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George Liu

Title(s)Clinical Professor, Pediatrics
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-246-5830
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Pathogenic and protective roles of strain-specific P. acnes hyaluronidases in acne
    NIH/NIAID R01AI141401Jul 18, 2019 - Jun 30, 2024
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Impact of P. acnes hyaluronidases on acne pathogenesis
    NIH/NIAID R21AI138053Jun 1, 2018 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Generating protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus
    NIH/NIAID R01AI127406Jun 26, 2017 - May 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Nicotinamide-An Immune-Boosting Agent to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens
    NIH/NIAID R21AI112812Jul 4, 2014 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bacterial Manipulation of Host Hyaluronan Degradation for Immune Evasion
    NIH/NIAID R21AI103839May 15, 2013 - Apr 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Impact of Antibiotics and PBP2a on the Immunopathology of MRSA pneumonia
    NIH/NIAID R21AI097741Jul 1, 2012 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Antioxidant-based mechanisms used by staphyloccocus aureus to evade host defenses
    NIH/NIAID R01AI074832Sep 15, 2007 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Donegan NP, Manna AC, Tseng CW, Liu GY, Cheung AL. CspA regulation of Staphylococcus aureus carotenoid levels and sB activity is controlled by YjbH and Spx. Mol Microbiol. 2019 May 10. PMID: 31074903.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kolar SL, Tsai CM, Torres J, Fan X, Li H, Liu GY. Propionibacterium acnes-induced immunopathology correlates with health and disease association. JCI Insight. 2019 Mar 07; 4(5). PMID: 30843879.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Das MM, Godoy M, Chen S, Moser VA, Avalos P, Roxas KM, Dang I, Yáñez A, Zhang W, Bresee C, Arditi M, Liu GY, Svendsen CN, Goodridge HS. Young bone marrow transplantation preserves learning and memory in old mice. Commun Biol. 2019; 2:73. PMID: 30820468.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Mikheyeva IV, Thomas JM, Kolar SL, Corvaglia AR, Ga?a N, Leo S, Francois P, Liu GY, Rawat M, Cheung AL. YpdA, a putative bacillithiol disulfide reductase, contributes to cellular redox homeostasis and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 2019 Apr; 111(4):1039-1056. PMID: 30636083.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Khan Z, Cao DY, Giani JF, Bernstein EA, Veiras LC, Fuchs S, Wang Y, Peng Z, Kalkum M, Liu GY, Bernstein KE. Overexpression of the C-domain of angiotensin-converting enzyme reduces melanoma growth by stimulating M1 macrophage polarization. J Biol Chem. 2019 Mar 22; 294(12):4368-4380. PMID: 30670595.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Thomsen IP, Liu GY. Targeting fundamental pathways to disrupt Staphylococcus aureus survival: clinical implications of recent discoveries. JCI Insight. 2018 03 08; 3(5). PMID: 29515041.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Sanchez M, Kolar SL, Müller S, Reyes CN, Wolf AJ, Ogawa C, Singhania R, De Carvalho DD, Arditi M, Underhill DM, Martins GA, Liu GY. O-Acetylation of Peptidoglycan Limits Helper T Cell Priming and Permits Staphylococcus aureus Reinfection. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Oct 11; 22(4):543-551.e4. PMID: 28943328.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Khan Z, Shen XZ, Bernstein EA, Giani JF, Eriguchi M, Zhao TV, Gonzalez-Villalobos RA, Fuchs S, Liu GY, Bernstein KE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme enhances the oxidative response and bactericidal activity of neutrophils. Blood. 2017 07 20; 130(3):328-339. PMID: 28515091.
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    9. Kolar SL, Liu GY. RAS and ROS-A Story of Pseudomonas Survival. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 May 10; 21(5):551-552. PMID: 28494232.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Kaplan A, Lee MW, Wolf AJ, Limon JJ, Becker CA, Ding M, Murali R, Lee EY, Liu GY, Wong GCL, Underhill DM. Direct Antimicrobial Activity of IFN-ß. J Immunol. 2017 05 15; 198(10):4036-4045. PMID: 28411186.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Kolar SL, Liu GY. Targeting Bacterial Abscess Formation. EBioMedicine. 2016 Oct; 12:16-17. PMID: 27765641.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Wolf AJ, Liu GY, Underhill DM. Inflammatory properties of antibiotic-treated bacteria. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 01; 101(1):127-134. PMID: 27576461.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Kolar SL, Kyme P, Tseng CW, Soliman A, Kaplan A, Liang J, Nizet V, Jiang D, Murali R, Arditi M, Underhill DM, Liu GY. Group B Streptococcus Evades Host Immunity by Degrading Hyaluronan. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Dec 09; 18(6):694-704. PMID: 26651945; PMCID: PMC4683412 [Available on 12/09/16].
