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    Gregg Silverman

    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0663
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Lupus and the inhibitory dual receptor hypothesis
      NIH/NIAID R01AI090118Jun 7, 2010 - May 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      alpha4beta1 Intergrin Signaling In Immunity And Arthritis
      NIH/NIAMS R01AR052367Jul 1, 2007 - May 31, 2012
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Arthritis Research Conference 2007
      NIH/NIAMS R13AR055046Mar 1, 2007 - Aug 31, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Cell Death and Antibody-Mediated Protection from Autoimmunity
      NIH/NIAID R01AI068063Jul 15, 2006 - Jun 30, 2012
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Arthritis Research Conference 2005
      NIH/NIAMS R13AR052639Jun 1, 2005 - Aug 31, 2005
      Role: Principal Investigator
      BCR Mediated Apoptotic Death of Leukemia B Cells
      NIH/NCI R21CA104815Mar 9, 2004 - Feb 28, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Mechanisms to Induce Protective Natural Autoimmunity
      NIH/NIAMS R21AR050659Sep 26, 2003 - Jun 30, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      RHEUMATIC DISEASES CORE CENTER
      NIH/NIAMS P30AR047360Sep 28, 2001 - Mar 31, 2008
      Role: Principal Investigator
      ENGINEERED B-CELL SUPERANTIGENS AND IMMUNE TOLERANCE
      NIH/NIAID R03AI046637Sep 30, 1999 - Aug 31, 2003
      Role: Principal Investigator
      B Cell Superantigens and Immune Regulation
      NIH/NIAID R01AI040305May 1, 1998 - Jan 31, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      BACTERIAL B-CELL SUPERANTIGENS
      NIH/NIAID K02AI001378Jul 1, 1996 - Jun 30, 2001
      Role: Principal Investigator
      B CELL SUPERANTIGENS AND HUMAN IMMUNE REGULATION
      NIH/NIAID R29AI034001May 1, 1993 - Apr 30, 1998
      Role: Principal Investigator
      VARIABLE REGION GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AUTOANTIBODIES
      NIH/NIAID K11AI000866May 1, 1988 - Apr 30, 1993
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Grönwall C, Amara K, Hardt U, Krishnamurthy A, Steen J, Engström M, Sun M, Ytterberg AJ, Zubarev RA, Scheel-Toellner D, Greenberg JD, Klareskog L, Catrina AI, Malmström V, Silverman G. Autoreactivity to malondialdehyde-modifications in rheumatoid arthritis is linked to disease activity and synovial pathogenesis. J Autoimmun. 2017 Jun 21. PMID: 28647488.
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      2. Sandigursky S, Silverman G, Mor A. Targeting the programmed cell death-1 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmun Rev. 2017 Aug; 16(8):767-773. PMID: 28572054.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Pelzek AJ, Grönwall C, Rosenthal P, Greenberg JD, McGeachy M, Moreland L, Rigby WF, Silverman G. Disease associated anti-citrullinated protein memory B cells in rheumatoid arthritis persist in clinical remission. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Jan 24. PMID: 28118534.
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      4. El Bannoudi H, Anquetil C, Braunstein MJ, Pond SLK, Silverman G. Unbiased RACE-Based Massive Parallel Surveys of Human IgA Antibody Repertoires. Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1643:45-73. PMID: 28667529.
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      5. Coffre M, Benhamou D, Rieß D, Blumenberg L, Snetkova V, Hines MJ, Chakraborty T, Bajwa S, Jensen K, Chong MM, Getu L, Silverman G, Blelloch R, Littman DR, Calado D, Melamed D, Skok JA, Rajewsky K, Koralov SB. miRNAs Are Essential for the Regulation of the PI3K/AKT/FOXO Pathway and Receptor Editing during B Cell Maturation. Cell Rep. 2016 Nov 22; 17(9):2271-2285. PMID: 27880903.
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      6. Grönwall C, Clancy RM, Getu L, Lloyd KA, Siegel DL, Reed JH, Buyon JP, Silverman G. Modulation of natural IgM autoantibodies to oxidative stress-related neo-epitopes on apoptotic cells in newborns of mothers with anti-Ro autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2016 Sep; 73:30-41. PMID: 27289167; NIHMSID: NIHMS795375 [Available on 09/01/17].
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      7. Huck DM, Okello E, Mirembe G, Ssinabulya I, Zidar DA, Silverman G, Getu L, Nowacki AS, Calabrese LH, Salata RA, Longenecker CT. Role of Natural Autoantibodies in Ugandans With Rheumatic Heart Disease and HIV. EBioMedicine. 2016 Mar; 5:161-6. PMID: 27077123.
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      8. Frost SD, Murrell B, Hossain AS, Silverman G, Pond SL. Assigning and visualizing germline genes in antibody repertoires. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Sep 5; 370(1676). PMID: 26194754.
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      9. Genovese MC, Silverman G, Emery P, Gupta RC, Gill A, Veenhuizen M, Xie L, Komocsar WJ, Berclaz PY, Lee C. Efficacy and Safety of Tabalumab, an Anti-B-Cell-Activating Factor Monoclonal Antibody, in a Heterogeneous Rheumatoid Arthritis Population: Results From a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Trial (FLEX-O). J Clin Rheumatol. 2015 Aug; 21(5):231-8. PMID: 26203826.
