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Vilayanur Ramachandran

Title(s)Professor, Psychology
SchoolAcademic Aff
Phone858-534-6240
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Jalal B, McNally RJ, Elias JA, Potluri S, Ramachandran VS. "Fake it till You Make it"! Contaminating Rubber Hands ("Multisensory Stimulation Therapy") to Treat Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Front Hum Neurosci. 2019; 13:414. PMID: 31998095.
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    2. Ramachandran VS, Chunharas C, Marcus Z. Constructing calendars in the brain. Neurocase. 2020 Feb; 26(1):7-17. PMID: 31762380.
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    3. Root NB, Dobkins K, Ramachandran VS, Rouw R. Echoes from the past: synaesthetic colour associations reflect childhood gender stereotypes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 12 09; 374(1787):20180572. PMID: 31630649.
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    4. Dhong C, Miller R, Root NB, Gupta S, Kayser LV, Carpenter CW, Loh KJ, Ramachandran VS, Lipomi DJ. Role of indentation depth and contact area on human perception of softness for haptic interfaces. Sci Adv. 2019 08; 5(8):eaaw8845. PMID: 31497646.
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    5. Steenwinkel FA, Ter Meulen BC, Ramachandran VS. Teaching Video NeuroImages: Mirror therapy against phantom pain. Neurology. 2019 02 26; 92(9):e1002. PMID: 30804070.
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    6. Ramachandran VS, Rogers-Ramachandran D. Mirror feedback assisted recovery from hemiparesis following stroke. In Reply to Morkisch et al.: How to perform mirror therapy after stroke? Evidence from a meta-analysis. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2019; 37(5):437-443. PMID: 31594264.
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    7. Jalal B, Brühl A, O'Callaghan C, Piercy T, Cardinal RN, Ramachandran VS, Sahakian BJ. Novel Smartphone Interventions Improve Cognitive Flexibility and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Individuals with Contamination Fears. Sci Rep. 2018 10 23; 8(1):14923. PMID: 30353111.
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    8. Ramachandran V, Chunharas C, Marcus Z, Furnish T, Lin A. Relief from intractable phantom pain by combining psilocybin and mirror visual-feedback (MVF). Neurocase. 2018 04; 24(2):105-110. PMID: 29764303.
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    9. Ramachandran VS, Sellers CA. Interpersonal gargalesthesia. Neurocase. 2018 04; 24(2):98-104. PMID: 29693492.
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    10. Ramachandran VS, Chunharas C, Croft R, Batal N. Effect of Grouping, Segmentation, and Vestibular Stimulation on the Autokinetic Effect. Iperception. 2018 Jan-Feb; 9(1):2041669517752716. PMID: 29375754.
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    11. Root NB, Rouw R, Asano M, Kim CY, Melero H, Yokosawa K, Ramachandran VS. Why is the synesthete's "A" red? Using a five-language dataset to disentangle the effects of shape, sound, semantics, and ordinality on inducer-concurrent relationships in grapheme-color synesthesia. Cortex. 2018 02; 99:375-389. PMID: 29406149.
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    12. Ramachandran VS, Chunharas C, Smythies M. Trigger Features for Conveying Facial Expressions: The Role of Segmentation. Iperception. 2017 Nov-Dec; 8(6):2041669517737792. PMID: 29201339.
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    13. Ramachandran VS, Jalal B. The Evolutionary Psychology of Envy and Jealousy. Front Psychol. 2017; 8:1619. PMID: 28970815.
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    14. Patira R, Smith-Benjamin S, Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL. Palilalia due to steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Neurol Clin Pract. 2017 Jun; 7(3):e23-e25. PMID: 30107006.
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    15. Ramachandran VS, Marcus Z. Synesthesia and the McCollough Effect. Iperception. 2017 May-Jun; 8(3):2041669517711718. PMID: 28607666.
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    16. Jalal B, Ramachandran VS. Sleep Paralysis, "The Ghostly Bedroom Intruder" and Out-of-Body Experiences: The Role of Mirror Neurons. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017; 11:92. PMID: 28293186.
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    17. Jalal B, Ramachandran VS. "I feel your disgust and relief": can the action understanding system (mirror neuron system) be recruited to induce disgust and relief from contamination vicariously, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms? Neurocase. 2017 Feb; 23(1):31-35. PMID: 28165861.
