ortiz AC, Ordonez-Razo R, Ceballos G, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on frontal cortex DAPC and dysbindin of the mdx mice. Neurosci Lett. 2017 Sep 29; 658:142-149. PMID: 28855126.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Formentini L, Ryan AJ, Gálvez-Santisteban M, Carter L, Taub P, Lapek JD, Gonzalez DJ, Villarreal F, Ciaraldi TP, Cuezva JM, Henry RR. Mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in human skeletal muscle: contribution to dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Diabetologia. 2017 10; 60(10):2052-2065. PMID: 28770317.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Varela CE, Rodriguez A, Romero-Valdovinos M, Mendoza-Lorenzo P, Mansour C, Ceballos G, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Browning effects of (-)-epicatechin on adipocytes and white adipose tissue. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017 Sep 15; 811:48-59. PMID: 28576408.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Beltrán-Partida E, Valdéz-Salas B, Moreno-Ulloa A, Escamilla A, Curiel MA, Rosales-Ibáñez R, Villarreal F, Bastidas DM, Bastidas JM. Improved in vitro angiogenic behavior on anodized titanium dioxide nanotubes. J Nanobiotechnology. 2017 Jan 31; 15(1):10. PMID: 28143540.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Gutiérrez-Salmeán G, Meaney E, Lanaspa MA, Cicerchi C, Johnson RJ, Dugar S, Taub P, Ramírez-Sánchez I, Villarreal F, Schreiner G, Ceballos G. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study on the effects of (-)-epicatechin on the triglyceride/HDLc ratio and cardiometabolic profile of subjects with hypertriglyceridemia: Unique in vitro effects. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Nov 15; 223:500-506. PMID: 27552564.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Taub PR, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Patel M, Higginbotham E, Moreno-Ulloa A, Román-Pintos LM, Phillips P, Perkins G, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. Beneficial effects of dark chocolate on exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: underlying mechanisms. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. Food Funct. 2016 Sep 14; 7(9):3686-93. PMID: 27491778; PMCID: PMC5025384 [Available on 09/14/17].
    21. Ramírez-Sánchez I, Rodríguez A, Moreno-Ulloa A, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2016 05; 13(3):201-10. PMID: 26993496.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Varela CE, Fromentin E, Roller M, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Effects of a natural extract of Aronia Melanocarpa berry on endothelial cell nitric oxide production. J Food Biochem. 2016 Aug; 40(4):404-410. PMID: 27616799.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Moreno-Ulloa A, Mendez-Luna D, Beltran-Partida E, Castillo C, Guevara G, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Correa-Basurto J, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. The effects of (-)-epicatechin on endothelial cells involve the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Pharmacol Res. 2015 Oct; 100:309-20. PMID: 26303816; PMCID: PMC4555879 [Available on 10/01/16].
    24. Beltrán-Partida E, Moreno-Ulloa A, Valdez-Salas B, Velasquillo C, Carrillo M, Escamilla A, Valdez E, Villarreal F. Improved Osteoblast and Chondrocyte Adhesion and Viability by Surface-Modified Ti6Al4V Alloy with Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes Using a Super-Oxidative Solution. Materials (Basel). 2015 Mar 02; 8(3):867-883. PMID: 28787976.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Barnett CF, Moreno-Ulloa A, Shiva S, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Taub PR, Su Y, Ceballos G, Dugar S, Schreiner G, Villarreal F. Pharmacokinetic, partial pharmacodynamic and initial safety analysis of (-)-epicatechin in healthy volunteers. Food Funct. 2015 Mar; 6(3):824-33. PMID: 25598082; PMCID: PMC4357542.
    26. Ramirez-Sanchez I, De los Santos S, Gonzalez-Basurto S, Canto P, Mendoza-Lorenzo P, Palma-Flores C, Ceballos-Reyes G, Villarreal F, Zentella-Dehesa A, Coral-Vazquez R. (-)-Epicatechin improves mitochondrial-related protein levels and ameliorates oxidative stress in dystrophic d-sarcoglycan null mouse striated muscle. FEBS J. 2014 Dec; 281(24):5567-80. PMID: 25284161; PMCID: PMC4262719.