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      10. Peled M, Strazza M, Azoulay-Alfaguter I, Silverman G, Scher JU, Mor A. Erratum to: Analysis of Programmed Death-1 in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis. Inflammation. 2015 Aug; 38(4):1580. PMID: 25847627.
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      11. Peled M, Strazza M, Azoulay-Alfaguter I, Silverman G, Scher JU, Mor A. Analysis of Programmed Death-1 in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis. Inflammation. 2015 Aug; 38(4):1573-9. PMID: 25663558.
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      12. Silverman G. Protective natural autoantibodies to apoptotic cells: evidence of convergent selection of recurrent innate-like clones. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015 Dec; 1362(1):164-75. PMID: 25990717.
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      13. Strazza M, Azoulay-Alfaguter I, Silverman G, Mor A. T cell chemokine receptor patterns as pathogenic signatures in autoimmunity. Discov Med. 2015 Feb; 19(103):117-25. PMID: 25725226.
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      14. Pedoeem A, Azoulay-Alfaguter I, Strazza M, Silverman G, Mor A. Programmed death-1 pathway in cancer and autoimmunity. Clin Immunol. 2014 Jul; 153(1):145-52. PMID: 24780173.
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      15. Grönwall C, Charles ED, Dustin LB, Rader C, Silverman G. Selection of apoptotic cell specific human antibodies from adult bone marrow. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95999. PMID: 24760047.
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      16. Grönwall C, Reynolds H, Kim JK, Buyon J, Goldberg JD, Clancy RM, Silverman G. Relation of carotid plaque with natural IgM antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol. 2014 Jul; 153(1):1-7. PMID: 24704464.
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      17. Grönwall C, Silverman G. Natural IgM: Beneficial Autoantibodies for the Control of Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disease. J Clin Immunol. 2014 Jul; 34 Suppl 1:12-21. PMID: 24691998.
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      18. Silverman G, Pelzek A. Rheumatoid arthritis clinical benefits from abatacept, cytokine blockers, and rituximab are all linked to modulation of memory B cell responses. J Rheumatol. 2014 May; 41(5):825-8. PMID: 24692519.
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      19. Silverman G, Vas J, Grönwall C. Protective autoantibodies in the rheumatic diseases: lessons for therapy. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013 May; 9(5):291-300. PMID: 23507902.
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      20. Vas J, Grönwall C, Silverman G. Fundamental roles of the innate-like repertoire of natural antibodies in immune homeostasis. Front Immunol. 2013; 4:4. PMID: 23386848.
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      21. Grönwall C, Chen Y, Vas J, Khanna S, Thiel S, Corr M, Kono DH, Silverman G. MAPK phosphatase-1 is required for regulatory natural autoantibody-mediated inhibition of TLR responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 27; 109(48):19745-50. PMID: 23139409.
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      22. Vas J, Grönwall C, Marshak-Rothstein A, Silverman G. Natural antibody to apoptotic cell membranes inhibits the proinflammatory properties of lupus autoantibody immune complexes. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Oct; 64(10):3388-98. PMID: 22577035.
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      23. Grönwall C, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Young JA, Silverman G. In vivo VL-targeted microbial superantigen induced global shifts in the B cell repertoire. J Immunol. 2012 Jul 15; 189(2):850-9. PMID: 22696444.
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      24. Grönwall C, Vas J, Silverman G. Protective Roles of Natural IgM Antibodies. Front Immunol. 2012; 3:66. PMID: 22566947.
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      25. Kaveri SV, Silverman G, Bayry J. Natural IgM in immune equilibrium and harnessing their therapeutic potential. J Immunol. 2012 Feb 1; 188(3):939-45. PMID: 22262757.
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      26. Grönwall C, Akhter E, Oh C, Burlingame RW, Petri M, Silverman G. IgM autoantibodies to distinct apoptosis-associated antigens correlate with protection from cardiovascular events and renal disease in patients with SLE. Clin Immunol. 2012 Mar; 142(3):390-8. PMID: 22297166.
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      27. Elkon KB, Silverman G. Naturally occurring autoantibodies to apoptotic cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 750:14-26. PMID: 22903663.
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      28. MacLellan LM, Montgomery J, Sugiyama F, Kitson SM, Thümmler K, Silverman G, Beers SA, Nibbs RJ, McInnes IB, Goodyear CS. Co-opting endogenous immunoglobulin for the regulation of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in humans and mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Dec; 63(12):3897-907. PMID: 22127707.
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      29. Lal P, Su Z, Holweg CT, Silverman G, Schwartzman S, Kelman A, Read S, Spaniolo G, Monroe JG, Behrens TW, Townsend MJ. Inflammation and autoantibody markers identify rheumatoid arthritis patients with enhanced clinical benefit following rituximab treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Dec; 63(12):3681-91. PMID: 22127691.
