William Kristan

Title(s)Emeritus Professor, Neurobiology
SchoolVc-academic Affairs
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    A Neuronal Network that Regulates Motor Synchrony
    NIH R03TW006832Jan 15, 2004 - Dec 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R03TW000929May 1, 1998 - Apr 30, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development of Neuronal Circuits for Simple Behaviors
    NIH R01NS035336Jan 1, 1997 - Apr 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neuronal Control of Interactions Among Behaviors
    NIH R01MH043396Feb 1, 1988 - Nov 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Systems and Integrative Neurobiology Training Grant
    NIH T32GM008107Jul 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01NS020746Dec 1, 1984 - Nov 30, 1987
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Scientific Review and Evaluation Award - NSD Initial Review Group
    NIH U09NS020453Jul 1, 1983 - Aug 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    NIH R01NS014410Jan 1, 1979 - Dec 31, 1987
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Planarian fragments behave as whole animals. Curr Biol. 2022 Dec 05; 32(23):5219-5220. Le D, Sabry Z, Chandra A, Kristan WB, Collins ES, Kristan WB. PMID: 36473433.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Head removal enhances planarian electrotaxis. J Exp Biol. 2022 09 01; 225(17). Sabry Z, Wang R, Jahromi A, Rabeler C, Kristan WB, Collins ES. PMID: 35924486; PMCID: PMC9482365.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. Planarian fragments behave as whole animals. Curr Biol. 2021 11 22; 31(22):5111-5117.e4. Le D, Sabry Z, Chandra A, Kristan WB, Collins ES, Kristan WB. PMID: 34624209.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    4. Anatomy and activity patterns in a multifunctional motor neuron and its surrounding circuits. Elife. 2021 02 15; 10. Ashaber M, Tomina Y, Kassraian P, Bushong EA, Kristan WB, Ellisman MH, Wagenaar DA. PMID: 33587033; PMCID: PMC7954528.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    5. Thermal tolerance and routine oxygen consumption of convict cichlid, Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, acclimated to constant temperatures (20 °C and 30 °C) and a daily temperature cycle (20 °C → 30 °C). J Comp Physiol B. 2021 05; 191(3):479-491. Cooper CJ, Kristan WB, Eme J. PMID: 33590285.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    6. Behavioral analysis of substrate texture preference in a leech, Helobdella austinensis. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2019 04; 205(2):191-202. Kim RC, Le D, Ma K, Heath-Heckman EAC, Whitehorn N, Kristan WB, Weisblat DA. PMID: 30721348; PMCID: PMC6504255.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    7. Verifying, Challenging, and Discovering New Synapses Among Fully EM-Reconstructed Neurons in the Leech Ganglion. Front Neuroanat. 2018; 12:95. Pipkin JE, Bushong EA, Ellisman MH, Kristan WB. PMID: 30487738; PMCID: PMC6246621.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    8. Functional Connectomics: How Maggots Make Up Their Minds. Curr Biol. 2017 Jan 09; 27(1):R38-R41. Kristan WB. PMID: 28073023.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Patterns and distribution of presynaptic and postsynaptic elements within serial electron microscopic reconstructions of neuronal arbors from the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana. J Comp Neurol. 2016 12 15; 524(18):3677-3695. Pipkin JE, Bushong EA, Ellisman MH, Kristan WB. PMID: 27636374; PMCID: PMC5063717.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Early evolution of neurons. Curr Biol. 2016 10 24; 26(20):R949-R954. Kristan WB. PMID: 27780067.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Scalable Semisupervised Functional Neurocartography Reveals Canonical Neurons in Behavioral Networks. Neural Comput. 2016 08; 28(8):1453-97. Frady EP, Kapoor A, Horvitz E, Kristan WB. PMID: 27348420.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. Pinning down randomness. Cell. 2015 Apr 09; 161(2):189-90. Kristan WB. PMID: 25860598.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    13. Improved PeT molecules for optically sensing voltage in neurons. J Am Chem Soc. 2015 Feb 11; 137(5):1817-24. Woodford CR, Frady EP, Smith RS, Morey B, Canzi G, Palida SF, Araneda RC, Kristan WB, Kubiak CP, Miller EW, Tsien RY. PMID: 25584688; PMCID: PMC4513930.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Monitoring Integrated Activity of Individual Neurons Using FRET-Based Voltage-Sensitive Dyes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 859:149-69. Briggman KL, Kristan WB, González JE, Kleinfeld D, Tsien RY. PMID: 26238052.