Sally Baxter

Title(s)Assistant Professor, Ophthalmology
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-5271-7690 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Duke University, Durham, NCB.S.05/2009Biology, Physics, Genome Sciences & Policy
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomM.Sc.08/2010Public Health
    Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PAM.D.06/2014Medicine
    University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA06/2015Internship in Preliminary Internal Medicine
    University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 06/2018Residency in Ophthalmology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Heed Ophthalmic Foundation 2018  - 2019Heed Fellowship
    UCSD 2017  - 2018Lamont Ericson, MD Award for Outstanding Patient Care by a Resident
    California Academy of Eye Physicians and Surgeons2017Starr E. Shulman MPA Fellow
    National Eye Institute2017Travel Grant for the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting
    University of Pennsylvania2014Charles A. Oliver Memorial Prize for Highest Record of Performance in Ophthalmology
    University of Pennsylvania2013Clinical Epidemiology Research Prize
    University of Pennsylvania2010  - 201421st Century Scholarship (Full tuition merit award for medical school)
    United Kingdom Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission2009  - 2010United States Marshall Scholarship
    Duke University 2005  - 2009Angier B. Duke Scholarship (Full scholarship for undergraduate study)
    United States Department of Education2005  - 2009Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am a comprehensive ophthalmologist and informaticist at UCSD. My research interests include health information technology integration into clinical workflows; predictive modeling utilizing traditional statistical methods, machine learning/deep learning, and natural language processing; implementation and clinical translation of these models; and integrating sensors, wearables, and other digital health technology for supporting clinical care. I am especially interested in how to leverage technology to improve care for special populations such as older individuals, individuals with disabilities (e.g. visual impairment), and minority groups.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Multi-modal Health Information Technology Innovations for Precision Management of Glaucoma
    NIH DP5OD029610Sep 10, 2020 - Aug 31, 2025
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Faculty Mentoring

    Collapse Featured Content 
    Collapse Twitter

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Effects of Smoking on Optic Nerve Head Microvasculature Density in Glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2022 09 01; 31(9):710-716. Eslani M, Nishida T, Weinreb RN, Baxter S, Mahmoudinezhad G, Kamalipour A, Yarmohammadi A, Zangwill LM, Moghimi S. PMID: 35882030.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Towards effective data sharing in ophthalmology: data standardization and data privacy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2022 Sep 01; 33(5):418-424. Halfpenny W, Baxter SL. PMID: 35819893; PMCID: PMC9357189.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Impact of Smoking on Visual Field Progression in a Long-term Clinical Follow-up. Ophthalmology. 2022 11; 129(11):1235-1244. Mahmoudinezhad G, Nishida T, Weinreb RN, Baxter SL, Eslani M, Micheletti E, Liebmann JM, Fazio MA, Girkin CA, Zangwill LM, Moghimi S. PMID: 35752211.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Associations between healthcare utilization and access and diabetic retinopathy complications using All of Us nationwide survey data. PLoS One. 2022; 17(6):e0269231. Chan AX, McDermott Iv JJ, Lee TC, Ye GY, Shahrvini B, Radha Saseendrakumar B, Baxter SL. PMID: 35704625; PMCID: PMC9200294.