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Paul Ponganis

Title(s)Senior Lecturer, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Department
SchoolMarine Sciences
Phone858-822-0792
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Tift MS, Ponganis PJ. Time Domains of Hypoxia Adaptation-Elephant Seals Stand Out Among Divers. Front Physiol. 2019; 10:677. PMID: 31214049.
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    2. Williams CL, Sato K, Ponganis PJ. Activity, not submergence, explains diving heart rates of captive loggerhead sea turtles. J Exp Biol. 2019 Apr 24; 222(Pt 8). PMID: 30936271.
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    3. Ponganis PJ. State of the art review: from the seaside to the bedside: insights from comparative diving physiology into respiratory, sleep and critical care. Thorax. 2019 May; 74(5):512-518. PMID: 30826734.
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    4. Tift MS, Hückstädt LA, Ponganis PJ. Anterior vena caval oxygen profiles in a deep-diving California sea lion: arteriovenous shunts, a central venous oxygen store and oxygenation during lung collapse. J Exp Biol. 2018 01 10; 221(Pt 1). PMID: 29084854.
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    5. Ponganis PJ, McDonald BI, Tift MS, Williams CL. Heart rate regulation in diving sea lions: the vagus nerve rules. J Exp Biol. 2017 04 15; 220(Pt 8):1372-1381. PMID: 28424310.
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    6. Tift MS, Hückstädt LA, McDonald BI, Thorson PH, Ponganis PJ. Flipper stroke rate and venous oxygen levels in free-ranging California sea lions. J Exp Biol. 2017 04 15; 220(Pt 8):1533-1540. PMID: 28167807.
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    7. Ponganis PJ. Advances in Technology: Blood-sampling at depth. Focus on "Development of an animal-borne blood sample collection device and its deployment for the determination of cardiovascular and stress hormones in submerged phocid seals". Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 11 01; 311(5):R917-R918. PMID: 27707725.
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    8. Cristofari R, Bertorelle G, Ancel A, Benazzo A, Le Maho Y, Ponganis PJ, Stenseth NC, Trathan PN, Whittington JD, Zanetti E, Zitterbart DP, Le Bohec C, Trucchi E. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin. Nat Commun. 2016 06 14; 7:11842. PMID: 27296726.
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    9. Ponganis PJ, St Leger J, Scadeng M. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy. J Exp Biol. 2015 Mar; 218(Pt 5):720-30. PMID: 25740902.
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    10. Tift MS, Ponganis PJ, Crocker DE. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal. J Exp Biol. 2014 May 15; 217(Pt 10):1752-7. PMID: 24829326.
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    11. McDonald BI, Ponganis PJ. Deep-diving sea lions exhibit extreme bradycardia in long-duration dives. J Exp Biol. 2014 May 01; 217(Pt 9):1525-34. PMID: 24790100.
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    12. Meir JU, Robinson PW, Vilchis LI, Kooyman GL, Costa DP, Ponganis PJ. Blood oxygen depletion is independent of dive function in a deep diving vertebrate, the northern elephant seal. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83248. PMID: 24376671.
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    13. Ponganis P. After 73 years, still the foundation of diving physiology research. J Exp Biol. 2013 Sep 15; 216(Pt 18):3381-3. PMID: 23966585.
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    14. McDonald BI, Ponganis PJ. Insights from venous oxygen profiles: oxygen utilization and management in diving California sea lions. J Exp Biol. 2013 Sep 01; 216(Pt 17):3332-41. PMID: 23926312.
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    15. Watanabe S, Sato K, Ponganis PJ. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e50357. PMID: 23185608.
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    16. McDonald BI, Ponganis PJ. Lung collapse in the diving sea lion: hold the nitrogen and save the oxygen. Biol Lett. 2012 Dec 23; 8(6):1047-9. PMID: 22993241.
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    17. Williams CL, Sato K, Shiomi K, Ponganis PJ. Muscle energy stores and stroke rates of emperor penguins: implications for muscle metabolism and dive performance. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2012 Mar-Apr; 85(2):120-33. PMID: 22418705.
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    18. Shiomi K, Sato K, Ponganis PJ. Point of no return in diving emperor penguins: is the timing of the decision to return limited by the number of strokes? J Exp Biol. 2012 Jan 01; 215(Pt 1):135-40. PMID: 22162861.
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    19. Ponganis PJ, Meir JU, Williams CL. In pursuit of Irving and Scholander: a review of oxygen store management in seals and penguins. J Exp Biol. 2011 Oct 15; 214(Pt 20):3325-39. PMID: 21957096.
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    20. Sato K, Shiomi K, Marshall G, Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ. Stroke rates and diving air volumes of emperor penguins: implications for dive performance. J Exp Biol. 2011 Sep 01; 214(Pt 17):2854-63. PMID: 21832128.
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    21. Williams CL, Meir JU, Ponganis PJ. What triggers the aerobic dive limit? Patterns of muscle oxygen depletion during dives of emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2011 Jun 01; 214(Pt 11):1802-12. PMID: 21562166.