    27. Ortiz-Vilchis P, Yamazaki KG, Rubio-Gayosso I, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Calzada C, Romero-Perez D, Ortiz A, Meaney E, Taub P, Villarreal F, Ceballos G. Co-administration of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin with doxycycline synergistically reduces infarct size in a model of ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Dec 05; 744:76-82. PMID: 25281837.
      View in: PubMed
    28. DeCoux A, Lindsey ML, Villarreal F, Garcia RA, Schulz R. Myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2: inside out and upside down. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014 Dec; 77:64-72. PMID: 25261607; PMCID: PMC4312173.
    29. Moreno-Ulloa A, Nogueira L, Rodriguez A, Barboza J, Hogan MC, Ceballos G, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Recovery of Indicators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Oxidative Stress, and Aging With (-)-Epicatechin in Senile Mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Nov; 70(11):1370-8. PMID: 25143004.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Yamazaki KG, Andreyev AY, Ortiz-Vilchis P, Petrosyan S, Divakaruni AS, Wiley SE, De La Fuente C, Perkins G, Ceballos G, Villarreal F, Murphy AN. Intravenous (-)-epicatechin reduces myocardial ischemic injury by protecting mitochondrial function. Int J Cardiol. 2014 Aug 01; 175(2):297-306. PMID: 24908200; PMCID: PMC4506135.
    31. Spinale FG, Villarreal F. Targeting matrix metalloproteinases in heart disease: lessons from endogenous inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Jul 01; 90(1):7-15. PMID: 24780447; PMCID: PMC4060262.
    32. Moreno-Ulloa A, Romero-Perez D, Villarreal F, Ceballos G, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Cell membrane mediated (-)-epicatechin effects on upstream endothelial cell signaling: evidence for a surface receptor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Jun 15; 24(12):2749-52. PMID: 24794111; PMCID: PMC4157920.
    33. Gutiérrez-Salmeán G, Ortiz-Vilchis P, Vacaseydel CM, Rubio-Gayosso I, Meaney E, Villarreal F, Ramírez-Sánchez I, Ceballos G. Acute effects of an oral supplement of (-)-epicatechin on postprandial fat and carbohydrate metabolism in normal and overweight subjects. Food Funct. 2014 Mar; 5(3):521-7. PMID: 24458104; PMCID: PMC3947792.
    34. Li AH, Liu PP, Villarreal FJ, Garcia RA. Dynamic changes in myocardial matrix and relevance to disease: translational perspectives. Circ Res. 2014 Feb 28; 114(5):916-27. PMID: 24577970.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Aguilar H, Fricovsky E, Ihm S, Schimke M, Maya-Ramos L, Aroonsakool N, Ceballos G, Dillmann W, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Role for high-glucose-induced protein O-GlcNAcylation in stimulating cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014 May 01; 306(9):C794-804. PMID: 24553187; PMCID: PMC4010805.
    36. Gutiérrez-Salmeán G, Ortiz-Vilchis P, Vacaseydel CM, Garduño-Siciliano L, Chamorro-Cevallos G, Meaney E, Villafaña S, Villarreal F, Ceballos G, Ramírez-Sánchez I. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on a diet-induced rat model of cardiometabolic risk factors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Apr 05; 728:24-30. PMID: 24491839.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Gutierrez-Salmean G, Ciaraldi TP, Nogueira L, Barboza J, Taub PR, Hogan MC, Henry RR, Meaney E, Villarreal F, Ceballos G, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Jan; 25(1):91-4. PMID: 24314870.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Taub PR, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Ciaraldi TP, Gonzalez-Basurto S, Coral-Vazquez R, Perkins G, Hogan M, Maisel AS, Henry RR, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. Perturbations in skeletal muscle sarcomere structure in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes: restorative effects of (-)-epicatechin-rich cocoa. Clin Sci (Lond). 2013 Oct; 125(8):383-9. PMID: 23642227.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Taub PR, Ciaraldi TP, Nogueira L, Coe T, Perkins G, Hogan M, Maisel AS, Henry RR, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. (-)-Epicatechin rich cocoa mediated modulation of oxidative stress regulators in skeletal muscle of heart failure and type 2 diabetes patients. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 09; 168(4):3982-3990. PMID: 23870648; PMCID: PMC3805662.