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Behavioral sequencing: competitive queuing in the fly CNS. Curr Biol. 2014 Aug 18; 24(16):R743-6. Kristan WB. PMID: 25137585.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Multiplexed modulation of behavioral choice. J Exp Biol. 2014 Aug 15; 217(Pt 16):2963-73. Palmer CR, Barnett MN, Copado S, Gardezy F, Kristan WB. PMID: 24902753; PMCID: PMC4132565.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    17. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species. J Comp Neurol. 2014 May 01; 522(7):1445-53. Striedter GF, Belgard TG, Chen CC, Davis FP, Finlay BL, Güntürkün O, Hale ME, Harris JA, Hecht EE, Hof PR, Hofmann HA, Holland LZ, Iwaniuk AN, Jarvis ED, Karten HJ, Katz PS, Kristan WB, Macagno ER, Mitra PP, Moroz LL, Preuss TM, Ragsdale CW, Sherwood CC, Stevens CF, Stüttgen MC, Tsumoto T, Wilczynski W. PMID: 24596113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    18. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species. Brain Behav Evol. 2014; 83(1):1-8. Striedter GF, Belgard TG, Chen CC, Davis FP, Finlay BL, Güntürkün O, Hale ME, Harris JA, Hecht EE, Hof PR, Hofmann HA, Holland LZ, Iwaniuk AN, Jarvis ED, Karten HJ, Katz PS, Kristan WB, Macagno ER, Mitra PP, Moroz LL, Preuss TM, Ragsdale CW, Sherwood CC, Stevens CF, Stüttgen MC, Tsumoto T, Wilczynski W. PMID: 24603302; PMCID: PMC4028317.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    19. Vertebrate versus invertebrate neural circuits. Curr Biol. 2013 Jun 17; 23(12):R504-6. Katz P, Grillner S, Wilson R, Borst A, Greenspan R, Buzsáki G, Martin K, Marder E, Kristan W, Friedrich R, Chklovskii D. PMID: 23943928.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Sexual attraction: sex-specific wiring of neural circuitry. Curr Biol. 2012 Nov 20; 22(22):R953-6. Frady EP, Palmer CR, Kristan WB. PMID: 23174297; PMCID: PMC4085748.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Photoactivation of neurons by laser-generated local heating. AIP Adv. 2012 Sep; 2(3):032154. Migliori B, Di Ventra M, Kristan W. PMID: 24753960; PMCID: PMC3977748.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5  
    22. Decision points: the factors influencing the decision to feed in the medicinal leech. Front Neurosci. 2012; 6:101. Gaudry Q, Kristan WB. PMID: 22783162; PMCID: PMC3390556.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10  
    23. Optically monitoring voltage in neurons by photo-induced electron transfer through molecular wires. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 07; 109(6):2114-9. Miller EW, Lin JY, Frady EP, Steinbach PA, Kristan WB, Tsien RY. PMID: 22308458; PMCID: PMC3277584.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 121     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Contextual modulation of behavioral choice. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2011 Aug; 21(4):520-6. Palmer CR, Kristan WB. PMID: 21624826; PMCID: PMC3478953.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    25. Gap junction expression is required for normal chemical synapse formation. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 10; 30(45):15277-85. Todd KL, Kristan WB, French KA. PMID: 21068332; PMCID: PMC3478946.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Alpha-conotoxin ImI disrupts central control of swimming in the medicinal leech. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Nov 26; 485(3):151-6. Wagenaar DA, Gonzalez R, Ries DC, Kristan WB, French KA. PMID: 20833225; PMCID: PMC2956871.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Feeding-mediated distention inhibits swimming in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 2010 Jul 21; 30(29):9753-61. Gaudry Q, Kristan WB. PMID: 20660257; PMCID: PMC2975557.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Behavioral choice across leech species: chacun à son goût. J Exp Biol. 2010 Apr; 213(Pt 8):1356-65. Gaudry Q, Ruiz N, Huang T, Kristan WB, Kristan WB. PMID: 20348348; PMCID: PMC2846166.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    29. A hormone-activated central pattern generator for courtship. Curr Biol. 2010 Mar 23; 20(6):487-95. Wagenaar DA, Hamilton MS, Huang T, Kristan WB, French KA. PMID: 20226670; PMCID: PMC2858972.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Species-specific behavioral patterns correlate with differences in synaptic connections between homologous mechanosensory neurons. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010 Mar; 196(3):181-97. Baltzley MJ, Gaudry Q, Kristan WB. PMID: 20135128; PMCID: PMC2825318.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Behavioral choice by presynaptic inhibition of tactile sensory terminals. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Nov; 12(11):1450-7. Gaudry Q, Kristan WB. PMID: 19801989.