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    18. Ramachandran VS, Vajanaphanich M, Chunharas C. Calendars in the brain; their perceptual characteristics and possible neural substrate. Neurocase. 2016 10; 22(5):461-465. PMID: 27825288.
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    19. Case LK, Brang D, Landazuri R, Viswanathan P, Ramachandran VS. Altered White Matter and Sensory Response to Bodily Sensation in Female-to-Male Transgender Individuals. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 Jul; 46(5):1223-1237. PMID: 27646840.
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    20. Ramachandran VS, Chunharas C, Marcus Z. Hypothesis concerning embodied calendars: A case study of number form, color spreading, and taste-color synaesthesia. Med Hypotheses. 2016 Sep; 94:58-62. PMID: 27515202.
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    21. Jalal B, Krishnakumar D, Ramachandran VS. "I Feel Contaminated in My Fake Hand": Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder like Disgust Sensations Arise from Dummy during Rubber Hand Illusion. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0139159. PMID: 26642323.
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    22. Case LK, Pineda J, Ramachandran VS. Common coding and dynamic interactions between observed, imagined, and experienced motor and somatosensory activity. Neuropsychologia. 2015 Dec; 79(Pt B):233-45. PMID: 25863237.
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    23. Jalal B, Ramachandran VS. Sleep paralysis and "the bedroom intruder": the role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection. Med Hypotheses. 2014 Dec; 83(6):755-7. PMID: 25459150.
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    24. Rouw R, Case L, Gosavi R, Ramachandran V. Color associations for days and letters across different languages. Front Psychol. 2014; 5:369. PMID: 24904447.
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    25. Smythies J, Edelstein L, Ramachandran V. Molecular mechanisms for the inheritance of acquired characteristics-exosomes, microRNA shuttling, fear and stress: Lamarck resurrected? Front Genet. 2014; 5:133. PMID: 24860599.
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    26. Ramachandran VS, Seckel E. Synesthetic colors induced by graphemes that have not been consciously perceived. Neurocase. 2015; 21(2):216-9. PMID: 24621005.
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    27. Root NB, Case LK, Burrus CJ, Ramachandran VS. External self-representations improve self-awareness in a child with autism. Neurocase. 2015; 21(2):206-10. PMID: 24571201.
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    28. Jalal B, Ramachandran VS. A pilot investigation of "metaphor blindness" in a college student population. Med Hypotheses. 2014 Jun; 82(6):648-51. PMID: 24661940.
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    29. Smythies J, Edelstein L, Ramachandran V. Hypotheses relating to the function of the claustrum II: does the claustrum use frequency codes? Front Integr Neurosci. 2014; 8:7. PMID: 24523681.
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    30. McGeoch PD, Brang D, Huang M, Ramachandran VS. Primary somatosensory cortex hand representation dynamically modulated by motor output. Neurocase. 2015 Feb; 21(1):103-5. PMID: 24433220.
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    31. Brang D, Ghiam M, Ramachandran VS. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7:717. PMID: 24198775.
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    32. Edelstein M, Brang D, Rouw R, Ramachandran VS. Misophonia: physiological investigations and case descriptions. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7:296. PMID: 23805089.
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    33. Case LK, Gosavi R, Ramachandran VS. Heightened motor and sensory (mirror-touch) referral induced by nerve block or topical anesthetic. Neuropsychologia. 2013 Aug; 51(10):1823-8. PMID: 23791606.
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    34. Brang D, Taich ZJ, Hillyard SA, Grabowecky M, Ramachandran VS. Parietal connectivity mediates multisensory facilitation. Neuroimage. 2013 Sep; 78:396-401. PMID: 23611862.
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    35. Brang D, Miller LE, McQuire M, Ramachandran VS, Coulson S. Enhanced mental rotation ability in time-space synesthesia. Cogn Process. 2013 Nov; 14(4):429-34. PMID: 23553317.
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    36. Bacon MP, Bridgeman B, Ramachandran VS. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2013 Jan; 75(1):5-9. PMID: 23188733.
