Wouter Rappel

InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0374
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Research 
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    Patient-directed Computational Analysis of Atrial Fibrillation
    NIH R01HL122384Jan 12, 2015 - Dec 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH P01GM078586Jul 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Yue H, Camley BA, Rappel WJ. Minimal Network Topologies for Signal Processing during Collective Cell Chemotaxis. Biophys J. 2018 Jun 19; 114(12):2986-2999. PMID: 29925034.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Tariqul Islam AFM, Yue H, Scavello M, Haldeman P, Rappel WJ, Charest PG. The cAMP-induced G protein subunits dissociation monitored in live Dictyostelium cells by BRET reveals two activation rates, a positive effect of caffeine and potential role of microtubules. Cell Signal. 2018 Apr 24; 48:25-37. PMID: 29698704.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Ho G, Hoffmayer KS, Villongco CT, Vidmar D, Rappel WJ, Krummen DE. Successful ventricular fibrillation functional substrate ablation via a single vascular access site. HeartRhythm Case Rep. 2018 May; 4(5):173-176. PMID: 29915711.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Zaman JAB, Sauer WH, Alhusseini MI, Baykaner T, Borne RT, Kowalewski CAB, Busch S, Zei PC, Park S, Viswanathan MN, Wang PJ, Brachmann J, Krummen DE, Miller JM, Rappel WJ, Narayan SM, Peters NS. Identification and Characterization of Sites Where Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Is Terminated by Localized Ablation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2018 Jan; 11(1):e005258. PMID: 29330332.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Tu Y, Rappel WJ. Adaptation of Living Systems. Annu Rev Condens Matter Phys. 2018 Mar; 9:183-205. PMID: 30057689.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Camley BA, Rappel WJ. Cell-to-cell variation sets a tissue-rheology-dependent bound on collective gradient sensing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 21; 114(47):E10074-E10082. PMID: 29114053.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Vidmar D, Rappel WJ. To the Editor- On the deformation and interpolation of phase maps. Heart Rhythm. 2018 Feb; 15(2):e3. PMID: 29113882.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Lombardo DM, Rappel WJ. Systematic reduction of a detailed atrial myocyte model. Chaos. 2017 Sep; 27(9):093914. PMID: 28964163.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ho G, Villongco CT, Yousefian O, Bradshaw A, Nguyen A, Faiwiszewski Y, Hayase J, Rappel WJ, McCulloch AD, Krummen DE. Rotors exhibit greater surface ECG variation during ventricular fibrillation than focal sources due to wavebreak, secondary rotors, and meander. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2017 Oct; 28(10):1158-1166. PMID: 28670858.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Vidmar D, Krummen DE, Hayase J, Narayan SM, Ho G, Rappel WJ. Spatiotemporal Progression of Early Human Ventricular Fibrillation. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2017 Dec 11; 3(12):1437-1446. PMID: 29238755.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lee RM, Yue H, Rappel WJ, Losert W. Inferring single-cell behaviour from large-scale epithelial sheet migration patterns. J R Soc Interface. 2017 May; 14(130). PMID: 28490603.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Rappel WJ, Edelstein-Keshet L. Mechanisms of Cell Polarization. Curr Opin Syst Biol. 2017 Jun; 3:43-53. PMID: 29038793.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Alhusseini M, Vidmar D, Meckler GL, Kowalewski CA, Shenasa F, Wang PJ, Narayan SM, Rappel WJ. Two Independent Mapping Techniques Identify Rotational Activity Patterns at Sites of Local Termination During Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2017 Jun; 28(6):615-622. PMID: 28185348.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Camley BA, Rappel WJ. Physical models of collective cell motility: from cell to tissue. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2017; 50(11). PMID: 28989187.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Camley BA, Zhao Y, Li B, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Crawling and turning in a minimal reaction-diffusion cell motility model: Coupling cell shape and biochemistry. Phys Rev E. 2017 Jan; 95(1-1):012401. PMID: 28208438.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Kulawiak DA, Camley BA, Rappel WJ. Modeling Contact Inhibition of Locomotion of Colliding Cells Migrating on Micropatterned Substrates. PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 Dec; 12(12):e1005239. PMID: 27984579.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Vidmar D, Narayan SM, Krummen DE, Rappel WJ. Determining conduction patterns on a sparse electrode grid: Implications for the analysis of clinical arrhythmias. Phys Rev E. 2016 Nov; 94(5-1):050401. PMID: 27967050.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Lombardo DM, Fenton FH, Narayan SM, Rappel WJ. Comparison of Detailed and Simplified Models of Human Atrial Myocytes to Recapitulate Patient Specific Properties. PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 Aug; 12(8):e1005060. PMID: 27494252.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Camley BA, Zimmermann J, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Collective Signal Processing in Cluster Chemotaxis: Roles of Adaptation, Amplification, and Co-attraction in Collective Guidance. PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 Jul; 12(7):e1005008. PMID: 27367541; PMCID: PMC4930173.
