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Stephen Bickler

TitleClinical Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentPediatrics
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0739
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone619-822-0061
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Stephen W. Bickler is a pediatric surgeon who has advanced fellowship training in pediatric surgery, tropical medicine and hygiene. As a pediatric surgeon at UCSD, he provides surgical care for children at Children’s Hospital and Health Center in San Diego. He was named one of San Diego’s Top Doctors in 2005, as selected by the San Diego County Medical Society in partnership with San Diego Magazine. Dr. Bickler has spent many years working as a pediatric surgeon in developing nations around the world. Recently he spent two and a half years in the Gambia in West Africa, where he was Consulting Pediatric Surgeon at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Banjul and the Medical Research Council Laboratories in Fajara. In 1999, he spent several months caring for children in a refugee camp with the International Medical Corps in Macedonia. He served as Attending Surgeon at the Red Cross Children’s Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, in 2004. He has also traveled to India, Pakistan, and Guyana as part of a team of plastic surgeons for Interplast, a nonprofit organization that provides free reconstructive surgery to children in developing countries.

    Dr. Bickler has published extensively and has traveled widely in the United States and around the world to present lectures on pediatric surgery, injury prevention, and methods for improving healthcare for children in developing countries. He works with the World Health Organization and other organizations devoted to bringing medical attention to children in need. His recent publications include an article on the impact of war on children in Africa and an analysis of possible reasons for the absence of Western health problems such as high blood pressure and diabetes in Third World communities where sanitation is poor.

    Dr. Bickler is certified by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Pediatric Surgery. As a UCSD pediatric surgeon, he conducts patient clinics and performs surgeries at Children’s Hospital and Health Center as well as at UCSD’s two medical centers in Hillcrest and La Jolla.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    The Universidade Eduardo Mondlane/UCSD Medical Education Partnership
    NIH/FIC R24TW008910Sep 27, 2010 - Aug 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Bickler S, Wang A, Amin S, Halbach J, Lizardo R, Cauvi DM, De Maio A. Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Declining Rates of Chronic and Recurrent Infection and Their Possible Role in the Origins of Non-communicable Diseases. World J Surg. 2018 Jun; 42(6):1617-1628. PMID: 29234849.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Liu Z, Cauvi DM, Bernardino EMA, Lara B, Lizardo RE, Hawisher D, Bickler S, De Maio A. Isolation and characterization of human urine extracellular vesicles. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2018 May 23. PMID: 29796787.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Bickler S. Squatting at pottying (or defecation if you like that better) and the origins of noncommunicable diseases. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Apr 07. PMID: 29731148.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Baxter MFA, Latorre JD, Koltes DA, Dridi S, Greene ES, Bickler S, Kim JH, Merino-Guzman R, Hernandez-Velasco X, Anthony NB, Bottje WG, Hargis BM, Tellez G. Assessment of a Nutritional Rehabilitation Model in Two Modern Broilers and Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model for Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition. Front Nutr. 2018; 5:18. PMID: 29629373.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Halbach JL, Wang AW, Hawisher D, Cauvi DM, Lizardo RE, Rosas J, Reyes T, Escobedo O, Bickler S, Coimbra R, De Maio A. Why Antibiotic Treatment Is Not Enough for Sepsis Resolution: an Evaluation in an Experimental Animal Model. Infect Immun. 2017 12; 85(12). PMID: 28947644.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Bickler S. Out of Africa: Insights from a prospective pediatric surgery database. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Oct 23. PMID: 29173776.