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Christopher Bowd

TitleResearcher
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentOphthalmology
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0946
La Jolla CA 92093
Phone858-822-4510
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Machine Learning Methods for Detecting Disease-related Functional and Structural Change in Glaucoma
    NIH/NEI R21EY027945Jul 1, 2017 - Jun 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Predicting and Detecting Glaucomatous Progression Using Pattern Recognition
    NIH/NEI R01EY022039Feb 1, 2012 - Jan 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma: Clinical Electrophysiology
    NIH/NEI R21EY018190Jul 1, 2007 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Moghimi S, Zangwill LM, Penteado RC, Hasenstab K, Ghahari E, Hou H, Christopher M, Yarmohammadi A, Manalastas PIC, Shoji T, Bowd C, Weinreb RN. Macular and Optic Nerve Head Vessel Density and Progressive Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Loss in Glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2018 Jun 12. PMID: 29907322.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Christopher M, Belghith A, Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Goldbaum MH, Saunders LJ, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Features Identified by Unsupervised Machine Learning on Optical Coherence Tomography Scans Predict Glaucoma Progression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 Jun 01; 59(7):2748-2756. PMID: 29860461.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Moghimi S, Hamzeh N, Mohammadi M, Khatibi N, Bowd C, Weinreb RN. Combined glaucoma and cataract surgery: Comparison of viscocanalostomy, endocyclophotocoagulation, and ab interno trabeculectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2018 May; 44(5):557-565. PMID: 29891153.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Ghahari E, Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Suh MH, Shoji T, Hasenstab KA, Saunders LJ, Moghimi S, Hou H, Manalastas PIC, Penteado RC, Weinreb RN. Macular Vessel Density in Glaucomatous Eyes With Focal Lamina Cribrosa Defects. J Glaucoma. 2018 Apr; 27(4):342-349. PMID: 29462015.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Mundae RS, Zangwill LM, Kabbara SW, Hammel N, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Girkin CA, Liebmann JM, Weinreb RN, Belghith A. A Longitudinal Analysis of Peripapillary Choroidal Thinning in Healthy and Glaucoma Subjects. Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb; 186:89-95. PMID: 29103960.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Kabbara SW, Zangwill LM, Mundae R, Hammel N, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Belghith A. Comparing optical coherence tomography radial and cube scan patterns for measuring Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) in glaucoma and healthy eyes: cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018 Mar; 102(3):344-351. PMID: 28774935.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN, Medeiros FA, Belghith A. Estimating Optical Coherence Tomography Structural Measurement Floors to Improve Detection of Progression in Advanced Glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017 Mar; 175:37-44. PMID: 27914978.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Belghith A, Medeiros FA, Bowd C, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Structural Change Can Be Detected in Advanced-Glaucoma Eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 07 01; 57(9):OCT511-8. PMID: 27454660; PMCID: PMC4968923 [Available on 01/01/17].
    9. Yousefi S, Balasubramanian M, Goldbaum MH, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Bowd C. Unsupervised Gaussian Mixture-Model With Expectation Maximization for Detecting Glaucomatous Progression in Standard Automated Perimetry Visual Fields. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2016 May; 5(3):2. PMID: 27152250.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Skaat A, De Moraes CG, Bowd C, Sample PA, Girkin CA, Medeiros FA, Ritch R, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM, Liebmann JM. African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES): Racial Differences in Optic Disc Hemorrhage and Beta-Zone Parapapillary Atrophy. Ophthalmology. 2016 07; 123(7):1476-83. PMID: 27117781; PMCID: PMC4921256 [Available on 07/01/17].
    11. Belghith A, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Hammel N, Yang Z, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Does the Location of Bruch's Membrane Opening Change Over Time? Longitudinal Analysis Using San Diego Automated Layer Segmentation Algorithm (SALSA). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Feb; 57(2):675-82. PMID: 26906156; PMCID: PMC4771177.
    12. Hammel N, Belghith A, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Sharpsten L, Mendoza N, Tatham AJ, Khachatryan N, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Rate and Pattern of Rim Area Loss in Healthy and Progressing Glaucoma Eyes. Ophthalmology. 2016 Apr; 123(4):760-70. PMID: 26746597; PMCID: PMC4808425 [Available on 04/01/17].