    20. Camley BA, Zimmermann J, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Emergent Collective Chemotaxis without Single-Cell Gradient Sensing. Phys Rev Lett. 2016 Mar 04; 116(9):098101. PMID: 26991203; PMCID: PMC4885034.
    21. Zimmermann J, Camley BA, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Contact inhibition of locomotion determines cell-cell and cell-substrate forces in tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 08; 113(10):2660-5. PMID: 26903658; PMCID: PMC4791011.
    22. Bhowmik A, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Excitable waves and direction-sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: steps towards a chemotaxis model. Phys Biol. 2016 Jan 29; 13(1):016002. PMID: 26824302; PMCID: PMC4887094.
    23. Rappel WJ. Cell-cell communication during collective migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Feb 09; 113(6):1471-3. PMID: 26802125; PMCID: PMC4760825.
    24. Wang C, Hu H, Qin X, Zeise B, Xu D, Rappel WJ, Boron WF, Schroeder JI. Reconstitution of CO2 Regulation of SLAC1 Anion Channel and Function of CO2-Permeable PIP2;1 Aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 Interactor. Plant Cell. 2016 Feb; 28(2):568-82. PMID: 26764375.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Vidmar D, Narayan SM, Rappel WJ. Phase synchrony reveals organization in human atrial fibrillation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Dec 15; 309(12):H2118-26. PMID: 26475585; PMCID: PMC4698428 [Available on 12/15/16].
    26. Engineer CB, Hashimoto-Sugimoto M, Negi J, Israelsson-Nordström M, Azoulay-Shemer T, Rappel WJ, Iba K, Schroeder JI. CO2 Sensing and CO2 Regulation of Stomatal Conductance: Advances and Open Questions. Trends Plant Sci. 2016 Jan; 21(1):16-30. PMID: 26482956.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Rappel WJ, Zaman JA, Narayan SM. Mechanisms for the Termination of Atrial Fibrillation by Localized Ablation: Computational and Clinical Studies. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Dec; 8(6):1325-33. PMID: 26359479; PMCID: PMC4764078 [Available on 12/01/16].
    28. Krummen DE, Hayase J, Vampola SP, Ho G, Schricker AA, Lalani GG, Baykaner T, Coe TM, Clopton P, Rappel WJ, Omens JH, Narayan SM. Modifying Ventricular Fibrillation by Targeted Rotor Substrate Ablation: Proof-of-Concept from Experimental Studies to Clinical VF. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2015 Oct; 26(10):1117-26. PMID: 26179310; PMCID: PMC4826737.
    29. Hu H, Rappel WJ, Occhipinti R, Ries A, Böhmer M, You L, Xiao C, Engineer CB, Boron WF, Schroeder JI. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements. Plant Physiol. 2015 Oct; 169(2):1168-78. PMID: 26243620; PMCID: PMC4587455.
