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Peter Lindholm

Title(s)Professor In Residence, Emergency Medical Services
SchoolHealth Sciences
Address200 W. Arbor Drive #8676
San Diego CA 92103
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    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, SwedenM.D.2002
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, SwedenPh.D.2002Physiology
    Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SwedenResidency2011Radiology

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    Peter Lindholm, MD, PhD is Professor in Residence, Gurnee Endowed Chair of Hyperbaric and Diving Medicine Research, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California San Diego. He is a radiologist (licensed in Sweden), and associate professor in physiology and radiology from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. He has also served as director of thoracic radiology at the Karolinska University Hospital. His research interest is in the field of diving and hyperbaric medicine with focus on the pathophysiology of breath-hold diving. He has published studies on hypoxia and loss of consciousness as well as the pulmonary effects of lungsqueeze. He has described the physiology of how glossopharyngeal breathing extends the amount of gas in the lungs beyond total lung capacity, including the first case series suggesting cerebral arterial gas embolism from glossopharyngeal insufflation (lungpacking). He published the first study suggesting “tracheal squeeze” as an alternative to pulmonary edema in divers bleeding after deep dives. He has showed that exercise and fasting prior to diving increases the risk of loss of consciousness similar to hyperventilation. He has also developed a new method to use magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose pulmonary embolism. Current focus is on immersion pulmonary edema and lungsqueeze, as well as new methods to measure hyperbaric oxygen therapy. He also enjoys exercise and his saltwater aquarium.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. A Multi-million Mammography Image Dataset and Population-Based Screening Cohort for the Training and Evaluation of Deep Neural Networks-the Cohort of Screen-Aged Women (CSAW). J Digit Imaging. 2020 Apr; 33(2):408-413. Dembrower K, Lindholm P, Strand F. PMID: 31520277.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Evaluation of Combined Artificial Intelligence and Radiologist Assessment to Interpret Screening Mammograms. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Mar 02; 3(3):e200265. Schaffter T, Buist DSM, Lee CI, Nikulin Y, Ribli D, Guan Y, Lotter W, Jie Z, Du H, Wang S, Feng J, Feng M, Kim HE, Albiol F, Albiol A, Morrell S, Wojna Z, Ahsen ME, Asif U, Jimeno Yepes A, Yohanandan S, Rabinovici-Cohen S, Yi D, Hoff B, Yu T, Chaibub Neto E, Rubin DL, Lindholm P, Margolies LR, McBride RB, Rothstein JH, Sieh W, Ben-Ari R, Harrer S, Trister A, Friend S, Norman T, Sahiner B, Strand F, Guinney J, Stolovitzky G, Mackey L, Cahoon J, Shen L, Sohn JH, Trivedi H, Shen Y, Buturovic L, Pereira JC, Cardoso JS, Castro E, Kalleberg KT, Pelka O, Nedjar I, Geras KJ, Nensa F, Goan E, Koitka S, Caballero L, Cox DD, Krishnaswamy P, Pandey G, Friedrich CM, Perrin D, Fookes C, Shi B, Cardoso Negrie G, Kawczynski M, Cho K, Khoo CS, Lo JY, Sorensen AG, Jung H. PMID: 32119094.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Comparison of a Deep Learning Risk Score and Standard Mammographic Density Score for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction. Radiology. 2020 Feb; 294(2):265-272. Dembrower K, Liu Y, Azizpour H, Eklund M, Smith K, Lindholm P, Strand F. PMID: 31845842.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. The future of breast cancer screening: what do participants in a breast cancer screening program think about automation using artificial intelligence? Acta Radiol Open. 2019 Dec; 8(12):2058460119880315. Jonmarker O, Strand F, Brandberg Y, Lindholm P. PMID: 31839989.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. Primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with unenhanced MRI for patients not eligible for CTPA: Clinical outcome. Eur J Radiol Open. 2019; 6:315-319. Medson K, Vargas-Paris R, Nordgren-Rogberg A, Sigbergsdottir A, Nyrén S, Lindholm P. PMID: 31692624.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    6. Do radiologists detect chronic thromboembolic disease on computed tomography? Acta Radiol. 2019 Nov; 60(11):1576-1583. Rogberg AN, Gopalan D, Westerlund E, Lindholm P. PMID: 30897932.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Comparison of End-Expiration Versus End-Inspiration Breath-Holds With Respect to Respiratory Motion Artifacts on T1-Weighted Abdominal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Mar 05; 1-6. Vu KN, Haldipur AG, Roh AT, Lindholm P, Loening AM. PMID: 30835515.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    8. From Ocean Deep to Mountain High: Similar Computed Tomography Findings in Immersion and High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 10 15; 198(8):1088-1089. Lindholm P, Swenson ER, Martínez-Jiménez S, Guo HH. PMID: 30044644.