    13. Varnousfaderani ES, Yousefi S, Bowd C, Belghith A, Goldbaum MH. Vessel Delineation in Retinal Images using Leung-Malik filters and Two Levels Hierarchical Learning. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2015; 2015:1140-7. PMID: 26958253.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Yousefi S, Goldbaum MH, Varnousfaderani ES, Belghith A, Jung TP, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Bowd C. Detecting glaucomatous change in visual fields: Analysis with an optimization framework. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Dec; 58:96-103. PMID: 26440445; PMCID: PMC4684767 [Available on 12/01/16].
    15. Belghith A, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Balasubramanian M, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Learning from healthy and stable eyes: A new approach for detection of glaucomatous progression. Artif Intell Med. 2015 Jun; 64(2):105-15. PMID: 25940856.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Vizzeri G, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Response to comment on the article entitled "effect of improper scan alignment on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using stratus optical coherence tomograph" by Vizzeri G, et al published in J Glaucoma. 2008;17: 341-349. J Glaucoma. 2015 Apr-May; 24(4):334. PMID: 25822576.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Khachatryan N, Medeiros FA, Sharpsten L, Bowd C, Sample PA, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Weinreb RN, Miki A, Hammel N, Zangwill LM. The African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES): predictors of visual field damage in glaucoma suspects. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr; 159(4):777-87. PMID: 25597839; PMCID: PMC4361282.
    18. Belghith A, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Balasubramanian M, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Glaucoma progression detection using nonlocal Markov random field prior. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):034504. PMID: 26158069; PMCID: PMC4478777.
    19. Yousefi S, Goldbaum MH, Balasubramanian M, Jung TP, Weinreb RN, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Bowd C. Glaucoma progression detection using structural retinal nerve fiber layer measurements and functional visual field points. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2014 Apr; 61(4):1143-54. PMID: 24658239; PMCID: PMC4248722.
    20. Yousefi S, Goldbaum MH, Balasubramanian M, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Weinreb RN, Bowd C. Learning from data: recognizing glaucomatous defect patterns and detecting progression from visual field measurements. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2014 Jul; 61(7):2112-24. PMID: 24710816; PMCID: PMC4254715.
    21. Yousefi S, Goldbaum MH, Zangwill LM, Medeiros FA, Bowd C. Recognizing patterns of visual field loss using unsupervised machine learning. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Mar 21; 2014. PMID: 25593676.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Balasubramanian M, Arias-Castro E, Medeiros FA, Kriegman DJ, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Holst M, Sample PA, Zangwill LM. Detecting glaucoma progression from localized rates of retinal changes in parametric and nonparametric statistical framework with type I error control. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Mar 19; 55(3):1684-95. PMID: 24519427; PMCID: PMC4586965.
    23. Belghith A, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. A joint estimation detection of Glaucoma progression in 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head images. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Mar 18; 9035:90350O. PMID: 25606299.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Belghith A, Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. A unified framework for glaucoma progression detection using Heidelberg Retina Tomograph images. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2014 Jul; 38(5):411-20. PMID: 24709053; PMCID: PMC4053521.
    25. Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Balasubramanian M, Lee I, Jang G, Yousefi S, Zangwill LM, Medeiros FA, Girkin CA, Liebmann JM, Goldbaum MH. Glaucomatous patterns in Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry data identified by unsupervised machine learning classifiers. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85941. PMID: 24497932; PMCID: PMC3907565.
    26. Belghith A, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. A hierarchical framework for estimating neuroretinal rim area using 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) optic nerve head (ONH) images of healthy and glaucoma eyes. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014; 2014:3869-72. PMID: 25570836.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Medeiros FA, Lisboa R, Zangwill LM, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Bowd C, Weinreb RN. Evaluation of progressive neuroretinal rim loss as a surrogate end point for development of visual field loss in glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2014 Jan; 121(1):100-9. PMID: 23948465.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Moore GH, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Sample PA, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Leite MT, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. African descent and glaucoma evaluation study: asymmetry of structural measures in normal participants. J Glaucoma. 2013 Feb; 22(2):65-72. PMID: 21986568; PMCID: PMC3540138.
    29. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Mansouri K, Weinreb RN. The structure and function relationship in glaucoma: implications for detection of progression and measurement of rates of change. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct 05; 53(11):6939-46. PMID: 22893677; PMCID: PMC3466074.