    30. Gonzales MJ, Vincent KP, Rappel WJ, Narayan SM, McCulloch AD. Structural contributions to fibrillatory rotors in a patient-derived computational model of the atria. Europace. 2014 Nov; 16 Suppl 4:iv3-iv10. PMID: 25362167; PMCID: PMC4565557.
    31. Camley BA, Zhang Y, Zhao Y, Li B, Ben-Jacob E, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Polarity mechanisms such as contact inhibition of locomotion regulate persistent rotational motion of mammalian cells on micropatterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 14; 111(41):14770-5. PMID: 25258412; PMCID: PMC4205601.
    32. Tarantola M, Bae A, Fuller D, Bodenschatz E, Rappel WJ, Loomis WF. Cell substratum adhesion during early development of Dictyostelium discoideum. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106574. PMID: 25247557; PMCID: PMC4172474.
    33. Skoge M, Yue H, Erickstad M, Bae A, Levine H, Groisman A, Loomis WF, Rappel WJ. Cellular memory in eukaryotic chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 07; 111(40):14448-53. PMID: 25249632; PMCID: PMC4210025.
    34. Schricker AA, Lalani GG, Krummen DE, Rappel WJ, Narayan SM. Human atrial fibrillation initiates via organized rather than disorganized mechanisms. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Oct; 7(5):816-24. PMID: 25217042; PMCID: PMC4206587.
    35. Hu B, Rappel WJ, Levine H. How input noise limits biochemical sensing in ultrasensitive systems. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2014 Sep; 90(3):032702. PMID: 25314468; PMCID: PMC4457451.
    36. Zimmermann J, Hayes RL, Basan M, Onuchic JN, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Intercellular stress reconstitution from traction force data. Biophys J. 2014 Aug 05; 107(3):548-554. PMID: 25099794; PMCID: PMC4129476.
    37. Knoch F, Tarantola M, Bodenschatz E, Rappel WJ. Modeling self-organized spatio-temporal patterns of PIP3 and PTEN during spontaneous cell polarization. Phys Biol. 2014 Aug; 11(4):046002. PMID: 25024302; PMCID: PMC4526168.
    38. Camley BA, Rappel WJ. Velocity alignment leads to high persistence in confined cells. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2014 Jun; 89(6):062705. PMID: 25019812; PMCID: PMC4458368.
    39. Krummen DE, Hayase J, Morris DJ, Ho J, Smetak MR, Clopton P, Rappel WJ, Narayan SM. Rotor stability separates sustained ventricular fibrillation from self-terminating episodes in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jun 24; 63(24):2712-21. PMID: 24794115; PMCID: PMC4396824.
    40. Camley BA, Zhao Y, Li B, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Periodic migration in a physical model of cells on micropatterns. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Oct 11; 111(15):158102. PMID: 24160631; PMCID: PMC3855234.
    41. Rappel WJ, Narayan SM. Theoretical considerations for mapping activation in human cardiac fibrillation. Chaos. 2013 Jun; 23(2):023113. PMID: 23822478; PMCID: PMC3676373.
    42. Gonzales MJ, Sturgeon G, Krishnamurthy A, Hake J, Jonas R, Stark P, Rappel WJ, Narayan SM, Zhang Y, Segars WP, McCulloch AD. A three-dimensional finite element model of human atrial anatomy: new methods for cubic Hermite meshes with extraordinary vertices. Med Image Anal. 2013 Jul; 17(5):525-37. PMID: 23602918; PMCID: PMC3660421.
    43. Narayan SM, Shivkumar K, Krummen DE, Miller JM, Rappel WJ. Panoramic electrophysiological mapping but not electrogram morphology identifies stable sources for human atrial fibrillation: stable atrial fibrillation rotors and focal sources relate poorly to fractionated electrograms. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2013 Feb; 6(1):58-67. PMID: 23392583; PMCID: PMC3746540.