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 57     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Neuronal decision-making circuits. Curr Biol. 2008 Oct 14; 18(19):R928-32. Kristan WB. PMID: 18957243.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. From synapses to behavior: development of a sensory-motor circuit in the leech. Dev Neurobiol. 2008 May; 68(6):779-87. Marin-Burgin A, Kristan WB, French KA. PMID: 18383550.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Leech locomotion: swimming, crawling, and decisions. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2007 Dec; 17(6):704-11. Friesen WO, Kristan WB. PMID: 18339544; PMCID: PMC2323911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    35. Photochemical control of endogenous ion channels and cellular excitability. Nat Methods. 2008 Apr; 5(4):331-8. Fortin DL, Banghart MR, Dunn TW, Borges K, Wagenaar DA, Gaudry Q, Karakossian MH, Otis TS, Kristan WB, Trauner D, Kramer RH. PMID: 18311146; PMCID: PMC2760097.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 82     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Cellular substrates of action selection: a cluster of higher-order descending neurons shapes body posture and locomotion. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2008 May; 194(5):469-81. Mesce KA, Esch T, Kristan WB. PMID: 18297289.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Widespread inhibition proportional to excitation controls the gain of a leech behavioral circuit. Neuron. 2008 Jan 24; 57(2):276-289. Baca SM, Marin-Burgin A, Wagenaar DA, Kristan WB. PMID: 18215624; PMCID: PMC4084705.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Multifunctional pattern-generating circuits. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2008; 31:271-94. Briggman KL, Kristan WB. PMID: 18558856.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 104     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Effects of anthropogenic developments on common raven nesting biology in the West Mojave Desert. Ecol Appl. 2007 Sep; 17(6):1703-13. Kristan WB, Boarman WI. PMID: 17913134.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    40. Neuroscience. A push-me pull-you neural design. Science. 2007 Jan 19; 315(5810):339-40. Kristan WB. PMID: 17234936.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Imaging dedicated and multifunctional neural circuits generating distinct behaviors. J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 18; 26(42):10925-33. Briggman KL, Kristan WB. PMID: 17050731; PMCID: PMC6674766.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Form and function in systems neuroscience. Curr Biol. 2006 Oct 10; 16(19):R828-31. Kristan WB, Katz P. PMID: 17027473.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Encoding and decoding touch location in the leech CNS. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 26; 26(30):8009-16. Thomson EE, Kristan WB. PMID: 16870746; PMCID: PMC6674225.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. From crawling to cognition: analyzing the dynamical interactions among populations of neurons. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006 Apr; 16(2):135-44. Briggman KL, Abarbanel HD, Kristan WB. PMID: 16564165.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Functions of the subesophageal ganglion in the medicinal leech revealed by ablation of neuromeres in embryos. J Exp Biol. 2006 Feb; 209(Pt 3):493-503. Cornford A, Kristan WB, Malnove S, Kristan WB, French KA. PMID: 16424099.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Neuronal control of leech behavior. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Aug; 76(5):279-327. Kristan WB, Calabrese RL, Friesen WO. PMID: 16260077.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 173     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Embryonic electrical connections appear to pre-figure a behavioral circuit in the leech CNS. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2006 Feb; 192(2):123-33. Marin-Burgin A, Eisenhart FJ, Kristan WB, French KA. PMID: 16205960.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Development of swimming in the medicinal leech, the gradual acquisition of a behavior. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2005 Sep; 191(9):813-21. French KA, Chang J, Reynolds S, Gonzalez R, Kristan WB, Kristan WB. PMID: 16001183.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    49. Quantifying stimulus discriminability: a comparison of information theory and ideal observer analysis. Neural Comput. 2005 Apr; 17(4):741-78. Thomson EE, Kristan WB. PMID: 15829089.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    50. Sequential development of electrical and chemical synaptic connections generates a specific behavioral circuit in the leech. J Neurosci. 