    40. Moreno-Ulloa A, Cid A, Rubio-Gayosso I, Ceballos G, Villarreal F, Ramirez-Sanchez I. Effects of (-)-epicatechin and derivatives on nitric oxide mediated induction of mitochondrial proteins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Aug 01; 23(15):4441-6. PMID: 23791569; PMCID: PMC3741049.
    41. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Nogueira L, Moreno A, Murphy A, Taub P, Perkins G, Ceballos GM, Hogan M, Malek M, Villarreal F. Stimulatory effects of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin on cardiac angiogenesis: additive effects with exercise. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012 Nov; 60(5):429-38. PMID: 22833114; PMCID: PMC3496054.
    42. Frankwich K, Tibble C, Torres-Gonzalez M, Bonner M, Lefkowitz R, Tyndall M, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Villarreal F, Heller M, Herbst K. Proof of Concept: Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor decreases inflammation and improves muscle insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. J Inflamm (Lond). 2012 Oct 01; 9(1):35. PMID: 23025537; PMCID: PMC3507843.
    43. Tanabe K, Tamura Y, Lanaspa MA, Miyazaki M, Suzuki N, Sato W, Maeshima Y, Schreiner GF, Villarreal FJ, Johnson RJ, Nakagawa T. Epicatechin limits renal injury by mitochondrial protection in cisplatin nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012 Nov 01; 303(9):F1264-74. PMID: 22933302.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Fricovsky ES, Suarez J, Ihm SH, Scott BT, Suarez-Ramirez JA, Banerjee I, Torres-Gonzalez M, Wang H, Ellrott I, Maya-Ramos L, Villarreal F, Dillmann WH. Excess protein O-GlcNAcylation and the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012 Oct 01; 303(7):R689-99. PMID: 22874425; PMCID: PMC3469670.
    45. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Aguilar H, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. (-)-Epicatechin-induced calcium independent eNOS activation: roles of HSP90 and AKT. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Nov; 370(1-2):141-50. PMID: 22865466; PMCID: PMC3812804.
    46. Yamazaki KG, Ihm SH, Thomas RL, Roth D, Villarreal F. Cell adhesion molecule mediation of myocardial inflammatory responses associated with ventricular pacing. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012 Apr 01; 302(7):H1387-93. PMID: 22268115; PMCID: PMC3330786.
    47. Taub PR, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Ciaraldi TP, Perkins G, Murphy AN, Naviaux R, Hogan M, Maisel AS, Henry RR, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa. Clin Transl Sci. 2012 Feb; 5(1):43-7. PMID: 22376256.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Ceballos G, Villarreal F. The beneficial vascular effects of cacao flavanols: having your cake and eating it too. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Dec; 111(6):1544-5. PMID: 21998263.
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    49. Nogueira L, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Perkins GA, Murphy A, Taub PR, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ, Hogan MC, Malek MH. (-)-Epicatechin enhances fatigue resistance and oxidative capacity in mouse muscle. J Physiol. 2011 Sep 15; 589(Pt 18):4615-31. PMID: 21788351; PMCID: PMC3208228.
    50. Yamazaki KG, Villarreal FJ. Ventricular pacing-induced loss of contractile function and development of epicardial inflammation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Apr; 300(4):H1282-90. PMID: 21297025; PMCID: PMC3075045.
    51. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Maya L, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. (-)-Epicatechin induces calcium and translocation independent eNOS activation in arterial endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011 Apr; 300(4):C880-7. PMID: 21209365; PMCID: PMC3074631.
    52. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Maya L, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method. J Food Compost Anal. 2010 Dec 01; 23(8):790-793. PMID: 21297935.
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    53. Villarreal F, Lew WY. Protein quality control in heart disease: using established drugs to target novel mechanisms. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Oct 19; 56(17):1427-9. PMID: 20947001; PMCID: PMC2995305.
    54. Griffin MO, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ. Tetracycline compounds with non-antimicrobial organ protective properties: possible mechanisms of action. Pharmacol Res. 2011 Feb; 63(2):102-7. PMID: 20951211.
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    55. Griffin MO, Fricovsky E, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. Tetracyclines: a pleitropic family of compounds with promising therapeutic properties. Review of the literature. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010 Sep; 299(3):C539-48. PMID: 20592239; PMCID: PMC2944325.
