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Francisco Villarreal

Title(s)Adjunct Professor, Medicine
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Excess O-GlcNAc modification of proteins and myocardial fibrosis
    NIH I01BX003230Jan 1, 2018 - Dec 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epicatechin Treatment for Sarcopenia
    NIH R56AG052593Sep 30, 2017 - Aug 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epicatechin treatment for sarcopenia
    NIH R21AG047326Sep 15, 2015 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epicatechin and derivatives to preserve muscle structure function in diabetes
    NIH R01DK098717Mar 10, 2014 - Dec 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Early Phase Pre-Clinical and Initial Clinical Research on Epicatechin
    NIH R01AT008310Sep 1, 2013 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Targeting cellular bioenergetics for the prevention and treatment of diabetes
    NIH R24DK092154Aug 1, 2011 - Jul 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Effects of Cocoa Flavonols on Myocardial Infarction Size and Post-Injury Injury
    NIH R21AT004277Sep 30, 2008 - Jul 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    26th Annual Meeting of the North Am. Section of the ISHR
    NIH R13HL078318Jul 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    San Diego IRACDA: Professors for the Future
    NIH K12GM068524Aug 1, 2003 - Sep 29, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Adenosine Mediated Modulation of Cardiac Fibrosis
    NIH R01HL067922Jul 15, 2002 - Jun 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HEART FIBROBLAST AND COLLAGEN TYPE III REGULATION
    NIH K14HL003160Jul 1, 1994 - Jun 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular biology and mechanics of the cardiac interstitium
    NIH R01HL043617Jul 1, 1989 - Dec 8, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on neuroinflammation and hyperphosphorylation of tau in the hippocampus of aged mice. Food Funct. 2020 Dec 01; 11(12):10351-10361. PMID: 33201160.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. (-)-Epicatechin reduces muscle waste after complete spinal cord transection in a murine model: role of ubiquitin-proteasome system. Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Nov; 47(11):8975-8985. PMID: 33151476.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. PXR is a target of (-)-epicatechin in skeletal muscle. Heliyon. 2020 Oct; 6(10):e05357. PMID: 33163657.
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    4. (-)-Epicatechin induces mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of muscle regeneration in adults with Becker muscular dystrophy. Muscle Nerve. 2020 Oct 30. McDonald CM, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Oskarsson B, Joyce N, Aguilar C, Nicorici A, Dayan J, Goude E, Abresch RT, Villarreal F, Ceballos G, Perkins G, Dugar S, Schreiner G, Henricson EK. PMID: 33125736.
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    5. In Pursuit of Understanding the Role of Estrogens in Regulating Cardiac Structure and Function. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2020 Sep; 5(9):913-915. PMID: 33016955.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    6. Development of muscle atrophy and loss of function in a Gulf-War illness model: underlying mechanisms. Sci Rep. 2020 09 03; 10(1):14526. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Navarrete-Yañez V, Garate-Carrillo A, Loredo M, Lira-Romero E, Estrada-Mena J, Campeau A, Gonzalez D, Carrillo-Terrazas M, Moreno-Ulloa A, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. PMID: 32884027.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    7. Arginase inhibition by (-)-Epicatechin reverses endothelial cell aging. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Oct 15; 885:173442. PMID: 32795514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    8. Flavonoids from dark chocolate and (-)-epicatechin ameliorate high-fat diet-induced decreases in mobility and muscle damage in aging mice. Food Biosci. 2020 Oct; 37. Munguia L, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Meaney E, Villarreal F, Ceballos G, Najera N. PMID: 32953444.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    9. Discovery of BMS-986235/LAR-1219: A Potent Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2) Selective Agonist for the Prevention of Heart Failure. J Med Chem. 2020 09 10; 63(17):9003-9019. Asahina Y, Wurtz NR, Arakawa K, Carson N, Fujii K, Fukuchi K, Garcia R, Hsu MY, Ishiyama J, Ito B, Kick E, Lupisella J, Matsushima S, Ohata K, Ostrowski J, Saito Y, Tsuda K, Villarreal F, Yamada H, Yamaoka T, Wexler R, Gordon D, Kohno Y. PMID: 32407089.