    14. Tseng CW, Biancotti JC, Berg BL, Gate D, Kolar SL, Müller S, Rodriguez MD, Rezai-Zadeh K, Fan X, Beenhouwer DO, Town T, Liu GY. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015; 11(11):e1005292. PMID: 26618545.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Müller S, Wolf AJ, Iliev ID, Berg BL, Underhill DM, Liu GY. Poorly Cross-Linked Peptidoglycan in MRSA Due to mecA Induction Activates the Inflammasome and Exacerbates Immunopathology. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Nov 11; 18(5):604-12. PMID: 26567511; PMCID: PMC4648675 [Available on 11/11/16].
    16. Jones HD, Yoo J, Crother TR, Kyme P, Ben-Shlomo A, Khalafi R, Tseng CW, Parks WC, Arditi M, Liu GY, Shimada K. Correction: Nicotinamide exacerbates hypoxemia in ventilator-induced lung injury independent of neutrophil infiltration. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0128735. PMID: 25996479; PMCID: PMC4440726.
    17. Jones HD, Yoo J, Crother TR, Kyme P, Ben-Shlomo A, Khalafi R, Tseng CW, Parks WC, Arditi M, Liu GY, Shimada K. Nicotinamide exacerbates hypoxemia in ventilator-induced lung injury independent of neutrophil infiltration. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123460. PMID: 25875775.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Tseng CW, Liu GY. Expanding roles of neutrophils in aging hosts. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Aug; 29:43-8. PMID: 24776646.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Posada AC, Kolar SL, Dusi RG, Francois P, Roberts AA, Hamilton CJ, Liu GY, Cheung A. Importance of bacillithiol in the oxidative stress response of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2014 Jan; 82(1):316-32. PMID: 24166956.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Okamoto R, Gery S, Kuwayama Y, Borregaard N, Ho Q, Alvarez R, Akagi T, Liu GY, Uskokovic MR, Koeffler HP. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs: large structure/function analysis and ability to induce antimicrobial peptide. Int J Cancer. 2014 Jan 01; 134(1):207-17. PMID: 23775785.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Yáñez A, Hassanzadeh-Kiabi N, Ng MY, Megías J, Subramanian A, Liu GY, Underhill DM, Gil ML, Goodridge HS. Detection of a TLR2 agonist by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells impacts the function of the macrophages they produce. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Aug; 43(8):2114-25. PMID: 23661549; PMCID: PMC3783206.
    22. Miyasaki Y, Rabenstein JD, Rhea J, Crouch ML, Mocek UM, Kittell PE, Morgan MA, Nichols WS, Van Benschoten MM, Hardy WD, Liu GY. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61594. PMID: 23630600.
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    23. Kaplan A, Ma J, Kyme P, Wolf AJ, Becker CA, Tseng CW, Liu GY, Underhill DM. Failure to induce IFN-ß production during Staphylococcus aureus infection contributes to pathogenicity. J Immunol. 2012 Nov 01; 189(9):4537-45. PMID: 23008447; PMCID: PMC3478442.
    24. Kyme P, Thoennissen NH, Tseng CW, Thoennissen GB, Wolf AJ, Shimada K, Krug UO, Lee K, Müller-Tidow C, Berdel WE, Hardy WD, Gombart AF, Koeffler HP, Liu GY. C/EBPe mediates nicotinamide-enhanced clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012 Sep; 122(9):3316-29. PMID: 22922257.
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    25. Tseng CW, Kyme PA, Arruda A, Ramanujan VK, Tawackoli W, Liu GY. Innate immune dysfunctions in aged mice facilitate the systemic dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41454. PMID: 22844481.
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    26. Bebien M, Hensler ME, Davanture S, Hsu LC, Karin M, Park JM, Alexopoulou L, Liu GY, Nizet V, Lawrence T. The pore-forming toxin ß hemolysin/cytolysin triggers p38 MAPK-dependent IL-10 production in macrophages and inhibits innate immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(7):e1002812. PMID: 22829768; PMCID: PMC3400567.