2005 Mar 09; 25(10):2478-89. Marin-Burgin A, Eisenhart FJ, Baca SM, Kristan WB, French KA. PMID: 15758156; PMCID: PMC6725167.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Optical imaging of neuronal populations during decision-making. Science. 2005 Feb 11; 307(5711):896-901. Briggman KL, Abarbanel HD, Kristan WB. PMID: 15705844.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 140     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Location and intensity discrimination in the leech local bend response quantified using optic flow and principal components analysis. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3560-72. Baca SM, Thomson EE, Kristan WB. PMID: 15689387.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    53. Imaging reveals synaptic targets of a swim-terminating neuron in the leech CNS. J Neurosci. 2003 Dec 10; 23(36):11402-10. Taylor AL, Cottrell GW, Kleinfeld D, Kristan WB. PMID: 14673004; PMCID: PMC6740517.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Evidence for sequential decision making in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 2002 Dec 15; 22(24):11045-54. Esch T, Mesce KA, Kristan WB. PMID: 12486200; PMCID: PMC6758421.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Decision-making in the leech nervous system. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Aug; 42(4):716-24. Esch T, Kristan WB. PMID: 21708768.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    
    56. Analysis of oscillations in a reciprocally inhibitory network with synaptic depression. Neural Comput. 2002 Mar; 14(3):561-81. Taylor AL, Cottrell GW, Kristan WB. PMID: 11860683.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Development of neuronal circuits and behaviors in the medicinal leech. Brain Res Bull. 2000 Nov 15; 53(5):561-70. Kristan WB, Eisenhart FJ, Johnson LA, French KA. PMID: 11165792.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. A central pattern generator underlies crawling in the medicinal leech. J Comp Physiol A. 2000 Jul-Aug; 186(7-8):631-43. Eisenhart FJ, Cacciatore TW, Kristan WB. PMID: 11016780.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Disruption of peripheral target contact influences the development of identified central dendritic branches in a leech motor neuron in vivo. J Neurobiol. 2000 Jun 15; 43(4):365-78. Johnson LA, Kristan WB, Jellies J, French KA. PMID: 10861562.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. Kinematics and modeling of leech crawling: evidence for an oscillatory behavior produced by propagating waves of excitation. J Neurosci. 2000 Feb 15; 20(4):1643-55. Cacciatore TW, Rozenshteyn R, Kristan WB. PMID: 10662854; PMCID: PMC6772388.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Dendritic Ca(2+)-activated K(+) conductances regulate electrical signal propagation in an invertebrate neuron. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 01; 19(19):8319-26. Wessel R, Kristan WB, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 10493733; PMCID: PMC6783054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Relative roles of the S cell network and parallel interneuronal pathways in the whole-body shortening reflex of the medicinal leech. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Sep; 82(3):1114-23. Shaw BK, Kristan WB. PMID: 10482731.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    63. Supralinear summation of synaptic inputs by an invertebrate neuron: dendritic gain is mediated by an "inward rectifier" K(+) current. J Neurosci. 1999 Jul 15; 19(14):5875-88. Wessel R, Kristan WB, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 10407027; PMCID: PMC6783099.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. Identification of neural circuits by imaging coherent electrical activity with FRET-based dyes. Neuron. 1999 Jul; 23(3):449-59. Cacciatore TW, Brodfuehrer PD, Gonzalez JE, Jiang T, Adams SR, Tsien RY, Kristan WB, Kleinfeld D. PMID: 10433258.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    65. Glial responses during evoked behaviors in the leech. Glia. 1999 Apr; 26(2):186-9. Deitmer JW, Kristan WB. PMID: 10384883.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Development of spontaneous and evoked behaviors in the medicinal leech. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Dec 14; 402(2):168-80. Reynolds SA, French KA, Baader A, Kristan WB. PMID: 9845241.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    67. Staging of middle and late embryonic development in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Dec 14; 402(2):155-67. Reynolds SA, French KA, Baader A, Kristan WB. PMID: 9845240.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    68. He's got rhythm: single neurons signal timing on a scale of seconds. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Dec; 1(8):643-5. Kristan WB. PMID: 10196575.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    69. Representation of touch location by a population of leech sensory neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Nov; 80(5):2584-92. Lewis JE, Kristan WB. PMID: 9819265.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    70. Long-lasting depolarization of leech neurons mediated by receptors with a nicotinic binding site. J Exp Biol. 1998 Jun; 201(Pt 12):1895-906. Szczupak L, Edgar J, Peralta ML, Kristan WB. PMID: 9722428.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    71. Quantitative analysis of a directed behavior in the medicinal leech: implications for organizing motor output. J Neurosci. 1998 Feb 15; 18(4):1571-82. Lewis JE, Kristan WB. PMID: 9454862; PMCID: PMC6792712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    72. Behavioral hierarchy in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis: feeding as a dominant behavior. Behav Brain Res. 1998 Jan; 90(1):13-21. Misell LM, Shaw BK, Kristan WB. PMID: 9520210.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    73. A neuronal network for computing population vectors in the leech. Nature. 1998 Jan 01; 391(6662):76-9. Lewis JE, Kristan WB. PMID: 9422507.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    74. Population coding and behavioral choice. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1997 Dec; 7(6):826-31. Kristan WB, Shaw BK. PMID: 9464982.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    75. The neuronal basis of the behavioral choice between swimming and shortening in the leech: control is not selectively exercised at higher circuit levels. J Neurosci. 1997 Jan 15; 17(2):786-95. Shaw BK, Kristan WB. PMID: 8987800; PMCID: PMC6573222.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    76. A model of the hydrostatic skeleton of the leech. J Theor Biol. 1996 Aug 21; 181(4):329-42. Skierczynski BA, Wilson RJ, Kristan WB, Skalak R. PMID: 8949581.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. An increase in activity of serotonergic Retzius neurones may not be necessary for the consummatory phase of feeding in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. J Exp Biol. 1996 Jun; 199(Pt 6):1405-14. Wilson RJ, Kristan WB, Kleinhaus AL. PMID: 8691114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    78. Mapping motor neurone activity to overt behaviour in the leech: internal pressures produced during locomotion. J Exp Biol. 1996 Jun; 199(Pt 6):1415-28. Wilson RJ, Skierczynski BA, Blackwood S, Skalak R, Kristan WB. PMID: 8691115.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    79. Mapping motor neuron activity to overt behavior in the leech. I. Passive biomechanical properties of the body wall. J Comp Physiol A. 1996 May; 178(5):637-54. Wilson RJ, Skierczynski BA, Meyer JK, Skalak R, Kristan WB. PMID: 8618216.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    80. The whole-body shortening reflex of the medicinal leech: motor pattern, sensory basis, and interneuronal pathways. J Comp Physiol A. 1995 Dec; 177(6):667-81. Shaw BK, Kristan WB. PMID: 8537936.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    81. Widespread mechanosensory activation of the serotonergic system of the medicinal leech. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Dec; 74(6):2614-24. Szczupak L, Kristan WB. PMID: 8747219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    82. Using reflexive behaviors of the medicinal leech to study information processing. J Neurobiol. 1995 Jul; 27(3):380-9. Kristan WB, Lockery SR, Lewis JE. PMID: 7673896.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    83. Parallel pathways coordinate crawling in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. J Comp Physiol A. 1995 Jun; 176(6):715-26. Baader AP, Kristan WB. PMID: 7776267.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    84. Cell-cell interactions that modulate neuronal development in the leech. J Neurobiol. 1994 Jun; 25(6):640-51. French KA, Kristan WB. PMID: 7915301.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    85. Segment-specific modulation of the electrophysiological activity of leech Retzius neurons by acetylcholine. J Exp Biol. 1993 Oct; 183:115-35. Szczupak L, Jordan S, Kristan WB. PMID: 7504050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    86. Developmental regulation of segment-specific cholinergic receptors on Retzius neurons in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 1993 Apr; 13(4):1577-87. Kristan WB, French KA, Szczupak L. PMID: 8096542; PMCID: PMC6576727.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    87. Neuronal basis of behavior. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1992 Dec; 2(6):781-7. Kristan WB. PMID: 1477542.