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    10. Effects of Cacao By-Products and a Modest Weight Loss Intervention on the Concentration of Serum Triglycerides in Overweight Subjects: Proof of Concept. J Med Food. 2020 Jul; 23(7):745-749. León-Flores P, Nájera N, Pérez E, Pardo B, Jimenez F, Diaz-Chiguer D, Villarreal F, Hidalgo I, Ceballos G, Meaney E. PMID: 32286894.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    11. The role of inflammation in driving left ventricular remodeling in a pre-HFpEF model. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2020 04; 245(8):748-757. Loredo-Mendoza ML, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Bustamante-Pozo MM, Ayala M, Navarrete V, Garate-Carrillo A, Ito BR, Ceballos G, Omens J, Villarreal F. PMID: 32183553.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Sex related differences in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. Transl Res. 2020 08; 222:41-55. Garate-Carrillo A, Gonzalez J, Ceballos G, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Villarreal F. PMID: 32289256.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    13. Cocoa to Improve Walking Performance in Older People With Peripheral Artery Disease: The COCOA-PAD Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial. Circ Res. 2020 02 28; 126(5):589-599. McDermott MM, Criqui MH, Domanchuk K, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Kibbe MR, Kosmac K, Kramer CM, Leeuwenburgh C, Li L, Lloyd-Jones D, Peterson CA, Polonsky TS, Stein JH, Sufit R, Van Horn L, Villarreal F, Zhang D, Zhao L, Tian L. PMID: 32078436.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    14. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on the time course of the expression of perilipins in a diet-induced model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Nutr Biochem. 2020 03; 77:108296. Hidalgo I, Nájera N, Meaney E, Pérez-Durán J, Valdespino-Vazquez Y, Villarreal F, Ceballos G. PMID: 32007822.
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    15. Preservation of Post-Infarction Cardiac Structure and Function via Long-Term Oral Formyl Peptide Receptor Agonist Treatment. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2019 Dec; 4(8):905-920. García RA, Ito BR, Lupisella JA, Carson NA, Hsu MY, Fernando G, Heroux M, Bouvier M, Dierks E, Kick EK, Gordon DA, Chen J, Mintier G, Carrier M, St-Onge S, Shah H, Towne J, Bucardo MS, Ma X, Ryan CS, Wurtz NR, Ostrowski J, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 31909300.
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    16. 11-ß-hydroxysterols as possible endogenous stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis as inferred from epicatechin molecular mimicry. Pharmacol Res. 2020 01; 151:104540. Dugar S, Villarreal F, Hollinger FH, Mahajan D, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Moreno-Ulloa A, Ceballos G, Schreiner G. PMID: 31722227.
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    17. High Flavonoid Cocoa Supplement Ameliorates Plasma Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Levels While Improving Mobility and Quality of Life in Older Subjects: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 09 15; 74(10):1620-1627. Munguia L, Rubio-Gayosso I, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Ortiz A, Hidalgo I, Gonzalez C, Meaney E, Villarreal F, Najera N, Ceballos G. PMID: 31056655.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves survival in a model of severe sepsis. . 2019 07 01; 317(1):R160-R168. Halbach JL, Prieto JM, Wang AW, Hawisher D, Cauvi DM, Reyes T, Okerblom J, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Villarreal F, Patel HH, Bickler SW, Perdrizet GA, De Maio A. PMID: 31091156.
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    19. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Improvement Using Cacao By-Products in a Diet-Induced Obesity Murine Model. J Med Food. 2019 Jun; 22(6):567-577. Hidalgo I, Ortiz A, Sanchez-Pardo M, Garduño-Siciliano L, Hernández-Ortega M, Villarreal F, Meaney E, Najera N, Ceballos GM. PMID: 31021307.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    20. Effect of (-)-epicatechin on the modulation of progression markers of chronic renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy experimental model. Heliyon. 2019 Apr; 5(4):e01512. Montes-Rivera J, Arellano-Mendoza M, Nájera N, Del Valle-Mondragón L, Villarreal F, Rubio-Gayosso I, Perez-Duran J, Meaney E, Ceballos G. PMID: 31025018.
