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    Karl Hostetler

    TitleRecall Faculty
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0676
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-552-8585
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Optimization of HPMPA and CDV Analogs for Treatment of Smallpox
      NIH/NIAID R01AI074057Apr 15, 2008 - Mar 31, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      POTENT NEW NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS FOR DRUG RESISTANT HIV
      NIH/NIAID R01AI071803Apr 1, 2007 - Mar 31, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Lung-Targeted Poxivirus Antivirals
      NIH/NIAID R21AI064615Jul 1, 2005 - Jun 30, 2008
      Role: Principal Investigator
      ANALOGS OF HPMPA FOR TREATMENT OF SMALLPOX
      NIH/NIAID R01AI066499Apr 1, 2005 - Sep 30, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Nucleoside Phosphonate Analogs and HPV Positive Cancers
      NIH/NCI R01CA105039Jul 1, 2004 - Apr 30, 2009
      Role: Principal Investigator
      OPTIMIZATION OF PRODRUGS FOR AZT/PFA RESISTANCE IN AIDS
      NIH/NIAID R01AI041928Sep 15, 1998 - Aug 31, 2002
      Role: Principal Investigator
      OPTIMIZATION OF PRODRUGS FOR AZT/PFA RESISTANCE IN AIDS
      NIH/NIAID R21AI041928Sep 30, 1997 - Sep 29, 1998
      Role: Principal Investigator
      PRODRUGS FOR THERAPY OF VIRAL RETINITIS IN AIDS
      NIH/NEI R01EY011832Apr 1, 1997 - Aug 31, 2004
      Role: Principal Investigator
      METABOLIC BASIS OF AMINOGLYCOSIDE NEPHROTOXICITY
      NIH/NIADDK R01AM032159Apr 1, 1983 - Mar 31, 1986
      Role: Principal Investigator
      ANTIVIRAL LIPID PRODRUGS IN AIDS AND HEPATITIS B
      NIH/NIGMS R01GM024979Apr 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 1999
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Beadle JR, Valiaeva N, Yang G, Yu JH, Broker TR, Aldern KA, Harden EA, Keith KA, Prichard MN, Hartman T, Buckheit RW, Chow LT, Hostetler K. Synthesis and Antiviral Evaluation of Octadecyloxyethyl Benzyl 9-[(2-Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]guanine (ODE-Bn-PMEG), a Potent Inhibitor of Transient HPV DNA Amplification. J Med Chem. 2016 Dec 08; 59(23):10470-10478. PMID: 27933957.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Ma F, Nan K, Lee S, Beadle JR, Hou H, Freeman WR, Hostetler K, Cheng L. Micelle formulation of hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV) as an intravitreal long-lasting delivery system. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015 Jan; 89:271-9. PMID: 25513956; PMCID: PMC4355386.
      3. Kim JS, Beadle JR, Freeman WR, Hostetler K, Hartmann K, Valiaeva N, Kozak I, Conner L, Trahan J, Aldern KA, Cheng L. A novel cytarabine crystalline lipid prodrug: hexadecyloxypropyl cytarabine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Mol Vis. 2012; 18:1907-17. PMID: 22876115; PMCID: PMC3413433.
      4. Wang H, Chhablani J, Freeman WR, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Hartmann K, Conner L, Aldern KA, Pearson L, Cheng L. Intraocular safety and pharmacokinetics of hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV) as a long-lasting intravitreal antiviral drug. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Dec 09; 52(13):9391-6. PMID: 22058340; PMCID: PMC3250264.
      5. Magee WC, Valiaeva N, Beadle JR, Richman DD, Hostetler K, Evans DH. Inhibition of HIV-1 by octadecyloxyethyl esters of (S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] nucleosides and evaluation of their mechanism of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Nov; 55(11):5063-72. PMID: 21896914; PMCID: PMC3195056.
      6. Ray AS, Hostetler K. Application of kinase bypass strategies to nucleoside antivirals. Antiviral Res. 2011 Nov; 92(2):277-91. PMID: 21878354.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Valiaeva N, Wyles DL, Schooley RT, Hwu JB, Beadle JR, Prichard MN, Hostetler K. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 9-(S)-[3-alkoxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]nucleoside alkoxyalkyl esters: inhibitors of hepatitis C virus and HIV-1 replication. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Aug 01; 19(15):4616-25. PMID: 21719300; PMCID: PMC3139790.