    44. Levine H, Rappel WJ. The physics of eukaryotic chemotaxis. Phys Today. 2013 Feb 01; 66(2). PMID: 24363460.
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    45. Basan M, Elgeti J, Hannezo E, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Alignment of cellular motility forces with tissue flow as a mechanism for efficient wound healing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 12; 110(7):2452-9. PMID: 23345440; PMCID: PMC3574962.
    46. Hu B, Kessler DA, Rappel WJ, Levine H. How input fluctuations reshape the dynamics of a biological switching system. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2012 Dec; 86(6 Pt 1):061910. PMID: 23367979.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Narayan SM, Krummen DE, Enyeart MW, Rappel WJ. Computational mapping identifies localized mechanisms for ablation of atrial fibrillation. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e46034. PMID: 23049929; PMCID: PMC3458823.
    48. Loomis WF, Fuller D, Gutierrez E, Groisman A, Rappel WJ. Innate non-specific cell substratum adhesion. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42033. PMID: 22952588; PMCID: PMC3432024.
    49. Narayan SM, Krummen DE, Shivkumar K, Clopton P, Rappel WJ, Miller JM. Treatment of atrial fibrillation by the ablation of localized sources: CONFIRM (Conventional Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation With or Without Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Aug 14; 60(7):628-36. PMID: 22818076; PMCID: PMC3416917.
    50. Narayan SM, Krummen DE, Rappel WJ. Clinical mapping approach to diagnose electrical rotors and focal impulse sources for human atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 May; 23(5):447-54. PMID: 22537106; PMCID: PMC3418865.
    51. Shao D, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Coupling actin flow, adhesion, and morphology in a computational cell motility model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 01; 109(18):6851-6. PMID: 22493219; PMCID: PMC3344950.
    52. Rappel WJ, Firtel RA. Adaptation in a eukaryotic pathway: combining experiments with modeling. Cell Cycle. 2012 Mar 15; 11(6):1051-2. PMID: 22391206; PMCID: PMC3335914.
    53. Bostani N, Kessler DA, Shnerb NM, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Noise effects in nonlinear biochemical signaling. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2012 Jan; 85(1 Pt 1):011901. PMID: 22400585; PMCID: PMC4464780.
    54. Takeda K, Shao D, Adler M, Charest PG, Loomis WF, Levine H, Groisman A, Rappel WJ, Firtel RA. Incoherent feedforward control governs adaptation of activated ras in a eukaryotic chemotaxis pathway. Sci Signal. 2012 Jan 03; 5(205):ra2. PMID: 22215733; PMCID: PMC3928814.
    55. Hu B, Kessler DA, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Effects of input noise on a simple biochemical switch. Phys Rev Lett. 2011 Sep 30; 107(14):148101. PMID: 22107236; PMCID: PMC4465233.
    56. Hecht I, Levine H, Rappel WJ, Ben-Jacob E. "Self-assisted" amoeboid navigation in complex environments. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e21955. PMID: 21829602; PMCID: PMC3150345.
    57. Hecht I, Skoge ML, Charest PG, Ben-Jacob E, Firtel RA, Loomis WF, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Activated membrane patches guide chemotactic cell motility. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011 Jun; 7(6):e1002044. PMID: 21738453; PMCID: PMC3127810.
    58. Hu B, Chen W, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Quantifying information transmission in eukaryotic gradient sensing and chemotactic response. J Stat Phys. 2011 Apr 01; 142(6):1167-1186. PMID: 21643513.
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    59. Hu B, Chen W, Rappel WJ, Levine H. How geometry and internal bias affect the accuracy of eukaryotic gradient sensing. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2011 Feb; 83(2 Pt 1):021917. PMID: 21405873; PMCID: PMC3120218.
    60. Hu B, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Design principles and specificity in biological networks with cross activation. Phys Biol. 2011 Apr; 8(2):026001. PMID: 21263168.