    30. Goldbaum MH, Lee I, Jang G, Balasubramanian M, Sample PA, Weinreb RN, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Anderson DR, Zangwill LM, Fredette MJ, Jung TP, Medeiros FA, Bowd C. Progression of patterns (POP): a machine classifier algorithm to identify glaucoma progression in visual fields. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Sep 25; 53(10):6557-67. PMID: 22786913; PMCID: PMC3460386.
    31. Balasubramanian M, Kriegman DJ, Bowd C, Holst M, Weinreb RN, Sample PA, Zangwill LM. Localized glaucomatous change detection within the proper orthogonal decomposition framework. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun 14; 53(7):3615-28. PMID: 22491406; PMCID: PMC3406887.
    32. Bowd C, Lee I, Goldbaum MH, Balasubramanian M, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Girkin CA, Liebmann JM, Weinreb RN. Predicting glaucomatous progression in glaucoma suspect eyes using relevance vector machine classifiers for combined structural and functional measurements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Apr 30; 53(4):2382-9. PMID: 22427577; PMCID: PMC3760232.
    33. Duncan RO, Sample PA, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Arterial spin labeling fMRI measurements of decreased blood flow in primary visual cortex correlates with decreased visual function in human glaucoma. Vision Res. 2012 May 01; 60:51-60. PMID: 22465941; PMCID: PMC3340501.
    34. Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Agreement between the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) stereometric parameters estimated using HRT-I and HRT-II. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Jan; 88(1):140-9. PMID: 21037499; PMCID: PMC3014384.
    35. Leite MT, Rao HL, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Sample PA, Tafreshi A, Medeiros FA. Agreement among spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instruments for assessing retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011 Jan; 151(1):85-92.e1. PMID: 20970108.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Vizzeri G, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Balasubramanian M, Medeiros FA, Sample PA, Zangwill LM. Determinants of agreement between the confocal scanning laser tomograph and standardized assessment of glaucomatous progression. Ophthalmology. 2010 Oct; 117(10):1953-9. PMID: 20557941; PMCID: PMC2941775.
    37. Deokule S, Vizzeri G, Boehm A, Bowd C, Weinreb RN. Association of visual field severity and parapapillary retinal blood flow in open-angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2010 Jun-Jul; 19(5):293-8. PMID: 19940785.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Racette L, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Zangwill LM, Jain S, Becerra LM, Medeiros FA, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Boden C, Sample PA. African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES): III. Ancestry differences in visual function in healthy eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 128(5):551-9. PMID: 20457975; PMCID: PMC2907156.
    39. Girkin CA, Sample PA, Liebmann JM, Jain S, Bowd C, Becerra LM, Medeiros FA, Racette L, Dirkes KA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES): II. Ancestry differences in optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular structure in healthy subjects. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 128(5):541-50. PMID: 20457974; PMCID: PMC2910255.
    40. Alencar LM, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Sample PA, Girkin CA, Liebmann JM, Medeiros FA. A comparison of rates of change in neuroretinal rim area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in progressive glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jul; 51(7):3531-9. PMID: 20207973; PMCID: PMC2904008.
    41. Tafreshi A, Racette L, Weinreb RN, Sample PA, Zangwill LM, Medeiros FA, Bowd C. Pattern electroretinogram and psychophysical tests of visual function for discriminating between healthy and glaucoma eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 Mar; 149(3):488-95. PMID: 20172073; PMCID: PMC2827352.
    42. Racette L, Chiou CY, Hao J, Bowd C, Goldbaum MH, Zangwill LM, Lee TW, Weinreb RN, Sample PA. Combining functional and structural tests improves the diagnostic accuracy of relevance vector machine classifiers. J Glaucoma. 2010 Mar; 19(3):167-75. PMID: 19528827; PMCID: PMC2891254.
    43. Vizzeri G, Tafreshi A, Weinreb RN, Bowd C. Effect of operator and optical defocus on the variability of pattern electroretinogram optimized for glaucoma detection (PERGLA). J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb; 19(2):77-82. PMID: 19373105; PMCID: PMC2824045.
    44. Alencar LM, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Vizzeri G, Sample PA, Susanna R, Medeiros FA. Agreement for detecting glaucoma progression with the GDx guided progression analysis, automated perimetry, and optic disc photography. Ophthalmology. 2010 Mar; 117(3):462-70. PMID: 20036010; PMCID: PMC2830299.