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Medication Affordability and Self-Advocacy Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in a Nationwide Cohort. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 May 31. Delavar A, Saseendrakumar BR, Weinreb RN, Baxter SL. PMID: 35641727.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    6. Predictive Modeling of New-Onset Postoperative Diplopia Following Orbital Decompression for Thyroid Eye Disease. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2022 May 13. Nair AA, Ediriwickrema LS, Dolman PJ, Law G, Harrison AR, Mokhtarzadeh A, Stewart K, Men C, Lucarelli MJ, van Landingham S, Wingelaar M, Verma R, Chen A, Selva D, Garrity J, Eckel L, Kazim M, Godfrey K, Baxter SL, Korn BS, Kikkawa DO. PMID: 35551414.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    7. Social Determinants of Health Data Availability for Patients with Eye Conditions. Ophthalmol Sci. 2022 Jun; 2(2). Lee TC, Saseendrakumar BR, Nayak M, Chan AX, McDermott JJ, Shahrvini B, Ye GY, Sitapati AM, Nebeker C, Baxter SL. PMID: 35662804; PMCID: PMC9162036.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cost-Related Barriers to Medication Adherence Among Patients With Glaucoma Enrolled in the National Institutes of Health All of Us Research Program. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2022 04 01; 140(4):354-361. Delavar A, Radha Saseendrakumar B, Weinreb RN, Baxter SL. PMID: 35238904; PMCID: PMC8895312.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Comparing the Use of DynaMed and UpToDate by Physician Trainees in Clinical Decision-Making: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Appl Clin Inform. 2022 01; 13(1):139-147. Baxter SL, Lander L, Clay B, Bell J, Hansen K, Walker A, Tai-Seale M. PMID: 35108739; PMCID: PMC8810269.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Social determinants associated with loss of an eye in the United States using the All of Us nationwide database. Orbit. 2022 Dec; 41(6):739-744. Chan AX, Radha Saseendrakumar B, Ozzello DJ, Ting M, Yoon JS, Liu CY, Korn BS, Kikkawa DO, Baxter SL. PMID: 34969350; PMCID: PMC9243193.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    11. Novel Association between Opioid Use and Increased Risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion Using the National Institutes of Health All of Us Research Program. Ophthalmol Sci. 2022 Mar; 2(1). McDermott JJ, Lee TC, Chan AX, Ye GY, Shahrvini B, Saseendrakumar BR, Ferreyra H, Nudleman E, Baxter SL. PMID: 35721456; PMCID: PMC9205363.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    12. Spectrum of severe ocular complications following dupilumab exposure: A perspective from the ophthalmology clinic. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 08; 87(2):469-472. Ahn GS, Acuff K, Sun BK, Baxter SL. PMID: 34678232.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Gaps in standards for integrating artificial intelligence technologies into ophthalmic practice. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2021 Sep 01; 32(5):431-438. Baxter SL, Lee AY. PMID: 34231531; PMCID: PMC8373825.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Measures of electronic health record use in outpatient settings across vendors. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2021 04 23; 28(5):955-959. Baxter SL, Apathy NC, Cross DA, Sinsky C, Hribar MR. PMID: 33211862; PMCID: PMC8068413.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Review of glaucoma medication adherence monitoring in the digital health era. Br J Ophthalmol. 2021 Apr 15. Erras A, Shahrvini B, Weinreb RN, Baxter SL. PMID: 33858837; PMCID: PMC8517037.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    16. Predictive Analytics for Glaucoma Using Data From the All of Us Research Program. Am J Ophthalmol. 2021 07; 227:74-86. Baxter SL, Saseendrakumar BR, Paul P, Kim J, Bonomi L, Kuo TT, Loperena R, Ratsimbazafy F, Boerwinkle E, Cicek M, Clark CR, Cohn E, Gebo K, Mayo K, Mockrin S, Schully SD, Ramirez A, Ohno-Machado L, All of Us Research Program Investigators. PMID: 33497675; PMCID: PMC8184631.