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Haider A, Scott JW, Gause CD, Meheš M, Hsiung G, Prelvukaj A, Yanocha D, Baumann LM, Ahmed F, Ahmed N, Anderson S, Angate H, Arfaa L, Asbun H, Ashengo T, Asuman K, Ayala R, Bickler S, Billingsley S, Bird P, Botman M, Butler M, Buyske J, Capozzi A, Casey K, Clayton C, Cobey J, Cotton M, Deckelbaum D, Derbew M, deVries C, Dillner J, Downham M, Draisin N, Echinard D, Elneil S, ElSayed A, Estelle A, Finley A, Frenkel E, Frykman PK, Gheorghe F, Gore-Booth J, Henker R, Henry J, Henry O, Hoemeke L, Hoffman D, Ibanga I, Jackson EV, Jani P, Johnson W, Jones A, Kassem Z, Kisembo A, Kocan A, Krishnaswami S, Lane R, Latif A, Levy B, Linos D, Linz P, Listwa LA, Magee D, Makasa E, Marin ML, Martin C, McQueen K, Morgan J, Moser R, Neighbor R, Novick WM, Ogendo S, Omigbodun A, Onajin-Obembe B, Parsan N, Philip BK, Price R, Rasheed S, Ratel M, Reynolds C, Roser SM, Rowles J, Samad L, Sampson J, Sanghvi H, Sellers ML, Sigalet D, Steffes BC, Stieber E, Swaroop M, Tarpley J, Varghese A, Varughese J, Wagner R, Warf B, Wetzig N, Williamson S, Wood J, Zeidan A, Zirkle L, Allen B, Abdullah F. Erratum to: Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance). World J Surg. 2017 10; 41(10):2423-2425. PMID: 28642965.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Haider A, Scott JW, Gause CD, Meheš M, Hsiung G, Prelvukaj A, Yanocha D, Baumann LM, Ahmed F, Ahmed N, Anderson S, Angate H, Arfaa L, Asbun H, Ashengo T, Asuman K, Ayala R, Bickler S, Billingsley S, Bird P, Botman M, Butler M, Buyske J, Capozzi A, Casey K, Clayton C, Cobey J, Cotton M, Deckelbaum D, Derbew M, deVries C, Dillner J, Downham M, Draisin N, Echinard D, Elneil S, ElSayed A, Estelle A, Finley A, Frenkel E, Frykman PK, Gheorghe F, Gore-Booth J, Henker R, Henry J, Henry O, Hoemeke L, Hoffman D, Ibanga I, Jackson EV, Jani P, Johnson W, Jones A, Kassem Z, Kisembo A, Kocan A, Krishnaswami S, Lane R, Latif A, Levy B, Linos D, Linz P, Listwa LA, Magee D, Makasa E, Marin ML, Martin C, McQueen K, Morgan J, Moser R, Neighbor R, Novick WM, Ogendo S, Omigbodun A, Onajin-Obembe B, Parsan N, Philip BK, Price R, Rasheed S, Ratel M, Reynolds C, Roser SM, Rowles J, Samad L, Sampson J, Sanghvi H, Sellers ML, Sigalet D, Steffes BC, Stieber E, Swaroop M, Tarpley J, Varghese A, Varughese J, Wagner R, Warf B, Wetzig N, Williamson S, Wood J, Zeidan A, Zirkle L, Allen B, Abdullah F. Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance). World J Surg. 2017 10; 41(10):2426-2434. PMID: 28508237.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ward EP, Wang A, Thangarajah H, Lazar D, Bickler S, Fairbanks T, Kling KM. Preemptive Ladd Procedure in congenital diaphragmatic hernia and Abdominal Wall defects does not reduce the risk of future volvulus. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Dec; 52(12):1956-1961. PMID: 28966009.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Langness S, Ward E, Halbach J, Lizardo R, Davenport K, Bickler S, Kling K, Thangarajah H, Grabowski J, Fairbanks T. Plasma D-dimer safely reduces unnecessary CT scans obtained in the evaluation of pediatric head trauma. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Apr; 53(4):752-757. PMID: 29555324.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Goodman LF, St-Louis E, Yousef Y, Cheung M, Ure B, Ozgediz D, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Poenaru D, Oldham K, Farmer D, Lakhoo K. The Global Initiative for Children's Surgery: Optimal Resources for Improving Care. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Feb; 28(1):51-59. PMID: 28806850.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Raykar NP, Ng-Kamstra JS, Bickler S, Davies J, Greenberg SLM, Hagander L, Johnson W, Leather AJM, McQueen KAK, Mukhopadhyay S, Suzuki E, Weiser T, Shrime MG, G Meara J. New global surgical and anaesthesia indicators in the World Development Indicators dataset. BMJ Glob Health. 2017; 2(2):e000265. PMID: 29225929.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Wigby K, Twigg SRF, Broderick R, Davenport KP, Wilkie AOM, Bickler S, Jones MC. Gastrointestinal disorders in Curry-Jones syndrome: Clinical and molecular insights from an affected newborn. Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Jun; 173(6):1586-1592. PMID: 28386950.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Halbach J, Ward E, Langness S, Davenport K, Bickler S, Fairbanks T, Kling K. Gallbladder Polyps in Children: A Painful Inflammatory Process. Am Surg. 2017 04 01; 83(4):e140-142. PMID: 28424121.
