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    Richard Firtel

    TitleAssociate Dean
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentDivision of Biological Science
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0380
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-2788
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Bio-Mechanics of Directional Migration of Leukocytes
      NIH R01GM084227Sep 30, 2010 - Jun 30, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      CHEMOTAXIS IN DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH
      NIH P01GM078586Jul 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2017
      Role: Co-Investigator
      Role of Rac and Rac Effectors in Controlling Chemotaxis
      NIH R01GM062847Jan 1, 2002 - Dec 31, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Comprehensive Biology: Exploiting the Yeast Genome
      NIH P41RR011823Sep 30, 1996 - Jun 30, 2016
      Role: Co-Investigator
      IVEM and Image Analysis Resource
      NIH P41RR004050Dec 12, 1988 - Mar 31, 2014
      Role: Co-Investigator
      Signalling Processes in Dictyostelium
      NIH R01GM037830Jul 1, 1986 - Jan 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED GENES
      NIH R01GM030693Apr 1, 1982 - Mar 31, 1992
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Gene Structure and Transciptional Regulation
      NIH R01GM024279Sep 1, 1977 - Feb 28, 2009
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Álvarez-González B, Zhang S, Gómez-González M, Meili R, Firtel R, Lasheras JC, Del Álamo JC. Two-Layer Elastographic 3-D Traction Force Microscopy. Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 11; 7:39315. PMID: 28074837.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Liu Y, Lacal J, Firtel R, Kortholt A. Connecting G protein signaling to chemoattractant-mediated cell polarity and cytoskeletal reorganization. Small GTPases. 2016 Oct 7; 0. PMID: 27715492.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Liu Y, Lacal J, Veltman DM, Fusetti F, van Haastert PJ, Firtel R, Kortholt A. A Ga-Stimulated RapGEF Is a Receptor-Proximal Regulator of Dictyostelium Chemotaxis. Dev Cell. 2016 Jun 6; 37(5):458-72. PMID: 27237792.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Bastounis E, Álvarez-González B, Del Álamo JC, Lasheras JC, Firtel R. Cooperative cell motility during tandem locomotion of amoeboid cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2016 Apr 15; 27(8):1262-71. PMID: 26912787.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Álvarez-González B, Meili R, Bastounis E, Firtel R, Lasheras JC, Del Álamo JC. Three-dimensional balance of cortical tension and axial contractility enables fast amoeboid migration. Biophys J. 2015 Feb 17; 108(4):821-32. PMID: 25692587.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Alvarez-González B, Meili R, Firtel R, Bastounis E, Del Álamo JC, Lasheras JC. Cytoskeletal Mechanics Regulating Amoeboid Cell Locomotion. Appl Mech Rev. 2014 Jun 5; 66(5). PMID: 25328163.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Bastounis E, Meili R, Alvarez-González B, Francois J, Del Álamo JC, Firtel R, Lasheras JC. Both contractile axial and lateral traction force dynamics drive amoeboid cell motility. J Cell Biol. 2014 Mar 17; 204(6):1045-61. PMID: 24637328.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Sumita K, Yoshino H, Sasaki M, Majd N, Kahoud ER, Takahashi H, Takeuchi K, Kuroda T, Lee S, Charest PG, Takeda K, Asara JM, Firtel R, Anastasiou D, Sasaki AT. Degradation of activated K-Ras orthologue via K-Ras-specific lysine residues is required for cytokinesis. J Biol Chem. 2014 Feb 14; 289(7):3950-9. PMID: 24338482; PMCID: PMC3924263 [Available on 02/14/15].
      9. del Álamo JC, Meili R, Álvarez-González B, Alonso-Latorre B, Bastounis E, Firtel R, Lasheras JC. Three-dimensional quantification of cellular traction forces and mechanosensing of thin substrata by fourier traction force microscopy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e69850. PMID: 24023712.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Kölsch V, Shen Z, Lee S, Plak K, Lotfi P, Chang J, Charest PG, Romero JL, Jeon TJ, Kortholt A, Briggs SP, Firtel R. Daydreamer, a Ras effector and GSK-3 substrate, is important for directional sensing and cell motility. Mol Biol Cell. 2013 Jan; 24(2):100-14. PMID: 23135995.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Rappel WJ, Firtel R. Adaptation in a eukaryotic pathway: combining experiments with modeling. Cell Cycle. 2012 Mar 15; 11(6):1051-2. PMID: 22391206; PMCID: PMC3335914.
      12. Kee YS, Ren Y, Dorfman D, Iijima M, Firtel R, Iglesias PA, Robinson DN. A mechanosensory system governs myosin II accumulation in dividing cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2012 Apr; 23(8):1510-23. PMID: 22379107; PMCID: PMC3327329.
      13. Takeda K, Shao D, Adler M, Charest PG, Loomis WF, Levine H, Groisman A, Rappel WJ, Firtel R. Incoherent feedforward control governs adaptation of activated ras in a eukaryotic chemotaxis pathway. Sci Signal. 2012 Jan 3; 5(205):ra2. PMID: 22215733.
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      14. Bastounis E, Meili R, Alonso-Latorre B, del Álamo JC, Lasheras JC, Firtel R. The SCAR/WAVE complex is necessary for proper regulation of traction stresses during amoeboid motility. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Nov; 22(21):3995-4003. PMID: 21900496.
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      15. Hecht I, Skoge ML, Charest PG, Ben-Jacob E, Firtel R, Loomis WF, Levine H, Rappel WJ. Activated membrane patches guide chemotactic cell motility. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011 Jun; 7(6):e1002044. PMID: 21738453.
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      16. Alonso-Latorre B, Del Álamo JC, Meili R, Firtel R, Lasheras JC. An Oscillatory Contractile Pole-Force Component Dominates the Traction Forces Exerted by Migrating Amoeboid Cells. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2011 Dec; 4(4):603-615. PMID: 22207880.
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      17. Kicka S, Shen Z, Annesley SJ, Fisher PR, Lee S, Briggs S, Firtel R. The LRRK2-related Roco kinase Roco2 is regulated by Rab1A and controls the actin cytoskeleton. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Jul 1; 22(13):2198-211. PMID: 21551065.
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      18. Charest PG, Firtel R. "TORCing" neutrophil chemotaxis. Dev Cell. 2010 Dec 14; 19(6):795-6. PMID: 21145496; NIHMSID: NIHMS256683.
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      19. Charest PG, Shen Z, Lakoduk A, Sasaki AT, Briggs SP, Firtel R. A Ras signaling complex controls the RasC-TORC2 pathway and directed cell migration. Dev Cell. 2010 May 18; 18(5):737-49. PMID: 20493808.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Lee S, Shen Z, Robinson DN, Briggs S, Firtel R. Involvement of the cytoskeleton in controlling leading-edge function during chemotaxis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Jun 1; 21(11):1810-24. PMID: 20375144.