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    37. Smythies J, Edelstein L, Ramachandran V. Hypotheses relating to the function of the claustrum. Front Integr Neurosci. 2012; 6:53. PMID: 22876222.
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    38. Case LK, Ramachandran VS. Alternating gender incongruity: a new neuropsychiatric syndrome providing insight into the dynamic plasticity of brain-sex. Med Hypotheses. 2012 May; 78(5):626-31. PMID: 22364652.
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    39. Seckel E, Krause B, Ramachandran VS. Interpolation of illusory pain in the human somatosensory system. Perception. 2012; 41(7):878-80. PMID: 23155740.
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    40. Case LK, Wilson RC, Ramachandran VS. Diminished size-weight illusion in anorexia nervosa: evidence for visuo-proprioceptive integration deficit. Exp Brain Res. 2012 Mar; 217(1):79-87. PMID: 22183754.
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    41. Ramachandran VS, Miller L, Livingstone MS, Brang D. Colored halos around faces and emotion-evoked colors: a new form of synesthesia. Neurocase. 2012; 18(4):352-8. PMID: 22115465.
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    42. Brang D, Ramachandran VS. Survival of the synesthesia gene: why do people hear colors and taste words? PLoS Biol. 2011 Nov; 9(11):e1001205. PMID: 22131906.
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    43. Hubbard EM, Brang D, Ramachandran VS. The cross-activation theory at 10. J Neuropsychol. 2011 Sep; 5(2):152-77. PMID: 21923784.
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    44. Brang D, Teuscher U, Miller LE, Ramachandran VS, Coulson S. Handedness and calendar orientations in time-space synaesthesia. J Neuropsychol. 2011 Sep; 5(2):323-32. PMID: 21923792.
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    45. Brang D, Williams LE, Ramachandran VS. Grapheme-color synesthetes show enhanced crossmodal processing between auditory and visual modalities. Cortex. 2012 May; 48(5):630-7. PMID: 21763646.
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    46. McGeoch PD, Brang D, Song T, Lee RR, Huang M, Ramachandran VS. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011 Dec; 82(12):1314-9. PMID: 21693632.
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    47. McGeoch PD, Ramachandran VS. The appearance of new phantom fingers post-amputation in a phocomelus. Neurocase. 2012; 18(2):95-7. PMID: 21598175.
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    48. Brang D, Rouw R, Ramachandran VS, Coulson S. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia. Neuropsychologia. 2011 Apr; 49(5):1355-1358. PMID: 21219918.
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    49. Ramachandran VS, Krause B, Case LK. The phantom head. Perception. 2011; 40(3):367-70. PMID: 21692426.
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    50. Ramachandran VS, Seckel E. Graphemes evoke synesthetic colors even before they are consciously recognized. Perception. 2011; 40(4):490-2. PMID: 21805923.
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    51. Case LK, Abrams RA, Ramachandran VS. Immediate interpersonal and intermanual referral of sensations following anesthetic block of one arm. Arch Neurol. 2010 Dec; 67(12):1521-3. PMID: 21149815.
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    52. Ramachandran VS, Seckel EL. Synchronized dance therapy to stimulate mirror neurons in autism. Med Hypotheses. 2011 Jan; 76(1):150-1. PMID: 21095065.
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    53. Multari A, Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL. Compensational strategies for a merchant after stroke with anosognosia for alexia without agraphia. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2011 Feb; 25(2):200-1. PMID: 20829414.
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    54. Ramachandran VS, Seckel EL. Using mirror visual feedback and virtual reality to treat fibromyalgia. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Dec; 75(6):495-6. PMID: 20692106.
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    55. Williams LE, Ramachandran VS, Hubbard EM, Braff DL, Light GA. Superior size-weight illusion performance in patients with schizophrenia: evidence for deficits in forward models. Schizophr Res. 2010 Aug; 121(1-3):101-6. PMID: 19931421.
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    56. Teuscher U, Brang D, Ramachandran VS, Coulson S. Spatial cueing in time-space synesthetes: An event-related brain potential study. Brain Cogn. 2010 Oct; 74(1):35-46. PMID: 20637536.
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    57. Ramachandran VS, Brang D, McGeoch PD. Dynamic reorganization of referred sensations by movements of phantom limbs. Neuroreport. 2010 Jul 14; 21(10):727-30. PMID: 20523250.