      View in: PubMed
    15. McQueen KA, Coonan T, Derbew M, Tangi V, Bickler S, Banguti P, Gruen R, Watters D. The 2015 Bangkok Global Surgery Declaration: A Call to the Global Health Community to Promote Implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution for Surgery and Anaesthesia Care. World J Surg. 2017 01; 41(1):7-9. PMID: 27600709.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Bickler S, Lizardo E, Cauvi DM, De Maio A. The transition from a rural to an urban environment in Africa alters G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Med Hypotheses. 2016 Oct; 95:49-53. PMID: 27692166.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Halbach J, Bickler S, De Maio A. The Molecular Complexity of Sepsis: Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-a, the Tip of the Iceberg? Crit Care Med. 2016 Aug; 44(8):1617-8. PMID: 27428127.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Raykar N, Mukhopadhyay S, Ng-Kamstra JS, Lin Y, Saluja S, Scott JW, Anderson G, Meara JG, Tefera G, Bickler S. Progress in achieving universal access to surgical care: An update and a path forward. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2016 Jun; 101(6):12-8. PMID: 27405180.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Chou R, Gordon DB, de Leon-Casasola OA, Rosenberg JM, Bickler S, Brennan T, Carter T, Cassidy CL, Chittenden EH, Degenhardt E, Griffith S, Manworren R, McCarberg B, Montgomery R, Murphy J, Perkal MF, Suresh S, Sluka K, Strassels S, Thirlby R, Viscusi E, Walco GA, Warner L, Weisman SJ, Wu CL. Management of Postoperative Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Committee on Regional Anesthesia, Executive Committee, and Administrative Council. J Pain. 2016 Feb; 17(2):131-57. PMID: 26827847.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Bendix PG, Anderson JE, Rose JA, Noormahomed EV, Bickler S. Improving surgical systems in low- and middle-income countries: an inclusive framework for monitoring and evaluation. Int Health. 2015 Nov; 7(6):380-3. PMID: 26553824; PMCID: PMC4757928 [Available on 11/01/16].
    21. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Lundeg G, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2016 Feb; 25:75-8. PMID: 26597405.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Greenberg SL, Ng-Kamstra JS, Ameh EA, Ozgediz DE, Poenaru D, Bickler S. An investment in knowledge: Research in global pediatric surgery for the 21st century. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2016 Feb; 25(1):51-60. PMID: 26831138.
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    23. Farmer DL, Bickler S. Preface. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2016 Feb; 25(1):1-2. PMID: 26831130.