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      21. Meili R, Alonso-Latorre B, del Alamo JC, Firtel R, Lasheras JC. Myosin II is essential for the spatiotemporal organization of traction forces during cell motility. Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Feb 1; 21(3):405-17. PMID: 19955212.
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      22. Ren Y, Effler JC, Norstrom M, Luo T, Firtel R, Iglesias PA, Rock RS, Robinson DN. Mechanosensing through cooperative interactions between myosin II and the actin crosslinker cortexillin I. Curr Biol. 2009 Sep 15; 19(17):1421-8. PMID: 19646871; NIHMSID: NIHMS132115.
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      23. Jeon TJ, Lee S, Weeks G, Firtel R. Regulation of Dictyostelium morphogenesis by RapGAP3. Dev Biol. 2009 Apr 15; 328(2):210-20. PMID: 19284976.
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      24. Alonso-Latorre B, Meili R, Bastounis E, Del Alamo JC, Firtel R, Lasheras JC. Distribution of traction forces associated with shape changes during amoeboid cell migration. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009; 2009:3346-9. PMID: 19964075.
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      25. Sasaki AT, Firtel R. Spatiotemporal regulation of Ras-GTPases during chemotaxis. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 571:333-48. PMID: 19763978.
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      26. Para A, Krischke M, Merlot S, Shen Z, Oberholzer M, Lee S, Briggs S, Firtel R. Dictyostelium Dock180-related RacGEFs regulate the actin cytoskeleton during cell motility. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Jan; 20(2):699-707. PMID: 19037099.
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      27. Du F, Edwards K, Shen Z, Sun B, De Lozanne A, Briggs S, Firtel R. Regulation of contractile vacuole formation and activity in Dictyostelium. EMBO J. 2008 Aug 6; 27(15):2064-76. PMID: 18636095.
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      28. Janetopoulos C, Firtel R. Directional sensing during chemotaxis. FEBS Lett. 2008 Jun 18; 582(14):2075-85. PMID: 18452713; NIHMSID: NIHMS54897.
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      29. Kölsch V, Charest PG, Firtel R. The regulation of cell motility and chemotaxis by phospholipid signaling. J Cell Sci. 2008 Mar 1; 121(Pt 5):551-9. PMID: 18287584; NIHMSID: NIHMS103037.
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      30. Araki T, Langenick J, Gamper M, Firtel R, Williams JG. Evidence that DIF-1 and hyper-osmotic stress activate a Dictyostelium STAT by inhibiting a specific protein tyrosine phosphatase. Development. 2008 Apr; 135(7):1347-53. PMID: 18305004; NIHMSID: NIHMS103034.
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      31. Jeon TJ, Lee DJ, Lee S, Weeks G, Firtel R. Regulation of Rap1 activity by RapGAP1 controls cell adhesion at the front of chemotaxing cells. J Cell Biol. 2007 Dec 3; 179(5):833-43. PMID: 18039932; PMCID: PMC2099181.
      32. Del Alamo JC, Meili R, Alonso-Latorre B, Rodríguez-Rodríguez J, Aliseda A, Firtel R, Lasheras JC. Spatio-temporal analysis of eukaryotic cell motility by improved force cytometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Aug 14; 104(33):13343-8. PMID: 17684097.
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      33. Sasaki AT, Janetopoulos C, Lee S, Charest PG, Takeda K, Sundheimer LW, Meili R, Devreotes PN, Firtel R. G protein-independent Ras/PI3K/F-actin circuit regulates basic cell motility. J Cell Biol. 2007 Jul 16; 178(2):185-91. PMID: 17635933; PMCID: PMC2064438.
      34. Jeon TJ, Lee DJ, Merlot S, Weeks G, Firtel R. Rap1 controls cell adhesion and cell motility through the regulation of myosin II. J Cell Biol. 2007 Mar 26; 176(7):1021-33. PMID: 17371831; PMCID: PMC2064086.
      35. Mendoza MC, Booth EO, Shaulsky G, Firtel R. MEK1 and protein phosphatase 4 coordinate Dictyostelium development and chemotaxis. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 May; 27(10):3817-27. PMID: 17353263; PMCID: PMC1899987.
      36. Takeda K, Sasaki AT, Ha H, Seung HA, Firtel R. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases in chemotaxis in Dictyostelium. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20; 282(16):11874-84. PMID: 17331950.
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      37. Charest PG, Firtel R. Big roles for small GTPases in the control of directed cell movement. Biochem J. 2007 Jan 15; 401(2):377-90. PMID: 17173542; PMCID: PMC1820805.
      38. Charest PG, Firtel R. Feedback signaling controls leading-edge formation during chemotaxis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006 Aug; 16(4):339-47. PMID: 16806895.
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      39. Sasaki AT, Firtel R. Regulation of chemotaxis by the orchestrated activation of Ras, PI3K, and TOR. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006 Sep; 85(9-10):873-95. PMID: 16740339.
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      40. Mendoza MC, Firtel R. Assaying chemotaxis of Dictyostelium cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2006; 346:393-405. PMID: 16957303.
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      41. Mendoza MC, Du F, Iranfar N, Tang N, Ma H, Loomis WF, Firtel R. Loss of SMEK, a novel, conserved protein, suppresses MEK1 null cell polarity, chemotaxis, and gene expression defects. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Sep; 25(17):7839-53. PMID: 16107728.
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      42. Lee S, Comer FI, Sasaki A, McLeod IX, Duong Y, Okumura K, Yates JR, Parent CA, Firtel R. TOR complex 2 integrates cell movement during chemotaxis and signal relay in Dictyostelium. Mol Biol Cell. 2005 Oct; 16(10):4572-83. PMID: 16079174; PMCID: PMC1237065.
      43. Meili R, Sasaki AT, Firtel R. Rho Rocks PTEN. Nat Cell Biol. 2005 Apr; 7(4):334-5. PMID: 15803130.
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      44. Myers SA, Han JW, Lee Y, Firtel R, Chung CY. A Dictyostelium homologue of WASP is required for polarized F-actin assembly during chemotaxis. Mol Biol Cell. 2005 May; 16(5):2191-206. PMID: 15728724; PMCID: PMC1087228.
      45. Sasaki AT, Firtel R. Finding the way: directional sensing and cell polarization through Ras signalling. Novartis Found Symp. 2005; 269:73-87; discussion 87-91, 223-30. PMID: 16355536.
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      46. Sasaki AT, Chun C, Takeda K, Firtel R. Localized Ras signaling at the leading edge regulates PI3K, cell polarity, and directional cell movement. J Cell Biol. 2004 Nov 8; 167(3):505-18. PMID: 15534002; PMCID: PMC2172490.
      47. Lee S, Rivero F, Park KC, Huang E, Funamoto S, Firtel R. Dictyostelium PAKc is required for proper chemotaxis. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Dec; 15(12):5456-69. PMID: 15483055; PMCID: PMC532025.