      8. Ruiz J, Beadle JR, Buller RM, Schreiwer J, Prichard MN, Keith KA, Lewis KC, Hostetler K. Synthesis, metabolic stability and antiviral evaluation of various alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir and 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 May 01; 19(9):2950-8. PMID: 21493074; PMCID: PMC3104040.
      9. Hou J, Li Y, Zhou Z, Valiaeva N, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Freeman WR, Hu DN, Chen H, Cheng L. Antiproliferative property of hexadecyloxypropyl 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy) ethyl] guanine (HDP-PMEG) for unwanted ocular proliferation. Mol Vis. 2011 Mar 02; 17:627-37. PMID: 21386925; PMCID: PMC3049735.
      10. Cheng L, Beadle JR, Tammewar A, Hostetler K, Hoh C, Freeman WR. Intraocular pharmacokinetics of a crystalline lipid prodrug, octadecyloxyethyl-cyclic-cidofovir, for cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Apr; 27(2):157-62. PMID: 21351867; PMCID: PMC3078534.
      11. Julien O, Beadle JR, Magee WC, Chatterjee S, Hostetler K, Evans DH, Sykes BD. Solution structure of a DNA duplex containing the potent anti-poxvirus agent cidofovir. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Feb 23; 133(7):2264-74. PMID: 21280608; PMCID: PMC3051402.
      12. Bravo FJ, Bernstein DI, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Cardin RD. Oral hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir therapy in pregnant guinea pigs improves outcome in the congenital model of cytomegalovirus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Jan; 55(1):35-41. PMID: 21078944; PMCID: PMC3019685.
      13. Hostetler K. Synthesis and early development of hexadecyloxypropylcidofovir: an oral antipoxvirus nucleoside phosphonate. Viruses. 2010 Oct; 2(10):2213-25. PMID: 21994617; PMCID: PMC3185567.
      14. Valiaeva N, Trahan J, Aldern KA, Beadle JR, Hostetler K. Antiproliferative effects of octadecyloxyethyl 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]guanine against Me-180 human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Chemotherapy. 2010; 56(1):54-9. PMID: 20215748; PMCID: PMC2914419.
      15. Valiaeva N, Prichard MN, Buller RM, Beadle JR, Hartline CB, Keith KA, Schriewer J, Trahan J, Hostetler K. Antiviral evaluation of octadecyloxyethyl esters of (S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl nucleosides against herpesviruses and orthopoxviruses. Antiviral Res. 2009 Dec; 84(3):254-9. PMID: 19800369; PMCID: PMC2787864.
      16. Botros SS, William S, Beadle JR, Valiaeva N, Hostetler K. Antischistosomal activity of hexadecyloxypropyl cyclic 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine and other alkoxyalkyl esters of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates assessed by schistosome worm killing in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Dec; 53(12):5284-7. PMID: 19704122; PMCID: PMC2786359.
      17. Cheng L, Hostetler K, Valiaeva N, Tammewar A, Freeman WR, Beadle J, Bartsch DU, Aldern K, Falkenstein I. Intravitreal crystalline drug delivery for intraocular proliferation diseases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jan; 51(1):474-81. PMID: 19696179; PMCID: PMC2869063.
      18. Hostetler K. Alkoxyalkyl prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates enhance oral antiviral activity and reduce toxicity: current state of the art. Antiviral Res. 2009 May; 82(2):A84-98. PMID: 19425198; PMCID: PMC2768545.
      19. Morrey JD, Korba BE, Beadle JR, Wyles DL, Hostetler K. Alkoxyalkyl esters of 9-(s)-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl) adenine are potent and selective inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in vitro and in HBV transgenic mice in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jul; 53(7):2865-70. PMID: 19398648; PMCID: PMC2704649.
      20. Wyles DL, Kaihara KA, Korba BE, Schooley RT, Beadle JR, Hostetler K. The octadecyloxyethyl ester of (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy) propyl]adenine is a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication in genotype 1A, 1B, and 2A replicons. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jun; 53(6):2660-2. PMID: 19289518; PMCID: PMC2687240.
      21. Prichard MN, Hartline CB, Harden EA, Daily SL, Beadle JR, Valiaeva N, Kern ER, Hostetler K. Inhibition of herpesvirus replication by hexadecyloxypropyl esters of purine- and pyrimidine-based phosphonomethoxyethyl nucleoside phosphonates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Dec; 52(12):4326-30. PMID: 18852272; PMCID: PMC2592848.