    56. Yamazaki KG, Taub PR, Barraza-Hidalgo M, Rivas MM, Zambon AC, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on myocardial infarct size and left ventricular remodeling after permanent coronary occlusion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jun 22; 55(25):2869-76. PMID: 20579545; PMCID: PMC2915587.
    57. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Maya L, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. (-)-epicatechin activation of endothelial cell endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, and related signaling pathways. Hypertension. 2010 Jun; 55(6):1398-405. PMID: 20404222; PMCID: PMC2874202.
    58. Maya L, Villarreal FJ. Diagnostic approaches for diabetic cardiomyopathy and myocardial fibrosis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Mar; 48(3):524-9. PMID: 19595694; PMCID: PMC2824060.
    59. Romero-Perez D, Agrawal A, Jacobsen J, Yan Y, Thomas R, Cohen S, Villarreal F. Effects of novel semiselective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors on ex vivo cardiac structure-function. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jun; 53(6):452-61. PMID: 19365278; PMCID: PMC2835692.
    60. Villarreal F, Epperson SA, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Yamazaki KG, Brunton LL. Regulation of cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis by adenosine: roles for Epac and PI3K. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009 May; 296(5):C1178-84. PMID: 19279233; PMCID: PMC2681376.
    61. Epperson SA, Brunton LL, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Villarreal F. Adenosine receptors and second messenger signaling pathways in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009 May; 296(5):C1171-7. PMID: 19244482; PMCID: PMC2681375.
    62. Romero-Perez D, Fricovsky E, Yamasaki KG, Griffin M, Barraza-Hidalgo M, Dillmann W, Villarreal F. Cardiac uptake of minocycline and mechanisms for in vivo cardioprotection. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Sep 23; 52(13):1086-94. PMID: 18848143; PMCID: PMC2572824.
    63. Yamazaki KG, Romero-Perez D, Barraza-Hidalgo M, Cruz M, Rivas M, Cortez-Gomez B, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. Short- and long-term effects of (-)-epicatechin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Aug; 295(2):H761-7. PMID: 18567705; PMCID: PMC2519218.
    64. Ashikaga H, Coppola BA, Yamazaki KG, Villarreal FJ, Omens JH, Covell JW. Changes in regional myocardial volume during the cardiac cycle: implications for transmural blood flow and cardiac structure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Aug; 295(2):H610-8. PMID: 18515651; PMCID: PMC2519196.
    65. Agrawal A, Romero-Perez D, Jacobsen JA, Villarreal FJ, Cohen SM. Zinc-binding groups modulate selective inhibition of MMPs. ChemMedChem. 2008 May; 3(5):812-20. PMID: 18181119; PMCID: PMC2836234.
    66. Go K, Horikawa Y, Garcia R, Villarreal FJ. Fluorescent method for detection of cleaved collagens using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA). J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2008 Apr 24; 70(6):878-82. PMID: 17573117; PMCID: PMC2836792.
    67. Garcia RA, Go KV, Villarreal FJ. Effects of timed administration of doxycycline or methylprednisolone on post-myocardial infarction inflammation and left ventricular remodeling in the rat heart. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jun; 300(1-2):159-69. PMID: 17149544.
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    68. Mendez E, Nowak KM, Baker HJ, Villarreal FJ, Hall DR. Localized CO2 laser damage repair of fused silica optics. Appl Opt. 2006 Jul 20; 45(21):5358-67. PMID: 16826272.
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    69. Asbun J, Villarreal FJ. The pathogenesis of myocardial fibrosis in the setting of diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Feb 21; 47(4):693-700. PMID: 16487830.
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    70. Puerta DT, Griffin MO, Lewis JA, Romero-Perez D, Garcia R, Villarreal FJ, Cohen SM. Heterocyclic zinc-binding groups for use in next-generation matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors: potency, toxicity, and reactivity. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2006 Mar; 11(2):131-8. PMID: 16391944.
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    71. Zhou D, Lee HS, Villarreal F, Teng A, Lu E, Reynolds S, Qin C, Smith J, Sung KL. Differential MMP-2 activity of ligament cells under mechanical stretch injury: an in vitro study on human ACL and MCL fibroblasts. J Orthop Res. 2005 Jul; 23(4):949-57. PMID: 16023011.