      48. Park KC, Rivero F, Meili R, Lee S, Apone F, Firtel R. Rac regulation of chemotaxis and morphogenesis in Dictyostelium. EMBO J. 2004 Oct 27; 23(21):4177-89. PMID: 15470506; PMCID: PMC524383.
      49. Kimmel AR, Firtel R. Breaking symmetries: regulation of Dictyostelium development through chemoattractant and morphogen signal-response. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004 Oct; 14(5):540-9. PMID: 15380246.
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      50. Chisholm RL, Firtel R. Insights into morphogenesis from a simple developmental system. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Jul; 5(7):531-41. PMID: 15232571.
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      51. Ridley AJ, Schwartz MA, Burridge K, Firtel R, Ginsberg MH, Borisy G, Parsons JT, Horwitz AR. Cell migration: integrating signals from front to back. Science. 2003 Dec 5; 302(5651):1704-9. PMID: 14657486.
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      52. Aubry L, Lee S, Ravanel K, Firtel R. The novel ankyrin-repeat containing kinase ARCK-1 acts as a suppressor of the Spalten signaling pathway during Dictyostelium development. Dev Biol. 2003 Nov 15; 263(2):308-22. PMID: 14597204.
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      53. Sun B, Ma H, Firtel R. Dictyostelium stress-activated protein kinase alpha, a novel stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-like kinase, is important for the proper regulation of the cytoskeleton. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Nov; 14(11):4526-40. PMID: 14593072; PMCID: PMC266770.
      54. Merlot S, Firtel R. Leading the way: Directional sensing through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and other signaling pathways. J Cell Sci. 2003 Sep 1; 116(Pt 17):3471-8. PMID: 12893811.
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      55. Meili R, Firtel R. Two poles and a compass. Cell. 2003 Jul 25; 114(2):153-6. PMID: 12887916.
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      56. Merlot S, Meili R, Pagliarini DJ, Maehama T, Dixon JE, Firtel R. A PTEN-related 5-phosphatidylinositol phosphatase localized in the Golgi. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10; 278(41):39866-73. PMID: 12878591.
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      57. Sun B, Firtel R. A regulator of G protein signaling-containing kinase is important for chemotaxis and multicellular development in dictyostelium. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Apr; 14(4):1727-43. PMID: 12686622; PMCID: PMC153135.
      58. Meili R, Firtel R. Follow the leader. Dev Cell. 2003 Mar; 4(3):291-3. PMID: 12636911.
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      59. Huang YE, Iijima M, Parent CA, Funamoto S, Firtel R, Devreotes P. Receptor-mediated regulation of PI3Ks confines PI(3,4,5)P3 to the leading edge of chemotaxing cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 May; 14(5):1913-22. PMID: 12802064; PMCID: PMC165086.
      60. Han YH, Chung CY, Wessels D, Stephens S, Titus MA, Soll DR, Firtel R. Requirement of a vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein family member for cell adhesion, the formation of filopodia, and chemotaxis in dictyostelium. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 20; 277(51):49877-87. PMID: 12388544.
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      61. Meili R, Firtel R. Leading the way. Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Jul; 4(7):E171. PMID: 12105427.
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      62. Sobko A, Ma H, Firtel R. Regulated SUMOylation and ubiquitination of DdMEK1 is required for proper chemotaxis. Dev Cell. 2002 Jun; 2(6):745-56. PMID: 12062087.
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      63. Funamoto S, Meili R, Lee S, Parry L, Firtel R. Spatial and temporal regulation of 3-phosphoinositides by PI 3-kinase and PTEN mediates chemotaxis. Cell. 2002 May 31; 109(5):611-23. PMID: 12062104.
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      64. Chung CY, Firtel R. Signaling pathways at the leading edge of chemotaxing cells. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2002; 23(7-8):773-9. PMID: 12952075.
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      65. Chung CY, Funamoto S, Firtel R. Signaling pathways controlling cell polarity and chemotaxis. Trends Biochem Sci. 2001 Sep; 26(9):557-66. PMID: 11551793.
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      66. Brown JM, Firtel R. Functional and regulatory analysis of the dictyostelium G-box binding factor. Dev Biol. 2001 Jun 15; 234(2):521-34. PMID: 11397018.
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      67. Mohanty S, Lee S, Yadava N, Dealy MJ, Johnson RS, Firtel R. Regulated protein degradation controls PKA function and cell-type differentiation in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 2001 Jun 1; 15(11):1435-48. PMID: 11390363.
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      68. Funamoto S, Milan K, Meili R, Firtel R. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase and a downstream pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein in controlling chemotaxis in dictyostelium. J Cell Biol. 2001 May 14; 153(4):795-810. PMID: 11352940; PMCID: PMC2192389.
      69. Chung CY, Potikyan G, Firtel R. Control of cell polarity and chemotaxis by Akt/PKB and PI3 kinase through the regulation of PAKa. Mol Cell. 2001 May; 7(5):937-47. PMID: 11389841.
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      70. Briscoe C, Moniakis J, Kim JY, Brown JM, Hereld D, Devreotes PN, Firtel R. The phosphorylated C-terminus of cAR1 plays a role in cell-type-specific gene expression and STATa tyrosine phosphorylation. Dev Biol. 2001 May 1; 233(1):225-36. PMID: 11319871.
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      71. Early A, Gamper M, Moniakis J, Kim E, Hunter T, Williams JG, Firtel R. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1 negatively regulates Dictyostelium STATa and is required for proper cell-type proportioning. Dev Biol. 2001 Apr 1; 232(1):233-45. PMID: 11254360.
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      72. Moniakis J, Funamoto S, Fukuzawa M, Meisenhelder J, Araki T, Abe T, Meili R, Hunter T, Williams J, Firtel R. An SH2-domain-containing kinase negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway. Genes Dev. 2001 Mar 15; 15(6):687-98. PMID: 11274054; PMCID: PMC312652.
      73. Wang J, Hou L, Awrey D, Loomis WF, Firtel R, Siu CH. The membrane glycoprotein gp150 is encoded by the lagC gene and mediates cell-cell adhesion by heterophilic binding during Dictyostelium development. Dev Biol. 2000 Nov 15; 227(2):734-45. PMID: 11071787.
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      74. Williams JG, Firtel R. HAPPY days for the Dictyostelium genome project. Genome Res. 2000 Nov; 10(11):1658-9. PMID: 11076849.
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      75. Firtel R, Meili R. Dictyostelium: a model for regulated cell movement during morphogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000 Aug; 10(4):421-7. PMID: 10889066.
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      76. Nelson MK, Clark A, Abe T, Nomura A, Yadava N, Funair CJ, Jermyn KA, Mohanty S, Firtel R, Williams JG. An F-Box/WD40 repeat-containing protein important for Dictyostelium cell-type proportioning, slug behaviour, and culmination. Dev Biol. 2000 Aug 1; 224(1):42-59. PMID: 10898960.