    27. Sande L, Sanchez M, Montes J, Wolf AJ, Morgan MA, Omri A, Liu GY. Liposomal encapsulation of vancomycin improves killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a murine infection model. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep; 67(9):2191-4. PMID: 22661572.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Park B, Liu GY. Targeting the host-pathogen interface for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Semin Immunopathol. 2012 Mar; 34(2):299-315. PMID: 22089960.
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    29. Wolf AJ, Arruda A, Reyes CN, Kaplan AT, Shimada T, Shimada K, Arditi M, Liu G, Underhill DM. Phagosomal degradation increases TLR access to bacterial ligands and enhances macrophage sensitivity to bacteria. J Immunol. 2011 Dec 01; 187(11):6002-10. PMID: 22031762.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Park B, Iwase T, Liu GY. Intranasal application of S. epidermidis prevents colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in mice. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25880. PMID: 21998712.
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    31. Desai R, Pannaraj PS, Agopian J, Sugar CA, Liu GY, Miller LG. Survival and transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from fomites. Am J Infect Control. 2011 Apr; 39(3):219-25. PMID: 21458684.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Tseng CW, Sanchez-Martinez M, Arruda A, Liu GY. Subcutaneous infection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J Vis Exp. 2011 Feb 09; (48). PMID: 21339727.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Mishra NN, Liu GY, Yeaman MR, Nast CC, Proctor RA, McKinnell J, Bayer AS. Carotenoid-related alteration of cell membrane fluidity impacts Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to host defense peptides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Feb; 55(2):526-31. PMID: 21115796; PMCID: PMC3028772.
    34. Okwan-Duodu D, Datta V, Shen XZ, Goodridge HS, Bernstein EA, Fuchs S, Liu GY, Bernstein KE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme overexpression in mouse myelomonocytic cells augments resistance to Listeria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec 10; 285(50):39051-60. PMID: 20937811.
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    35. Diep BA, Chan L, Tattevin P, Kajikawa O, Martin TR, Basuino L, Mai TT, Marbach H, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Gardner DJ, Fan X, Tseng CW, Liu GY, Badiou C, Etienne J, Lina G, Matthay MA, DeLeo FR, Chambers HF. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 23; 107(12):5587-92. PMID: 20231457; PMCID: PMC2851770.
    36. Shimada T, Park BG, Wolf AJ, Brikos C, Goodridge HS, Becker CA, Reyes CN, Miao EA, Aderem A, Götz F, Liu GY, Underhill DM. Staphylococcus aureus evades lysozyme-based peptidoglycan digestion that links phagocytosis, inflammasome activation, and IL-1beta secretion. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Jan 21; 7(1):38-49. PMID: 20114027; PMCID: PMC2818986.
    37. Lehman D, Tseng CW, Eells S, Miller LG, Fan X, Beenhouwer DO, Liu GY. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin targets muscle tissues in a child with myositis and necrotizing fasciitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 01; 50(1):69-72. PMID: 19995216.
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    38. Liu GY, Nizet V. Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors. Trends Microbiol. 2009 Sep; 17(9):406-13. PMID: 19726196; PMCID: PMC2743764.
    39. Tseng CW, Kyme P, Low J, Rocha MA, Alsabeh R, Miller LG, Otto M, Arditi M, Diep BA, Nizet V, Doherty TM, Beenhouwer DO, Liu GY. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin contributes to inflammation and muscle tissue injury. PLoS One. 2009 Jul 27; 4(7):e6387. PMID: 19633710.
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    40. Song Y, Liu CI, Lin FY, No JH, Hensler M, Liu YL, Jeng WY, Low J, Liu GY, Nizet V, Wang AH, Oldfield E. Inhibition of staphyloxanthin virulence factor biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro, in vivo, and crystallographic results. J Med Chem. 2009 Jul 09; 52(13):3869-80. PMID: 19456099.
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    41. Liu GY. Molecular pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5 Pt 2):71R-77R. PMID: 19190527.
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    42. Kaplan A, Chung K, Kocak H, Bertolotto C, Uh A, Hobel CJ, Simmons CF, Doran K, Liu GY, Equils O. Group B streptococcus induces trophoblast death. Microb Pathog. 2008 Sep; 45(3):231-5. PMID: 18599257; PMCID: PMC2610016.
    43. Liu CI, Liu GY, Song Y, Yin F, Hensler ME, Jeng WY, Nizet V, Wang AH, Oldfield E. A cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor blocks Staphylococcus aureus virulence. Science. 2008 Mar 07; 319(5868):1391-4. PMID: 18276850; PMCID: PMC2747771.