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    24. Uribe-Leitz T, Esquivel MM, Molina G, Lipsitz SR, Verguet S, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Projections for Achieving the Lancet Commission Recommended Surgical Rate of 5000 Operations per 100,000 Population by Region-Specific Surgical Rate Estimates. World J Surg. 2015 Sep; 39(9):2168-72. PMID: 26067635.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Esquivel MM, Molina G, Uribe-Leitz T, Lipsitz SR, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Proposed Minimum Rates of Surgery to Support Desirable Health Outcomes: An Observational Study Based on Three Strategies. World J Surg. 2015 Sep; 39(9):2126-31. PMID: 25968342.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Spiegel DA, Misra M, Bendix P, Hagander L, Bickler S, Saleh CO, Ekeke-Monono M, Baah-Odoom D, Caldwell A, Irons B, Amir S, Taylor R, Layne M, Hailu H, Awais SM, Price RR, Crockett S, Islam M. Surgical Care and Health Systems. World J Surg. 2015 Sep; 39(9):2132-9. PMID: 25561195.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Lizardo RE, Langness S, Davenport KP, Kling K, Fairbanks T, Bickler S, Grabowski J. Ketorolac does not reduce effectiveness of pleurodesis in pediatric patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Dec; 50(12):2035-7. PMID: 26385568.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Hider P, Wilson L, Rose J, Weiser TG, Gruen R, Bickler S. The role of facility-based surgical services in addressing the national burden of disease in New Zealand: An index of surgical incidence based on country-specific disease prevalence. Surgery. 2015 Jul; 158(1):44-54. PMID: 25979439.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Lundeg G, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Sep; 213(3):338-40. PMID: 25985722.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Ganbold L, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: Evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Surgery. 2015 Jul; 158(1):3-6. PMID: 25987187.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Alkire BC, Raykar NP, Shrime MG, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Rose JA, Nutt CT, Greenberg SL, Kotagal M, Riesel JN, Esquivel M, Uribe-Leitz T, Molina G, Roy N, Meara JG, Farmer PE. Global access to surgical care: a modelling study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Jun; 3(6):e316-23. PMID: 25926087; PMCID: PMC4820251.
    32. Shrime MG, Bickler S, Alkire BC, Mock C. Global burden of surgical disease: an estimation from the provider perspective. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Apr 27; 3 Suppl 2:S8-9. PMID: 25926322.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Verguet S, Alkire BC, Bickler S, Lauer JA, Uribe-Leitz T, Molina G, Weiser TG, Yamey G, Shrime MG. Timing and cost of scaling up surgical services in low-income and middle-income countries from 2012 to 2030: a modelling study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Apr 27; 3 Suppl 2:S28-37. PMID: 25926318.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Rose J, Weiser TG, Hider P, Wilson L, Gruen RL, Bickler S. Estimated need for surgery worldwide based on prevalence of diseases: a modelling strategy for the WHO Global Health Estimate. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Apr 27; 3 Suppl 2:S13-20. PMID: 25926315.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Lundeg G, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Lancet. 2015 Aug 08; 386(9993):569-624. PMID: 25924834.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Hider P, Wilson L, Rose J, Weiser TG, Gruen R, Bickler S. The role of facility-based surgical services in addressing the national burden of disease in New Zealand: an index of surgical incidence based on country-specific disease prevalence. Lancet. 2015 Apr 27; 385 Suppl 2:S25. PMID: 26313072.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Esquivel MM, Molina G, Uribe-Leitz T, Lipsitz SR, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Proposed minimum rates of surgery to support desirable health outcomes: an observational study based on four strategies. Lancet. 2015 Apr 27; 385 Suppl 2:S12. PMID: 26313058.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Uribe-Leitz T, Esquivel MM, Molina G, Lipsitz SR, Verguet S, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Projections to achieve minimum surgical rate threshold: an observational study. Lancet. 2015 Apr 27; 385 Suppl 2:S14. PMID: 26313060.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Higashi H, Barendregt JJ, Kassebaum NJ, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Vos T. Surgically avertable burden of obstetric conditions in low- and middle-income regions: a modelled analysis. BJOG. 2015 Jan; 122(2):228-36. PMID: 25546047.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Rose J, Bendix P, Funzamo C, Vaz F, da Costa AA, Bickler S, Noormahomed EV. Universities form research partnership to improve care in Mozambique. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2015 Jan; 100(1):27-34. PMID: 25626263.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Higashi H, Barendregt JJ, Kassebaum NJ, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Vos T. Burden of injuries avertable by a basic surgical package in low- and middle-income regions: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. World J Surg. 2015 Jan; 39(1):1-9. PMID: 25008243; PMCID: PMC4273085.