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      77. Firtel R, Chung CY. The molecular genetics of chemotaxis: sensing and responding to chemoattractant gradients. Bioessays. 2000 Jul; 22(7):603-15. PMID: 10878573.
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      78. Meili R, Ellsworth C, Firtel R. A novel Akt/PKB-related kinase is essential for morphogenesis in Dictyostelium. Curr Biol. 2000 Jun 15; 10(12):708-17. PMID: 10873800.
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      79. Chung CY, Lee S, Briscoe C, Ellsworth C, Firtel R. Role of Rac in controlling the actin cytoskeleton and chemotaxis in motile cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 May 9; 97(10):5225-30. PMID: 10805781; PMCID: PMC25810.
      80. Brown JM, Firtel R. Just the right size: cell counting in Dictyostelium. Trends Genet. 2000 May; 16(5):191-3. PMID: 10782107.
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      81. Chien S, Chung CY, Sukumaran S, Osborne N, Lee S, Ellsworth C, McNally JG, Firtel R. The Dictyostelium LIM domain-containing protein LIM2 is essential for proper chemotaxis and morphogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2000 Apr; 11(4):1275-91. PMID: 10749929; PMCID: PMC14846.
      82. Brown JM, Firtel R. Regulation of cell-fate determination in Dictyostelium. Dev Biol. 1999 Dec 15; 216(2):426-41. PMID: 10642783.
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      83. Mohanty S, Firtel R. Control of spatial patterning and cell-type proportioning in Dictyostelium. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1999 Dec; 10(6):597-607. PMID: 10706824.
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      84. Chung CY, Firtel R. PAKa, a putative PAK family member, is required for cytokinesis and the regulation of the cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum cells during chemotaxis. J Cell Biol. 1999 Nov 1; 147(3):559-76. PMID: 10545500; PMCID: PMC2151188.
      85. Lee S, Parent CA, Insall R, Firtel R. A novel Ras-interacting protein required for chemotaxis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal relay in Dictyostelium. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Sep; 10(9):2829-45. PMID: 10473630; PMCID: PMC25521.
      86. Mohanty S, Jermyn KA, Early A, Kawata T, Aubry L, Ceccarelli A, Schaap P, Williams JG, Firtel R. Evidence that the Dictyostelium Dd-STATa protein is a repressor that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation and is also required for efficient chemotaxis. Development. 1999 Aug; 126(15):3391-405. PMID: 10393118.
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      87. Gamper M, Kim E, Howard PK, Ma H, Hunter T, Firtel R. Regulation of Dictyostelium protein-tyrosine phosphatase-3 (PTP3) through osmotic shock and stress stimulation and identification of pp130 as a PTP3 substrate. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 23; 274(17):12129-38. PMID: 10207040.
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      88. Meili R, Ellsworth C, Lee S, Reddy TB, Ma H, Firtel R. Chemoattractant-mediated transient activation and membrane localization of Akt/PKB is required for efficient chemotaxis to cAMP in Dictyostelium. EMBO J. 1999 Apr 15; 18(8):2092-105. PMID: 10205164; PMCID: PMC1171294.
      89. Aubry L, Firtel R. Integration of signaling networks that regulate Dictyostelium differentiation. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1999; 15:469-517. PMID: 10611970.
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      90. Chung CY, Reddy TB, Zhou K, Firtel R. A novel, putative MEK kinase controls developmental timing and spatial patterning in Dictyostelium and is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Genes Dev. 1998 Nov 15; 12(22):3564-78. PMID: 9832508.
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      91. Brown JM, Firtel R. Phosphorelay signalling: new tricks for an ancient pathway. Curr Biol. 1998 Sep 10; 8(18):R662-5. PMID: 9740798.
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      92. Sukumaran S, Brown JM, Firtel R, McNally JG. lagC-null and gbf-null cells define key steps in the morphogenesis of Dictyostelium mounds. Dev Biol. 1998 Aug 1; 200(1):16-26. PMID: 9698452.
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      93. Araki T, Gamper M, Early A, Fukuzawa M, Abe T, Kawata T, Kim E, Firtel R, Williams JG. Developmentally and spatially regulated activation of a Dictyostelium STAT protein by a serpentine receptor. EMBO J. 1998 Jul 15; 17(14):4018-28. PMID: 9670017; PMCID: PMC1170735.
      94. Yasukawa H, Mohanty S, Firtel R. Identification and analysis of a gene that is essential for morphogenesis and prespore cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. Development. 1998 Jul; 125(14):2565-76. PMID: 9636072.
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      95. Aubry L, Firtel R. Spalten, a protein containing Galpha-protein-like and PP2C domains, is essential for cell-type differentiation in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1998 May 15; 12(10):1525-38. PMID: 9585512; PMCID: PMC316834.
      96. Cubitt AB, Reddy I, Lee S, McNally JG, Firtel R. Coexpression of a constitutively active plasma membrane calcium pump with GFP identifies roles for intracellular calcium in controlling cell sorting during morphogenesis in Dictyostelium. Dev Biol. 1998 Apr 1; 196(1):77-94. PMID: 9527882.
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      97. Han Z, Firtel R. The homeobox-containing gene Wariai regulates anterior-posterior patterning and cell-type homeostasis in Dictyostelium. Development. 1998 Jan; 125(2):313-25. PMID: 9486804.
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      98. Clark A, Nomura A, Mohanty S, Firtel R. A ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme is essential for developmental transitions in Dictyostelium. Mol Biol Cell. 1997 Oct; 8(10):1989-2002. PMID: 9348538; PMCID: PMC25659.
      99. Maeda M, Firtel R. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2 by the chemoattractant folic acid in Dictyostelium. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 19; 272(38):23690-5. PMID: 9295311.
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      100. Ma H, Gamper M, Parent C, Firtel R. The Dictyostelium MAP kinase kinase DdMEK1 regulates chemotaxis and is essential for chemoattractant-mediated activation of guanylyl cyclase. EMBO J. 1997 Jul 16; 16(14):4317-32. PMID: 9250676; PMCID: PMC1170058.
      101. Buczynski G, Grove B, Nomura A, Kleve M, Bush J, Firtel R, Cardelli J. Inactivation of two Dictyostelium discoideum genes, DdPIK1 and DdPIK2, encoding proteins related to mammalian phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, results in defects in endocytosis, lysosome to postlysosome transport, and actin cytoskeleton organization. J Cell Biol. 1997 Mar 24; 136(6):1271-86. PMID: 9087443; PMCID: PMC2132510.
      102. Mann SK, Brown JM, Briscoe C, Parent C, Pitt G, Devreotes PN, Firtel R. Role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in controlling aggregation and postaggregative development in Dictyostelium. Dev Biol. 1997 Mar 15; 183(2):208-21. PMID: 9126295.
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      103. Lee S, Escalante R, Firtel R. A Ras GAP is essential for cytokinesis and spatial patterning in Dictyostelium. Development. 1997 Mar; 124(5):983-96. PMID: 9056774.