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    61. Skoge M, Adler M, Groisman A, Levine H, Loomis WF, Rappel WJ. Gradient sensing in defined chemotactic fields. Integr Biol (Camb). 2010 Nov; 2(11-12):659-68. PMID: 20882228; PMCID: PMC3052262.
    62. Shao D, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Computational model for cell morphodynamics. Phys Rev Lett. 2010 Sep 03; 105(10):108104. PMID: 20867552; PMCID: PMC3048783.
    63. Hu B, Chen W, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Physical limits on cellular sensing of spatial gradients. Phys Rev Lett. 2010 Jul 23; 105(4):048104. PMID: 20867888; PMCID: PMC3048844.
    64. Buenemann M, Levine H, Rappel WJ, Sander LM. The role of cell contraction and adhesion in dictyostelium motility. Biophys J. 2010 Jul 07; 99(1):50-8. PMID: 20655832; PMCID: PMC2895335.
    65. Modchang C, Nadkarni S, Bartol TM, Triampo W, Sejnowski TJ, Levine H, Rappel WJ. A comparison of deterministic and stochastic simulations of neuronal vesicle release models. Phys Biol. 2010 May 26; 7(2):026008. PMID: 20505227; PMCID: PMC2892017.
    66. Fuller D, Chen W, Adler M, Groisman A, Levine H, Rappel WJ, Loomis WF. External and internal constraints on eukaryotic chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 25; 107(21):9656-9. PMID: 20457897; PMCID: PMC2906906.
    67. Hu B, Fuller D, Loomis WF, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Phenomenological approach to eukaryotic chemotactic efficiency. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2010 Mar; 81(3 Pt 1):031906. PMID: 20365769; PMCID: PMC2872938.
    68. Chen W, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Compartmentalization of second messengers in neurons: a mathematical analysis. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2009 Oct; 80(4 Pt 1):041901. PMID: 19905336.
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    69. Rappel WJ, Loomis WF. Eukaryotic chemotaxis. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2009 Jul-Aug; 1(1):141-149. PMID: 20648241.
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    70. Hu B, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Mechanisms and constraints on yeast MAPK signaling specificity. Biophys J. 2009 Jun 17; 96(12):4755-63. PMID: 19527636; PMCID: PMC2712056.
    71. Hecht I, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Determining the scale of the Bicoid morphogen gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 10; 106(6):1710-5. PMID: 19190186; PMCID: PMC2644102.
    72. Chen W, Levine H, Rappel WJ. A mathematical analysis of second messenger compartmentalization. Phys Biol. 2008 Dec 10; 5(4):046006. PMID: 19075354.
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    73. Rappel WJ, Levine H. Receptor noise limitations on chemotactic sensing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 09; 105(49):19270-5. PMID: 19064934; PMCID: PMC2614751.
    74. Narayan SM, Kazi D, Krummen DE, Rappel WJ. Repolarization and activation restitution near human pulmonary veins and atrial fibrillation initiation: a mechanism for the initiation of atrial fibrillation by premature beats. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 07; 52(15):1222-30. PMID: 18926325; PMCID: PMC2604131.
    75. Rappel WJ, Levine H. Receptor noise and directional sensing in eukaryotic chemotaxis. Phys Rev Lett. 2008 Jun 06; 100(22):228101. PMID: 18643461; PMCID: PMC2738688.
    76. Wang K, Rappel WJ, Kerr R, Levine H. Quantifying noise levels of intercellular signals. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2007 Jun; 75(6 Pt 1):061905. PMID: 17677298.
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    77. Beta C, Wyatt D, Rappel WJ, Bodenschatz E. Flow photolysis for spatiotemporal stimulation of single cells. Anal Chem. 2007 May 15; 79(10):3940-4. PMID: 17432827.