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    72. Griffin MO, Jinno M, Miles LA, Villarreal FJ. Reduction of myocardial infarct size by doxycycline: a role for plasmin inhibition. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Feb; 270(1-2):1-11. PMID: 15792348.
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    73. García RA, Pantazatos DP, Gessner CR, Go KV, Woods VL, Villarreal FJ. Molecular interactions between matrilysin and the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline investigated by deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr; 67(4):1128-36. PMID: 15665254.
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    74. García RA, Brown KL, Pavelec RS, Go KV, Covell JW, Villarreal FJ. Abnormal cardiac wall motion and early matrix metalloproteinase activity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Mar; 288(3):H1080-7. PMID: 15486029.
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    75. Villarreal FJ, Asbun J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands, oxidative stress, and cardiac fibroblast extracellular matrix turnover. Hypertension. 2004 Nov; 44(5):621-2. PMID: 15381678.
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    76. Asbun J, Manso AM, Villarreal FJ. Profibrotic influence of high glucose concentration on cardiac fibroblast functions: effects of losartan and vitamin E. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Jan; 288(1):H227-34. PMID: 15345478.
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    77. Chen Y, Epperson S, Makhsudova L, Ito B, Suarez J, Dillmann W, Villarreal F. Functional effects of enhancing or silencing adenosine A2b receptors in cardiac fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004 Dec; 287(6):H2478-86. PMID: 15284071.
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    78. Villarreal F, Omens J, Dillmann W, Risteli J, Nguyen J, Covell J. Early degradation and serum appearance of type I collagen fragments after myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004 Apr; 36(4):597-601. PMID: 15081319.
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    79. Garcia RA, Pantazatos D, Villarreal FJ. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for investigating protein-ligand interactions. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2004 Feb; 2(1):81-91. PMID: 15090213.
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    80. Villarreal FJ, Griffin M, Omens J, Dillmann W, Nguyen J, Covell J. Early short-term treatment with doxycycline modulates postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Circulation. 2003 Sep 23; 108(12):1487-92. PMID: 12952845.
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    81. Villarreal F, Zimmermann S, Makhsudova L, Montag AC, Erion MD, Bullough DA, Ito BR. Modulation of cardiac remodeling by adenosine: in vitro and in vivo effects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Sep; 251(1-2):17-26. PMID: 14575299.
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    82. Markillie GA, Baker HJ, Villarreal FJ, Hall DR. Effect of vaporization and melt ejection on laser machining of silica glass micro-optical components. Appl Opt. 2002 Sep 20; 41(27):5660-7. PMID: 12269566.
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    83. MacKenna D, Summerour SR, Villarreal FJ. Role of mechanical factors in modulating cardiac fibroblast function and extracellular matrix synthesis. Cardiovasc Res. 2000 May; 46(2):257-63. PMID: 10773229.
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    84. Gloss B, Villegas S, Villarreal FJ, Moriscot A, Dillmann WH. Thyroid hormone-induced stimulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene is inhibited by LIF and IL-6. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr; 278(4):E738-43. PMID: 10751209.
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    85. Hsieh AH, Tsai CM, Ma QJ, Lin T, Banes AJ, Villarreal FJ, Akeson WH, Sung KL. Time-dependent increases in type-III collagen gene expression in medical collateral ligament fibroblasts under cyclic strains. J Orthop Res. 2000 Mar; 18(2):220-7. PMID: 10815822.
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    86. Villegas S, Villarreal FJ, Dillmann WH. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and Interleukin-6 downregulate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2) in cardiac myocytes. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000 Feb; 95(1):47-54. PMID: 10752545.
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    87. Meszaros JG, Gonzalez AM, Endo-Mochizuki Y, Villegas S, Villarreal F, Brunton LL. Identification of G protein-coupled signaling pathways in cardiac fibroblasts: cross talk between G(q) and G(s). Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000 Jan; 278(1):C154-62. PMID: 10644523.
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    88. Lee AA, Delhaas T, McCulloch AD, Villarreal FJ. Differential responses of adult cardiac fibroblasts to in vitro biaxial strain patterns. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999 Oct; 31(10):1833-43. PMID: 10525421.