    45. Goldbaum MH, Jang GJ, Bowd C, Hao J, Zangwill LM, Liebmann J, Girkin C, Jung TP, Weinreb RN, Sample PA. Patterns of glaucomatous visual field loss in sita fields automatically identified using independent component analysis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2009 Dec; 107:136-44. PMID: 20126490; PMCID: PMC2814563.
    46. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Alencar LM, Bowd C, Sample PA, Susanna R, Weinreb RN. Detection of glaucoma progression with stratus OCT retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Dec; 50(12):5741-8. PMID: 19815731; PMCID: PMC2832105.
    47. Medeiros FA, Alencar LM, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Prediction of functional loss in glaucoma from progressive optic disc damage. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Oct; 127(10):1250-6. PMID: 19822839; PMCID: PMC2828324.
    48. Sample PA, Girkin CA, Zangwill LM, Jain S, Racette L, Becerra LM, Weinreb RN, Medeiros FA, Wilson MR, De León-Ortega J, Tello C, Bowd C, Liebmann JM. The African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES): design and baseline data. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep; 127(9):1136-45. PMID: 19752422; PMCID: PMC2761830.
    49. Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Vizzeri G, Alencar LM, Sample PA, O'Leary N, Zangwill LM. Clinical evaluation of the proper orthogonal decomposition framework for detecting glaucomatous changes in human subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jan; 51(1):264-71. PMID: 19661228; PMCID: PMC2848164.
    50. Bowd C, Tafreshi A, Vizzeri G, Zangwill LM, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Repeatability of pattern electroretinogram measurements using a new paradigm optimized for glaucoma detection. J Glaucoma. 2009 Aug; 18(6):437-42. PMID: 19680050; PMCID: PMC2727663.
    51. Vizzeri G, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Effect of signal strength and improper alignment on the variability of stratus optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug; 148(2):249-255.e1. PMID: 19427621; PMCID: PMC2848173.
    52. Balasubramanian M, Zabic S, Bowd C, Thompson HW, Wolenski P, Iyengar SS, Karki BB, Zangwill LM. A framework for detecting glaucomatous progression in the optic nerve head of an eye using proper orthogonal decomposition. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2009 Sep; 13(5):781-93. PMID: 19369163; PMCID: PMC2749882.
    53. González-García AO, Vizzeri G, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jun; 147(6):1067-74, 1074.e1. PMID: 19268891; PMCID: PMC3465966.
    54. Vizzeri G, Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography to detect localized retinal nerve fiber layer defects in glaucomatous eyes. Opt Express. 2009 Mar 02; 17(5):4004-18. PMID: 19259242; PMCID: PMC3465943.
    55. Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Vizzeri G, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Effect of image quality on tissue thickness measurements obtained with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2009 Mar 02; 17(5):4019-36. PMID: 19259243; PMCID: PMC2848174.
    56. Deokule SP, Doshi A, Vizzeri G, Medeiros FA, Liu JH, Bowd C, Zangwill L, Weinreb RN. Relationship of the 24-hour pattern of intraocular pressure with optic disc appearance in primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2009 May; 116(5):833-9. PMID: 19195707; PMCID: PMC2755233.
    57. Deokule S, Vizzeri G, Boehm AG, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN. Correlation among choroidal, parapapillary, and retrobulbar vascular parameters in glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Apr; 147(4):736-743.e2. PMID: 19181304.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Bowd C, Vizzeri G, Tafreshi A, Zangwill LM, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Diagnostic accuracy of pattern electroretinogram optimized for glaucoma detection. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar; 116(3):437-43. PMID: 19167080; PMCID: PMC2664315.
    59. Vizzeri G, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Scan tracking coordinates for improved centering of Stratus OCT scan pattern. J Glaucoma. 2009 Jan; 18(1):81-7. PMID: 19142141; PMCID: PMC3408212.
    60. Medeiros FA, Alencar LM, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Vizzeri G, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Detection of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Apr; 50(4):1675-81. PMID: 19029038; PMCID: PMC2848159.
    61. Vizzeri G, Weinreb RN, Martinez de la Casa JM, Alencar LM, Bowd C, Balasubramanian M, Medeiros FA, Sample P, Zangwill LM. Clinicians agreement in establishing glaucomatous progression using the Heidelberg retina tomograph. Ophthalmology. 2009 Jan; 116(1):14-24. PMID: 19010552; PMCID: PMC3465965.