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    22. Ponganis PJ. Diving mammals. Compr Physiol. 2011 Jan; 1(1):447-65. PMID: 23737181.
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    23. Blight LK, Ainley DG, Ackley SF, Ballard G, Ballerini T, Brownell RL, Cheng CH, Chiantore M, Costa D, Coulter MC, Dayton P, Devries AL, Dunbar R, Earle S, Eastman JT, Emslie SD, Evans CW, Garrott RA, Kim S, Kooyman G, Lescroël A, Lizotte M, Massaro M, Olmastroni S, Ponganis PJ, Russell J, Siniff DB, Smith WO, Stewart BS, Stirling I, Willis J, Wilson P, Woehler EJ. Fishing for data in the Ross Sea. Science. 2010 Dec 03; 330(6009):1316. PMID: 21127229.
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    24. Ponganis PJ, Welch TJ, Welch LS, Stockard TK. Myoglobin production in emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2010 Jun 01; 213(11):1901-6. PMID: 20472777.
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    25. Meir JU, Ponganis PJ. Blood temperature profiles of diving elephant seals. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2010 May-Jun; 83(3):531-40. PMID: 20334547.
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    26. Zenteno-Savin T, St Leger J, Ponganis PJ. Hypoxemic and ischemic tolerance in emperor penguins. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jun; 152(1):18-23. PMID: 20172048.
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    27. Houser DS, Dankiewicz-Talmadge LA, Stockard TK, Ponganis PJ. Investigation of the potential for vascular bubble formation in a repetitively diving dolphin. J Exp Biol. 2010 Jan 01; 213(1):52-62. PMID: 20008362.
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    28. Sato K, Shiomi K, Watanabe Y, Watanuki Y, Takahashi A, Ponganis PJ. Scaling of swim speed and stroke frequency in geometrically similar penguins: they swim optimally to minimize cost of transport. Proc Biol Sci. 2010 Mar 07; 277(1682):707-14. PMID: 19906666.
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    29. Meir JU, Ponganis PJ. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2009 Oct; 212(Pt 20):3330-8. PMID: 19801437.
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    30. Meir JU, Champagne CD, Costa DP, Williams CL, Ponganis PJ. Extreme hypoxemic tolerance and blood oxygen depletion in diving elephant seals. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Oct; 297(4):R927-39. PMID: 19641132.
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    31. Ponganis PJ, Stockard TK, Meir JU, Williams CL, Ponganis KV, Howard R. O2 store management in diving emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2009 Jan; 212(Pt 2):217-24. PMID: 19112140.
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    32. Ponganis PJ, Kreutzer U, Stockard TK, Lin PC, Sailasuta N, Tran TK, Hurd R, Jue T. Blood flow and metabolic regulation in seal muscle during apnea. J Exp Biol. 2008 Oct; 211(Pt 20):3323-32. PMID: 18840667.
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    33. Meir JU, Stockard TK, Williams CL, Ponganis KV, Ponganis PJ. Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2008 Apr; 211(Pt 8):1169-79. PMID: 18375841.
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    34. Ponganis PJ, Stockard TK, Meir JU, Williams CL, Ponganis KV, van Dam RP, Howard R. Returning on empty: extreme blood O2 depletion underlies dive capacity of emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2007 Dec; 210(Pt 24):4279-85. PMID: 18055617.
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    35. Stockard TK, Levenson DH, Berg L, Fransioli JR, Baranov EA, Ponganis PJ. Blood oxygen depletion during rest-associated apneas of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). J Exp Biol. 2007 Aug; 210(Pt 15):2607-17. PMID: 17644675.
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    36. Sato K, Watanuki Y, Takahashi A, Miller PJ, Tanaka H, Kawabe R, Ponganis PJ, Handrich Y, Akamatsu T, Watanabe Y, Mitani Yo, Costa DP, Bost CA, Aoki K, Amano M, Trathan P, Shapiro A, Naito Y. Stroke frequency, but not swimming speed, is related to body size in free-ranging seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Proc Biol Sci. 2007 Feb 22; 274(1609):471-7. PMID: 17476766.
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    37. Ponganis PJ, Stockard TK, Levenson DH, Berg L, Baranov EA. Intravascular pressure profiles in elephant seals: hypotheses on the caval sphincter, extradural vein and venous return to the heart. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Sep; 145(1):123-30. PMID: 16820312.
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    38. Levenson DH, Ponganis PJ, Crognale MA, Deegan JF, Dizon A, Jacobs GH. Visual pigments of marine carnivores: pinnipeds, polar bear, and sea otter. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2006 Aug; 192(8):833-43. PMID: 16572322.
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    39. Ponganis PJ, Stockard TK, Levenson DH, Berg L, Baranov EA. Cardiac output and muscle blood flow during rest-associated apneas of elephant seals. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 May; 144(1):105-11. PMID: 16574449.
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    40. Knower Stockard T, Heil J, Meir JU, Sato K, Ponganis KV, Ponganis PJ. Air sac PO2 and oxygen depletion during dives of emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2005 Aug; 208(Pt 15):2973-80. PMID: 16043602.