    44. Park B, Nizet V, Liu GY. Role of Staphylococcus aureus catalase in niche competition against Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 2008 Apr; 190(7):2275-8. PMID: 18223076; PMCID: PMC2293205.
    45. Maisey HC, Quach D, Hensler ME, Liu GY, Gallo RL, Nizet V, Doran KS. A group B streptococcal pilus protein promotes phagocyte resistance and systemic virulence. FASEB J. 2008 Jun; 22(6):1715-24. PMID: 18198218; PMCID: PMC2721339.
    46. Kristian SA, Timmer AM, Liu GY, Lauth X, Sal-Man N, Rosenfeld Y, Shai Y, Gallo RL, Nizet V. Impairment of innate immune killing mechanisms by bacteriostatic antibiotics. FASEB J. 2007 Apr; 21(4):1107-16. PMID: 17215486.
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    47. Buchanan JT, Simpson AJ, Aziz RK, Liu GY, Kristian SA, Kotb M, Feramisco J, Nizet V. DNase expression allows the pathogen group A Streptococcus to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps. Curr Biol. 2006 Feb 21; 16(4):396-400. PMID: 16488874.
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    48. Liu GY, Essex A, Buchanan JT, Datta V, Hoffman HM, Bastian JF, Fierer J, Nizet V. Staphylococcus aureus golden pigment impairs neutrophil killing and promotes virulence through its antioxidant activity. J Exp Med. 2005 Jul 18; 202(2):209-15. PMID: 16009720.
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    49. Lawrence T, Bebien M, Liu GY, Nizet V, Karin M. IKKalpha limits macrophage NF-kappaB activation and contributes to the resolution of inflammation. Nature. 2005 Apr 28; 434(7037):1138-43. PMID: 15858576.
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    50. Hensler ME, Liu GY, Sobczak S, Benirschke K, Nizet V, Heldt GP. Virulence role of group B Streptococcus beta-hemolysin/cytolysin in a neonatal rabbit model of early-onset pulmonary infection. J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 15; 191(8):1287-91. PMID: 15776375.
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    51. Liu GY, Doran KS, Lawrence T, Turkson N, Puliti M, Tissi L, Nizet V. Sword and shield: linked group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin and carotenoid pigment function to subvert host phagocyte defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Oct 05; 101(40):14491-6. PMID: 15381763; PMCID: PMC521972.
    52. Liu GY, Nizet V. Extracellular virulence factors of group B Streptococci. Front Biosci. 2004 May 01; 9:1794-802. PMID: 14977587.
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    53. Doran KS, Liu GY, Nizet V. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin activates neutrophil signaling pathways in brain endothelium and contributes to development of meningitis. J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep; 112(5):736-44. PMID: 12952922; PMCID: PMC182187.
    54. Burkhart C, Liu GY, Anderton SM, Metzler B, Wraith DC. Peptide-induced T cell regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a role for IL-10. Int Immunol. 1999 Oct; 11(10):1625-34. PMID: 10508180.
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    55. Burkhart C, Liu G, Metzler B, Wraith DC. Modulation of cytokine production following intranasal administration of antigenic peptide. Transplant Proc. 1998 Dec; 30(8):4186-7. PMID: 9865341.
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    56. Anderton SM, Burkhart C, Liu GY, Metzler B, Wraith DC. Antigen-specific tolerance induction and the immunotherapy of experimental autoimmune disease. Novartis Found Symp. 1998; 215:120-31; discussion 131-6, 186-90. PMID: 9760575.
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    57. Liu GY, Fairchild PJ, Smith RM, Prowle JR, Kioussis D, Wraith DC. Low avidity recognition of self-antigen by T cells permits escape from central tolerance. Immunity. 1995 Oct; 3(4):407-15. PMID: 7584132.
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    58. Liu GY, Wraith DC. Affinity for class II MHC determines the extent to which soluble peptides tolerize autoreactive T cells in naive and primed adult mice--implications for autoimmunity. Int Immunol. 1995 Aug; 7(8):1255-63. PMID: 7495732.
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    59. Liu GY, Baker D, Fairchild S, Figueroa F, Quartey-Papafio R, Tone M, Healey D, Cooke A, Turk JL, Wraith DC. Complete characterization of the expressed immune response genes in Biozzi AB/H mice: structural and functional identity between AB/H and NOD A region molecules. Immunogenetics. 1993; 37(4):296-300. PMID: 8420838.
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