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    58. Williams LE, Light GA, Braff DL, Ramachandran VS. Reduced multisensory integration in patients with schizophrenia on a target detection task. Neuropsychologia. 2010 Aug; 48(10):3128-36. PMID: 20600181.
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    59. Brang D, Hubbard EM, Coulson S, Huang M, Ramachandran VS. Magnetoencephalography reveals early activation of V4 in grapheme-color synesthesia. Neuroimage. 2010 Oct 15; 53(1):268-74. PMID: 20547226.
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    60. Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL. Reflections on hand. Pain. 2010 May; 149(2):171-2. PMID: 20399561.
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    61. Brang D, Kanai S, Ramachandran VS, Coulson S. Contextual priming in grapheme-color synesthetes and yoked controls: 400 msec in the life of a synesthete. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011 Jul; 23(7):1681-96. PMID: 20350175.
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    62. Brang D, Ramachandran VS. Olfactory bulb dysgenesis, mirror neuron system dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation as the neural basis for autism. Med Hypotheses. 2010 May; 74(5):919-21. PMID: 20149551.
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    63. Brang D, Teuscher U, Ramachandran VS, Coulson S. Temporal sequences, synesthetic mappings, and cultural biases: the geography of time. Conscious Cogn. 2010 Mar; 19(1):311-20. PMID: 20117949.
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    64. Brang D, Ramachandran VS. Visual field heterogeneity, laterality, and eidetic imagery in synesthesia. Neurocase. 2010 Apr; 16(2):169-74. PMID: 19899013.
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    65. Ramachandran VS, Brang D. Sensations evoked in patients with amputation from watching an individual whose corresponding intact limb is being touched. Arch Neurol. 2009 Oct; 66(10):1281-4. PMID: 19822785.
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    66. Ramachandran VS, Brang D, McGeoch PD. Size reduction using Mirror Visual Feedback (MVF) reduces phantom pain. Neurocase. 2009 Oct; 15(5):357-60. PMID: 19657972.
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    67. Oberman LM, Winkielman P, Ramachandran VS. Slow echo: facial EMG evidence for the delay of spontaneous, but not voluntary, emotional mimicry in children with autism spectrum disorders. Dev Sci. 2009 Jul; 12(4):510-20. PMID: 19635079.
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    68. Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL. The use of visual feedback, in particular mirror visual feedback, in restoring brain function. Brain. 2009 Jul; 132(Pt 7):1693-710. PMID: 19506071.
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    69. Ramachandran VS, Brang D, McGeoch PD, Rosar W. Sexual and food preference in apotemnophilia and anorexia: interactions between 'beliefs' and 'needs' regulated by two-way connections between body image and limbic structures. Perception. 2009; 38(5):775-7. PMID: 19662952.
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    70. McGeoch PD, Williams LE, Song T, Lee RR, Huang M, Ramachandran VS. Post-stroke tactile allodynia and its modulation by vestibular stimulation: a MEG case study. Acta Neurol Scand. 2009 Jun; 119(6):404-9. PMID: 18853944.
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    71. Ramachandran VS, Brang D. Tactile-emotion synesthesia. Neurocase. 2008; 14(5):390-9. PMID: 18821168.
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    72. Brang D, McGeoch PD, Ramachandran VS. Apotemnophilia: a neurological disorder. Neuroreport. 2008 Aug 27; 19(13):1305-6. PMID: 18695512.
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    73. McGeoch PD, Williams LE, Lee RR, Ramachandran VS. Behavioural evidence for vestibular stimulation as a treatment for central post-stroke pain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008 Nov; 79(11):1298-301. PMID: 18550629.
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    74. McGeoch PD, Ramachandran VS. Vestibular stimulation can relieve central pain of spinal origin. Spinal Cord. 2008 Nov; 46(11):756-7. PMID: 18521097.
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    75. Brang D, Edwards L, Ramachandran VS, Coulson S. Is the sky 2? Contextual priming in grapheme-color synaesthesia. Psychol Sci. 2008 May; 19(5):421-8. PMID: 18466400.
