George Sen

Title(s)Professor, Dermatology
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Overview
    Our research is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of epidermal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the factors that govern this process is extremely important as perturbations in this intricate balance between growth and differentiation can lead to a variety of human skin disorders. Increased proliferation and diminished differentiation can lead to hyperproliferative disorders such as psoriasis, basal or squamous cell carcinomas. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the regulators of epidermal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation would be key to unlocking the molecular mechanisms underlying skin disorders and the possibility of developing better treatment for these debilitating disorders. We have focused on identifying epigenetic factors that have functional roles in promoting epidermal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Our research in the future will continue to focus on identifying and characterizing novel regulators of epidermal homeostasis. Our ultimate goal is to define all the regulators that are important for stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

    Research Focus Areas:

  • Developmental Biology

  • Genetics and Genomics

  • Gene Expression and Regulation

  • Stem Cell Biology

  • Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Regulation of Human Epidermal Tumorigenesis by the mRNA Degradation Pathway
    NIH R01CA225463Dec 1, 2018 - Nov 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Post-Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Homeostasis and Neoplasia
    NIH R01AR072590Jul 18, 2018 - Apr 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Post-Trancriptional Regulation of Epidermal Stem and Progenitor Cell Self-Renewal
    NIH R56AR070729Sep 5, 2017 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Limbal Stem Cell Fate and Corneal Specific Enhancers
    NIH R01EY025090Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulators of epidermal growth and differentiation
    NIH R01AR066530Feb 17, 2015 - Jun 30, 2026
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epigenetic Regulators in Epidermal Homeostasis and Neoplasia
    NIH K01AR057828Feb 3, 2010 - Nov 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RAS Signaling in Skin Stem Cell Proliferation and Fate
    NIH R01AR056667Jul 1, 2009 - Oct 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Polycomb Group Proteins in Epidermal Diffentiation
    NIH F32AR055849Jul 1, 2008 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. The SWI/SNF subunit ARID1A mediates neutrophil associated skin inflammatory responses. J Invest Dermatol. 2024 Mar 28. Batzorig U, Chen Y, Liu Y, Fernández-Méndez C, Mahapatra S, Lim SH, Hong SP, Sen GL. PMID: 38555061.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Single-cell transcriptomics of human-skin-equivalent organoids. Cell Rep. 2023 05 30; 42(5):112511. Stabell AR, Lee GE, Jia Y, Wong KN, Wang S, Ling J, Nguyen SD, Sen GL, Nie Q, Atwood SX. PMID: 37195865; PMCID: PMC10348600.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    3. CDK12 Is Necessary to Promote Epidermal Differentiation Through Transcription Elongation. Stem Cells. 2022 04 29; 40(4):435-445. Li J, Tiwari M, Chen Y, Luanpitpong S, Sen GL. PMID: 35325240; PMCID: PMC9199850.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    4. RACK1 Prevents the Premature Differentiation of Epidermal Progenitor Cells by Inhibiting IRF6 Expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2022 05; 142(5):1499-1502.e4. Ling J, Tiwari M, Chen Y, Sen GL. PMID: 34742704; PMCID: PMC9107775.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    5. Regulation of integrin and extracellular matrix genes by HNRNPL is necessary for epidermal renewal. PLoS Biol. 2021 09; 19(9):e3001378. Li J, Chen Y, Tiwari M, Bansal V, Sen GL. PMID: 34543262; PMCID: PMC8452081.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Cutaneous innate immune tolerance is mediated by epigenetic control of MAP2K3 by HDAC8/9. Sci Immunol. 2021 05 21; 6(59). Sawada Y, Nakatsuji T, Dokoshi T, Kulkarni NN, Liggins MC, Sen G, Gallo RL. PMID: 34021025; PMCID: PMC8363943.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. SPT6 promotes epidermal differentiation and blockade of an intestinal-like phenotype through control of transcriptional elongation. Nat Commun. 2021 02 04; 12(1):784. Li J, Xu X, Tiwari M, Chen Y, Fuller M, Bansal V, Tamayo P, Das S, Ghosh P, Sen GL. PMID: 33542242; PMCID: PMC7862286.