      22. Quenelle DC, Collins DJ, Pettway LR, Hartline CB, Beadle JR, Wan WB, Hostetler K, Kern ER. Effect of oral treatment with (S)-HPMPA, HDP-(S)-HPMPA or ODE-(S)-HPMPA on replication of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in animal models. Antiviral Res. 2008 Aug; 79(2):133-5. PMID: 18336926; PMCID: PMC2650230.
      23. Randhawa P, Zemlicka J, Sauerbrei A, Meier C, Hostetler K, Beadle JR, Farasati NA, Huang Y, Bradley M. Anti-BK virus activity of nucleoside analogs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Apr; 52(4):1519-21. PMID: 18285481; PMCID: PMC2292553.
      24. Magee WC, Aldern KA, Hostetler K, Evans DH. Cidofovir and (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-(2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine are highly effective inhibitors of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase when incorporated into the template strand. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Feb; 52(2):586-97. PMID: 18056278; PMCID: PMC2224733.
      25. Tammewar AM, Cheng L, Hostetler K, Falkenstein I, Beadle JR, Barron EC, Kozak I, Freeman WR. Intraocular properties of an alkoxyalkyl derivative of cyclic 9-(S)-(3-hydroxyl-2-phosphonomehoxypropyl) adenine, an intravitreally injectable anti-HCMV drug in rabbit and guinea pig. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Oct; 23(5):433-44. PMID: 17900229.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Quenelle DC, Collins DJ, Herrod BP, Keith KA, Trahan J, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Kern ER. Effect of oral treatment with hexadecyloxypropyl-[(S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2- phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine] [(S)-HPMPA] or octadecyloxyethyl-(S)-HPMPA on cowpox or vaccinia virus infections in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Nov; 51(11):3940-7. PMID: 17846137; PMCID: PMC2151427.
      27. Painter GR, Almond MR, Trost LC, Lampert BM, Neyts J, De Clercq E, Korba BE, Aldern KA, Beadle JR, Hostetler K. Evaluation of hexadecyloxypropyl-9-R-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]- adenine, CMX157, as a potential treatment for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis B virus infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Oct; 51(10):3505-9. PMID: 17646420; PMCID: PMC2043283.
      28. Dal Pozzo F, Andrei G, Lebeau I, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, De Clercq E, Snoeck R. In vitro evaluation of the anti-orf virus activity of alkoxyalkyl esters of CDV, cCDV and (S)-HPMPA. Antiviral Res. 2007 Jul; 75(1):52-7. PMID: 17184854.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Choo H, Beadle JR, Chong Y, Trahan J, Hostetler K. Synthesis of the 5-phosphono-pent-2-en-1-yl nucleosides: a new class of antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Feb 15; 15(4):1771-9. PMID: 17166725; PMCID: PMC1810563.
      30. Choo H, Beadle JR, Kern ER, Prichard MN, Keith KA, Hartline CB, Trahan J, Aldern KA, Korba BE, Hostetler K. Antiviral activities of novel 5-phosphono-pent-2-en-1-yl nucleosides and their alkoxyalkyl phosphonoesters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Feb; 51(2):611-5. PMID: 17130297; PMCID: PMC1797766.
      31. Hostetler K, Beadle JR, Trahan J, Aldern KA, Owens G, Schriewer J, Melman L, Buller RM. Oral 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycero-3-cidofovir targets the lung and is effective against a lethal respiratory challenge with ectromelia virus in mice. Antiviral Res. 2007 Mar; 73(3):212-8. PMID: 17123638; PMCID: PMC1859865.
      32. Ruiz JC, Beadle JR, Aldern KA, Keith KA, Hartline CB, Kern ER, Hostetler K. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl-phosphate conjugates of cidofovir and adefovir. Antiviral Res. 2007 Jul; 75(1):87-90. PMID: 17367874; PMCID: PMC1899528.
      33. Kornbluth RS, Smee DF, Sidwell RW, Snarsky V, Evans DH, Hostetler K. Mutations in the E9L polymerase gene of cidofovir-resistant vaccinia virus strain WR are associated with the drug resistance phenotype. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Dec; 50(12):4038-43. PMID: 16982794; PMCID: PMC1694007.