    62. Bowd C, Balasubramanian M, Weinreb RN, Vizzeri G, Alencar LM, O'Leary N, Sample PA, Zangwill LM. Performance of confocal scanning laser tomograph Topographic Change Analysis (TCA) for assessing glaucomatous progression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Feb; 50(2):691-701. PMID: 18836168; PMCID: PMC2778474.
    63. Vizzeri G, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. Effect of improper scan alignment on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using Stratus optical coherence tomograph. J Glaucoma. 2008 Aug; 17(5):341-9. PMID: 18703942; PMCID: PMC3465954.
    64. Bowd C, Goldbaum MH. Machine learning classifiers in glaucoma. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Jun; 85(6):396-405. PMID: 18521021.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Alencar LM, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM, Sample PA, Medeiros FA. Comparison of HRT-3 glaucoma probability score and subjective stereophotograph assessment for prediction of progression in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 May; 49(5):1898-906. PMID: 18436823; PMCID: PMC2848163.
    66. Bowd C, Hao J, Tavares IM, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Lee TW, Sample PA, Weinreb RN, Goldbaum MH. Bayesian machine learning classifiers for combining structural and functional measurements to classify healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Mar; 49(3):945-53. PMID: 18326717.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Racette L, Medeiros FA, Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN, Sample PA. The impact of the perimetric measurement scale, sample composition, and statistical method on the structure-function relationship in glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2007 Dec; 16(8):676-84. PMID: 18091454.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM, Alencar LM, Sample PA, Vasile C, Bowd C. Long-term intraocular pressure fluctuations and risk of conversion from ocular hypertension to glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jun; 115(6):934-40. PMID: 17936908; PMCID: PMC2848165.
    69. Bowd C. Optical coherence tomography for clinical detection and monitoring of glaucoma? Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Jul; 91(7):853-4. PMID: 17576706; PMCID: PMC1955676.
    70. Medeiros FA, Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Patel C, Weinreb RN. Detection of glaucoma using scanning laser polarimetry with enhanced corneal compensation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jul; 48(7):3146-53. PMID: 17591884.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Zangwill LM, Jain S, Racette L, Ernstrom KB, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. The effect of disc size and severity of disease on the diagnostic accuracy of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Glaucoma Probability Score. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jun; 48(6):2653-60. PMID: 17525196.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Leung CK, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Sample PA, Bowd C, Ng D, Cheung CY, Lam DS, Weinreb RN. American Chinese glaucoma imaging study: a comparison of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in detecting glaucomatous damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jun; 48(6):2644-52. PMID: 17525195.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Hoffmann EM, Boden C, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Crowston JG, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Intereye spatial relationship of abnormal neuroretinal rim locations in glaucoma patients from the diagnostic innovations in glaucoma study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 May; 143(5):781-7. PMID: 17379176.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Vasile C, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Agreement between stereophotographic and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy measurements of cup/disc ratio: effect on a predictive model for glaucoma development. J Glaucoma. 2007 Mar; 16(2):209-14. PMID: 17473732.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Bowd C, Tavares IM, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual sensitivity using scanning laser polarimetry with variable and enhanced corneal compensation. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jul; 114(7):1259-65. PMID: 17289147.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Duncan RO, Sample PA, Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Zangwill LM. Retinotopic organization of primary visual cortex in glaucoma: a method for comparing cortical function with damage to the optic disk. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb; 48(2):733-44. PMID: 17251472.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Kim TW, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Sample PA, Shah N, Weinreb RN. Retinal nerve fiber layer damage as assessed by optical coherence tomography in eyes with a visual field defect detected by frequency doubling technology perimetry but not by standard automated perimetry. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jun; 114(6):1053-7. PMID: 17239441.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Medeiros FA, Ng D, Zangwill LM, Sample PA, Bowd C, Weinreb RN. The effects of study design and spectrum bias on the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):214-22. PMID: 17197535.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM. The effect of atypical birefringence patterns on glaucoma detection using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):223-7. PMID: 17197536.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Duncan RO, Sample PA, Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Zangwill LM. Retinotopic organization of primary visual cortex in glaucoma: Comparing fMRI measurements of cortical function with visual field loss. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2007 Jan; 26(1):38-56. PMID: 17126063; PMCID: PMC1940234.