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    41. Sato K, Ponganis PJ, Habara Y, Naito Y. Emperor penguins adjust swim speed according to the above-water height of ice holes through which they exit. J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul; 208(Pt 13):2549-54. PMID: 15961741.
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    42. Spragg RG, Ponganis PJ, Marsh JJ, Rau GA, Bernhard W. Surfactant from diving aquatic mammals. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 May; 96(5):1626-32. PMID: 14688033.
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    43. Ponganis PJ, Van Dam RP, Levenson DH, Knower T, Ponganis KV, Marshall G. Regional heterothermy and conservation of core temperature in emperor penguins diving under sea ice. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003 Jul; 135(3):477-87. PMID: 12829055.
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    44. van Dam RP, Ponganis PJ, Ponganis KV, Levenson DH, Marshall G. Stroke frequencies of emperor penguins diving under sea ice. J Exp Biol. 2002 Dec; 205(Pt 24):3769-74. PMID: 12432000.
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    45. Ponganis PJ, Kreutzer U, Sailasuta N, Knower T, Hurd R, Jue T. Detection of myoglobin desaturation in Mirounga angustirostris during apnea. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002 Jan; 282(1):R267-72. PMID: 11742847.
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    46. Jobsis PD, Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL. Effects of training on forced submersion responses in harbor seals. J Exp Biol. 2001 Nov; 204(Pt 22):3877-85. PMID: 11807105.
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    47. Ponganis PJ, Van Dam RP, Knower T, Levenson DH. Temperature regulation in emperor penguins foraging under sea ice. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001 Jul; 129(4):811-20. PMID: 11440867.
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    48. Nagy KA, Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ. Energetic cost of foraging in free-diving emperor penguins. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2001 Jul-Aug; 74(4):541-7. PMID: 11436138.
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    49. Ancel A, Starke LN, Ponganis PJ, Van Dam R, Kooyman GL. Energetics of surface swimming in Brandt's cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus brandt). J Exp Biol. 2000 Dec; 203(Pt 24):3727-31. PMID: 11076736.
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    50. Ponganis PJ, Van Dam RP, Marshall G, Knower T, Levenson DH. Sub-ice foraging behavior of emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 2000 Nov; 203(Pt 21):3275-8. PMID: 11023847.
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    51. Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL. Diving physiology of birds: a history of studies on polar species. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2000 Jun; 126(2):143-51. PMID: 10936756.
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    52. Ponganis PJ, Starke LN, Horning M, Kooyman GL. Development of diving capacity in emperor penguins. J Exp Biol. 1999 Apr; 202(Pt 7):781-6. PMID: 10069967.
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    53. Dolar ML, Suarez P, Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL. Myoglobin in pelagic small cetaceans. J Exp Biol. 1999 Feb; 202(Pt 3):227-36. PMID: 9882635.
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    54. Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ. The physiological basis of diving to depth: birds and mammals. Annu Rev Physiol. 1998; 60:19-32. PMID: 9558452.
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    55. Ponganis PJ, Costello ML, Starke LN, Mathieu-Costello O, Kooyman GL. Structural and biochemical characteristics of locomotory muscles of emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri. Respir Physiol. 1997 Jul; 109(1):73-80. PMID: 9271809.
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    56. Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL, Starke LN, Kooyman CA, Kooyman TG. Post-dive blood lactate concentrations in emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri. J Exp Biol. 1997 Jun; 200(Pt 11):1623-6. PMID: 9202449.
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    57. Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL, Winter LM, Starke LN. Heart rate and plasma lactate responses during submerged swimming and trained diving in California sea lions, Zalophus californianus. J Comp Physiol B. 1997 Jan; 167(1):9-16. PMID: 9051904.
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    58. Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ. Emperor penguin oxygen consumption, heart rate and plasma lactate levels during graded swimming exercise. J Exp Biol. 1994 Oct; 195:199-209. PMID: 7964411.
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    59. Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL, Castellini MA, Ponganis EP, Ponganis KV. Muscle temperature and swim velocity profiles during diving in a Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii. J Exp Biol. 1993 Oct; 183:341-6. PMID: 8245765.
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    60. Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ, Castellini MA, Ponganis EP, Ponganis KV, Thorson PH, Eckert SA, LeMaho Y. Heart rates and swim speeds of emperor penguins diving under sea ice. J Exp Biol. 1992 Apr; 165:161-80. PMID: 1588249.
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    61. Castellini MA, Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ. Metabolic rates of freely diving Weddell seals: correlations with oxygen stores, swim velocity and diving duration. J Exp Biol. 1992 Apr; 165:181-94. PMID: 1588250.
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    62. Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL, Sartoris D, Jobsis P. Pinniped splenic volumes. Am J Physiol. 1992 Feb; 262(2 Pt 2):R322-5. PMID: 1539742.
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    63. Ponganis PJ, Kooyman GL, Zornow MH, Castellini MA, Croll DA. Cardiac output and stroke volume in swimming harbor seals. J Comp Physiol B. 1990; 160(5):473-82. PMID: 2097298.
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