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute pulmonary embolism: a feasibility study. Acta Radiol Open. 2018 Jun; 7(6):2058460118783013. Vargas Paris R, Skorpil M, Westerlund E, Lindholm P, Nyrén S. PMID: 30013795.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    10. Pulmonary artery imaging under free-breathing using golden-angle radial bSSFP MRI: a proof of concept. Magn Reson Med. 2018 11; 80(5):1847-1856. Fyrdahl A, Vargas Paris R, Nyrén S, Holst K, Ugander M, Lindholm P, Sigfridsson A. PMID: 29542200.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. How to train radiology residents to diagnose pulmonary embolism using a dedicated MRI protocol. Acta Radiol Open. 2017 Sep; 6(9):2058460117734244. Nordgren Rogberg A, Nyrén S, Westerlund E, Lindholm P. PMID: 28989798.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    12. Decelerations of Parachute Opening Shock in Skydivers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017 Feb 01; 88(2):121-127. Gladh K, Lo Martire R, Äng BO, Lindholm P, Nilsson J, Westman A. PMID: 28095956.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Acute effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation in people with cervical spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2018 01; 41(1):85-90. Nygren-Bonnier M, Schiffer TA, Lindholm P. PMID: 28112598.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Aerobic efficiency is associated with the improvement in maximal power output during acute hyperoxia. Physiol Rep. 2017 Jan; 5(2). Manselin TA, Södergård O, Larsen FJ, Lindholm P. PMID: 28108650.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Detection of pulmonary embolism using repeated MRI acquisitions without respiratory gating: a preliminary study. Acta Radiol. 2017 Mar; 58(3):272-278. Nyrén S, Nordgren Rogberg A, Vargas Paris R, Bengtsson B, Westerlund E, Lindholm P. PMID: 27273375.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on nitric oxide generation in humans. Nitric Oxide. 2015 Jan 30; 44:88-97. Uusijärvi J, Eriksson K, Larsson AC, Nihlén C, Schiffer T, Lindholm P, Weitzberg E. PMID: 25498903.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation in ankylosing spondylitis: a pilot study. Int J Rheumatol. 2014; 2014:594708. Brodin N, Lindholm P, Lennartsson C, Nygren-Bonnier M. PMID: 25506364.
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    18. Decelerations and muscle responses during parachute opening shock. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013 Nov; 84(11):1205-10. Gladh K, Ang BO, Lindholm P, Nilsson J, Westman A. PMID: 24279237.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Musculoskeletal pain and related risks in skydivers: a population-based survey. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013 Oct; 84(10):1034-40. Nilsson J, Fridén C, Burén V, Westman A, Lindholm P, Ang BO. PMID: 24261055.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Effects of dietary inorganic nitrate on static and dynamic breath-holding in humans. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013 Jan 15; 185(2):339-48. Schiffer TA, Larsen FJ, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Lindholm P. PMID: 23099220.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Transient ischemic attacks from arterial gas embolism induced by glossopharyngeal insufflation and a possible method to identify individuals at risk. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Mar; 113(3):803-10. Schiffer TA, Lindholm P. PMID: 22983570.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    22. Nitrox permits direct exit for attendants during extended hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2012 Jan-Feb; 39(1):605-12. Larsson AC, Uusijärvi J, Frånberg O, Eksborg S, Lindholm P. PMID: 22400451.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    23. Investigation of a demand-controlled rebreather in connection with a diving accident. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2011 Jan-Feb; 38(1):61-72. Frånberg O, Ericsson M, Larsson A, Lindholm P. PMID: 21384764.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Inhalation heterogeneity from subresidual volumes in elite divers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Dec; 109(6):1969-73. Muradyan I, Loring SH, Ferrigno M, Lindholm P, Topulos GP, Patz S, Butler JP. PMID: 20864566.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Tissue oxygenation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy during normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen breathing in healthy subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Jul; 109(4):757-61. Larsson A, Uusijärvi J, Eksborg S, Lindholm P. PMID: 20217118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Marked pericardial inhomogeneity of specific ventilation at total lung capacity and beyond. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009 Oct 31; 169(1):44-9. Sun Y, Butler JP, Lindholm P, Walvick RP, Loring SH, Gereige J, Ferrigno M, Albert MS. PMID: 19664729.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Glossopharyngeal pistoning for lung insufflation in children with spinal muscular atrophy type II. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Aug; 98(8):1324-8. Nygren-Bonnier M, Markström A, Lindholm P, Mattsson E, Klefbeck B. PMID: 19432834.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. A fluoroscopic and laryngoscopic study of glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009 Jun 30; 167(2):189-94. Lindholm P, Norris CM, Braver JM, Jacobson F, Ferrigno M. PMID: 19383557.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Venous gas emboli and exhaled nitric oxide with simulated and actual extravehicular activity. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009 Oct; 169 Suppl 1:S59-62. Karlsson LL, Blogg SL, Lindholm P, Gennser M, Hemmingsson T, Linnarsson D. PMID: 19442591.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. The physiology and pathophysiology of human breath-hold diving. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Jan; 106(1):284-92. Lindholm P, Lundgren CE. PMID: 18974367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Pulmonary edema and hemoptysis after breath-hold diving at residual volume. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Apr; 104(4):912-7. Lindholm P, Ekborn A, Oberg D, Gennser M. PMID: 18202166.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Pulse oximetry to detect hypoxemia during apnea: comparison of finger and ear probes. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007 Aug; 78(8):770-3. Lindholm P, Blogg SL, Gennser M. PMID: 17760284.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Effects of glossopharyngeal pistoning for lung insufflation in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 May; 39(5):836-41. Nygren-Bonnier M, Gullstrand L, Klefbeck B, Lindholm P. PMID: 17468583.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Effects of fasting and carbohydrate consumption on voluntary resting apnea duration. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007 Jul; 100(4):417-25. Lindholm P, Conniff M, Gennser M, Pendergast D, Lundgren C. PMID: 17406888.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    35. Effects of glossopharyngeal pistoning for lung insufflation on vital capacity in healthy women. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Apr; 86(4):290-4. Nygren-Bonnier M, Lindholm P, Markström A, Skedinger M, Mattsson E, Klefbeck B. PMID: 17413541.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Transpulmonary pressures and lung mechanics with glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation beyond normal lung volumes in competitive breath-hold divers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Mar; 102(3):841-6. Loring SH, O'Donnell CR, Butler JP, Lindholm P, Jacobson F, Ferrigno M. PMID: 17110514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. The heart rate of breath-hold divers during static apnea: effects of competitive stress. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2006 Mar-Apr; 33(2):119-24. Lindholm P, Nordh J, Gennser M. PMID: 16716062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Time components of circulatory transport from the lungs to a peripheral artery in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 May; 97(1):96-102. Lindholm P, Karlsson L, Gill H, Wigertz O, Linnarsson D. PMID: 16485105.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    39. Studies on inspiratory and expiratory glossopharyngeal breathing in breath-hold divers employing magnetic resonance imaging and spirometry. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 Aug; 94(5-6):646-51. Lindholm P, Nyrén S. PMID: 15942772.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    40. Aggravated hypoxia during breath-holds after prolonged exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 Mar; 93(5-6):701-7. Lindholm P, Gennser M. PMID: 15778900.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. [Breath-hold diving--an increasing adventure sport with medical risks]. Lakartidningen. 2004 Feb 26; 101(9):787-90. Lindholm P, Gennser M. PMID: 15045843.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Role of hypoxemia for the cardiovascular responses to apnea during exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002 Nov; 283(5):R1227-35. Lindholm P, Nordh J, Linnarsson D. PMID: 12376417.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    43. Pulmonary gas exchange during apnoea in exercising men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Apr; 86(6):487-91. Lindholm P, Linnarsson D. PMID: 11944095.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Oxygen-conserving effects of apnea in exercising men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999 Dec; 87(6):2122-7. Lindholm P, Sundblad P, Linnarsson D. PMID: 10601158.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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