    42. Bickler S, Lizardo RE, De Maio A. The transition from a rural to an urban environment alters expression of the human Ebola virus receptor Neiman-Pick C1: implications for the current epidemic in West Africa. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2015 Mar; 20(2):203-6. PMID: 25477151; PMCID: PMC4326391.
    43. Higashi H, Barendregt JJ, Kassebaum NJ, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Vos T. Surgically avertable burden of digestive diseases at first-level hospitals in low and middle-income regions. Surgery. 2015 Mar; 157(3):411-9; discussion 420-2. PMID: 25444219.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Higashi H, Barendregt JJ, Kassebaum NJ, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Vos T. The burden of selected congenital anomalies amenable to surgery in low and middle-income regions: cleft lip and palate, congenital heart anomalies and neural tube defects. Arch Dis Child. 2015 Mar; 100(3):233-8. PMID: 25260520.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Faierman ML, Anderson JE, Assane A, Bendix P, Vaz F, Rose JA, Funzamo C, Bickler S, Noormahomed EV. Surgical patients travel longer distances than non-surgical patients to receive care at a rural hospital in Mozambique. Int Health. 2015 Jan; 7(1):60-6. PMID: 25135818; PMCID: PMC4303773.
    46. Anderson JE, Rose J, Noorbakhsh A, Talamini MA, Finlayson SR, Bickler S, Chang DC. An efficient risk adjustment model to predict inpatient adverse events after surgery. World J Surg. 2014 Aug; 38(8):1954-60. PMID: 24615608.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Bickler S, Funzamo C, Rose J, Assane A, Cassocera P, Vaz F, Assis A, Noormahomed EV. Building surgical research capacity in Mozambique. Acad Med. 2014 Aug; 89(8 Suppl):S107. PMID: 25072559; PMCID: PMC4257493.
    48. Anderson JE, Erickson A, Funzamo C, Bendix P, Assane A, Rose J, Vaz F, Noormahomed EV, Bickler S. Surgical conditions account for the majority of admissions to three primary referral hospitals in rural Mozambique. World J Surg. 2014 Apr; 38(4):823-9. PMID: 24346631; PMCID: PMC4257602.
    49. Rose J, Chang DC, Weiser TG, Kassebaum NJ, Bickler S. The role of surgery in global health: analysis of United States inpatient procedure frequency by condition using the Global Burden of Disease 2010 framework. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89693. PMID: 24586967; PMCID: PMC3935922.
    50. Noormahomed EV, Mocumbi AO, Preziosi M, Damasceno A, Bickler S, Smith DM, Funzamo C, Aronoff-Spencer E, Badaró R, Mabila F, Bila D, Nguenha A, Do Rosário V, Benson CA, Schooley RT, Patel S, Ferrão LJ, Carrilho C. Strengthening research capacity through the medical education partnership initiative: the Mozambique experience. Hum Resour Health. 2013 Dec 05; 11:62. PMID: 24304706; PMCID: PMC3895849.
    51. Bickler S, McQueen K. Proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of the Alliance for Surgery and Anesthesia Presence (ASAP): building sustainable surgical systems. World J Surg. 2013 Jul; 37(7):1460-1. PMID: 23592056; PMCID: PMC4377506.
    52. Spiegel DA, Abdullah F, Price RR, Gosselin RA, Bickler S. World Health Organization Global Initiative for Emergency and Essential Surgical Care: 2011 and beyond. World J Surg. 2013 Jul; 37(7):1462-9. PMID: 23150072; PMCID: PMC4263501.