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    88. Analysis and modeling of the multisegmental coordination of shortening behavior in the medicinal leech. II. Role of identified interneurons. J Neurophysiol. 1992 Nov; 68(5):1693-707. Wittenberg G, Kristan WB. PMID: 1479439.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    89. Analysis and modeling of the multisegmental coordination of shortening behavior in the medicinal leech. I. Motor output pattern. J Neurophysiol. 1992 Nov; 68(5):1683-92. Wittenberg G, Kristan WB. PMID: 1479438.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. Mesenchyme of embryonic reproductive ducts directs process outgrowth of Retzius neurons in the medicinal leech. Dev Biol. 1992 Sep; 153(1):122-40. French KA, Jordan SM, Loer CM, Kristan WB. PMID: 1516742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    91. Monitoring neuronal activity during discrete behaviors: a crawling, swimming and shortening device for tethered leeches. J Neurosci Methods. 1992 Jul; 43(2-3):215-23. Baader AP, Kristan WB. PMID: 1405744.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    92. Target influences on the development of leech neurons. Trends Neurosci. 1992 May; 15(5):169-74. French KA, Kristan WB. PMID: 1377423.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    93. Development of the leech nervous system. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1992; 33:109-93. Stent GS, Kristan WB, Torrence SA, French KA, Weisblat DA. PMID: 1592567.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    94. The oblique muscle organizer in Hirudo medicinalis, an identified embryonic cell projecting multiple parallel growth cones in an orderly array. Dev Biol. 1991 Nov; 148(1):334-54. Jellies J, Kristan WB. PMID: 1936570.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    95. Two forms of sensitization of the local bending reflex of the medicinal leech. J Comp Physiol A. 1991 Feb; 168(2):165-77. Lockery SR, Kristan WB. PMID: 2046043.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    96. Segmental specialization of neuronal connectivity in the leech. J Comp Physiol A. 1990 Sep; 167(4):453-9. Wittenberg G, Loer CM, Adamo SA, Kristan WB. PMID: 2258834.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    97. Distributed processing of sensory information in the leech. I. Input-output relations of the local bending reflex. J Neurosci. 1990 Jun; 10(6):1811-5. Lockery SR, Kristan WB. PMID: 2355251; PMCID: PMC6570310.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. Distributed processing of sensory information in the leech. II. Identification of interneurons contributing to the local bending reflex. J Neurosci. 1990 Jun; 10(6):1816-29. Lockery SR, Kristan WB. PMID: 2355252; PMCID: PMC6570306.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    99. Localization of a leech inhibitory synapse by photo-ablation of individual dendrites. Brain Res. 1989 Dec 11; 504(1):43-8. Lytton WW, Kristan WB. PMID: 2598016.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    100. Function of identified interneurons in the leech elucidated using neural networks trained by back-propagation. Nature. 1989 Aug 10; 340(6233):468-71. Lockery SR, Wittenberg G, Kristan WB, Cottrell GW. PMID: 2755509.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. Central synaptic inputs to identified leech neurons determined by peripheral targets. Science. 1989 Apr 07; 244(4900):64-6. Loer CM, Kristan WB. PMID: 2704990.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    102. Peripheral target choice by homologous neurons during embryogenesis of the medicinal leech. II. Innervation of ectopic reproductive tissue by nonreproductive Retzius cells. J Neurosci. 1989 Feb; 9(2):528-38. Loer CM, Kristan WB. PMID: 2918376; PMCID: PMC6569800.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    103. Peripheral target choice by homologous neurons during embryogenesis of the medicinal leech. I. Segment-specific preferences of Retzius cells. J Neurosci. 1989 Feb; 9(2):513-27. Loer CM, Kristan WB. PMID: 2918375; PMCID: PMC6569796.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    104. Embryonic assembly of a complex muscle is directed by a single identified cell in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 1988 Sep; 8(9):3317-26. Jellies J, Kristan WB. PMID: 3171679; PMCID: PMC6569454.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    105. Multifunctional interneurons in behavioral circuits of the medicinal leech. Experientia. 1988 May 15; 44(5):383-9. Kristan WB, Wittenberg G, Nusbaum MP, Stern-Tomlinson W. PMID: 3286283.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    106. An identified cell is required for the formation of a major nerve during embryogenesis in the leech. J Neurobiol. 