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      30. Becker-Herman S, Meyer-Bahlburg A, Schwartz MA, Jackson SW, Hudkins KL, Liu C, Sather BD, Khim S, Liggitt D, Song W, Silverman G, Alpers CE, Rawlings DJ. WASp-deficient B cells play a critical, cell-intrinsic role in triggering autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2011 Sep 26; 208(10):2033-42. PMID: 21875954.
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      31. Bartok B, Silverman G. Development of anti-CD20 therapy for multiple sclerosis. Exp Cell Res. 2011 May 15; 317(9):1312-8. PMID: 21510932.
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      32. Silverman G. Regulatory natural autoantibodies to apoptotic cells: pallbearers and protectors. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Mar; 63(3):597-602. PMID: 21360488.
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      33. Silverman G. Rethinking the red wolf disease: does Protein S suppress systemic lupus erythematosus clinical activity? Arthritis Res Ther. 2010; 12(5):144. PMID: 21067626.
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      34. Silverman G, Grönwall C, Vas J, Chen Y. Natural autoantibodies to apoptotic cell membranes regulate fundamental innate immune functions and suppress inflammation. Discov Med. 2009 Oct; 8(42):151-6. PMID: 19833064.
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      35. Kono DH, Haraldsson MK, Lawson BR, Pollard KM, Koh YT, Du X, Arnold CN, Baccala R, Silverman G, Beutler BA, Theofilopoulos AN. Endosomal TLR signaling is required for anti-nucleic acid and rheumatoid factor autoantibodies in lupus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 21; 106(29):12061-6. PMID: 19574451.
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      36. Chen Y, Khanna S, Goodyear CS, Park YB, Raz E, Thiel S, Grönwall C, Vas J, Boyle DL, Corr M, Kono DH, Silverman G. Regulation of dendritic cells and macrophages by an anti-apoptotic cell natural antibody that suppresses TLR responses and inhibits inflammatory arthritis. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 15; 183(2):1346-59. PMID: 19564341.
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      37. Chen Y, Park YB, Patel E, Silverman G. IgM antibodies to apoptosis-associated determinants recruit C1q and enhance dendritic cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. J Immunol. 2009 May 15; 182(10):6031-43. PMID: 19414754.
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      38. Kulik L, Fleming SD, Moratz C, Reuter JW, Novikov A, Chen K, Andrews KA, Markaryan A, Quigg RJ, Silverman G, Tsokos GC, Holers VM. Pathogenic natural antibodies recognizing annexin IV are required to develop intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2009 May 1; 182(9):5363-73. PMID: 19380783.
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      39. Catera R, Silverman G, Hatzi K, Seiler T, Didier S, Zhang L, Hervé M, Meffre E, Oscier DG, Vlassara H, Scofield RH, Chen Y, Allen SL, Kolitz J, Rai KR, Chu CC, Chiorazzi N. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells recognize conserved epitopes associated with apoptosis and oxidation. Mol Med. 2008 Nov-Dec; 14(11-12):665-74. PMID: 19009014.
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      40. Hennigan S, Channick RN, Silverman G. Rituximab treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report. Lupus. 2008 Aug; 17(8):754-6. PMID: 18625655.
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      41. Goodyear CS, Silverman G. Phage-display methodology for the study of protein-protein interactions: stage 1, generating libraries. CSH Protoc. 2008; 2008:pdb.prot5020. PMID: 21356886.
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      42. Goodyear CS, Silverman G. Phage-display methodology for the study of protein-protein interactions: stage 2, panning. CSH Protoc. 2008; 2008:pdb.prot5021. PMID: 21356887.
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      43. Goodyear CS, Silverman G. Phage-display methodology for the study of protein-protein interactions: stage 3, binding analysis. CSH Protoc. 2008; 2008:pdb.prot5022. PMID: 21356888.
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      44. Goodyear CS, Silverman G. Phage-display methodology for the study of protein-protein interactions: overview. CSH Protoc. 2008; 2008:pdb.top48. PMID: 21356898.
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      45. Silverman G, Boyle DL. Understanding the mechanistic basis in rheumatoid arthritis for clinical response to anti-CD20 therapy: the B-cell roadblock hypothesis. Immunol Rev. 2008 Jun; 223:175-85. PMID: 18613836.
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      46. Silverman G, Srikrishnan R, Germar K, Goodyear CS, Andrews KA, Ginzler EM, Tsao BP. Genetic imprinting of autoantibody repertoires in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Jul; 153(1):102-16. PMID: 18510544.
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      47. Silverman G, Linnik MD. Therapeutic potential (2). Lupus. 2008 Mar; 17(3):262-5. PMID: 18372374.
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      48. Barbas CF, Burton DR, Scott JK, Silverman G. Quantitation of DNA and RNA. CSH Protoc. 2007; 2007:pdb.ip47. PMID: 21356961.
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      49. Silverman G, Khanna S. B cell modulation in rheumatology. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007 Aug; 7(4):426-33. PMID: 17625968.
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      50. Goodyear CS, Corr M, Sugiyama F, Boyle DL, Silverman G. Cutting Edge: Bim is required for superantigen-mediated B cell death. J Immunol. 2007 Mar 1; 178(5):2636-40. PMID: 17312102.