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    76. Ramachandran VS, Rogers-Ramachandran D. Sensations referred to a patient's phantom arm from another subjects intact arm: perceptual correlates of mirror neurons. Med Hypotheses. 2008; 70(6):1233-4. PMID: 18329821.
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    77. Oberman LM, Ramachandran VS, Pineda JA. Modulation of mu suppression in children with autism spectrum disorders in response to familiar or unfamiliar stimuli: the mirror neuron hypothesis. Neuropsychologia. 2008 Apr; 46(5):1558-65. PMID: 18304590.
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    78. Oberman LM, Ramachandran VS. Preliminary evidence for deficits in multisensory integration in autism spectrum disorders: the mirror neuron hypothesis. Soc Neurosci. 2008; 3(3-4):348-55. PMID: 18979385.
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    79. Brang D, Ramachandran VS. Psychopharmacology of synesthesia; the role of serotonin S2a receptor activation. Med Hypotheses. 2008; 70(4):903-4. PMID: 17980498.
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    80. McGeoch PD, Brang D, Ramachandran VS. Apraxia, metaphor and mirror neurons. Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69(6):1165-8. PMID: 17604567.
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    81. Ramachandran VS, McGeoch PD, Williams L, Arcilla G. Rapid relief of thalamic pain syndrome induced by vestibular caloric stimulation. Neurocase. 2007 Jun; 13(3):185-8. PMID: 17786778.
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    82. Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS, Ravi VS. Verifiable cases of repressed memories. Psychol Med. 2007 Jul; 37(7):1067; author reply 1067-8. PMID: 17493299.
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    83. Ramachandran VS, McGeoch PD. Occurrence of phantom genitalia after gender reassignment surgery. Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69(5):1001-3. PMID: 17420102.
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    84. Oberman LM, Ramachandran VS. The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychol Bull. 2007 Mar; 133(2):310-27. PMID: 17338602.
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    85. Oberman LM, Pineda JA, Ramachandran VS. The human mirror neuron system: a link between action observation and social skills. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2007 Mar; 2(1):62-6. PMID: 18985120.
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    86. Altschuler EL, Altschuler BM, Altschuler DL, Samber D, Ramachandran VS. "Stroop concordant" coloring of letters for remediation of dyslexia. Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69(2):381-2. PMID: 17321062.
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    87. Ramachandran VS, McGeoch PD, Williams L. Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat Dejerine-Roussy Syndrome? Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69(3):486-8. PMID: 17321064.
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    88. Ramachandran VS, McGeoch P. Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat apotemnophilia? Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69(2):250-2. PMID: 17292561.
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    89. Oberman LM, Winkielman P, Ramachandran VS. Face to face: blocking facial mimicry can selectively impair recognition of emotional expressions. Soc Neurosci. 2007; 2(3-4):167-78. PMID: 18633815.
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    90. Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS. A simple method to stand outside oneself. Perception. 2007; 36(4):632-4. PMID: 17564206.
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    91. Pashler H, Ramachandran VS, Becker MW. Attending to a misoriented word causes the eyeball to rotate in the head. Psychon Bull Rev. 2006 Dec; 13(6):954-7. PMID: 17484418.
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    92. Ramachandran VS, Oberman LM. Broken mirrors: a theory of autism. Sci Am. 2006 Nov; 295(5):62-9. PMID: 17076085.
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    93. Altschuler EL, Multari A, Hirstein W, Ramachandran VS. Situational therapy for Wernicke's aphasia. Med Hypotheses. 2006; 67(4):713-6. PMID: 16740368.
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    94. Hubbard EM, Manohar S, Ramachandran VS. Contrast affects the strength of synesthetic colors. Cortex. 2006 Feb; 42(2):184-94. PMID: 16683492.
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    95. Ramachandran VS, Azoulai S. Synesthetically induced colors evoke apparent-motion perception. Perception. 2006; 35(11):1557-60. PMID: 17286123.
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    96. Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS. Can you do this? Extremely difficult interbodypart coordination tasks and implications for central limitations on control of coordination. Perception. 2006; 35(2):281-3. PMID: 16583771.
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    97. Hubbard EM, Ramachandran VS. Neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia. Neuron. 2005 Nov 03; 48(3):509-20. PMID: 16269367.