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      104. Aubry L, Maeda M, Insall R, Devreotes PN, Firtel R. The Dictyostelium mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2 is regulated by Ras and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and mediates PKA function. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 14; 272(7):3883-6. PMID: 9020088.
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      105. Rietdorf J, Siegert F, Dharmawardhane S, Firtel R, Weijer CJ. Analysis of cell movement and signalling during ring formation in an activated G alpha1 mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum that is defective in prestalk zone formation. Dev Biol. 1997 Jan 1; 181(1):79-90. PMID: 9015266.
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      106. Firtel R. Interacting signaling pathways controlling multicellular development in Dictyostelium. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996 Oct; 6(5):545-54. PMID: 8939724.
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      108. Hadwiger JA, Natarajan K, Firtel R. Mutations in the Dictyostelium heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit G alpha5 alter the kinetics of tip morphogenesis. Development. 1996 Apr; 122(4):1215-24. PMID: 8620848.
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      109. Maeda M, Aubry L, Insall R, Gaskins C, Devreotes PN, Firtel R. Seven helix chemoattractant receptors transiently stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in Dictyostelium. Role of heterotrimeric G proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 16; 271(7):3351-4. PMID: 8631932.
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      110. Gaskins C, Clark AM, Aubry L, Segall JE, Firtel R. The Dictyostelium MAP kinase ERK2 regulates multiple, independent developmental pathways. Genes Dev. 1996 Jan 1; 10(1):118-28. PMID: 8557190.
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      111. Zhou K, Takegawa K, Emr SD, Firtel R. A phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase gene family in Dictyostelium discoideum: biological roles of putative mammalian p110 and yeast Vps34p PI 3-kinase homologs during growth and development. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Oct; 15(10):5645-56. PMID: 7565716.
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      112. Cubitt AB, Firtel R, Fischer G, Jaffe LF, Miller AL. Patterns of free calcium in multicellular stages of Dictyostelium expressing jellyfish apoaequorin. Development. 1995 Aug; 121(8):2291-301. PMID: 7671796.
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      113. Firtel R. Integration of signaling information in controlling cell-fate decisions in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1995 Jun 15; 9(12):1427-44. PMID: 7601348.
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      114. Schnitzler GR, Briscoe C, Brown JM, Firtel R. Serpentine cAMP receptors may act through a G protein-independent pathway to induce postaggregative development in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1995 Jun 2; 81(5):737-45. PMID: 7774015.
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      115. Briscoe C, Firtel R. Intercellular signaling. A kinase for cell-fate determination? Curr Biol. 1995 Mar 1; 5(3):228-31. PMID: 7780726.
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      116. Cao JG, Firtel R. Growth and developmental functions of a human immunodeficiency virus Tat-binding protein/26S protease subunit homolog from Dictyostelium discoideum. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Mar; 15(3):1725-36. PMID: 7862164; PMCID: PMC230397.
      117. Segall JE, Kuspa A, Shaulsky G, Ecke M, Maeda M, Gaskins C, Firtel R, Loomis WF. A MAP kinase necessary for receptor-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase in Dictyostelium. J Cell Biol. 1995 Feb; 128(3):405-13. PMID: 7844154; PMCID: PMC2120359.
      118. Dharmawardhane S, Cubitt AB, Clark AM, Firtel R. Regulatory role of the G alpha 1 subunit in controlling cellular morphogenesis in Dictyostelium. Development. 1994 Dec; 120(12):3549-61. PMID: 7821221.
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      119. Hori R, Firtel R. Identification and characterization of multiple A/T-rich cis-acting elements that control expression from Dictyostelium actin promoters: the Dictyostelium actin upstream activating sequence confers growth phase expression and has enhancer-like properties. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Nov 25; 22(23):5099-111. PMID: 7800506; PMCID: PMC523784.
      120. Mann SK, Richardson DL, Lee S, Kimmel AR, Firtel R. Expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in prespore cells is sufficient to induce spore cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Oct 25; 91(22):10561-5. PMID: 7937993; PMCID: PMC45061.
      121. Hadwiger JA, Lee S, Firtel R. The G alpha subunit G alpha 4 couples to pterin receptors and identifies a signaling pathway that is essential for multicellular development in Dictyostelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Oct 25; 91(22):10566-70. PMID: 7937994; PMCID: PMC45062.
      122. Gaskins C, Maeda M, Firtel R. Identification and functional analysis of a developmentally regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase gene in Dictyostelium discoideum. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Oct; 14(10):6996-7012. PMID: 7935416; PMCID: PMC359230.
      123. Powell-Coffman JA, Schnitzler GR, Firtel R. A GBF-binding site and a novel AT element define the minimal sequences sufficient to direct prespore-specific expression in Dictyostelium discoideum. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Sep; 14(9):5840-9. PMID: 8065317; PMCID: PMC359110.
      124. Howard PK, Gamper M, Hunter T, Firtel R. Regulation by protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP2 is distinct from that by PTP1 during Dictyostelium growth and development. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Aug; 14(8):5154-64. PMID: 7518559; PMCID: PMC359034.
      125. Powell-Coffman JA, Firtel R. Characterization of a novel Dictyostelium discoideum prespore-specific gene, PspB, reveals conserved regulatory sequences. Development. 1994 Jun; 120(6):1601-11. PMID: 8050366.
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      126. Wu L, Gaskins C, Zhou K, Firtel R, Devreotes PN. Cloning and targeted mutations of G alpha 7 and G alpha 8, two developmentally regulated G protein alpha-subunit genes in Dictyostelium. Mol Biol Cell. 1994 Jun; 5(6):691-702. PMID: 7949425; PMCID: PMC301084.
      127. Dynes JL, Clark AM, Shaulsky G, Kuspa A, Loomis WF, Firtel R. LagC is required for cell-cell interactions that are essential for cell-type differentiation in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1994 Apr 15; 8(8):948-58. PMID: 7926779.
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      128. Schnitzler GR, Fischer WH, Firtel R. Cloning and characterization of the G-box binding factor, an essential component of the developmental switch between early and late development in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1994 Feb 15; 8(4):502-14. PMID: 8125261.
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      129. Carrel F, Dharmawardhane S, Clark AM, Powell-Coffman JA, Firtel R. Spatial and temporal expression of the Dictyostelium discoideum G alpha protein subunit G alpha 2: expression of a dominant negative protein inhibits proper prestalk to stalk differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 1994 Jan; 5(1):7-16. PMID: 8186466; PMCID: PMC301005.
      130. Schatzle J, Bush J, Dharmawardhane S, Firtel R, Gomer RH, Cardelli J. Characterization of the signal transduction pathways and cis-acting DNA sequence responsible for the transcriptional induction during growth and development of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase gene in Dictyostelium discoideum. J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 15; 268(26):19632-9. PMID: 8366107.