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      51. Silverman G. Anti-CD20 therapy and autoimmune disease: therapeutic opportunities and evolving insights. Front Biosci. 2007; 12:2194-206. PMID: 17127456.
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      52. O'Seaghdha M, van Schooten CJ, Kerrigan SW, Emsley J, Silverman G, Cox D, Lenting PJ, Foster TJ. Staphylococcus aureus protein A binding to von Willebrand factor A1 domain is mediated by conserved IgG binding regions. FEBS J. 2006 Nov; 273(21):4831-41. PMID: 16999823.
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      53. Enzler T, Bonizzi G, Silverman G, Otero DC, Widhopf GF, Anzelon-Mills A, Rickert RC, Karin M. Alternative and classical NF-kappa B signaling retain autoreactive B cells in the splenic marginal zone and result in lupus-like disease. Immunity. 2006 Sep; 25(3):403-15. PMID: 16973390.
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      54. Silverman G. Therapeutic B cell depletion and regeneration in rheumatoid arthritis: emerging patterns and paradigms. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Aug; 54(8):2356-67. PMID: 16868991.
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      55. Silverman G, Goodyear CS. Confounding B-cell defences: lessons from a staphylococcal superantigen. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006 Jun; 6(6):465-75. PMID: 16724100.
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      56. Goodyear CS, Sugiyama F, Silverman G. Temporal and dose-dependent relationships between in vivo B cell receptor-targeted proliferation and deletion-induced by a microbial B cell toxin. J Immunol. 2006 Feb 15; 176(4):2262-71. PMID: 16455982.
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      57. Féral CC, Rose DM, Han J, Fox N, Silverman G, Kaushansky K, Ginsberg MH. Blocking the alpha 4 integrin-paxillin interaction selectively impairs mononuclear leukocyte recruitment to an inflammatory site. J Clin Invest. 2006 Mar; 116(3):715-23. PMID: 16470243.
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      58. Silverman G. Targeting of B cells in SLE: rationale and therapeutic opportunities. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis. 2006; 64(1-2):51-6. PMID: 17121490.
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      59. Rodriguez W, Mold C, Marnell LL, Hutt J, Silverman G, Tran D, Du Clos TW. Prevention and reversal of nephritis in MRL/lpr mice with a single injection of C-reactive protein. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Jan; 54(1):325-35. PMID: 16385552.
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      60. Cappione A, Anolik JH, Pugh-Bernard A, Barnard J, Dutcher P, Silverman G, Sanz I. Germinal center exclusion of autoreactive B cells is defective in human systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest. 2005 Nov; 115(11):3205-16. PMID: 16211091.
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      61. Palmqvist N, Silverman G, Josefsson E, Tarkowski A. Bacterial cell wall-expressed protein A triggers supraclonal B-cell responses upon in vivo infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Microbes Infect. 2005 Dec; 7(15):1501-11. PMID: 16039897.
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      62. Binder CJ, Silverman G. Natural antibodies and the autoimmunity of atherosclerosis. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2005 Mar; 26(4):385-404. PMID: 15609021.
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      63. Goodyear CS, Silverman G. B cell superantigens: a microbe's answer to innate-like B cells and natural antibodies. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2005 Mar; 26(4):463-84. PMID: 15633015.
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      64. Silverman G. Anti-CD20 therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus: a step closer to the clinic. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Feb; 52(2):371-7. PMID: 15692969.
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      65. Silverman G, Goodyear CS, Siegel DL. On the mechanism of staphylococcal protein A immunomodulation. Transfusion. 2005 Feb; 45(2):274-80. PMID: 15660839.
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      66. Chang MK, Binder CJ, Miller YI, Subbanagounder G, Silverman G, Berliner JA, Witztum JL. Apoptotic cells with oxidation-specific epitopes are immunogenic and proinflammatory. J Exp Med. 2004 Dec 6; 200(11):1359-70. PMID: 15583011.
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      67. Goodyear CS, Silverman G. Staphylococcal toxin induced preferential and prolonged in vivo deletion of innate-like B lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 3; 101(31):11392-7. PMID: 15273292.
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      68. Meyer M, Belke DD, Trost SU, Swanson E, Dieterle T, Scott B, Cary SP, Ho P, Bluhm WF, McDonough PM, Silverman G, Dillmann WH. A recombinant antibody increases cardiac contractility by mimicking phospholamban phosphorylation. FASEB J. 2004 Aug; 18(11):1312-4. PMID: 15180962.
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      69. Goodyear CS, Narita M, Silverman G. In vivo VL-targeted activation-induced apoptotic supraclonal deletion by a microbial B cell toxin. J Immunol. 2004 Mar 1; 172(5):2870-7. PMID: 14978088.
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      70. Silverman G, Carson DA. Roles of B cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003; 5 Suppl 4:S1-6. PMID: 15180890.
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      71. Shaw PX, Goodyear CS, Chang MK, Witztum JL, Silverman G. The autoreactivity of anti-phosphorylcholine antibodies for atherosclerosis-associated neo-antigens and apoptotic cells. J Immunol. 2003 Jun 15; 170(12):6151-7. PMID: 12794145.