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting as diplopia via telemedicine during COVID-19. J Telemed Telecare. 2022 May; 28(4):296-300. Baxter SL, Kuo DE, Robbins SL. PMID: 33412986; PMCID: PMC7820513.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    18. Pre-clinical remote undergraduate medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic: a survey study. BMC Med Educ. 2021 Jan 06; 21(1):13. Shahrvini B, Baxter SL, Coffey CS, MacDonald BV, Lander L. PMID: 33407376; PMCID: PMC7786143.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Is Diabetes Mellitus a Blessing in Disguise for Primary Open-angle Glaucoma? J Glaucoma. 2021 01 01; 30(1):1-4. Hou H, Moghimi S, Baxter SL, Weinreb RN. PMID: 33074964; PMCID: PMC7755751.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Evaluating the neuroprotective impact of senolytic drugs on human vision. Sci Rep. 2020 12 10; 10(1):21752. El-Nimri NW, Moore SM, Zangwill LM, Proudfoot JA, Weinreb RN, Skowronska-Krawczyk D, Baxter SL. PMID: 33303874; PMCID: PMC7730173.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Investigation of associations between Piezo1 mechanoreceptor gain-of-function variants and glaucoma-related phenotypes in humans and mice. Sci Rep. 2020 11 04; 10(1):19013. Baxter SL, Keenan WT, Athanas AJ, Proudfoot JA, Zangwill LM, Ayyagari R, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Patapoutian A, Weinreb RN. PMID: 33149214; PMCID: PMC7643131.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Reply re: "Evaluation of Electronic Health Record Implementation in an Academic Oculoplastics Practice". Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020 Nov/Dec; 36(6):623-624. Baxter SL, Chen AJ, Gali HE, Long CP, Ozzello DJ, Liu CY, Korn BS, Kikkawa DO. PMID: 33156220.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Student Perspectives on Remote Medical Education in Clinical Core Clerkships During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Med Sci Educ. 2020 Dec; 30(4):1577-1584. Coffey CS, MacDonald BV, Shahrvini B, Baxter SL, Lander L. PMID: 33078085; PMCID: PMC7556768.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10  
    24. Text Processing for Detection of Fungal Ocular Involvement in Critical Care Patients: Cross-Sectional Study. J Med Internet Res. 2020 08 14; 22(8):e18855. Baxter SL, Klie AR, Radha Saseendrakumar B, Ye GY, Hogarth M. PMID: 32795984; PMCID: PMC7455861.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Clinical Implementation of Predictive Models Embedded within Electronic Health Record Systems: A Systematic Review. Informatics (MDPI). 2020 Sep; 7(3). Lee TC, Shah NU, Haack A, Baxter SL. PMID: 33274178; PMCID: PMC7710328.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8  
    26. Electronic Health Record Use among Ophthalmology Residents while on Call. J Acad Ophthalmol. 2020 Jul; 12(2):e143-e150. Long CP, Tai-Seale M, El-Kareh R, Lee JE, Baxter SL. PMID: 33274310; PMCID: PMC7710324.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    27. Barriers to Implementing an Artificial Intelligence Model for Unplanned Readmissions. ACI open. 2020 Jul; 4(2):e108-e113. Baxter SL, Bass JS, Sitapati AM. PMID: 33274314; PMCID: PMC7710326.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    28. Predicting Mortality in Critical Care Patients with Fungemia Using Structured and Unstructured Data. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2020 07; 2020:5459-5463. Baxter SL, Klie AR, Saseendrakumar BR, Ye GY, Hogarth M, Nemati S. PMID: 33019215; PMCID: PMC7709796.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Self-Perceptions of Readiness to Use Electronic Health Records Among Medical Students: Survey Study. JMIR Med Educ. 2020 Jun 12; 6(1):e17585. Lander L, Baxter SL, Cochran GL, Gali HE, Cook K, Hatch T, Taylor R, Awdishu L. PMID: 32442135; PMCID: PMC7320310.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5  