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      131. Mann SK, Firtel R. cAMP-dependent protein kinase differentially regulates prestalk and prespore differentiation during Dictyostelium development. Development. 1993 Sep; 119(1):135-46. PMID: 8275851.
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      132. Cubitt AB, Dharmawardhane S, Firtel R. Developmentally regulated changes in 1,2-diacylglycerol in Dictyostelium. Regulation by light and G proteins. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 15; 268(23):17431-9. PMID: 8394342.
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      133. Schaap P, van Ments-Cohen M, Soede RD, Brandt R, Firtel R, Dostmann W, Genieser HG, Jastorff B, van Haastert PJ. Cell-permeable non-hydrolyzable cAMP derivatives as tools for analysis of signaling pathways controlling gene regulation in Dictyostelium. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 25; 268(9):6323-31. PMID: 8384208.
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      134. Howard PK, Sefton BM, Firtel R. Tyrosine phosphorylation of actin in Dictyostelium associated with cell-shape changes. Science. 1993 Jan 8; 259(5092):241-4. PMID: 7678470.
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      135. Kikkawa U, Mann SK, Firtel R, Hunter T. Molecular cloning of casein kinase II alpha subunit from Dictyostelium discoideum and its expression in the life cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Dec; 12(12):5711-23. PMID: 1448100; PMCID: PMC360511.
      136. Mann SK, Yonemoto WM, Taylor SS, Firtel R. DdPK3, which plays essential roles during Dictyostelium development, encodes the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Nov 15; 89(22):10701-5. PMID: 1332055; PMCID: PMC50409.
      137. Howard PK, Sefton BM, Firtel R. Analysis of a spatially regulated phosphotyrosine phosphatase identifies tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory pathway in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1992 Nov 13; 71(4):637-47. PMID: 1423620.
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      138. Okaichi K, Cubitt AB, Pitt GS, Firtel R. Amino acid substitutions in the Dictyostelium G alpha subunit G alpha 2 produce dominant negative phenotypes and inhibit the activation of adenylyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, and phospholipase C. Mol Biol Cell. 1992 Jul; 3(7):735-47. PMID: 1355376; PMCID: PMC275631.
      139. Ceccarelli A, Mahbubani HJ, Insall R, Schnitzler G, Firtel R, Williams JG. A G-rich sequence element common to Dictyostelium genes which differ radically in their patterns of expression. Dev Biol. 1992 Jul; 152(1):188-93. PMID: 1321061.
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      140. Powell JA, Galindo J, Firtel R. A negative transcriptional control region of a developmentally-regulated gene co-localizes with the origin of replication of an endogenous plasmid in Dictyostelium. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Jun 11; 20(11):2795-802. PMID: 1319575; PMCID: PMC336924.
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      142. Esch RK, Howard PK, Firtel R. Regulation of the Dictyostelium cAMP-induced, prestalk-specific DdrasD gene: identification of cis-acting elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Mar 25; 20(6):1325-32. PMID: 1313967; PMCID: PMC312178.
      143. Stober-Grässer U, Brydolf B, Bin X, Grässer F, Firtel R, Lipsick JS. The Myb DNA-binding domain is highly conserved in Dictyostelium discoideum. Oncogene. 1992 Mar; 7(3):589-96. PMID: 1549373.
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      144. Hadwiger JA, Firtel R. Analysis of G alpha 4, a G-protein subunit required for multicellular development in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1992 Jan; 6(1):38-49. PMID: 1730409.
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      145. Cubitt AB, Carrel F, Dharmawardhane S, Gaskins C, Hadwiger J, Howard P, Mann SK, Okaichi K, Zhou K, Firtel R. Molecular genetic analysis of signal transduction pathways controlling multicellular development in Dictyostelium. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1992; 57:177-92. PMID: 1339658.
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      146. Haberstroh L, Galindo J, Firtel R. Developmental and spatial regulation of a Dictyostelium prespore gene: cis-acting elements and a cAMP-induced, developmentally regulated DNA binding activity. Development. 1991 Nov; 113(3):947-58. PMID: 1668278.
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      149. Hadwiger JA, Wilkie TM, Strathmann M, Firtel R. Identification of Dictyostelium G alpha genes expressed during multicellular development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 15; 88(18):8213-7. PMID: 1910174; PMCID: PMC52477.
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      151. Gomer RH, Yuen IS, Firtel R. A secreted 80 x 10(3) Mr protein mediates sensing of cell density and the onset of development in Dictyostelium. Development. 1991 May; 112(1):269-78. PMID: 1663029.
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      153. Kumagai A, Hadwiger JA, Pupillo M, Firtel R. Molecular genetic analysis of two G alpha protein subunits in Dictyostelium. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 15; 266(2):1220-8. PMID: 1670774.
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      154. Esch RK, Firtel R. cAMP and cell sorting control the spatial expression of a developmentally essential cell-type-specific ras gene in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1991 Jan; 5(1):9-21. PMID: 1703508.
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      155. Haberstroh L, Firtel R. A spatial gradient of expression of a cAMP-regulated prespore cell-type-specific gene in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1990 Apr; 4(4):596-612. PMID: 2163344.
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      156. Hjorth AL, Pears C, Williams JG, Firtel R. A developmentally regulated trans-acting factor recognizes dissimilar G/C-rich elements controlling a class of cAMP-inducible Dictyostelium genes. Genes Dev. 1990 Mar; 4(3):419-32. PMID: 2159939.
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      158. Armstrong DJ, Firtel R. Cytokinin oxidase activity in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Dev Biol. 1989 Dec; 136(2):491-9. PMID: 2555236.
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      159. Dynes JL, Firtel R. Molecular complementation of a genetic marker in Dictyostelium using a genomic DNA library. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct; 86(20):7966-70. PMID: 2813371; PMCID: PMC298193.
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      161. Pupillo M, Kumagai A, Pitt GS, Firtel R, Devreotes PN. Multiple alpha subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins in Dictyostelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul; 86(13):4892-6. PMID: 2500658; PMCID: PMC297521.
      162. Hjorth AL, Khanna NC, Firtel R. A trans-acting factor required for cAMP-induced gene expression in Dictyostelium is regulated developmentally and induced by cAMP. Genes Dev. 1989 Jun; 3(6):747-59. PMID: 2545528.
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      163. Kumagai A, Pupillo M, Gundersen R, Miake-Lye R, Devreotes PN, Firtel R. Regulation and function of G alpha protein subunits in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1989 Apr 21; 57(2):265-75. PMID: 2539262.
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      164. Mann SK, Firtel R. Two-phase regulatory pathway controls cAMP receptor-mediated expression of early genes in Dictyostelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar; 86(6):1924-8. PMID: 2538821; PMCID: PMC286817.
      165. Van Lookeren Campagne MM, Aerts RJ, Spek W, Firtel R, Schaap P. Cyclic-AMP-induced elevation of intracellular pH precedes, but does not mediate, the induction of prespore differentiation in Dictyostelium discoideum. Development. 1989 Feb; 105(2):401-6. PMID: 2553386.