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    21. Structural and energetic basis for novel epicatechin derivatives acting as GPER agonists through the MMGBSA method. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 05; 189:176-186. Bello M, Méndez-Luna D, Sarmiento V, Correa Basurto J, Najera N, Villarreal F, Ceballos G. PMID: 30851383.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. Unmasking of oestrogen-dependent changes in left ventricular structure and function in aged female rats: a potential model for pre-heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. J Physiol. 2019 04; 597(7):1805-1817. Bustamante M, Garate-Carrillo A, R Ito B, Garcia R, Carson N, Ceballos G, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Omens J, Villarreal F. PMID: 30681142.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    23. Correction to: Mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in human skeletal muscle: contribution to dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Diabetologia. 2018 12; 61(12):2674. Formentini L, Ryan AJ, Gálvez-Santisteban M, Carter L, Taub P, Lapek JD, Gonzalez DJ, Villarreal F, Ciaraldi TP, Cuezva JM, Henry RR. PMID: 30324489.
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    24. (-)-Epicatechin induced reversal of endothelial cell aging and improved vascular function: underlying mechanisms. Food Funct. 2018 Sep 19; 9(9):4802-4813. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Mansour C, Navarrete-Yañez V, Ayala-Hernandez M, Guevara G, Castillo C, Loredo M, Bustamante M, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 30129961.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Characterization of the cytotoxic effects of the combination of cisplatin and flavanol (-)-epicatechin on human lung cancer cell line A549. An isobolographic approach. Exp Oncol. 2018 Mar; 40(1):19-23. PMID: 29600977.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    26. Synthesis of novel (-)-epicatechin derivatives as potential endothelial GPER agonists: Evaluation of biological effects. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2018 02 15; 28(4):658-663. PMID: 29395974.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. A pilot study on clinical pharmacokinetics and preclinical pharmacodynamics of (+)-epicatechin on cardiometabolic endpoints. Food Funct. 2018 Jan 24; 9(1):307-319. Moreno-Ulloa A, Nájera-García N, Hernández M, Ramírez-Sánchez I, Taub PR, Su Y, Beltrán-Partida E, Ceballos G, Dugar S, Schreiner G, Best BM, Ciaraldi TP, Henry RR, Villarreal F. PMID: 29171848.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    28. (-)-Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and cell growth in C2C12 myotubes via the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Mar 05; 822:95-107. Moreno-Ulloa A, Miranda-Cervantes A, Licea-Navarro A, Mansour C, Beltrán-Partida E, Donis-Maturano L, Delgado De la Herrán HC, Villarreal F, Álvarez-Delgado C. PMID: 29355558.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Dysregulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis modulators in adipose tissue of obese children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 04; 42(4):618-624. PMID: 29158541.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. The cardioprotective effects of (-)-Epicatechin are mediated through arginase activity inhibition in a murine model of ischemia/reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Jan 05; 818:335-342. Ortiz-Vilchis P, Ortiz-Flores M, Pacheco M, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Moreno-Ulloa A, Vega L, Ortiz A, Villarreal F, Rubio-Gayosso I, Najera N, Meaney E, Ceballos G. PMID: 29126791.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on frontal cortex DAPC and dysbindin of the mdx mice. Neurosci Lett. 2017 Sep 29; 658:142-149. PMID: 28855126.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    32. Mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in human skeletal muscle: contribution to dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Diabetologia. 2017 10; 60(10):2052-2065. Formentini L, Ryan AJ, Gálvez-Santisteban M, Carter L, Taub P, Lapek JD, Gonzalez DJ, Villarreal F, Ciaraldi TP, Cuezva JM, Henry RR. PMID: 28770317.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Browning effects of (-)-epicatechin on adipocytes and white adipose tissue. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017 Sep 15; 811:48-59. PMID: 28576408.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Improved in vitro angiogenic behavior on anodized titanium dioxide nanotubes. J Nanobiotechnology. 2017 Jan 31; 15(1):10. PMID: 28143540.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study on the effects of (-)-epicatechin on the triglyceride/HDLc ratio and cardiometabolic profile of subjects with hypertriglyceridemia: Unique in vitro effects. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Nov 15; 223:500-506. PMID: 27552564.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    36. Beneficial effects of dark chocolate on exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: underlying mechanisms. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. Food Funct. 2016 Sep 14; 7(9):3686-93. PMID: 27491778.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    37. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2016 05; 13(3):201-10. PMID: 26993496.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Effects of a natural extract of Aronia Melanocarpa berry on endothelial cell nitric oxide production. J Food Biochem. 2016 Aug; 40(4):404-410. PMID: 27616799.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    39. The effects of (-)-epicatechin on endothelial cells involve the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Pharmacol Res. 2015 Oct; 100:309-20. PMID: 26303816.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Improved Osteoblast and Chondrocyte Adhesion and Viability by Surface-Modified Ti6Al4V Alloy with Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes Using a Super-Oxidative Solution. Materials (Basel). 2015 Mar 02; 8(3):867-883. PMID: 28787976.