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      72. Silverman G, Weisman S. Rituximab therapy and autoimmune disorders: prospects for anti-B cell therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Jun; 48(6):1484-92. PMID: 12794814.
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      73. Binder CJ, Hörkkö S, Dewan A, Chang MK, Kieu EP, Goodyear CS, Shaw PX, Palinski W, Witztum JL, Silverman G. Pneumococcal vaccination decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation: molecular mimicry between Streptococcus pneumoniae and oxidized LDL. Nat Med. 2003 Jun; 9(6):736-43. PMID: 12740573.
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      74. Goodyear CS, Silverman G. Death by a B cell superantigen: In vivo VH-targeted apoptotic supraclonal B cell deletion by a Staphylococcal Toxin. J Exp Med. 2003 May 5; 197(9):1125-39. PMID: 12719481.
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      75. Berry JD, Rutherford J, Silverman G, Kaul R, Elia M, Gobuty S, Fuller R, Plummer FA, Barbas CF. Development of functional human monoclonal single-chain variable fragment antibody against HIV-1 from human cervical B cells. Hybrid Hybridomics. 2003 Apr; 22(2):97-108. PMID: 12831535.
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      76. Scamurra RW, Nelson DB, Lin XM, Miller DJ, Silverman G, Kappel T, Thurn JR, Lorenz E, Kulkarni-Narla A, Janoff EN. Mucosal plasma cell repertoire during HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2002 Oct 1; 169(7):4008-16. PMID: 12244203.
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      77. Silverman G, Goodyear CS. A model B-cell superantigen and the immunobiology of B lymphocytes. Clin Immunol. 2002 Feb; 102(2):117-34. PMID: 11846453.
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      78. Pugh-Bernard AE, Silverman G, Cappione AJ, Villano ME, Ryan DH, Insel RA, Sanz I. Regulation of inherently autoreactive VH4-34 B cells in the maintenance of human B cell tolerance. J Clin Invest. 2001 Oct; 108(7):1061-70. PMID: 11581307.
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      79. Shaw PX, Hörkkö S, Tsimikas S, Chang MK, Palinski W, Silverman G, Chen PP, Witztum JL. Human-derived anti-oxidized LDL autoantibody blocks uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages and localizes to atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Aug; 21(8):1333-9. PMID: 11498462.
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      80. Silverman G. Adoptive transfer of a superantigen-induced hole in the repertoire of natural IgM-secreting cells. Cell Immunol. 2001 Apr 10; 209(1):76-80. PMID: 11414738.
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      81. Silverman G, Cary SP, Dwyer DC, Luo L, Wagenknecht R, Curtiss VE. A B cell superantigen-induced persistent "Hole" in the B-1 repertoire. J Exp Med. 2000 Jul 3; 192(1):87-98. PMID: 10880529.
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      82. Hörkkö S, Binder CJ, Shaw PX, Chang MK, Silverman G, Palinski W, Witztum JL. Immunological responses to oxidized LDL. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jun 15; 28(12):1771-9. PMID: 10946219.
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      83. Shaw PX, Hörkkö S, Chang MK, Curtiss LK, Palinski W, Silverman G, Witztum JL. Natural antibodies with the T15 idiotype may act in atherosclerosis, apoptotic clearance, and protective immunity. J Clin Invest. 2000 Jun; 105(12):1731-40. PMID: 10862788.
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      84. Graille M, Stura EA, Corper AL, Sutton BJ, Taussig MJ, Charbonnier JB, Silverman G. Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 May 9; 97(10):5399-404. PMID: 10805799.
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      85. Cary SP, Lee J, Wagenknecht R, Silverman G. Characterization of superantigen-induced clonal deletion with a novel clan III-restricted avian monoclonal antibody: exploiting evolutionary distance to create antibodies specific for a conserved VH region surface. J Immunol. 2000 May 1; 164(9):4730-41. PMID: 10779779.
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      86. Silverman G, Shaw PX, Luo L, Dwyer D, Chang M, Horkko S, Palinski W, Stall A, Witztum JL. Neo-self antigens and the expansion of B-1 cells: lessons from atherosclerosis-prone mice. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2000; 252:189-200. PMID: 11125476.
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      87. Silverman G, Cary S, Graille M, Curtiss VE, Wagenknecht R, Luo L, Dwyer D, Goodyear C, Corper AL, Stura EA, Charbonnier JB. A B-cell superantigen that targets B-1 lymphocytes. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2000; 252:251-63. PMID: 11125483.
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      88. Pospisil R, Silverman G, Marti GE, Aruffo A, Bowen MA, Mage RG. CD5 is A potential selecting ligand for B-cell surface immunoglobulin: a possible role in maintenance and selective expansion of normal and malignant B cells. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000 Jan; 36(3-4):353-65. PMID: 10674908.
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      89. Cary S, Krishnan M, Marion TN, Silverman G. The murine clan V(H) III related 7183, J606 and S107 and DNA4 families commonly encode for binding to a bacterial B cell superantigen. Mol Immunol. 1999 Aug; 36(11-12):769-76. PMID: 10593515.