    53. Bickler S, De Maio A. Dysfunction of the innate immune system during sepsis: a call for research. Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan; 41(1):364-5. PMID: 23269155.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Ramirez M, Chang DC, Bickler S. Pediatric injury outcomes in racial/ethnic minorities in California: diversity may reduce disparity. JAMA Surg. 2013 Jan; 148(1):76-80. PMID: 22986983.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Anderson JE, Bickler S, Chang DC, Talamini MA. Examining a common disease with unknown etiology: trends in epidemiology and surgical management of appendicitis in California, 1995-2009. World J Surg. 2012 Dec; 36(12):2787-94. PMID: 22948195.
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    56. Anderson JE, Lassiter R, Bickler S, Talamini MA, Chang DC. Brief tool to measure risk-adjusted surgical outcomes in resource-limited hospitals. Arch Surg. 2012 Sep; 147(9):798-803. PMID: 22987164; PMCID: PMC4282492.
    57. Drummond R, Cauvi DM, Hawisher D, Song D, Niño DF, Coimbra R, Bickler S, De Maio A. Deletion of scavenger receptor A gene in mice resulted in protection from septic shock and modulation of TLR4 signaling in isolated peritoneal macrophages. Innate Immun. 2013 Feb; 19(1):30-41. PMID: 22751446; PMCID: PMC4349423.
    58. Cauvi DM, Song D, Vazquez DE, Hawisher D, Bermudez JA, Williams MR, Bickler S, Coimbra R, De Maio A. Period of irreversible therapeutic intervention during sepsis correlates with phase of innate immune dysfunction. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jun 08; 287(24):19804-15. PMID: 22518839; PMCID: PMC3370166.
    59. Castle S, Suliman A, Shayan K, Kling K, Bickler S, Losasso B. Total colonic aganglionosis with skip lesions: report of a rare case and management. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Mar; 47(3):581-4. PMID: 22424357.
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    60. Lazar DA, Cohen SA, Evora DK, Losasso BE, Bickler S. Cecal bascule in a child: an unusual cause of postoperative bowel obstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Mar; 47(3):609-11. PMID: 22424364.
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    61. Chang DC, Anderson JE, Kobayashi L, Coimbra R, Bickler S. Projected lifetime risks and hospital care expenditure for traumatic injury. J Surg Res. 2012 Aug; 176(2):567-70. PMID: 22261584.
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    62. Bickler S, Ring J, De Maio A. Sulfur amino acid metabolism limits the growth of children living in environments of poor sanitation. Med Hypotheses. 2011 Sep; 77(3):380-2. PMID: 21658846.
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    63. Iddriss A, Shivute N, Bickler S, Cole-Ceesay R, Jargo B, Abdullah F, Cherian M. Emergency, anaesthetic and essential surgical capacity in the Gambia. Bull World Health Organ. 2011 Aug 01; 89(8):565-72. PMID: 21836755; PMCID: PMC3150766.
    64. Grabowski J, Vazquez DE, Costantini T, Cauvi DM, Charles W, Bickler S, Talamini MA, Vega VL, Coimbra R, De Maio A. Tumor necrosis factor expression is ameliorated after exposure to an acidic environment. J Surg Res. 2012 Mar; 173(1):127-34. PMID: 20888586; PMCID: PMC3017641.
    65. Osen HB, Chang DC, Bickler S. Risk-adjusted outcomes database as a tool to promote horizontal integration of surgical systems in low- and middle-income countries. J Am Coll Surg. 2010 Aug; 211(2):296-7. PMID: 20670876.
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    66. Mock C, Cherian M, Juillard C, Donkor P, Bickler S, Jamison D, McQueen K. Developing priorities for addressing surgical conditions globally: furthering the link between surgery and public health policy. World J Surg. 2010 Mar; 34(3):381-5. PMID: 19876689.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Bickler S, Ozgediz D, Gosselin R, Weiser T, Spiegel D, Hsia R, Dunbar P, McQueen K, Jamison D. Key concepts for estimating the burden of surgical conditions and the unmet need for surgical care. World J Surg. 2010 Mar; 34(3):374-80. PMID: 19862570; PMCID: PMC2816802.