    30. Pre-Clinical Remote Undergraduate Medical Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey Study . Res Sq. 2020 Jun 10. Shahrvini B, Baxter SL, Coffey CS, MacDonald BV, Lander L. PMID: 32702722; PMCID: PMC7336697.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    31. Multicenter Analysis of Electronic Health Record Use among Ophthalmologists. Ophthalmology. 2021 01; 128(1):165-166. Baxter SL, Gali HE, Mehta MC, Rudkin SE, Bartlett J, Brandt JD, Sun CQ, Millen M, Longhurst CA. PMID: 32525047; PMCID: PMC7719588.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Evaluation of Electronic Health Record Implementation in an Academic Oculoplastics Practice. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020 May/Jun; 36(3):277-283. Chen AJ, Baxter SL, Gali HE, Long CP, Ozzello DJ, Liu CY, Korn BS, Kikkawa DO. PMID: 31809488; PMCID: PMC7210068.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Smart Electronic Eyedrop Bottle for Unobtrusive Monitoring of Glaucoma Medication Adherence. Sensors (Basel). 2020 Apr 30; 20(9). Aguilar-Rivera M, Erudaitius DT, Wu VM, Tantiongloc JC, Kang DY, Coleman TP, Baxter SL, Weinreb RN. PMID: 32366013; PMCID: PMC7248824.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Metrics for assessing physician activity using electronic health record log data. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2020 04 01; 27(4):639-643. Sinsky CA, Rule A, Cohen G, Arndt BG, Shanafelt TD, Sharp CD, Baxter SL, Tai-Seale M, Yan S, Chen Y, Adler-Milstein J, Hribar M. PMID: 32027360; PMCID: PMC7075531.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Promoting Quality Face-to-Face Communication during Ophthalmology Encounters in the Electronic Health Record Era. Appl Clin Inform. 2020 01; 11(1):130-141. Baxter SL, Gali HE, Chiang MF, Hribar MR, Ohno-Machado L, El-Kareh R, Huang AE, Chen HE, Camp AS, Kikkawa DO, Korn BS, Lee JE, Longhurst CA, Millen M. PMID: 32074650; PMCID: PMC7030957.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Characterization of Facial Trauma Associated with Standing Electric Scooter Injuries. Ophthalmology. 2020 07; 127(7):988-990. Yarmohammadi A, Baxter SL, Ediriwickrema LS, Williams EC, Kobayashi LM, Liu CY, Korn BS, Kikkawa DO. PMID: 32359837; PMCID: PMC7703691.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Machine Learning-Based Predictive Modeling of Surgical Intervention in Glaucoma Using Systemic Data From Electronic Health Records. Am J Ophthalmol. 2019 12; 208:30-40. Baxter SL, Marks C, Kuo TT, Ohno-Machado L, Weinreb RN. PMID: 31323204; PMCID: PMC6888922.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Impact of Electronic Health Record Implementation on Ophthalmology Trainee Time Expenditures. J Acad Ophthalmol. 2019 Jul; 11(2):e65-e72. Gali HE, Baxter SL, Lander L, Huang AE, Millen M, El-Kareh R, Nudleman E, Chao DL, Robbins SL, Heichel CWD, Camp AS, Korn BS, Lee JE, Kikkawa DO, Longhurst CA, Chiang MF, Hribar MR, Ohno-Machado L. PMID: 33954272; PMCID: PMC8095731.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    39. Time Requirements of Paper-Based Clinical Workflows and After-Hours Documentation in a Multispecialty Academic Ophthalmology Practice. Am J Ophthalmol. 2019 10; 206:161-167. Baxter SL, Gali HE, Huang AE, Millen M, El-Kareh R, Nudleman E, Robbins SL, Heichel CWD, Camp AS, Korn BS, Lee JE, Kikkawa DO, Longhurst CA, Chiang MF, Hribar MR, Ohno-Machado L. PMID: 30910517; PMCID: PMC6755078.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. Identification and Correction of Restrictive Strabismus After Pterygium Excision Surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2019 06; 202:6-14. Baxter SL, Nguyen BJ, Kinori M, Kikkawa DO, Robbins SL, Granet DB. PMID: 30771334; PMCID: PMC6548686.