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      166. Rubino S, Mann SK, Hori RT, Pinko C, Firtel R. Molecular analysis of a developmentally regulated gene required for Dictyostelium aggregation. Dev Biol. 1989 Jan; 131(1):27-36. PMID: 2909407.
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      167. Mann SK, Pinko C, Firtel R. cAMP regulation of early gene expression in signal transduction mutants of Dictyostelium. Dev Biol. 1988 Nov; 130(1):294-303. PMID: 2846388.
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      168. Mann SK, Pinko C, Firtel R. Regulation of Dictyostelium early gene expression in cAMP bypass mutants. Dev Biol. 1988 Nov; 130(1):406-10. PMID: 2846389.
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      169. Ahern KG, Howard PK, Firtel R. Identification of regions essential for extrachromosomal replication and maintenance of an endogenous plasmid in Dictyostelium. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jul 25; 16(14B):6825-37. PMID: 3405751; PMCID: PMC338336.
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      171. Datta S, Firtel R. An 80-bp cis-acting regulatory region controls cAMP and development regulation of a prestalk gene in Dictyostelium. Genes Dev. 1988 Mar; 2(3):294-304. PMID: 2897942.
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      172. Hjorth A, Datta S, Khanna NC, Firtel R. Analysis of cis and trans elements involved in cAMP-inducible gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dev Genet. 1988; 9(4-5):435-54. PMID: 2907423.
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      173. Europe-Finner GN, Ludérus ME, Small NV, Van Driel R, Reymond CD, Firtel R, Newell PC. Mutant ras gene induces elevated levels of inositol tris- and hexakisphosphates in Dictyostelium. J Cell Sci. 1988 Jan; 89 ( Pt 1):13-20. PMID: 2843553.
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      187. Saxe CL, Firtel R. Analysis of gene expression in rapidly developing mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum. Dev Biol. 1986 Jun; 115(2):407-14. PMID: 2423400.
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      191. Saxe CL, Firtel R. Regulation of late gene expression in a temperature-sensitive cohesion-defective mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum. Dev Genet. 1986; 7(2):99-108. PMID: 3453780.
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      194. Romans P, Firtel R. Organization of the actin multigene family of Dictyostelium discoideum and analysis of variability in the protein coding regions. J Mol Biol. 1985 Nov 20; 186(2):321-35. PMID: 3003365.
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      197. Kimmel AR, Firtel R. Sequence organization and developmental expression of an interspersed, repetitive element and associated single-copy DNA sequences in Dictyostelium discoideum. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Aug; 5(8):2123-30. PMID: 2427932; PMCID: PMC366930.
      198. Romans P, Firtel R. Organization of the Dictyostelium discoideum actin multigene family. Flanking sequences show subfamily homologies and unusual dyad symmetries. J Mol Biol. 1985 Jun 5; 183(3):311-26. PMID: 2991530.
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      199. Mehdy MC, Firtel R. A secreted factor and cyclic AMP jointly regulate cell-type-specific gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Apr; 5(4):705-13. PMID: 2985966; PMCID: PMC366773.
      200. Gomer RH, Datta S, Mehdy M, Crowley T, Sivertsen A, Nellen W, Reymond C, Mann S, Firtel R. Regulation of cell-type-specific gene expression in Dictyostelium. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1985; 50:801-12. PMID: 3868507.
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      201. Nellen W, Firtel R. High-copy-number transformants and co-transformation in Dictyostelium. Gene. 1985; 39(2-3):155-63. PMID: 4092928.
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      202. Nellen W, Silan C, Firtel R. DNA-mediated transformation in Dictyostelium discoideum: regulated expression of an actin gene fusion. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 Dec; 4(12):2890-8. PMID: 6098825; PMCID: PMC369302.
      203. Edwards CA, Firtel R. Site-specific phasing in the chromatin of the rDNA in Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1984 Nov 25; 180(1):73-90. PMID: 6595421.
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      204. Reymond CD, Gomer RH, Mehdy MC, Firtel R. Developmental regulation of a Dictyostelium gene encoding a protein homologous to mammalian ras protein. Cell. 1984 Nov; 39(1):141-8. PMID: 6091907.
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      205. Poole SJ, Firtel R. Genomic instability and mobile genetic elements in regions surrounding two discoidin I genes of Dictyostelium discoideum. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 Apr; 4(4):671-80. PMID: 6325889; PMCID: PMC368779.
      206. Poole SJ, Firtel R. Conserved structural features are found upstream from the three co-ordinately regulated discoidin I genes of Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1984 Jan 15; 172(2):203-20. PMID: 6694210.
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      207. Rosen E, Sivertsen A, Firtel R. An unusual transposon encoding heat shock inducible and developmentally regulated transcripts in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1983 Nov; 35(1):243-51. PMID: 6194899.
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      208. Mehdy MC, Ratner D, Firtel R. Induction and modulation of cell-type-specific gene expression in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1983 Mar; 32(3):763-71. PMID: 6299575.
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      209. Kimmel AR, Firtel R. Sequence organization in Dictyostelium: unique structure at the 5'-ends of protein coding genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Jan 25; 11(2):541-52. PMID: 6828377; PMCID: PMC325732.
      210. Hirth KP, Edwards CA, Firtel R. A DNA-mediated transformation system for Dictyostelium discoideum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Dec; 79(23):7356-60. PMID: 6296830; PMCID: PMC347338.
      211. McKeown M, Firtel R. Actin multigene family of Dictyostelium. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1982; 46 Pt 2:495-505. PMID: 6286214.
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      212. McKeown M, Hirth KP, Edwards C, Firtel R. Examination of the regulation of the actin multigene family in Dictyostelium discoideum. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982; 85 Pt A:51-78. PMID: 7051026.
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      213. Poole S, Firtel R, Lamar E, Rowekamp W. Sequence and expression of the discoidin I gene family in Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1981 Dec 5; 153(2):273-89. PMID: 6279874.
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      214. McKeown M, Firtel R. Evidence for sub-families of actin genes in Dictyostelium as determined by comparisons of 3' end sequences. J Mol Biol. 1981 Oct 5; 151(4):593-606. PMID: 6276562.
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      215. McKeown M, Firtel R. Differential expression and 5' end mapping of actin genes in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1981 Jun; 24(3):799-807. PMID: 6894715.
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      216. Firtel R. Multigene families encoding actin and tubulin. Cell. 1981 Apr; 24(1):6-7. PMID: 6894564.
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      217. Kimmel AR, Firtel R. Intervening sequences in a Dictyostelium gene that encodes a low abundance class mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 Dec 11; 8(23):5599-610. PMID: 7465423; PMCID: PMC324328.
      218. Rowekamp W, Firtel R. Isolation of developmentally regulated genes from Dictyostelium. Dev Biol. 1980 Oct; 79(2):409-18. PMID: 7429011.