    68. Bickler S, Spiegel D. Improving surgical care in low- and middle-income countries: a pivotal role for the World Health Organization. World J Surg. 2010 Mar; 34(3):386-90. PMID: 19876687; PMCID: PMC2816819.
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    73. Numanoglu A, Bickler S, Rode H, Bosenberg AT. Meningococcal septicaemia complications involving skin and underlying deeper tissues--management considerations and outcome. S Afr J Surg. 2007 Nov; 45(4):142-6. PMID: 18069582.
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    74. Bickler S, Alexander A, Pitcher RD, Wieselthaler N, Rode H. Iatrogenic pneumatosis intestinalis and pneumatosis hepatis. S Afr Med J. 2007 Feb; 97(2):98-9. PMID: 17404666.
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    75. Albertyn R, Bickler S, Rode H. Paediatric burn injuries in Sub Saharan Africa--an overview. Burns. 2006 Aug; 32(5):605-12. PMID: 16713683.
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    76. Bickler S. Tropical enteropathy protects against Western diseases in environments of poor sanitation. Med Hypotheses. 2006; 67(1):146-50. PMID: 16545527.
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    77. Bickler S. Pediatric surgery in the developing world. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Dec; 40(12):1969-70. PMID: 16338330.
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    78. Shen C, Sanno-Duanda B, Bickler S. Pediatric trauma at a government referral hospital in The Gambia. West Afr J Med. 2003 Dec; 22(4):287-90. PMID: 15008289.
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    79. Albertyn R, Bickler S, van As AB, Millar AJ, Rode H. The effects of war on children in Africa. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003 Jun; 19(4):227-32. PMID: 12720029.
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    80. Akano A, Bickler S. Pineal gland calcification in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Radiol. 2003 Apr; 58(4):336-7. PMID: 12662960.
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    81. Bickler S, Telfer ML, Sanno-Duanda B. Need for paediatric surgery care in an urban area of The Gambia. Trop Doct. 2003 Apr; 33(2):91-4. PMID: 12680542.
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    82. Bickler S, Rode H. Surgical services for children in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2002; 80(10):829-35. PMID: 12471405; PMCID: PMC2567648.
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    84. Bickler S, Sanno-Duanda B. Bone setter's gangrene. J Pediatr Surg. 2000 Oct; 35(10):1431-3. PMID: 11051143.
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    85. Bickler S. Non-communicable diseases: is their emergence in industrialized societies related to changes in neuroendocrine function? Med Hypotheses. 2000 May; 54(5):825-8. PMID: 10859694.
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    86. Bickler S, Sanno-Duanda B. Epidemiology of paediatric surgical admissions to a government referral hospital in the Gambia. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(11):1330-6. PMID: 11143193; PMCID: PMC2560634.
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    88. Gentile AT, Bickler S, Harrison MW, Campbell JR. Common bile duct obstruction related to intestinal polyposis in a child with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 Dec; 29(12):1584-7. PMID: 7877037.
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    89. Bickler S, McMahon TJ, Campbell JR, Mandel S, Piatt JH, Harrison MW. Preoperative diagnostic evaluation of children with Cushing's syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 May; 29(5):671-6. PMID: 8035281.
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    90. Bickler S, Harrison MW, Campbell JR. Perforated peptic ulcer disease in children: association of corticosteroid therapy. J Pediatr Surg. 1993 Jun; 28(6):785-7. PMID: 7687287.
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    91. Bickler S, Harrison MW, Campbell TJ, Campbell JR. Long-segment Hirschsprung's disease. Arch Surg. 1992 Sep; 127(9):1047-50; discussion 1050-1. PMID: 1514906.
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    92. Bickler S, Harrison MW, Blank E, Campbell JR. Microperforation of a duodenal diaphragm as a cause of paradoxical gas in congenital duodenal obstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 1992 Jun; 27(6):747-9. PMID: 1501037.
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