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    98. Oberman LM, Hubbard EM, McCleery JP, Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS, Pineda JA. EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005 Jul; 24(2):190-8. PMID: 15993757.
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    99. Ramachandran VS. Plasticity and functional recovery in neurology. Clin Med (Lond). 2005 Jul-Aug; 5(4):368-73. PMID: 16138492.
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    100. Hubbard EM, Arman AC, Ramachandran VS, Boynton GM. Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: brain-behavior correlations. Neuron. 2005 Mar 24; 45(6):975-85. PMID: 15797557.
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    101. Ramachandran VS. The astonishing Francis Crick. Perception. 2004; 33(10):1151-4. PMID: 15693661.
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    102. Armel KC, Ramachandran VS. Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response. Proc Biol Sci. 2003 Jul 22; 270(1523):1499-506. PMID: 12965016.
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    103. Anderson JC, Baddeley RJ, Osorio D, Shashar N, Tyler CW, Ramachandran VS, Crook AC, Hanlon RT. Modular organization of adaptive colouration in flounder and cuttlefish revealed by independent component analysis. Network. 2003 May; 14(2):321-33. PMID: 12790187.
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    104. Ramachandran VS, Hubbard EM. Hearing colors, tasting shapes. Sci Am. 2003 May; 288(5):52-9. PMID: 12701330.
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    105. Ramachandran V, Church A, Giovannoni G, Bhatia KP. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies are absent in patients with primary blepharospasm. Neurology. 2002 Jan 08; 58(1):150. PMID: 11781429.
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    106. Hirstein W, Iversen P, Ramachandran VS. Autonomic responses of autistic children to people and objects. Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Sep 22; 268(1479):1883-8. PMID: 11564343.
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    107. Ramachandran VS, Hubbard EM. Psychophysical investigations into the neural basis of synaesthesia. Proc Biol Sci. 2001 May 07; 268(1470):979-83. PMID: 11370973.
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    108. Ramachandran VS, Rogers-Ramachandran D. Phantom limbs and neural plasticity. Arch Neurol. 2000 Mar; 57(3):317-20. PMID: 10714655.
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    109. Altschuler EL, Wisdom SB, Stone L, Foster C, Galasko D, Llewellyn DM, Ramachandran VS. Rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke with a mirror. Lancet. 1999 Jun 12; 353(9169):2035-6. PMID: 10376620.
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    110. Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL, Stone L, Al-Aboudi M, Schwartz E, Siva N. Can mirrors alleviate visual hemineglect? Med Hypotheses. 1999 Apr; 52(4):303-5. PMID: 10465667.
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    111. Ramachandran VS. Consciousness and body image: lessons from phantom limbs, Capgras syndrome and pain asymbolia. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1998 Nov 29; 353(1377):1851-9. PMID: 9854257.
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    112. Ramachandran VS, Armel C, Foster C, Stoddard R. Object recognition can drive motion perception. Nature. 1998 Oct 29; 395(6705):852-3. PMID: 9804417.
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    113. Ramachandran VS. The neurology and evolution of humor, laughter, and smiling: the false alarm theory. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Oct; 51(4):351-4. PMID: 9824844.
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    114. Franz EA, Ramachandran VS. Bimanual coupling in amputees with phantom limbs. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Oct; 1(6):443-4. PMID: 10196540.
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    115. Ramachandran VS, Hirstein W. The perception of phantom limbs. The D. O. Hebb lecture. Brain. 1998 Sep; 121 ( Pt 9):1603-30. PMID: 9762952.
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    116. Borsook D, Becerra L, Fishman S, Edwards A, Jennings CL, Stojanovic M, Papinicolas L, Ramachandran VS, Gonzalez RG, Breiter H. Acute plasticity in the human somatosensory cortex following amputation. Neuroreport. 1998 Apr 20; 9(6):1013-7. PMID: 9601659.
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    117. Rogers-Ramachandran DC, Ramachandran VS. Psychophysical evidence for boundary and surface systems in human vision. Vision Res. 1998 Jan; 38(1):71-7. PMID: 9474377.
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    118. Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL, Hillyer S. Mirror agnosia. Proc Biol Sci. 1997 May 22; 264(1382):645-7. PMID: 9178535.
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