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. RAS-mediated suppression of PAR3 and its effects on SCC initiation and tissue architecture occur independently of hyperplasia. J Cell Sci. 2020 12 07; 133(23). Ling J, Sckaff M, Tiwari M, Chen Y, Li J, Jones J, Sen GL. PMID: 33172988; PMCID: PMC7746667.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    9. ELL Facilitates RNA Polymerase II-Mediated Transcription of Human Epidermal Proliferation Genes. J Invest Dermatol. 2021 05; 141(5):1352-1356.e3. Li J, Bansal V, Tiwari M, Chen Y, Sen GL. PMID: 33157094; PMCID: PMC8068570.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. KLF3 Mediates Epidermal Differentiation through the Epigenomic Writer CBP. iScience. 2020 Jul 24; 23(7):101320. Jones J, Chen Y, Tiwari M, Li J, Ling J, Sen GL. PMID: 32659720; PMCID: PMC7358749.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6  
    11. TEAD1 and TEAD3 Play Redundant Roles in the Regulation of Human Epidermal Proliferation. J Invest Dermatol. 2020 10; 140(10):2081-2084.e4. Li J, Tiwari M, Xu X, Chen Y, Tamayo P, Sen GL. PMID: 32142794; PMCID: PMC7483246.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    12. BRD4 Is Necessary for Differentiation Downstream of Epidermal Lineage-Determining Transcription Factors. J Invest Dermatol. 2020 10; 140(10):2077-2081.e5. Jones J, Chen Y, Tiwari M, Li J, Ling J, Sen GL. PMID: 32142793; PMCID: PMC7483820.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. HNRNPK maintains epidermal progenitor function through transcription of proliferation genes and degrading differentiation promoting mRNAs. Nat Commun. 2019 09 13; 10(1):4198. Li J, Chen Y, Xu X, Jones J, Tiwari M, Ling J, Wang Y, Harismendy O, Sen GL. PMID: 31519929; PMCID: PMC6744489.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    14. Increasing the Efficacy of Stem Cell Therapy via Triple-Function Inorganic Nanoparticles. ACS Nano. 2019 06 25; 13(6):6605-6617. Chen F, Zhao ER, Hableel G, Hu T, Kim T, Li J, Gonzalez-Pech NI, Cheng DJ, Lemaster JE, Xie Y, Grassian VH, Sen GL, Jokerst JV. PMID: 31188564; PMCID: PMC8106804.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Cellular toxicity of silicon carbide nanomaterials as a function of morphology. Biomaterials. 2018 10; 179:60-70. Chen F, Li G, Zhao ER, Li J, Hableel G, Lemaster JE, Bai Y, Sen GL, Jokerst JV. PMID: 29980075; PMCID: PMC6069971.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    16. The Cohesin Complex Is Necessary for Epidermal Progenitor Cell Function through Maintenance of Self-Renewal Genes. Cell Rep. 2017 Sep 26; 20(13):3005-3013. Noutsou M, Li J, Ling J, Jones J, Wang Y, Chen Y, Sen GL. PMID: 28954219; PMCID: PMC5683098.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    17. The parathyroid hormone family member TIP39 interacts with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ - ATPase activity by influencing calcium homoeostasis. Exp Dermatol. 2017 09; 26(9):792-797. Sato E, Williams MR, Sanford JA, Sen GL, Nakama T, Imafuku S, Gallo RL. PMID: 28094886; PMCID: PMC5513796.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    18. Enhanc(er)ing Skin Stem Cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2016 10 06; 19(4):415-417. Wang Y, Sen GL. PMID: 27716517.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    19. Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 and MAVS Signaling Drive Interferon-β Production by Epidermal Keratinocytes during Skin Injury. Immunity. 2016 07 19; 45(1):119-30. Zhang LJ, Sen GL, Ward NL, Johnston A, Chun K, Chen Y, Adase C, Sanford JA, Gao N, Chensee M, Sato E, Fritz Y, Baliwag J, Williams MR, Hata T, Gallo RL. PMID: 27438769; PMCID: PMC4957248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 71     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. Post-Transcriptional Mechanisms Regulating Epidermal Stem and Progenitor Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2016 Apr; 136(4):746-752. Li J, Sen GL. PMID: 26875726.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Generation of Genetically Modified Organotypic Skin Cultures Using Devitalized Human Dermis. J Vis Exp. 2015 Dec 14; (106):e53280. Li J, Sen GL. PMID: 26709715; PMCID: PMC4694032.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. SOX2 expression inhibits terminal epidermal differentiation. Exp Dermatol. 2015 Dec; 24(12):974-6. Chen Y, Sen GL. PMID: 26344931.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    23. DDX6 Orchestrates Mammalian Progenitor Function through the mRNA Degradation and Translation Pathways. Mol Cell. 2015 Oct 01; 60(1):118-30. Wang Y, Arribas-Layton M, Chen Y, Lykke-Andersen J, Sen GL. PMID: 26412305; PMCID: PMC4592480.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Transcription Factor PAX6 (Paired Box 6) Controls Limbal Stem Cell Lineage in Development and Disease. J Biol Chem. 2015 Aug 14; 290(33):20448-54. Li G, Xu F, Zhu J, Krawczyk M, Zhang Y, Yuan J, Patel S, Wang Y, Lin Y, Zhang M, Cai H, Chen D, Zhang M, Cao G, Yeh E, Lin D, Su Q, Li WW, Sen GL, Afshari N, Chen S, Maas RL, Fu XD, Zhang K, Liu Y, Ouyang H. PMID: 26045558; PMCID: PMC4536450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    25. Transcriptional profiling of SNAI2 regulated genes in primary human keratinocytes. Genom Data. 2015 Jun 01; 4:43-46. Mistry DS, Chen Y, Wang Y, Sen GL. PMID: 25793155; PMCID: PMC4360913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4  