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Evaluation and accurate diagnoses of pediatric diseases using artificial intelligence. Nat Med. 2019 03; 25(3):433-438. Liang H, Tsui BY, Ni H, Valentim CCS, Baxter SL, Liu G, Cai W, Kermany DS, Sun X, Chen J, He L, Zhu J, Tian P, Shao H, Zheng L, Hou R, Hewett S, Li G, Liang P, Zang X, Zhang Z, Pan L, Cai H, Ling R, Li S, Cui Y, Tang S, Ye H, Huang X, He W, Liang W, Zhang Q, Jiang J, Yu W, Gao J, Ou W, Deng Y, Hou Q, Wang B, Yao C, Liang Y, Zhang S, Duan Y, Zhang R, Gibson S, Zhang CL, Li O, Zhang ED, Karin G, Nguyen N, Wu X, Wen C, Xu J, Xu W, Wang B, Wang W, Li J, Pizzato B, Bao C, Xiang D, He W, He S, Zhou Y, Haw W, Goldbaum M, Tremoulet A, Hsu CN, Carter H, Zhu L, Zhang K, Xia H. PMID: 30742121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 107     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Quantification of Retinal Nonperfusion Associated With Posterior Segment Neovascularization in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Ultra-Widefield Fluorescein Angiography. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019 02 01; 50(2):86-92. Baxter SL, Ashir A, Nguyen BJ, Nudleman E. PMID: 30768215; PMCID: PMC6501581.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    43. The practical implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in medicine. Nat Med. 2019 01; 25(1):30-36. He J, Baxter SL, Xu J, Xu J, Zhou X, Zhang K. PMID: 30617336; PMCID: PMC6995276.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 225     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Liu et al. reply. Nature. 2018 04 04; 556(7699):E3-E4. Liu Y, Granet D, Lin H, Baxter S, Ouyang H, Zhu J, Huang S, Liu Z, Wu X, Yan F, Liu X, Luo L, Heichel C, Zhang M, Cai W, Maas RL, Zhang K. PMID: 29620731.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    
    45. Identifying Medical Diagnoses and Treatable Diseases by Image-Based Deep Learning. Cell. 2018 02 22; 172(5):1122-1131.e9. Kermany DS, Goldbaum M, Cai W, Valentim CCS, Liang H, Baxter SL, McKeown A, Yang G, Wu X, Yan F, Dong J, Prasadha MK, Pei J, Ting MYL, Zhu J, Li C, Hewett S, Dong J, Ziyar I, Shi A, Zhang R, Zheng L, Hou R, Shi W, Fu X, Duan Y, Huu VAN, Wen C, Zhang ED, Zhang CL, Li O, Wang X, Singer MA, Sun X, Xu J, Tafreshi A, Lewis MA, Xia H, Zhang K. PMID: 29474911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 578     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. Using Blindness Registers for Public Health Ophthalmology in Low Resource Settings. 2016; 7(3). Baxter S.
    47. Thyroid Eye Disease (Editors Douglas RS, McCoy AN). Psychological Disturbances in Thyroid-Associated Eye Disease. 2015.
    48. Expert Techniques in Ophthalmic Surgery. Management of Facial Palsy. 2015.
    49. Blindness Registers as Epidemiological Tools for Public Health Planning: A Case Study in Belize, Blindness Registers as Epidemiological Tools for Public Health Planning: A Case Study in Belize. Epidemiology Research International. 2014; 2014:e659717. Baxter, Sally L. Wormald, Richard P. Musa, Joan M. Patel, Daksha. View Publication.
    50. Cold temperature improves mobility and survival in Drosophila models of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP). Dis Model Mech. 2014 Aug; 7(8):1005-12. Baxter SL, Allard DE, Crowl C, Sherwood NT. PMID: 24906373; PMCID: PMC4107329.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Movement Disorders: Genetics and Models (Editor LeDoux MS). Drosophila models of hereditary spastic paraplegia. 2014. Ozdowski, Emily F. Baxter, Sally L. Sherwood, Nina T.
    52. Risk of choroidal neovascularization among the uveitides. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Sep; 156(3):468-477.e2. Baxter SL, Pistilli M, Pujari SS, Liesegang TL, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Foster CS, Jabs DA, Levy-Clarke GA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Kempen JH. PMID: 23795984; PMCID: PMC3748230.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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