      34. Hostetler K, Aldern KA, Wan WB, Ciesla SL, Beadle JR. Alkoxyalkyl esters of (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine are potent inhibitors of the replication of wild-type and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Aug; 50(8):2857-9. PMID: 16870786; PMCID: PMC1538655.
      35. Lebeau I, Andrei G, Dal Pozzo F, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, De Clercq E, van den Oord J, Snoeck R. Activities of alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir (CDV), cyclic CDV, and (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine against orthopoxviruses in cell monolayers and in organotypic cultures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Jul; 50(7):2525-9. PMID: 16801436; PMCID: PMC1489770.
      36. Valiaeva N, Beadle JR, Aldern KA, Trahan J, Hostetler K. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl esters of acyclic purine and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphonates against HIV-1 in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2006 Oct; 72(1):10-9. PMID: 16630664.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Randhawa P, Farasati NA, Shapiro R, Hostetler K. Ether lipid ester derivatives of cidofovir inhibit polyomavirus BK replication in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Apr; 50(4):1564-6. PMID: 16569886; PMCID: PMC1426942.
      38. Beadle JR, Wan WB, Ciesla SL, Keith KA, Hartline C, Kern ER, Hostetler K. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl derivatives of 9-(S)-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl)adenine against cytomegalovirus and orthopoxviruses. J Med Chem. 2006 Mar 23; 49(6):2010-5. PMID: 16539388.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Hostetler K, Rought S, Aldern KA, Trahan J, Beadle JR, Corbeil J. Enhanced antiproliferative effects of alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir in human cervical cancer cells in vitro. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Jan; 5(1):156-9. PMID: 16432174.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Ruiz JC, Aldern KA, Beadle JR, Hartline CB, Kern ER, Hostetler K. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl esters of phosphonopropoxymethyl-guanine and phosphonopropoxymethyl-diaminopurine. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2006; 17(2):89-95. PMID: 17042330.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Williams-Aziz SL, Hartline CB, Harden EA, Daily SL, Prichard MN, Kushner NL, Beadle JR, Wan WB, Hostetler K, Kern ER. Comparative activities of lipid esters of cidofovir and cyclic cidofovir against replication of herpesviruses in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Sep; 49(9):3724-33. PMID: 16127046; PMCID: PMC1195409.
      42. Magee WC, Hostetler K, Evans DH. Mechanism of inhibition of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase by cidofovir diphosphate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Aug; 49(8):3153-62. PMID: 16048917; PMCID: PMC1196213.
      43. Lu S, Cheng L, Hostetler K, Koh HJ, Beadle JR, Davidson MC, Freeman WR. Intraocular properties of hexadecyloxypropyl-cyclic-cidofovir in Guinea pigs. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jun; 21(3):205-9. PMID: 15969637.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Wan WB, Beadle JR, Hartline C, Kern ER, Ciesla SL, Valiaeva N, Hostetler K. Comparison of the antiviral activities of alkoxyalkyl and alkyl esters of cidofovir against human and murine cytomegalovirus replication in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb; 49(2):656-62. PMID: 15673748; PMCID: PMC547274.
      45. Smee DF, Wandersee MK, Bailey KW, Hostetler K, Holy A, Sidwell RW. Characterization and treatment of cidofovir-resistant vaccinia (WR strain) virus infections in cell culture and in mice. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005; 16(3):203-11. PMID: 16004083.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Hartline CB, Gustin KM, Wan WB, Ciesla SL, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Kern ER. Ether lipid-ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: activity against adenovirus replication in vitro. J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 01; 191(3):396-9. PMID: 15633099.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Cheng L, Hostetler K, Lee J, Koh HJ, Beadle JR, Bessho K, Toyoguchi M, Aldern K, Bovet JM, Freeman WR. Characterization of a novel intraocular drug-delivery system using crystalline lipid antiviral prodrugs of ganciclovir and cyclic cidofovir. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Nov; 45(11):4138-44. PMID: 15505067; PMCID: PMC2666013.
      48. Kern ER, Collins DJ, Wan WB, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Quenelle DC. Oral treatment of murine cytomegalovirus infections with ether lipid esters of cidofovir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Sep; 48(9):3516-22. PMID: 15328119; PMCID: PMC514741.