    26. SNAI2 controls the undifferentiated state of human epidermal progenitor cells. Stem Cells. 2014 Dec; 32(12):3209-18. Mistry DS, Chen Y, Wang Y, Zhang K, Sen GL. PMID: 25100569; PMCID: PMC4339269.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    27. Highly rapid and efficient conversion of human fibroblasts to keratinocyte-like cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Feb; 134(2):335-344. Chen Y, Mistry DS, Sen GL. PMID: 23921950; PMCID: PMC3875612.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. Genomic profiling of a human organotypic model of AEC syndrome reveals ZNF750 as an essential downstream target of mutant TP63. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Sep 07; 91(3):435-43. Zarnegar BJ, Webster DE, Lopez-Pajares V, Vander Stoep Hunt B, Qu K, Yan KJ, Berk DR, Sen GL, Khavari PA. PMID: 22922031; PMCID: PMC3511987.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. Progenitor function in self-renewing human epidermis is maintained by the exosome. Cell Stem Cell. 2012 Jul 06; 11(1):127-35. Mistry DS, Chen Y, Sen GL. PMID: 22770246; PMCID: PMC3392610.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. PTH/PTHrP and vitamin D control antimicrobial peptide expression and susceptibility to bacterial skin infection. Sci Transl Med. 2012 May 23; 4(135):135ra66. Muehleisen B, Bikle DD, Aguilera C, Burton DW, Sen GL, Deftos LJ, Gallo RL. PMID: 22623742; PMCID: PMC3725981.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. ZNF750 is a p63 target gene that induces KLF4 to drive terminal epidermal differentiation. Dev Cell. 2012 Mar 13; 22(3):669-77. Sen GL, Boxer LD, Webster DE, Bussat RT, Qu K, Zarnegar BJ, Johnston D, Siprashvili Z, Khavari PA. PMID: 22364861; PMCID: PMC3306457.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 135     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    32. Remembering one's identity: the epigenetic basis of stem cell fate decisions. FASEB J. 2011 Jul; 25(7):2123-8. Sen GL. PMID: 21441350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. DNA methylation and epigenetic control of cellular differentiation. Cell Cycle. 2010 Oct 01; 9(19):3880-3. Khavari DA, Sen GL, Rinn JL. PMID: 20890116.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 71     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. DNMT1 maintains progenitor function in self-renewing somatic tissue. Nature. 2010 Jan 28; 463(7280):563-7. Sen GL, Reuter JA, Webster DE, Zhu L, Khavari PA. PMID: 20081831; PMCID: PMC3050546.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 235     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Control of differentiation in a self-renewing mammalian tissue by the histone demethylase JMJD3. Genes Dev. 2008 Jul 15; 22(14):1865-70. Sen GL, Webster DE, Barragan DI, Chang HY, Khavari PA. PMID: 18628393; PMCID: PMC2492733.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 154     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    36. Active tissue-specific DNA demethylation conferred by somatic cell nuclei in stable heterokaryons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 13; 104(11):4395-400. Zhang F, Pomerantz JH, Sen G, Palermo AT, Blau HM. PMID: 17360535; PMCID: PMC1838613.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    37. A brief history of RNAi: the silence of the genes. FASEB J. 2006 Jul; 20(9):1293-9. Sen GL, Blau HM. PMID: 16816104.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. mRNA translation is not a prerequisite for small interfering RNA-mediated mRNA cleavage. Differentiation. 2005 Jul; 73(6):287-93. Sen GL, Wehrman TS, Blau HM. PMID: 16138829.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    39. Argonaute 2/RISC resides in sites of mammalian mRNA decay known as cytoplasmic bodies. Nat Cell Biol. 2005 Jun; 7(6):633-6. Sen GL, Blau HM. PMID: 15908945.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 249     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Restriction enzyme-generated siRNA (REGS) vectors and libraries. Nat Genet. 2004 Feb; 36(2):183-9. Sen G, Wehrman TS, Myers JW, Blau HM. PMID: 14704668.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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