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    78. Levine H, Kessler DA, Rappel WJ. Directional sensing in eukaryotic chemotaxis: a balanced inactivation model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 27; 103(26):9761-6. PMID: 16782813; PMCID: PMC1502527.
    79. McHale P, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Embryonic pattern scaling achieved by oppositely directed morphogen gradients. Phys Biol. 2006 May 16; 3(2):107-20. PMID: 16829697.
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    80. Song L, Nadkarni SM, Bödeker HU, Beta C, Bae A, Franck C, Rappel WJ, Loomis WF, Bodenschatz E. Dictyostelium discoideum chemotaxis: threshold for directed motion. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006 Sep; 85(9-10):981-9. PMID: 16529846.
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    81. Kerr RA, Levine H, Sejnowski TJ, Rappel WJ. Division accuracy in a stochastic model of Min oscillations in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 10; 103(2):347-52. PMID: 16387859; PMCID: PMC1326155.
    82. Levine H, Rappel WJ. Membrane-bound Turing patterns. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2005 Dec; 72(6 Pt 1):061912. PMID: 16485979.
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    83. Wang K, Tu Y, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Excitation-contraction coupling gain and cooperativity of the cardiac ryanodine receptor: a modeling approach. Biophys J. 2005 Nov; 89(5):3017-25. PMID: 16126827; PMCID: PMC1366799.
    84. Henry H, Rappel WJ. Dynamics of conduction blocks in a model of paced cardiac tissue. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2005 May; 71(5 Pt 1):051911. PMID: 16089575.
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    85. Fenton FH, Cherry EM, Karma A, Rappel WJ. Modeling wave propagation in realistic heart geometries using the phase-field method. Chaos. 2005 Mar; 15(1):13502. PMID: 15836267.
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    86. Bulsara AR, In V, Kho A, Longhini P, Palacios A, Rappel WJ, Acebron J, Baglio S, Ando B. Emergent oscillations in unidirectionally coupled overdamped bistable systems. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2004 Sep; 70(3 Pt 2):036103. PMID: 15524583.
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    87. Wang K, Rappel WJ, Levine H. Cooperativity can reduce stochasticity in intracellular calcium dynamics. Phys Biol. 2004 Jun; 1(1-2):27-34. PMID: 16204819.
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    88. Henry H, Rappel WJ. The role of M cells and the long QT syndrome in cardiac arrhythmias: simulation studies of reentrant excitations using a detailed electrophysiological model. Chaos. 2004 Mar; 14(1):172-82. PMID: 15003058.
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    89. Acebrón JA, Bulsara AR, Rappel WJ. Noisy FitzHugh-Nagumo model: from single elements to globally coupled networks. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2004 Feb; 69(2 Pt 2):026202. PMID: 14995543.
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    90. Kockelkoren J, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Computational approach for modeling intra- and extracellular dynamics. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2003 Sep; 68(3 Pt 2):037702. PMID: 14524934.
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    91. Acebrón JA, Rappel WJ, Bulsara AR. Cooperative dynamics in a class of coupled two-dimensional oscillators. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2003 Jan; 67(1 Pt 2):016210. PMID: 12636588.
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    92. Rappel WJ, Thomas PJ, Levine H, Loomis WF. Establishing direction during chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells. Biophys J. 2002 Sep; 83(3):1361-7. PMID: 12202361; PMCID: PMC1302234.
    93. Rappel WJ. Filament instability and rotational tissue anisotropy: A numerical study using detailed cardiac models. Chaos. 2001 Mar; 11(1):71-80. PMID: 12779442.
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    94. Levine H, Rappel WJ, Cohen I. Self-organization in systems of self-propelled particles. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2001 Jan; 63(1 Pt 2):017101. PMID: 11304390.
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    95. Karma A, Rappel WJ. Phase-field model of dendritic sidebranching with thermal noise. Phys Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat Interdiscip Topics. 1999 Oct; 60(4 Pt A):3614-25. PMID: 11970195.
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