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    41. Pharmacokinetic, partial pharmacodynamic and initial safety analysis of (-)-epicatechin in healthy volunteers. Food Funct. 2015 Mar; 6(3):824-33. PMID: 25598082.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    42. (-)-Epicatechin improves mitochondrial-related protein levels and ameliorates oxidative stress in dystrophic d-sarcoglycan null mouse striated muscle. FEBS J. 2014 Dec; 281(24):5567-80. PMID: 25284161.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Co-administration of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin with doxycycline synergistically reduces infarct size in a model of ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Dec 05; 744:76-82. PMID: 25281837.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2: inside out and upside down. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014 Dec; 77:64-72. PMID: 25261607.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Recovery of Indicators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Oxidative Stress, and Aging With (-)-Epicatechin in Senile Mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Nov; 70(11):1370-8. PMID: 25143004.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Intravenous (-)-epicatechin reduces myocardial ischemic injury by protecting mitochondrial function. Int J Cardiol. 2014 Aug 01; 175(2):297-306. PMID: 24908200.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Targeting matrix metalloproteinases in heart disease: lessons from endogenous inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Jul 01; 90(1):7-15. PMID: 24780447.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    48. Cell membrane mediated (-)-epicatechin effects on upstream endothelial cell signaling: evidence for a surface receptor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Jun 15; 24(12):2749-52. PMID: 24794111.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    49. Acute effects of an oral supplement of (-)-epicatechin on postprandial fat and carbohydrate metabolism in normal and overweight subjects. Food Funct. 2014 Mar; 5(3):521-7. PMID: 24458104.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    50. Dynamic changes in myocardial matrix and relevance to disease: translational perspectives. Circ Res. 2014 Feb 28; 114(5):916-27. PMID: 24577970.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Role for high-glucose-induced protein O-GlcNAcylation in stimulating cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis. . 2014 May 01; 306(9):C794-804. PMID: 24553187.
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    52. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on a diet-induced rat model of cardiometabolic risk factors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Apr 05; 728:24-30. PMID: 24491839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    53. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Jan; 25(1):91-4. PMID: 24314870.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    54. Perturbations in skeletal muscle sarcomere structure in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes: restorative effects of (-)-epicatechin-rich cocoa. Clin Sci (Lond). 2013 Oct; 125(8):383-9. PMID: 23642227.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. (-)-Epicatechin rich cocoa mediated modulation of oxidative stress regulators in skeletal muscle of heart failure and type 2 diabetes patients. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 09; 168(4):3982-3990. PMID: 23870648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCTClinical Trials
    56. Effects of (-)-epicatechin and derivatives on nitric oxide mediated induction of mitochondrial proteins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Aug 01; 23(15):4441-6. PMID: 23791569.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Stimulatory effects of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin on cardiac angiogenesis: additive effects with exercise. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012 Nov; 60(5):429-38. PMID: 22833114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    58. Proof of Concept: Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor decreases inflammation and improves muscle insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. J Inflamm (Lond). 2012 Oct 01; 9(1):35. PMID: 23025537.
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    59. Epicatechin limits renal injury by mitochondrial protection in cisplatin nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012 Nov 01; 303(9):F1264-74. PMID: 22933302.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Excess protein O-GlcNAcylation and the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. . 2012 Oct 01; 303(7):R689-99. PMID: 22874425.
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    61. (-)-Epicatechin-induced calcium independent eNOS activation: roles of HSP90 and AKT. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Nov; 370(1-2):141-50. PMID: 22865466.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    62. Cell adhesion molecule mediation of myocardial inflammatory responses associated with ventricular pacing. . 2012 Apr 01; 302(7):H1387-93. PMID: 22268115.
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    63. Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa. Clin Transl Sci. 2012 Feb; 5(1):43-7. PMID: 22376256.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    64. The beneficial vascular effects of cacao flavanols: having your cake and eating it too. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Dec; 111(6):1544-5. Ceballos G, Villarreal F. PMID: 21998263.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    65. (-)-Epicatechin enhances fatigue resistance and oxidative capacity in mouse muscle. J Physiol. 2011 Sep 15; 589(Pt 18):4615-31. Nogueira L, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Perkins GA, Murphy A, Taub PR, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ, Hogan MC, Malek MH. PMID: 21788351.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Ventricular pacing-induced loss of contractile function and development of epicardial inflammation. . 2011 Apr; 300(4):H1282-90. Yamazaki KG, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 21297025.