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      90. Karray S, Juompan L, Maroun RC, Isenberg D, Silverman G, Zouali M. Structural basis of the gp120 superantigen-binding site on human immunoglobulins. J Immunol. 1998 Dec 15; 161(12):6681-8. PMID: 9862697.
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      91. Silverman G, Nayak JV, Warnatz K, Hajjar FF, Cary S, Tighe H, Curtiss VE. The dual phases of the response to neonatal exposure to a VH family-restricted staphylococcal B cell superantigen. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5720-32. PMID: 9820554.
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      92. Silverman G. B cell superantigens: possible roles in immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Semin Immunol. 1998 Feb; 10(1):43-55. PMID: 9529655.
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      93. Silverman G. B-cell superantigens. Immunol Today. 1997 Aug; 18(8):379-86. PMID: 9267080.
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      94. Silverman G, Nayak JV, Wagenknecht R, Warnatz K. In vivo consequences of B cell superantigen immunization. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Apr 5; 815:105-10. PMID: 9186643.
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      95. Silverman G, Nayak JV, La Cava A. B-cell superantigens: molecular and cellular implications. Int Rev Immunol. 1997; 14(4):259-90. PMID: 9186781.
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      96. Stevenson FK, Silverman G. Expression of anti-DNA antibodies. Lupus. 1997; 6(3):321-3. PMID: 9296777.
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      97. Roben P, Barbas SM, Sandoval L, Lecerf JM, Stollar BD, Solomon A, Silverman G. Repertoire cloning of lupus anti-DNA autoantibodies. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2827-37. PMID: 8981931.
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      98. Silverman G, Pirès R, Bouvet JP. An endogenous sialoprotein and a bacterial B cell superantigen compete in their VH family-specific binding interactions with human Igs. J Immunol. 1996 Nov 15; 157(10):4496-502. PMID: 8906827.
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      99. Hakoda M, Kamatani N, Hayashimoto-Kurumada S, Silverman G, Yamanaka H, Terai C, Kashiwazaki S. Differential binding avidities of human IgM for staphylococcal protein A derive from specific germ-line VH3 gene usage. J Immunol. 1996 Oct 1; 157(7):2976-81. PMID: 8816405.
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      100. Kozlowski LM, Soulika AM, Silverman G, Lambris JD, Levinson AI. Complement activation by a B cell superantigen. J Immunol. 1996 Aug 1; 157(3):1200-6. PMID: 8757626.
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      101. Sato Y, Roman M, Tighe H, Lee D, Corr M, Nguyen MD, Silverman G, Lotz M, Carson DA, Raz E. Immunostimulatory DNA sequences necessary for effective intradermal gene immunization. Science. 1996 Jul 19; 273(5273):352-4. PMID: 8662521.
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      102. Hakim I, Amariglio N, Brok-Simoni F, Berkowitz M, Rosner E, Kneller A, Hulu N, Ramot B, Ben-Bassat I, Silverman G. Preferred usage of specific immunoglobulin gene segments in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells of three HLA-identical sisters. Br J Haematol. 1995 Dec; 91(4):915-7. PMID: 8547138.
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      103. Silverman G. Unconventional B-cell antigens and human immune repertoires. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Sep 29; 764:342-55. PMID: 7486544.
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      104. Silverman G, Barbas S, Roben P, Burton DR. Repertoire cloning of human lupus autoantibodies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Sep 29; 764:565-6. PMID: 7486585.
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      105. Shaw DR, Kirkham P, Schroeder HW, Roben P, Silverman G. Structure-function studies of human monoclonal antibodies to pneumococcus type 3 polysaccharide. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Sep 29; 764:370-3. PMID: 7486548.
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      106. Silverman G, Roben P, Bouvet JP, Sasano M. Superantigen properties of a human sialoprotein involved in gut-associated immunity. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jul; 96(1):417-26. PMID: 7615813.
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      107. Roben PW, Salem AN, Silverman G. VH3 family antibodies bind domain D of staphylococcal protein A. J Immunol. 1995 Jun 15; 154(12):6437-45. PMID: 7759880.
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      108. Barbas SM, Ditzel HJ, Salonen EM, Yang WP, Silverman G, Burton DR. Human autoantibody recognition of DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28; 92(7):2529-33. PMID: 7708679.
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      109. Silverman G, Sasano M, Wormsley SB. Age-associated changes in binding of human B lymphocytes to a VH3-restricted unconventional bacterial antigen. J Immunol. 1993 Nov 15; 151(10):5840-55. PMID: 7693819.
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      110. Sasano M, Burton DR, Silverman G. Molecular selection of human antibodies with an unconventional bacterial B cell antigen. J Immunol. 1993 Nov 15; 151(10):5822-39. PMID: 8228264.
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      111. Müller S, Wang H, Silverman G, Bramlet G, Haigwood N, Köhler H. B-cell abnormalities in AIDS: stable and clonally-restricted antibody response in HIV-1 infection. Scand J Immunol. 1993 Oct; 38(4):327-34. PMID: 7692591.