    81. Lalezary M, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Sample PA, Tavares IM, Tafreshi A, Zangwill LM. Baseline optical coherence tomography predicts the development of glaucomatous change in glaucoma suspects. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Oct; 142(4):576-82. PMID: 17011848.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Shah NN, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Sample PA, Hoffmann EM, Zangwill LM. Combining structural and functional testing for detection of glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2006 Sep; 113(9):1593-602. PMID: 16949444.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Ng D, Zangwill LM, Racette L, Bowd C, Pascual JP, Bourne RR, Boden C, Weinreb RN, Sample PA. Agreement and repeatability for standard automated perimetry and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in the diagnostic innovations in glaucoma study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep; 142(3):381-6. PMID: 16935580.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Sample PA, Medeiros FA, Racette L, Pascual JP, Boden C, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Weinreb RN. Identifying glaucomatous vision loss with visual-function-specific perimetry in the diagnostic innovations in glaucoma study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Aug; 47(8):3381-9. PMID: 16877406.
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    85. Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Medeiros FA, Tavares IM, Hoffmann EM, Bourne RR, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jul; 47(7):2889-95. PMID: 16799030.
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    86. Zangwill LM, Bowd C. Retinal nerve fiber layer analysis in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2006 Apr; 17(2):120-31. PMID: 16552246.
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    87. Hoffmann EM, Medeiros FA, Sample PA, Boden C, Bowd C, Bourne RR, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Relationship between patterns of visual field loss and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Mar; 141(3):463-471. PMID: 16490491.
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    88. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Influence of disease severity and optic disc size on the diagnostic performance of imaging instruments in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Mar; 47(3):1008-15. PMID: 16505035.
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    89. Racette L, Boden C, Kleinhandler SL, Girkin CA, Liebmann JM, Zangwill LM, Medeiros FA, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Wilson MR, Sample PA. Differences in visual function and optic nerve structure between healthy eyes of blacks and whites. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Nov; 123(11):1547-53. PMID: 16286617.
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    90. Hoffmann EM, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Boden C, Grus FH, Bourne RR, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Agreement among 3 optical imaging methods for the assessment of optic disc topography. Ophthalmology. 2005 Dec; 112(12):2149-56. PMID: 16219355.
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    91. Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN, Sample PA, Gomi CF, Bowd C, Crowston JG, Zangwill LM. Validation of a predictive model to estimate the risk of conversion from ocular hypertension to glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Oct; 123(10):1351-60. PMID: 16219726.
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    92. Goldbaum MH, Sample PA, Zhang Z, Chan K, Hao J, Lee TW, Boden C, Bowd C, Bourne R, Zangwill L, Sejnowski T, Spinak D, Weinreb RN. Using unsupervised learning with independent component analysis to identify patterns of glaucomatous visual field defects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Oct; 46(10):3676-83. PMID: 16186349; PMCID: PMC1866286.
    93. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Use of progressive glaucomatous optic disk change as the reference standard for evaluation of diagnostic tests in glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Jun; 139(6):1010-8. PMID: 15953430.
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    94. Bourne RR, Medeiros FA, Bowd C, Jahanbakhsh K, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Apr; 46(4):1280-5. PMID: 15790891.
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    95. Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Zhang Z, Zangwill LM, Hao J, Lee TW, Sejnowski TJ, Weinreb RN, Goldbaum MH. Relevance vector machine and support vector machine classifier analysis of scanning laser polarimetry retinal nerve fiber layer measurements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Apr; 46(4):1322-9. PMID: 15790898; PMCID: PMC2928387.
    96. Zangwill LM, Abunto T, Bowd C, Angeles R, Schanzlin DJ, Weinreb RN. Scanning laser polarimetry retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements after LASIK. Ophthalmology. 2005 Feb; 112(2):200-7. PMID: 15691551.
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    97. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Vessani RM, Susanna R, Weinreb RN. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Jan; 139(1):44-55. PMID: 15652827.
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    98. Mohammadi K, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Medeiros FA, Sample PA, Zangwill LM. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with scanning laser polarimetry predict glaucomatous visual field loss. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Oct; 138(4):592-601. PMID: 15488786.