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    67. (-)-Epicatechin induces calcium and translocation independent eNOS activation in arterial endothelial cells. . 2011 Apr; 300(4):C880-7. PMID: 21209365.
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    68. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method. J Food Compost Anal. 2010 Dec 01; 23(8):790-793. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Maya L, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. PMID: 21297935.
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    69. Protein quality control in heart disease: using established drugs to target novel mechanisms. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Oct 19; 56(17):1427-9. Villarreal F, Lew WY. PMID: 20947001.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    70. Tetracycline compounds with non-antimicrobial organ protective properties: possible mechanisms of action. Pharmacol Res. 2011 Feb; 63(2):102-7. Griffin MO, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 20951211.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    71. Tetracyclines: a pleitropic family of compounds with promising therapeutic properties. Review of the literature. . 2010 Sep; 299(3):C539-48. Griffin MO, Fricovsky E, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. PMID: 20592239.
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    72. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on myocardial infarct size and left ventricular remodeling after permanent coronary occlusion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jun 22; 55(25):2869-76. Yamazaki KG, Taub PR, Barraza-Hidalgo M, Rivas MM, Zambon AC, Ceballos G, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 20579545.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    73. (-)-epicatechin activation of endothelial cell endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, and related signaling pathways. Hypertension. 2010 Jun; 55(6):1398-405. Ramirez-Sanchez I, Maya L, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. PMID: 20404222.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    74. Diagnostic approaches for diabetic cardiomyopathy and myocardial fibrosis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Mar; 48(3):524-9. Maya L, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 19595694.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    75. Effects of novel semiselective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors on ex vivo cardiac structure-function. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jun; 53(6):452-61. Romero-Perez D, Agrawal A, Jacobsen J, Yan Y, Thomas R, Cohen S, Villarreal F. PMID: 19365278.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    76. Regulation of cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis by adenosine: roles for Epac and PI3K. . 2009 May; 296(5):C1178-84. Villarreal F, Epperson SA, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Yamazaki KG, Brunton LL. PMID: 19279233.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    77. Adenosine receptors and second messenger signaling pathways in rat cardiac fibroblasts. . 2009 May; 296(5):C1171-7. Epperson SA, Brunton LL, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Villarreal F. PMID: 19244482.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    78. Cardiac uptake of minocycline and mechanisms for in vivo cardioprotection. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Sep 23; 52(13):1086-94. Romero-Perez D, Fricovsky E, Yamasaki KG, Griffin M, Barraza-Hidalgo M, Dillmann W, Villarreal F. PMID: 18848143.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    79. Short- and long-term effects of (-)-epicatechin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. . 2008 Aug; 295(2):H761-7. Yamazaki KG, Romero-Perez D, Barraza-Hidalgo M, Cruz M, Rivas M, Cortez-Gomez B, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. PMID: 18567705.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    80. Changes in regional myocardial volume during the cardiac cycle: implications for transmural blood flow and cardiac structure. . 2008 Aug; 295(2):H610-8. Ashikaga H, Coppola BA, Yamazaki KG, Villarreal FJ, Omens JH, Covell JW. PMID: 18515651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    81. Zinc-binding groups modulate selective inhibition of MMPs. ChemMedChem. 2008 May; 3(5):812-20. Agrawal A, Romero-Perez D, Jacobsen JA, Villarreal FJ, Cohen SM. PMID: 18181119.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    82. Fluorescent method for detection of cleaved collagens using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA). J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2008 Apr 24; 70(6):878-82. Go K, Horikawa Y, Garcia R, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 17573117.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    83. Effects of timed administration of doxycycline or methylprednisolone on post-myocardial infarction inflammation and left ventricular remodeling in the rat heart. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jun; 300(1-2):159-69. Garcia RA, Go KV, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 17149544.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    84. Localized CO2 laser damage repair of fused silica optics. Appl Opt. 2006 Jul 20; 45(21):5358-67. Mendez E, Nowak KM, Baker HJ, Villarreal FJ, Hall DR. PMID: 16826272.