      49. Bidanset DJ, Beadle JR, Wan WB, Hostetler K, Kern ER. Oral activity of ether lipid ester prodrugs of cidofovir against experimental human cytomegalovirus infection. J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 01; 190(3):499-503. PMID: 15243923.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Keith KA, Wan WB, Ciesla SL, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Kern ER. Inhibitory activity of alkoxyalkyl and alkyl esters of cidofovir and cyclic cidofovir against orthopoxvirus replication in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 May; 48(5):1869-71. PMID: 15105146; PMCID: PMC400568.
      51. Smee DF, Wong MH, Bailey KW, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Sidwell RW. Effects of four antiviral substances on lethal vaccinia virus (IHD strain) respiratory infections in mice. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004 May; 23(5):430-7. PMID: 15120719.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Quenelle DC, Collins DJ, Wan WB, Beadle JR, Hostetler K, Kern ER. Oral treatment of cowpox and vaccinia virus infections in mice with ether lipid esters of cidofovir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Feb; 48(2):404-12. PMID: 14742188; PMCID: PMC321539.
      53. Buller RM, Owens G, Schriewer J, Melman L, Beadle JR, Hostetler K. Efficacy of oral active ether lipid analogs of cidofovir in a lethal mousepox model. Virology. 2004 Jan 20; 318(2):474-81. PMID: 14972516.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Ciesla SL, Trahan J, Wan WB, Beadle JR, Aldern KA, Painter GR, Hostetler K. Esterification of cidofovir with alkoxyalkanols increases oral bioavailability and diminishes drug accumulation in kidney. Antiviral Res. 2003 Aug; 59(3):163-71. PMID: 12927306.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Cheng L, Hostetler K, Toyoguchi M, Beadle JR, Rodanant N, Gardner MF, Aldern KA, Bergeron-Lynn G, Freeman WR. Ganciclovir release rates in vitreous from different formulations of 1-O-hexadecylpropanediol-3-phospho-ganciclovir. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Apr; 19(2):161-9. PMID: 12804061.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Aldern KA, Ciesla SL, Winegarden KL, Hostetler K. Increased antiviral activity of 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-[2-(14)C]cidofovir in MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts is explained by unique cellular uptake and metabolism. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar; 63(3):678-81. PMID: 12606777.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Beadle JR, Hartline C, Aldern KA, Rodriguez N, Harden E, Kern ER, Hostetler K. Alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir and cyclic cidofovir exhibit multiple-log enhancement of antiviral activity against cytomegalovirus and herpesvirus replication in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Aug; 46(8):2381-6. PMID: 12121908; PMCID: PMC127379.
      58. Kern ER, Hartline C, Harden E, Keith K, Rodriguez N, Beadle JR, Hostetler K. Enhanced inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication in vitro by alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir and cyclic cidofovir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Apr; 46(4):991-5. PMID: 11897580; PMCID: PMC127114.
      59. Cheng L, Hostetler K, Chaidhawangul S, Gardner MF, Beadle JR, Toyoguchi M, Bergeron-Lynn G, Freeman WR. Treatment or prevention of herpes simplex virus retinitis with intravitreally injectable crystalline 1-O-hexadecylpropanediol-3-phospho-ganciclovir. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Feb; 43(2):515-21. PMID: 11818399.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Hostetler K, Rybak RJ, Beadle JR, Gardner MF, Aldern KA, Wright KN, Kern ER. In vitro and in vivo activity of 1-O-hexadecylpropanediol-3-phospho-ganciclovir and 1-O-hexadecylpropanediol-3-phospho-penciclovir in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infections. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2001 Jan; 12(1):61-70. PMID: 11437323.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Hostetler K, Beadle JR, Hornbuckle WE, Bellezza CA, Tochkov IA, Cote PJ, Gerin JL, Korba BE, Tennant BC. Antiviral activities of oral 1-O-hexadecylpropanediol-3-phosphoacyclovir and acyclovir in woodchucks with chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Jul; 44(7):1964-9. PMID: 10858362; PMCID: PMC89993.
      62. Hostetler K, Hammond JL, Kini GD, Hostetler SE, Beadle JR, Aldern KA, Chou TC, Richman DD, Mellors JW. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of sn-2-substituted 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphonoformate analogues and synergy with zidovudine. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2000 May; 11(3):213-9. PMID: 10901292.
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