1988 Mar; 19(2):153-65. Jellies J, Kristan WB. PMID: 3351507.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    107. Morphological changes in leech Retzius neurons after target contact during embryogenesis. J Neurosci. 1987 Sep; 7(9):2618-29. Jellies J, Loer CM, Kristan WB. PMID: 3625266; PMCID: PMC6569139.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. Segment-specific morphogenesis of leech Retzius neurons requires particular peripheral targets. J Neurosci. 1987 Sep; 7(9):2630-8. Loer CM, Jellies J, Kristan WB. PMID: 3625267; PMCID: PMC6569142.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    109. Neural mechanisms generating the leech swimming rhythm: swim-initiator neurons excite the network of swim oscillator neurons. J Comp Physiol A. 1987 Aug; 161(3):355-66. Nusbaum MP, Friesen WO, Kristan WB, Pearce RA. PMID: 3668878.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    110. Development of segmental differences in the pressure mechanosensory neurons of the leech Haementeria ghilianii. J Comp Neurol. 1986 Dec 15; 254(3):403-9. Loer CM, Schley C, Zipser B, Kristan WB. PMID: 3794014.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. Swim initiation in the leech by serotonin-containing interneurones, cells 21 and 61. J Exp Biol. 1986 May; 122:277-302. Nusbaum MP, Kristan WB. PMID: 3723072.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    112. A kinematic study of crawling behavior in the leech, Hirudo medicinalis. J Comp Physiol A. 1986 Apr; 158(4):593-603. Stern-Tomlinson W, Nusbaum MP, Perez LE, Kristan WB. PMID: 3723440.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    113. Inhibitory connections between motor neurons modify a centrally generated motor pattern in the leech nervous system. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 26; 369(1-2):321-5. Granzow B, Kristan WB. PMID: 3697747.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    114. Identified GABAergic inhibitory motor neurons in the leech central nervous system take up GABA. Brain Res. 1985 Dec 02; 348(2):359-62. Cline HT, Nusbaum MP, Kristan WB. PMID: 4075094.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    115. Physiological and morphological analysis of synaptic transmission between leech motor neurons. J Neurosci. 1985 Aug; 5(8):2035-50. Granzow B, Friesen WO, Kristan WB. PMID: 2991480; PMCID: PMC6565300.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    116. Neurons controlling the initiation, generation and modulation of leech swimming. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1983; 37:243-60. Kristan WB, Weeks JC. PMID: 6679114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    117. The dual role of serotonin in leech swimming. J Physiol (Paris). 1982-1983; 78(8):743-7. Kristan WB, Nusbaum MP. PMID: 7187448.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    118. Mapping of neuronal contacts with intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase and Lucifer yellow in combination. Brain Res. 1981 Jul 27; 217(1):143-9. Macagno ER, Muller KJ, Kristan WB, Deriemer SA, Stewart R, Granzow B. PMID: 7020878.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    119. Neuronal changes related to behavioral changes in chronically isolated segments of the medicinal leech. Brain Res. 1979 May 05; 167(1):215-20. Kristan WB. PMID: 455070.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    120. Neuronal generation of the leech swimming movement. Science. 1978 Jun 23; 200(4348):1348-57. Stent GS, Kristan WB, Friesen WO, Ort CA, Poon M, Calabrese RL. PMID: 663615.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    121. Rhythmic swimming activity in neurones of the isolated nerve cord of the leech. J Exp Biol. 1976 Dec; 65(3):643-68. Kristan WB, Calabrese RL. PMID: 1018167.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    122. Pepherial feedback in the leech swimming rhythm. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1976; 40:663-74. Kristan WB, Stent GS. PMID: 1065547.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    123. Does the striate cortex begin reconstruction of the visual world? Science. 1972 Apr 21; 176(4032):316-9. Mittenthal JE, Kristan WB, Tatton WG, Kripke B, Pollen DA, Taylor JH, Lee JR. PMID: 17791920.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    124. Plasticity of firing patterns in neurons of Aplysia pleural ganglion. J Neurophysiol. 1971 May; 34(3):321-36. Kristan WB. PMID: 5560035.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    125. Plasticity of synchronous activity in a small neural net. Science. 1970 Sep 25; 169(3952):1336-9. Kristan WB, Gerstein GL. PMID: 5454147.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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