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    85. The pathogenesis of myocardial fibrosis in the setting of diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Feb 21; 47(4):693-700. Asbun J, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 16487830.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 141     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    86. Heterocyclic zinc-binding groups for use in next-generation matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors: potency, toxicity, and reactivity. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2006 Mar; 11(2):131-8. Puerta DT, Griffin MO, Lewis JA, Romero-Perez D, Garcia R, Villarreal FJ, Cohen SM. PMID: 16391944.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    87. Differential MMP-2 activity of ligament cells under mechanical stretch injury: an in vitro study on human ACL and MCL fibroblasts. J Orthop Res. 2005 Jul; 23(4):949-57. Zhou D, Lee HS, Villarreal F, Teng A, Lu E, Reynolds S, Qin C, Smith J, Sung KL. PMID: 16023011.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    88. Reduction of myocardial infarct size by doxycycline: a role for plasmin inhibition. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Feb; 270(1-2):1-11. Griffin MO, Jinno M, Miles LA, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 15792348.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    89. Molecular interactions between matrilysin and the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline investigated by deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr; 67(4):1128-36. García RA, Pantazatos DP, Gessner CR, Go KV, Woods VL, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 15665254.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    90. Abnormal cardiac wall motion and early matrix metalloproteinase activity. . 2005 Mar; 288(3):H1080-7. García RA, Brown KL, Pavelec RS, Go KV, Covell JW, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 15486029.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    91. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands, oxidative stress, and cardiac fibroblast extracellular matrix turnover. Hypertension. 2004 Nov; 44(5):621-2. Villarreal FJ, Asbun J. PMID: 15381678.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    92. Profibrotic influence of high glucose concentration on cardiac fibroblast functions: effects of losartan and vitamin E. . 2005 Jan; 288(1):H227-34. Asbun J, Manso AM, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 15345478.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    93. Functional effects of enhancing or silencing adenosine A2b receptors in cardiac fibroblasts. . 2004 Dec; 287(6):H2478-86. Chen Y, Epperson S, Makhsudova L, Ito B, Suarez J, Dillmann W, Villarreal F. PMID: 15284071.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    94. Early degradation and serum appearance of type I collagen fragments after myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004 Apr; 36(4):597-601. Villarreal F, Omens J, Dillmann W, Risteli J, Nguyen J, Covell J. PMID: 15081319.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    95. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for investigating protein-ligand interactions. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2004 Feb; 2(1):81-91. Garcia RA, Pantazatos D, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 15090213.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    96. Early short-term treatment with doxycycline modulates postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Circulation. 2003 Sep 23; 108(12):1487-92. Villarreal FJ, Griffin M, Omens J, Dillmann W, Nguyen J, Covell J. PMID: 12952845.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    97. Modulation of cardiac remodeling by adenosine: in vitro and in vivo effects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Sep; 251(1-2):17-26. Villarreal F, Zimmermann S, Makhsudova L, Montag AC, Erion MD, Bullough DA, Ito BR. PMID: 14575299.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    98. Effect of vaporization and melt ejection on laser machining of silica glass micro-optical components. Appl Opt. 2002 Sep 20; 41(27):5660-7. Markillie GA, Baker HJ, Villarreal FJ, Hall DR. PMID: 12269566.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    99. Role of mechanical factors in modulating cardiac fibroblast function and extracellular matrix synthesis. Cardiovasc Res. 2000 May; 46(2):257-63. MacKenna D, Summerour SR, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 10773229.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 72     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    100. Thyroid hormone-induced stimulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene is inhibited by LIF and IL-6. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr; 278(4):E738-43. Gloss B, Villegas S, Villarreal FJ, Moriscot A, Dillmann WH. PMID: 10751209.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. Time-dependent increases in type-III collagen gene expression in medical collateral ligament fibroblasts under cyclic strains. J Orthop Res. 2000 Mar; 18(2):220-7. Hsieh AH, Tsai CM, Ma QJ, Lin T, Banes AJ, Villarreal FJ, Akeson WH, Sung KL. PMID: 10815822.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    102. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and Interleukin-6 downregulate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2) in cardiac myocytes. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000 Feb; 95(1):47-54. Villegas S, Villarreal FJ, Dillmann WH. PMID: 10752545.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    103. Identification of G protein-coupled signaling pathways in cardiac fibroblasts: cross talk between G(q) and G(s). . 2000 Jan; 278(1):C154-62. Meszaros JG, Gonzalez AM, Endo-Mochizuki Y, Villegas S, Villarreal F, Brunton LL. PMID: 10644523.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    104. Differential responses of adult cardiac fibroblasts to in vitro biaxial strain patterns. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999 Oct; 31(10):1833-43. Lee AA, Delhaas T, McCulloch AD, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 10525421.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    105. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha upregulates angiotensin II type 1 receptors on cardiac fibroblasts. Circ Res. 1999 Aug 06; 85(3):272-9. Gurantz D, Cowling RT, Villarreal FJ, Greenberg BH. PMID: 10436170.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    106. Nicotine-modified postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Am J Physiol. 1999 03; 276(3):H1103-6. Villarreal FJ, Hong D, Omens J. PMID: 10070098.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    107. Regulation of cardiac fibroblast extracellular matrix production by bradykinin and nitric oxide. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999 Feb; 31(2):457-66. Kim NN, Villegas S, Summerour SR, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 10093057.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. Regulation of myocardial extracellular matrix components by mechanical and chemical growth factors. Cardiovasc Pathol. 1998 May-Jun; 7(3):145-51. PMID: 25851221.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    109. Human cardiac fibroblasts and receptors for angiotensin II and bradykinin: a potential role for bradykinin in the modulation of cardiac extracellular matrix. Basic Res Cardiol. 1998; 93 Suppl 3:4-7. Villarreal FJ, Bahnson T, Kim NN. PMID: 9879435.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    110. Phorbol myristate acetate-induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes is associated with decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2) gene expression and calcium reuptake. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996 Dec; 28(12):2467-77. Hartong R, Villarreal FJ, Giordano F, Hilal-Dandan R, McDonough PM, Dillmann WH. PMID: 9004163.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. An equibiaxial strain system for cultured cells. Am J Physiol. 1996 Oct; 271(4 Pt 1):C1400-8. Lee AA, Delhaas T, Waldman LK, MacKenna DA, Villarreal FJ, McCulloch AD. PMID: 8897847.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    112. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of human transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rat cardiac fibroblasts, myocytes and smooth muscle cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996 Apr; 28(4):735-42. Villarreal FJ, Lee AA, Dillmann WH, Giordano FJ. PMID: 8732501.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    113. Angiotensin II stimulates the autocrine production of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995 Oct; 27(10):2347-57. Lee AA, Dillmann WH, McCulloch AD, Villarreal FJ. PMID: 8576949.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    114. Trophic effects of angiotensin II on neonatal rat cardiac myocytes are mediated by cardiac fibroblasts. Am J Physiol. 1995 Sep; 269(3 Pt 1):E426-37. Kim NN, Villarreal FJ, Printz MP, Lee AA, Dillmann WH. PMID: 7573419.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    115. Myocardial remodeling in hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats. Hypertension. 1995 Jan; 25(1):98-104. Villarreal FJ, MacKenna DA, Omens JH, Dillmann WH. PMID: 7843762.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    116. Identification of functional angiotensin II receptors on rat cardiac fibroblasts. Circulation. 1993 Dec; 88(6):2849-61. Villarreal FJ, Kim NN, Ungab GD, Printz MP, Dillmann WH. PMID: 8252698.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    117. Cardiac hypertrophy-induced changes in mRNA levels for TGF-beta 1, fibronectin, and collagen. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun; 262(6 Pt 2):H1861-6. Villarreal FJ, Dillmann WH. PMID: 1535758.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 69     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    118. Transmural myocardial deformation in the ischemic canine left ventricle. Circ Res. 1991 Feb; 68(2):368-81. Villarreal FJ, Lew WY, Waldman LK, Covell JW. PMID: 1991344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    119. Finite strains in anterior and posterior wall of canine left ventricle. Am J Physiol. 1990 Nov; 259(5 Pt 2):H1409-18. Villarreal FJ, Lew WY. PMID: 2240241.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    120. Relation between transmural deformation and local myofiber direction in canine left ventricle. Circ Res. 1988 Sep; 63(3):550-62. Waldman LK, Nosan D, Villarreal F, Covell JW. PMID: 3409487.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    121. Technique for measuring regional two-dimensional finite strains in canine left ventricle. Circ Res. 1988 Apr; 62(4):711-21. Villarreal FJ, Waldman LK, Lew WY. PMID: 3349574.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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