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    99. Sánchez-Galeana CA, Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Sample PA, Weinreb RN. Short-wavelength automated perimetry results are correlated with optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmology. 2004 Oct; 111(10):1866-72. PMID: 15465548.
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    100. Zangwill LM, Chan K, Bowd C, Hao J, Lee TW, Weinreb RN, Sejnowski TJ, Goldbaum MH. Heidelberg retina tomograph measurements of the optic disc and parapapillary retina for detecting glaucoma analyzed by machine learning classifiers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Sep; 45(9):3144-51. PMID: 15326133; PMCID: PMC2928389.
    101. Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Medeiros FA, Hao J, Chan K, Lee TW, Sejnowski TJ, Goldbaum MH, Sample PA, Crowston JG, Weinreb RN. Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy classifiers and stereophotograph evaluation for prediction of visual field abnormalities in glaucoma-suspect eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Jul; 45(7):2255-62. PMID: 15223803; PMCID: PMC2928388.
    102. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Weinreb RN. Comparison of the GDx VCC scanning laser polarimeter, HRT II confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and stratus OCT optical coherence tomograph for the detection of glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Jun; 122(6):827-37. PMID: 15197057.
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    103. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Mohammadi K, Weinreb RN. Comparison of scanning laser polarimetry using variable corneal compensation and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 May; 122(5):698-704. PMID: 15136317.
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    104. Angeles R, Abunto T, Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Schanzlin DJ, Weinreb RN. Corneal changes after laser in situ keratomileusis: measurement of corneal polarization magnitude and axis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Apr; 137(4):697-703. PMID: 15059709.
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    105. El Beltagi TA, Bowd C, Boden C, Amini P, Sample PA, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmology. 2003 Nov; 110(11):2185-91. PMID: 14597528.
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    106. Medeiros FA, Sample PA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Aihara M, Weinreb RN. Corneal thickness as a risk factor for visual field loss in patients with preperimetric glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Nov; 136(5):805-13. PMID: 14597030.
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    107. Essock EA, Sinai MJ, Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Fourier analysis of optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry retinal nerve fiber layer measurements in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Sep; 121(9):1238-45. PMID: 12963606.
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    108. Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Association between scanning laser polarimetry measurements using variable corneal polarization compensation and visual field sensitivity in glaucomatous eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Jul; 121(7):961-6. PMID: 12860798.
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    109. Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Bernd AS, Weinreb RN. Fourier analysis of scanning laser polarimetry measurements with variable corneal compensation in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jun; 44(6):2606-12. PMID: 12766063.
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    110. Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Zangwill LM. Glaucoma detection using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal polarization compensation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Feb; 121(2):218-24. PMID: 12583788.
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    111. Bowd C, Chan K, Zangwill LM, Goldbaum MH, Lee TW, Sejnowski TJ, Weinreb RN. Comparing neural networks and linear discriminant functions for glaucoma detection using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disc. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Nov; 43(11):3444-54. PMID: 12407155.
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    112. Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Zangwill LM. Scanning laser polarimetry in monkey eyes using variable corneal polarization compensation. J Glaucoma. 2002 Oct; 11(5):378-84. PMID: 12362075.
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    113. Boehm AG, Bowd C, Vasile C, El-Beltagi TA, Booth M, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Comparison of two grading methods to evaluate focal narrowing of retinal arterioles in glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002 Oct; 240(10):810-5. PMID: 12397428.
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    114. Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Greenfield DS, Zangwill LM. Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul; 120(7):901-6. PMID: 12096960.
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    115. Goldbaum MH, Sample PA, Chan K, Williams J, Lee TW, Blumenthal E, Girkin CA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Sejnowski T, Weinreb RN. Comparing machine learning classifiers for diagnosing glaucoma from standard automated perimetry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Jan; 43(1):162-9. PMID: 11773027.
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    116. Bowd C, Zangwill LM, Blumenthal EZ, Vasile C, Boehm AG, Gokhale PA, Mohammadi K, Amini P, Sankary TM, Weinreb RN. Imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer: the effects of age, optic disc area, refractive error, and gender. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2002 Jan; 19(1):197-207. PMID: 11778725.
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    117. Weinreb RN, Bowd C, Zangwill LM. Assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer of the normal and glaucomatous monkey with scanning laser polarimetry. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2002; 100:161-6; discussion 166-7. PMID: 12545690; PMCID: PMC1358959.
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