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      112. Newkirk MM, Rauch J, Mageed RA, Jefferis R, Posnett DN, Silverman G. Restricted immunoglobulin variable region gene usage by hybridoma rheumatoid factors from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Immunol. 1993 Feb; 30(3):255-63. PMID: 7679467.
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      113. Jefferies LC, Silverman G, Carchidi CM, Silberstein LE. Idiotypic heterogeneity of VKIII autoantibodies to red blood cell antigens. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 Nov; 65(2):119-28. PMID: 1395128.
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      114. Grillot-Courvalin C, Brouet JC, Piller F, Rassenti LZ, Labaume S, Silverman G, Silberstein L, Kipps TJ. An anti-B cell autoantibody from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome which recognizes i blood group specificity on normal human B cells. Eur J Immunol. 1992 Jul; 22(7):1781-8. PMID: 1623923.
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      115. Müller S, Nara P, D'Amelio R, Biselli R, Gold D, Wang H, Köhler H, Silverman G. Clonal patterns in the human immune response to HIV-1 infection. Int Rev Immunol. 1992; 9(1):1-13. PMID: 1484266.
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      116. Silverman G. Human antibody responses to bacterial antigens: studies of a model conventional antigen and a proposed model B cell superantigen. Int Rev Immunol. 1992; 9(1):57-78. PMID: 1484269.
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      117. Silberstein LE, Jefferies LC, Goldman J, Friedman D, Moore JS, Nowell PC, Roelcke D, Pruzanski W, Roudier J, Silverman G. Variable region gene analysis of pathologic human autoantibodies to the related i and I red blood cell antigens. Blood. 1991 Nov 1; 78(9):2372-86. PMID: 1657249.
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      118. Sasso EH, Silverman G, Mannik M. Human IgA and IgG F(ab')2 that bind to staphylococcal protein A belong to the VHIII subgroup. J Immunol. 1991 Sep 15; 147(6):1877-83. PMID: 1909733.
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      119. Silverman G, Lucas AH. Variable region diversity in human circulating antibodies specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Preferential usage of two types of VH3 heavy chains. J Clin Invest. 1991 Sep; 88(3):911-20. PMID: 1909353.
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      120. Silverman G. On the structure of human autoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum. 1991 Jul; 34(7):935-6. PMID: 1905541.
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      121. Axelrod O, Silverman G, Dev V, Kyle R, Carson DA, Kipps TJ. Idiotypic cross-reactivity of immunoglobulins expressed in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and mantle zone lymphocytes of secondary B-cell follicles. Blood. 1991 Apr 1; 77(7):1484-90. PMID: 1901234.
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      122. Carson DA, Chen PP, Silverman G, Kipps TJ. Immunoglobulin gene expression in systemic rheumatic diseases. Br J Rheumatol. 1991; 30 Suppl 1:43-6. PMID: 1991239.
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      123. Silverman G, Schrohenloher RE, Accavitti MA, Koopman WJ, Carson DA. Structural characterization of the second major cross-reactive idiotype group of human rheumatoid factors. Association with the VH4 gene family. Arthritis Rheum. 1990 Sep; 33(9):1347-60. PMID: 2403399.
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      124. Tighe H, Silverman G, Kozin F, Tucker R, Gulizia R, Peebles C, Lotz M, Rhodes G, Machold K, Mosier DE. Autoantibody production by severe combined immunodeficient mice reconstituted with synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Eur J Immunol. 1990 Aug; 20(8):1843-8. PMID: 2209691.
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      125. Roudier J, Silverman G, Chen PP, Carson DA, Kipps TJ. Intraclonal diversity in the VH genes expressed by CD5- chronic lymphocytic leukemia-producing pathologic IgM rheumatoid factor. J Immunol. 1990 Feb 15; 144(4):1526-30. PMID: 1689356.
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      126. Silverman G, Carson DA. Structural characterization of human monoclonal cold agglutinins: evidence for a distinct primary sequence-defined VH4 idiotype. Eur J Immunol. 1990 Feb; 20(2):351-6. PMID: 2107084.
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      127. Crowley JJ, Mageed RA, Silverman G, Chen PP, Kozin F, Erger RA, Jefferis R, Carson DA. The incidence of a new human cross-reactive idiotype linked to subgroup VHIII heavy chains. Mol Immunol. 1990 Jan; 27(1):87-94. PMID: 2107394.
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      128. Silverman G, Chen PP, Carson DA. Cold agglutinins: specificity, idiotypy and structural analysis. Chem Immunol. 1990; 48:109-25. PMID: 1688493.
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      129. Chen PP, Silverman G, Liu MF, Carson DA. Idiotypic and molecular characterization of human rheumatoid factors. Chem Immunol. 1990; 48:63-81. PMID: 2403808.
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      130. Carson DA, Chen PP, Kipps TJ, Roudier J, Silverman G, Tighe H. Regulation of rheumatoid factor synthesis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989 Sep-Oct; 7 Suppl 3:S69-73. PMID: 2691162.