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    89. Gurantz D, Cowling RT, Villarreal FJ, Greenberg BH. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha upregulates angiotensin II type 1 receptors on cardiac fibroblasts. Circ Res. 1999 Aug 06; 85(3):272-9. PMID: 10436170.
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    90. Villarreal FJ, Hong D, Omens J. Nicotine-modified postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Am J Physiol. 1999 03; 276(3):H1103-6. PMID: 10070098.
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    91. Kim NN, Villegas S, Summerour SR, Villarreal FJ. Regulation of cardiac fibroblast extracellular matrix production by bradykinin and nitric oxide. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999 Feb; 31(2):457-66. PMID: 10093057.
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    92. Villarreal FJ, Kim NN. Regulation of myocardial extracellular matrix components by mechanical and chemical growth factors. Cardiovasc Pathol. 1998 May-Jun; 7(3):145-51. PMID: 25851221.
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    93. Villarreal FJ, Bahnson T, Kim NN. Human cardiac fibroblasts and receptors for angiotensin II and bradykinin: a potential role for bradykinin in the modulation of cardiac extracellular matrix. Basic Res Cardiol. 1998; 93 Suppl 3:4-7. PMID: 9879435.
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    94. Hartong R, Villarreal FJ, Giordano F, Hilal-Dandan R, McDonough PM, Dillmann WH. Phorbol myristate acetate-induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes is associated with decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2) gene expression and calcium reuptake. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996 Dec; 28(12):2467-77. PMID: 9004163.
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    95. Lee AA, Delhaas T, Waldman LK, MacKenna DA, Villarreal FJ, McCulloch AD. An equibiaxial strain system for cultured cells. Am J Physiol. 1996 Oct; 271(4 Pt 1):C1400-8. PMID: 8897847.
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    96. Villarreal FJ, Lee AA, Dillmann WH, Giordano FJ. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of human transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rat cardiac fibroblasts, myocytes and smooth muscle cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996 Apr; 28(4):735-42. PMID: 8732501.
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    97. Lee AA, Dillmann WH, McCulloch AD, Villarreal FJ. Angiotensin II stimulates the autocrine production of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995 Oct; 27(10):2347-57. PMID: 8576949.
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    98. Kim NN, Villarreal FJ, Printz MP, Lee AA, Dillmann WH. Trophic effects of angiotensin II on neonatal rat cardiac myocytes are mediated by cardiac fibroblasts. Am J Physiol. 1995 Sep; 269(3 Pt 1):E426-37. PMID: 7573419.
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    99. Villarreal FJ, MacKenna DA, Omens JH, Dillmann WH. Myocardial remodeling in hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats. Hypertension. 1995 Jan; 25(1):98-104. PMID: 7843762.
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    100. Villarreal FJ, Kim NN, Ungab GD, Printz MP, Dillmann WH. Identification of functional angiotensin II receptors on rat cardiac fibroblasts. Circulation. 1993 Dec; 88(6):2849-61. PMID: 8252698.
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    101. Villarreal FJ, Dillmann WH. Cardiac hypertrophy-induced changes in mRNA levels for TGF-beta 1, fibronectin, and collagen. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun; 262(6 Pt 2):H1861-6. PMID: 1535758.
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    102. Villarreal FJ, Lew WY, Waldman LK, Covell JW. Transmural myocardial deformation in the ischemic canine left ventricle. Circ Res. 1991 Feb; 68(2):368-81. PMID: 1991344.
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    103. Villarreal FJ, Lew WY. Finite strains in anterior and posterior wall of canine left ventricle. Am J Physiol. 1990 Nov; 259(5 Pt 2):H1409-18. PMID: 2240241.
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    104. Waldman LK, Nosan D, Villarreal F, Covell JW. Relation between transmural deformation and local myofiber direction in canine left ventricle. Circ Res. 1988 Sep; 63(3):550-62. PMID: 3409487.
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    105. Villarreal FJ, Waldman LK, Lew WY. Technique for measuring regional two-dimensional finite strains in canine left ventricle. Circ Res. 1988 Apr; 62(4):711-21. PMID: 3349574.
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