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      219. Rowekamp W, Poole S, Firtel R. Analysis of the multigene family coding the developmentally regulated carbohydrate-binding protein discoidin-I in D. discoideum. Cell. 1980 Jun; 20(2):495-505. PMID: 7388948.
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      220. MacLeod C, Firtel R, Papkoff J. Regulation of actin gene expression during spore germination in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dev Biol. 1980 May; 76(2):263-74. PMID: 6893032.
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      221. Firtel R, Timm R, Kimmel AR, McKeown M. Unusual nucleotide sequences at the 5' end of actin genes in Dictyostelium discoideum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Dec; 76(12):6206-10. PMID: 293714; PMCID: PMC411832.
      222. Kindle KL, Firtel R. Evidence that populations of Dictyostelium single-copy mRNA transcripts carry common repeat sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1979 Jun 11; 6(7):2403-22. PMID: 461193; PMCID: PMC327862.
      223. Kimmel AR, Firtel R. A family of short, interspersed repeat sequences at the 5' end of a set of Dictyostelium single-copy mRNAs. Cell. 1979 Apr; 16(4):787-96. PMID: 455448.
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      224. Cockburn AF, Taylor WC, Firtel R. Dictyostelium rDNA consists of non-chromosomal palindromic dimers containing 5S and 36S coding regions. Chromosoma. 1978 Dec 21; 70(1):19-29. PMID: 738167.
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      225. Kindle KL, Firtel R. Identification and analysis of Dictyostelium actin genes, a family of moderately repeated genes. Cell. 1978 Nov; 15(3):763-78. PMID: 728989.
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      226. Bender W, Davidson N, Kindle KL, Taylor WC, Silverman M, Firtel R. The structure of M6, a recombinant plasmid containing Dictyostelium DNA homologous to actin messenger RNA. Cell. 1978 Nov; 15(3):779-88. PMID: 728990.
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      227. McKeown M, Taylor WC, Kindle KL, Firtel R, Bender W, Davidson N. Multiple, heterogeneous actin genes in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1978 Nov; 15(3):789-800. PMID: 728991.
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      228. Ma GC, Firtel R. Regulation of the synthesis of two carbohydrate-binding proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum. J Biol Chem. 1978 Jun 10; 253(11):3924-32. PMID: 565775.
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      229. Frankel G, Cockburn AF, Kindle KL, Firtel R. Organization of the ribosomal RNA genes of Dictyostelium discoideum. Mapping of the transcribed region. J Mol Biol. 1977 Feb 5; 109(4):539-58. PMID: 557566.
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      230. Cockburn AF, Newkirk MJ, Firtel R. Organization of the ribosomal RNA genes of Dictyostelium discoideum: mapping of the nontranscribed spacer regions. Cell. 1976 Dec; 9(4 Pt 1):605-13. PMID: 1034500.
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      231. Firtel R, Cockburn A, Frankel G, Hershfield V. Structural organization of the genome of Dictyostelium discoideum: analysis by EcoR1 restriction endonuclease. J Mol Biol. 1976 Apr 25; 102(4):831-52. PMID: 781265.
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      232. Siu CH, Lerner RA, Ma G, Firtel R, Loomis WF. Developmentally regulated proteins of the plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum. The carbohydrate-binding protein. J Mol Biol. 1976 Jan 15; 100(2):157-78. PMID: 815552.
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      233. Firtel R, Kindle K, Huxley MP. Structural organization and processing of the genetic transcript in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Fed Proc. 1976 Jan; 35(1):13-22. PMID: 942701.
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      234. Firtel R, Kindle K. Structural organization of the genome of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: interspersion of repetitive and single-copy DNA sequences. Cell. 1975 Aug; 5(4):401-11. PMID: 1171729.
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      235. Jacobson A, Firtel R, Lodish HF. The synthesis of messenger RNA in the cellular slime mold Dictyosteilum discoideum. Brookhaven Symp Biol. 1975 Jul; (26):307-19. PMID: 1238151.
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      236. Firtel R, Pederson T. Ribonucleoprotein particles containing heterogeneous nuclear RNA in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Jan; 72(1):301-5. PMID: 1054507; PMCID: PMC432292.
      237. Lodish HF, Jacobson A, Firtel R, Alton T, Tuchman J. Synthesis of messenger RNA and chromosome structure in the cellular slime mold. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Dec; 71(12):5103-8. PMID: 4531041; PMCID: PMC434048.
      238. Verma IM, Firtel R, Lodish HF, Baltimore D. Synthesis of DNA complementary to cellular slime mold messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase. Biochemistry. 1974 Sep 10; 13(19):3917-22. PMID: 4137959.
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      239. Firtel R, Jacobson A, Tuchman J, Lodish HF. Gene activity during development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Genetics. 1974 Sep; 78(1):355-72. PMID: 4474971; PMCID: PMC1213196.
      240. Allende CC, Allende JE, Firtel R. The degradation of ribonucleic acids injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Cell. 1974 Jul; 2(3):189-96. PMID: 4370441.
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      241. Jacobson A, Firtel R, Lodish H. Transcription of polydeoxythymidylate sequences in the genome of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 May; 71(5):1607-11. PMID: 4525281; PMCID: PMC388285.
      242. Jacobson A, Firtel R, Lodish HF. Synthesis of messenger and ribosomal RNA precursors in isolated nuclei of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1974 Jan 15; 82(2):213-30. PMID: 4856245.
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      243. Lodish HF, Firtel R, Jacobson A. Transcription and structure of the genome of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1974; 38:899-914. PMID: 4524794.
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      244. Firtel R, Lodish HF. A small nuclear precursor of messenger RNA in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1973 Sep 15; 79(2):295-314. PMID: 4796769.
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      245. Firtel R, Baxter L, Lodish HF. Actinomycin D and the regulation of enzyme biosynthesis during development of Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1973 Sep 15; 79(2):315-27. PMID: 4796770.
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      246. Firtel R, Jacobson A, Lodish HF. Isolation and hybridization kinetics of messenger RNA from Dictyostelium discoideum. Nat New Biol. 1972 Oct 25; 239(95):225-8. PMID: 4507801.
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      247. Firtel R, Bonner J. Developmental control of -1-4 glucan phosphorylase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Dev Biol. 1972 Sep; 29(1):85-103. PMID: 4672568.
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      248. Firtel R, Bonner J. Characterization of the genome of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1972 May 28; 66(3):339-61. PMID: 4556574.
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      249. Firtel R. Changes in the expression of single-copy DNA during development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol. 1972 May 28; 66(3):363-77. PMID: 5064459.
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      250. Firtel R, Brackenbruy RW. Partial characterization of several protein and amino acid metabolizing enzymes in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Dev Biol. 1972 Mar; 27(3):307-21. PMID: 4623049.
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      251. Firtel R, Monroy A. Polysomes and RNA synthesis during early development of the surf clam Spisula solidissima. Dev Biol. 1970 Feb; 21(1):87-104. PMID: 5445762.
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