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      131. Sasso EH, Silverman G, Mannik M. Human IgM molecules that bind staphylococcal protein A contain VHIII H chains. J Immunol. 1989 Apr 15; 142(8):2778-83. PMID: 2495325.
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      132. Silverman G, Goñi F, Fernandez J, Chen PP, Frangione B, Carson DA. Distinct patterns of heavy chain variable region subgroup use by human monoclonal autoantibodies of different specificity. J Exp Med. 1988 Dec 1; 168(6):2361-6. PMID: 3143801.
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      133. Silverman G, Goldfien RD, Chen P, Mageed RA, Jefferis R, Goñi F, Frangione B, Fong S, Carson DA. Idiotypic and subgroup analysis of human monoclonal rheumatoid factors. Implications for structural and genetic basis of autoantibodies in humans. J Clin Invest. 1988 Aug; 82(2):469-75. PMID: 3136191.
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      134. Crowley JJ, Goldfien RD, Schrohenloher RE, Spiegelberg HL, Silverman G, Mageed RA, Jefferis R, Koopman WJ, Carson DA, Fong S. Incidence of three cross-reactive idiotypes on human rheumatoid factor paraproteins. J Immunol. 1988 May 15; 140(10):3411-8. PMID: 3129494.
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      135. Chen PP, Fong S, Goni F, Silverman G, Fox RI, Liu MF, Frangione B, Carson DA. Cross-reacting idiotypes on cryoprecipitating rheumatoid factor. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1988; 10(1):35-55. PMID: 3137675.
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      136. Fong S, Chen PP, Crowley JJ, Silverman G, Carson DA. Idiotypes and the structural diversity of human rheumatoid factors. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1988; 10(2-3):189-201. PMID: 3142069.
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      137. Fong S, Chen PP, Crowley JJ, Silverman G, Carson DA. Idiotypic characteristics of rheumatoid factors. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1988; 75:58-65. PMID: 3149008.
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      138. Fong S, Chen PP, Fox RI, Goldfien RD, Radoux V, Silverman G, Crowley JJ, Roudier J, Carson DA. The diversity and idiotypic patterns of human rheumatoid factors in disease. Concepts Immunopathol. 1988; 5:168-91. PMID: 3286006.
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      139. Carson DA, Chen PP, Kipps TJ, Radoux V, Jirik FR, Goldfien RD, Fox RI, Silverman G, Fong S. Idiotypic and genetic studies of human rheumatoid factors. Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Dec; 30(12):1321-5. PMID: 3124859.
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      140. Silverman G, Carson DA, Patrick K, Vaughan JH, Fong S. Expression of a germline human kappa chain-associated cross-reactive idiotype after in vitro and in vivo infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1987 Jun; 43(3):403-11. PMID: 3034457.
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      141. Carson DA, Chen PP, Fox RI, Kipps TJ, Jirik F, Goldfien RD, Silverman G, Radoux V, Fong S. Rheumatoid factor and immune networks. Annu Rev Immunol. 1987; 5:109-26. PMID: 2439101.
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      142. Carson DA, Chen PP, Kipps TJ, Radoux V, Jirik F, Goldfien RD, Fox RI, Silverman G, Fong S. Molecular basis for the cross-reactive idiotypes on human anti-IgG autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors). Ciba Found Symp. 1987; 129:123-34. PMID: 3315499.
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      143. Silverman G, Carson DA, Solomon A, Fong S. Human kappa light chain subgroup analysis with synthetic peptide-induced antisera. J Immunol Methods. 1986 Dec 24; 95(2):249-57. PMID: 3098855.
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      144. Fong S, Chen PP, Fox RI, Goldfien RD, Silverman G, Radoux V, Jirik F, Vaughan JH, Carson DA. Rheumatoid factors in human autoimmune disease: their origin, development and function. Pathol Immunopathol Res. 1986; 5(3-5):305-16. PMID: 3110754.
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      145. Tarbet WJ, Silverman G, Stolman JM, Fratarcangelo PA. Clinical evaluation of a new treatment for dentinal hypersensitivity. J Periodontol. 1980 Sep; 51(9):535-40. PMID: 6999149.
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      146. Chesbro W, Carpenter D, Silverman G. Heterogeneity of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B as a function of growth stage: implications for surveillance of foods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Apr; 31(4):581-9. PMID: 1083713.
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      147. Dietrich GG, Watson RJ, Silverman G. Effect of shaking speed on the secretion of enterotoxin B by Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Microbiol. 1972 Oct; 24(4):561-6. PMID: 4628794.
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      148. Markus Z, Silverman G. Enterotoxin B synthesis by replicating and nonreplicating cells of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1969 Feb; 97(2):506-12. PMID: 4886280.
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      149. Markus Z, Silverman G. Enterotoxin B production by nongrowing cells of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1968 Oct; 96(4):1446-7. PMID: 5686013.
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      150. Gross L, Blum L, Silverman G. EXPERIMENTAL ATTEMPTS TO INCREASE THE BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE DOG'S HEART BY MEANS OF CORONARY SINUS OCCLUSION. J Exp Med. 1937 Jan 1; 65(1):91-108. PMID: 19870593.
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